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Sample records for showed positive immunofluorescence

  1. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

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    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  2. Longitudinal study of the indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests for diagnosis of chagas' disease in immunosuppressed patients submitted to renal transplantation

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    José Fernando de Castro Figueiredo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and serological follow-up of 7 patients submitted to renal transplantation and presenting positive serological reactions to Chagas 'disease before immunossupression did not show significant changes in indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation titres for Chagas ' disease, or signs and symptoms indicating exacerbation of the disease during follow- up. In addition, 18 of 66 recipients of renal transplants considered to be non-chagasic before immunosuppression showed at least one positive result to the indirect immunofluorescence test for Chagas ' disease during the study period. The results suggest that the immunosuppression State induced in chagasic patients submitted to renal transplant did notpromoted exacerbation of the chronic infection in these patients and not interfere with the serological response of chronic chagasics, thus permitting the use of these serologic reactions for diagnostic purposes in these cases. However, the positive results ofthe indirect immunofluorescence test in non- chagasic patients indicate the needforjudicious interpretation ofthe indirect immunofluorescence test for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease in renal transplanted patients.

  3. Immunofluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongertz, V.; Castro, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) that allowing the specific 'in situ' localization of the antigen-antibody interaction, of paramount importance when complex antigenic preparations, such as for instance tissue sections, are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

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    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  5. Direct immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of legionellosis

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    David JM Haldane

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and direct immunofluorescent microscopy (DFA results for Legionella pneumophila were reviewed over a two-year period. In the first year, a positive result was defined as having at least one morphologically typical fluorescing organism. In the second year, a positive was defined as at least five typical fluorescing organisms. Despite these stricter criteria and other measures to reduce the possibility of reagent contamination, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity or specificity of the DFA in the two years for sputa, deep specimens or overall. Of 37 sputum specimens from infected patients, 16 were positive on DFA. Thirty-two of 38 positive patients were detected by sputum culture. DFA can provide rapid diagnostic information but cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis. Sputum is a useful specimen for the initial laboratory investigation of patients with legionellosis.

  6. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method

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    Tabassum, Shahina; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Nessa, Afzalun; Jahan, Munira; Shamim Kabir, Chowdhury Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad; Cesar Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many faces. Precore and core promoter mutants resemble inactive carrier status. The identification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in hepatocytes may have variable clinical significance. The present study was undertaken to detect HBcAg in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to assess the efficacy of detection system by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP). Materials and methods The study was done in 70 chronic HBV-infected patients. Out of 70 patients, eight (11.4%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 62 (88.57%) were HBeAg negative. Hepatitis B core antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) methods in liver tissue. Results All HBeAg positive patients expressed HBcAg by both IIF and IIP methods. Out of 62 patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, HBcAg was detected by IIF in 55 (88.7%) patients and by IIP in 51 (82.26%) patients. A positive relation among viral load and HBcAg detection was also found. This was more evident in the case of HBeAg negative patients and showed a positive relation with HBV DNA levels. Conclusion Hepatitis B core antigen can be detected using the IIF from formalin fixed paraffin block preparation and also by IIP method. This seems to reflect the magnitudes of HBV replication in CHB. How to cite this article Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Kabir CMS, Kamal M, Aguilar JC. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):7-10. PMID:29201677

  7. Fibrinogen Demonstration in Oral Lichen Planus: An Immunofluorescence Study on Archival Tissues.

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    Shirol, Pallavi D; Naik, Veena; Kale, Alka

    2015-10-01

    Lichen planus is a premalignant condition with minimal diagnostic aids. This study is an attempt to use paraffin embedded sections of lichen planus with immunofluorescein stain and to evaluate the immunofluorescent sections to establish pattern of fibrinogen deposition. Thirty-five paraffin embedded sections of old and new cases of oral lichen planus (study group) and five normal oral mucosa (control group) were chosen. Two sections of each (H & E) case were taken, one was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and another with fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC) polyclonal rabbit antibody against fibrinogen. Fluorescent findings were examined with a fluorescent microscope. A high statistical significant correlation was found in respect to fluorescence positivity, intensity of fluorescence and distribution of fluorescence each with p < 0.0001 and fluorescence at blood vessel walls (p = 0.0003). This study suggested that paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining in routine set up where only formalin fixed tissues are received. Paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining when only formalin fixed tissues are received.

  8. Original Approach for Automated Quantification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence

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    Daniel Bertin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA which are essential markers for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. For the discrimination of positive and negative samples, we propose here an original approach named Immunofluorescence for Computed Antinuclear antibody Rational Evaluation (ICARE based on the calculation of a fluorescence index (FI. Methods. We made comparison between FI and visual evaluations on 237 consecutive samples and on a cohort of 25 patients with SLE. Results. We obtained very good technical performance of FI (95% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and a kappa of 0.92, even in a subgroup of weakly positive samples. A significant correlation between quantification of FI and IIF ANA titers was found (Spearman's ρ=0.80, P<0.0001. Clinical performance of ICARE was validated on a cohort of patients with SLE corroborating the fact that FI could represent an attractive alternative for the evaluation of antibody titer. Conclusion. Our results represent a major step for automated quantification of IIF ANA, opening attractive perspectives such as rapid sample screening and laboratory standardization.

  9. Improved detection of Pneumocystis carinii by an immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Holten-Andersen, W; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1990-01-01

    To assess whether a recently developed indirect immunofluorescent stain using monoclonal antibodies was more sensitive in detecting Pneumocystis carinii than the combination of Giemsa and methenamine silver nitrate stains which has routinely been used in the laboratory, 88 lavage fluid specimens...... silver nitrate and toluidine blue O. Immunofluorescence using the monoclonal antibodies from the NIH was significantly more sensitive than any other single staining method and than the combination of Giemsa and methenamine silver nitrate staining. The study also showed that the cytospin centrifuge...

  10. EUROPattern Suite technology for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy in autoantibody diagnostics.

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    Krause, C; Ens, K; Fechner, K; Voigt, J; Fraune, J; Rohwäder, E; Hahn, M; Danckwardt, M; Feirer, C; Barth, E; Martinetz, T; Stöcker, W

    2015-04-01

    Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are highly informative biomarkers in autoimmune diagnostics. The increasing demand for effective test systems, however, has led to the development of a confusingly large variety of different platforms. One of them, the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), is regarded as the common gold standard for ANA screening, as described in a position statement by the American College of Rheumatology in 2009. Technological solutions have been developed aimed at standardization and automation of IIF to overcome methodological limitations and subjective bias in IIF interpretation. In this review, we present the EUROPattern Suite, a system for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy (CAIFM) including automated acquisition of digital images and evaluation of IIF results. The system was originally designed for ANA diagnostics on human epithelial cells, but its applications have been extended with the latest system update version 1.5 to the analysis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Estimation of antibodies to human cytomegalovirus by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.; Gut, W.; Nawrocka, E.

    1980-01-01

    The 125 I labelled IgG fraction against rabbit IgG of goat origin was employed for the detection of CMV IgG and IgM antibodies in the double indirect radioimmunoassay. The results were compared with those obtained in complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence and anti-complement immunofluorescence tests. The application of labelled anti-fc antisera, instead of antisera against whole IgG in the tests for detection of specific CMV IgG antibody resulted in increased sensitivity of radioimmunoassay and reduction of non-specific cytoplasmatic reactions in preparations stained by indirect immunofluorescence. The absorption of sera with protein A rich staphylococci and aggregates to immunoglobulin eliminated unwanted secondary IgM staining caused by rheumatoid factors both in indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay tests for CMV antibodies. (author)

  12. Application of indirect immunofluorescent test with an improved HEp-2 substrate tranfected with human Ro60/SSA autoantigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Liangjing; Chen Shunle; Gu Yueying; Shen Nan; Bao Chunde; Wang Yuan; Xue Feng; Ye Peng; Yu Chongzhao

    2006-01-01

    To develop an improved substrate for indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) to detect anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies, the human 60-kDa Ro/SSA autoantigens (Ro60) cDNAs were obtained from placental cDNA library using PCR and were cloned into the mammalian expression vectorpEGFP-C1. Then the recombinant plasmids were transfected into HEp-2 cells. We con- firmed the overexpression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins in transfected cells by means of fluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and IIF. HEp-2 and HEp-Ro60 was analyzed by IIF using a panel of 10 precipitinpositive anti-Ro human sera simultaneously. Stable expression of Ro60-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins maintained ten more generations. And Ro60-GFP kept the antigenicity of Ro and had its own characteristic immunofluorescent pattern in HEp-Ro60 cells. The transfectants dramatically increased the sensitivity of IIF testing (a mean increase of 6.7-fold in endpoint titer, P<0.01). Eight (8/10) positive an- ti-Ro sera showed characteristic immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-Ro60, including two sera which were antinuclear antibodies (ANA) negative on untransfected HEp-2. IIF-ANA in all healthy sera were negative on HEp-Ro60. As a kind of new substrate of IIF, the Ro60 transfectants can be used to detect anti-Ro antibodies. In addition, transfected HEp-2 cells kept the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in IIF-ANA tests and could be employed as substrate for the routine IIF-ANA detection. The method improved the sensitivity of IIF-ANA. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  14. Role of direct immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis

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    Archana C Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunofluorescence microscopy is a vital tool for the diagnosis of glomerular diseases. This study was carried out to study patterns of glomerulonephritis (GN and to record the sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence (DIF in renal lesions. The DIF findings were correlated with clinical and histopathology findings and discrepancies were analyzed. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted during the period July 2011 to July 2013 at a tertiary care Hospital, Department of Pathology. A total of 75 renal biopsies were received for routine and immunofluorescence studies in which histopathology and clinical data were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The sensitivity of DIF was 87.9% and specificity was 70.5%. The maximum number of cases were seen in the age group 41-50 years. The pattern of GN by DIF was minimal change disease (MCD in 24%, IgA nephropathy in 13%, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 9% and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 8% of the cases. Twelve histopathologically proven cases of GN were negative on DIF. One case of MCD on histopathology was diagnosed as IgM nephropathy based on DIF. Conclusion: Direct immunofluorescence forms an important diagnostic tool in reaching the exact diagnosis in various types of GN presenting with overlapping clinical and histomorphological features.

  15. Biostatistical analysis of quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy images.

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    Giles, C; Albrecht, M A; Lam, V; Takechi, R; Mamo, J C

    2016-12-01

    Semiquantitative immunofluorescence microscopy has become a key methodology in biomedical research. Typical statistical workflows are considered in the context of avoiding pseudo-replication and marginalising experimental error. However, immunofluorescence microscopy naturally generates hierarchically structured data that can be leveraged to improve statistical power and enrich biological interpretation. Herein, we describe a robust distribution fitting procedure and compare several statistical tests, outlining their potential advantages/disadvantages in the context of biological interpretation. Further, we describe tractable procedures for power analysis that incorporates the underlying distribution, sample size and number of images captured per sample. The procedures outlined have significant potential for increasing understanding of biological processes and decreasing both ethical and financial burden through experimental optimization. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

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    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-06-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  17. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

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    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  18. Indirect micro-immunofluorescence test for detecting type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

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    Forsey, T; Darougar, S

    1980-02-01

    A rapid indirect micro-immunofluorescence test capable of detecting and differentiating type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus is described. The test proved highly sensitive and, in 80 patients with active herpes ocular infection, antibody was detected in 94%. No anti-herpes antibody was detected in a control group of 20 patients with adenovirus infections. Testing of animal sera prepared against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and of human sera from cases of ocular and genital herpes infections showed that the test can differentiate antibodies to the infecting serotypes. Specimens of whole blood, taken by fingerprick, and eye secretions, both collected on cellulose sponges, could be tested by indirect micro-immunofluorescence. Anti-herpes IgG, IgM, and IgA can also be detected.

  19. Immunofluorescence pattern of antinuclear antibody and its association with autoantibody profile in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Sadia Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antinuclear antibody (ANA is useful in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Association of specific autoantibodies with the immunofluorescence pattern of ANA in SLE as noted in Western literature has been taken as reference in all over the world. However, in Bangladesh such research work or data correlating the autoantibodies and their ANA patterns is inadequate. Objective: To identify an association between immunofluorescence patterns of antinuclear antibody on HEp-2 cell and more specific antinuclear reactivities (e.g. anti-dsDNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen in the serum samples of SLE patients.Methods: Serum samples of 37 SLE patients who were diagnosed by ARA (American Rheumatism Association classification criteria and laboratory tests, attending at lupus clinic of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU during the study period of six months were subjected for ANA testing by Indirect Imrnunofluorescence (IIF on HEp-2 cell, anti-dsDNA by ELISA and anti- extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA by Dot Immunoblot. Dot blot strips were tested for anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SSA/Ro, and anti-SSB/La. Results: Out of 37 SLE patients 32 (86.5% cases were ANA positive by IIF on HEp-2 cell. ANA positive sera exhibited three fluorescence patterns such as speckled (43.7%, peripheral (34.3% and homogenous pattern (21.8%. Peripheral pattern (100% was strongly associated with anti-dsDNA (p<0.05 and homogenous pattern (85.7% was also predominantly associated with anti-dsDNA (p<0.05. Speckled pattern (85.6% was significantly associated with anti-ENA (p<0.05. Anti-dsDNA was positive in 75% of SLE cases and majority (45.8% of which showed peripheral pattern whereas anti-ENA was positive in 48.6% cases and majority (70.5% of which showed speckled pattern. The most commonly identified antinuclear autoreactivity was directed towards anti-RNP (22.2% then anti-Sm (16.6%, anti-SSA (16.6% and anti-SSB (11.1 %. Multiple anti

  20. Ten cases of severe oral lichen planus showing granular C3 deposition in oral mucosal basement membrane zone.

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    Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukuda, Aoi; Himejima, Akio; Morita, Shosuke; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Koga, Hiroshi; Krol, Rafal P; Ishii, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) may show depositions of immunoglobulins and complement components in oral mucosal basement membrane zone (BMZ) in direct immunofluorescence, although these finding are not frequently seen. We collected and examined ten cases of severe OLP showing granular C3 deposition in BMZ. In addition to clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence assessments, we performed various immune-serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and 1M NaCl-split skin, immunoblotting of normal human epidermal and dermal extracts, recombinant proteins of BP180 NC16a and C-terminal domains, concentrated culture supernatant of HaCaT cells and purified human laminin-332, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BP230 and BP180. Direct immunofluorescence showed C3 deposition in BMZ exclusively of granular pattern in 7 cases and of both granular and linear patterns in 3 cases. The 10 cases showed no positive reactivity for either IgG or IgA antibodies in any immuno-serological tests. Detailed analyses of clinical, histopathological and immunological findings revealed striking female prevalence, although other parameters were in general characteristic of OLP. Granular C3 deposition in oral BMZ may be one of the characteristic features of severe OLP, although mechanisms for C3 deposition and its pathogenic role in OLP are currently unknown.

  1. Use of commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies for immunofluorescence double staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bzorek, M.; Stamp, I.M.; Frederiksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry, that is, the use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to detect cell and tissue antigens at a microscopical level is a powerful tool for both research and diagnostic purposes. Especially in the field of hematologic disease, there is often a need to detect several antigens...... synchronously, and we report here a fast and easy technique for demonstrating more than 1 antigen in 1 slide using immunofluorescence. We have used commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies (Cyclin D1, CD3, CD5, CD23, etc.) paired with mouse monoclonal antibodies (CD7, CD20, CD79a, Pax-5, etc.......) for double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies in combination with mouse monoclonal antibodies proved useful in double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue, and all combinations used yielded excellent results...

  2. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

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    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  3. Immunofluorescence detection of milk protein in meat products

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    Michaela Petrášová

    2015-05-01

    examined, these were selected with regard to the presence of milk protein that was declared by the manufacturer on the packaging. Method validation was performed by comparing the positive results from the investigated method with information on the packaging of the meat product. Milk protein was detected in 84.62 per cent of samples where the manufacturer declared the presence of milk or cheese on the package and additionally in 85.71 per cent of samples where the manufacturer declared the presence of milk protein. The results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of milk protein in meat products.

  4. Diagnostic significance of colloid body deposition in direct immunofluorescence

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    Chularojanamontri Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colloid bodies (CB in direct immunofluorescence (DIF studies are usually found in interface dermatitis. Furthermore, CB can be found in various skin diseases and even in normal skin. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of CB deposits in DIF studies. Methods: From 1996-2007, data from 502 patients where DIF studies showed immunoreactants at CB were enrolled. The definite diagnoses of these patients were based on clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescent findings. The results of DIF studies were analyzed. Results: Immunoreactants at CB were detected in 44.4%, 43.8%, 4.2%, 3.8%, and 2.2% of interface dermatitis, vasculitis, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, panniculitis, and scleroderma/morphea, respectively. The most common immunoreactant deposit of all diseases was Immunoglobulin M (IgM. Brighter intensity and higher quantity of CB was detected frequently in the group with interface dermatitis. Conclusions: Immunoreactant deposits at CB alone can be found in various diseases but a strong intensity and high quantity favor the diagnosis of interface dermatitis. CB plus dermoepidermal junction (DEJ deposits are more common in interface dermatitis than any other disease. Between lichen planus (LP and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE, CB alone is more common in LP; whereas, CB plus DEJ and superficial blood vessel (SBV is more common in DLE. The most common pattern in both diseases is CB plus DEJ. The quantity and intensity of CB in LP is higher than in DLE.

  5. Immunofluorescent staining of nuclear antigen in lymphoid cells transformed by Herpesvirus papio (HVP).

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    Schmitz, H

    1981-01-01

    An improved fixation method for antigen detection in lymphoblastoid cells is described. Herpesvirus papio nuclear antigen (HUPNA) could be stained in several transformed lymphoid cell lines by anti-complement immunofluorescence (ACIF). Antibody to HUPNA was detected in many human sera containing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid and nuclear antigen (EBNA). Rheumatoid arthritis sera showed a high incidence of both anti-EBNA and anti-HUPNA antibodies.

  6. Epidermis area detection for immunofluorescence microscopy

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    Dovganich, Andrey; Krylov, Andrey; Nasonov, Andrey; Makhneva, Natalia

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel image segmentation method for immunofluorescence microscopy images of skin tissue for the diagnosis of various skin diseases. The segmentation is based on machine learning algorithms. The feature vector is filled by three groups of features: statistical features, Laws' texture energy measures and local binary patterns. The images are preprocessed for better learning. Different machine learning algorithms have been used and the best results have been obtained with random forest algorithm. We use the proposed method to detect the epidermis region as a part of pemphigus diagnosis system.

  7. Direct immunofluorescence of normal skin in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Fitzgerald, O M; Barnes, L; Woods, R; McHugh, L; Barry, C; O'Loughlin, S

    1985-11-01

    The clinical significance of previously described immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the superficial dermal vessel walls of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. In the present study, skin biopsies were obtained from the normal forearm and buttock of 48 unselected patients with rheumatoid arthritis and were examined by direct immunofluorescence (IF) for the presence of immunoglobulin (IgG,A,M) and complement (C3) in the vessel walls. Deposits of C3, IgM or IgG were detected in 10 patients. Five patients had deposits at the forearm sample alone, four patients had deposits at both biopsy sites, while one patient was positive at the buttock alone. Clinical features were similar in patients with and without vessel IF. However, patients with IF were significantly more seropositive with lower levels of complement and raised levels of serum IgA and IgM. There was also an increased level of circulating IgG immune complexes in these patients. Further analysis following exclusion of seronegative patients revealed similar results. This study suggests that the presence of vessel IF identifies a subgroup of patients who have evidence of more severe immunological disturbance.

  8. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

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    Jaeger, L.; Storz, H.; Hein, G.; Schlenvoigt, G. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin)

    1982-01-01

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible.

  9. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Storz, H.; Hein, G.; Schlenvoigt, G.

    1982-01-01

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible. (author)

  10. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  11. Immunofluorescent detection in the ovary of host antibodies against a secretory ferritin injected into female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galay, Remil Linggatong; Matsuo, Tomohide; Hernandez, Emmanuel Pacia; Talactac, Melbourne Rio; Kusakisako, Kodai; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    Due to the continuous threat of ticks and tick-borne diseases to human and animal health worldwide, and the drawbacks of chemical acaricide application, many researchers are exploring vaccination as an alternative tick control method. Earlier studies have shown that host antibodies can circulate in the ticks, but it has not been confirmed whether these antibodies can be passed on to the eggs. We previously reported that ticks infesting rabbits immunized with a recombinant secretory ferritin of Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlFER2) had reduced egg production and hatching. Here we attempted to detect the presence of antibodies against HlFER2 in the ovary and eggs of female ticks through immunofluorescent visualization. Purified anti-HlFER2 antibodies or rabbit IgG for control was directly injected to engorged female H. longicornis. Ovaries and eggs after oviposition were collected and prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Positive fluorescence was detected in ovaries one day post-injection of anti-HlFER2 antibodies. Through silencing of Hlfer2 gene, we also determined whether the injected antibodies can specifically bind to native HlFER2. Immunofluorescence was observed in the oocytes of dsLuciferase control ticks injected with anti-HlFER2 antibodies, but not in the oocytes of Hlfer2-silenced ticks also injected with anti-HlFER2 antibodies. Our current findings suggest that host antibodies can be passed on to the oocytes, which is significant in formulating a vaccine that can disrupt tick reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  13. Cell-based quantification of biomarkers from an ultra-fast microfluidic immunofluorescent staining: application to human breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the main techniques currently used in the clinics for biomarker characterization. It consists in colorimetric labeling with specific antibodies followed by microscopy analysis. The results are then used for diagnosis and therapeutic targeting. Well-known drawbacks of such protocols are their limited accuracy and precision, which prevent the clinicians from having quantitative and robust IHC results. With our work, we combined rapid microfluidic immunofluorescent staining with efficient image-based cell segmentation and signal quantification to increase the robustness of both experimental and analytical protocols. The experimental protocol is very simple and based on fast-fluidic-exchange in a microfluidic chamber created on top of the formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slide by clamping it a silicon chip with a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sealing ring. The image-processing protocol is based on enhancement and subsequent thresholding of the local contrast of the obtained fluorescence image. As a case study, given that the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is often used as a biomarker for breast cancer, we applied our method to HER2+ and HER2- cell lines. We report very fast (5 minutes) immunofluorescence staining of both HER2 and cytokeratin (a marker used to define the tumor region) on FFPE slides. The image-processing program can segment cells correctly and give a cell-based quantitative immunofluorescent signal. With this method, we found a reproducible well-defined separation for the HER2-to-cytokeratin ratio for positive and negative control samples.

  14. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance showing lambda-type Bence Jones protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoaki; Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Sanae; Manabe, Seiko; Kurata, Mie; Irita, Jun; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2005-09-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of leg edema due to a nephrotic syndrome. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis showed positive for the lambda type of Bence Jones protein. A bone marrow aspiration test revealed mild plasmacytosis (6.4% of the total cells). These findings confirmed her diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Her renal biopsy specimen revealed mild mesangial cell proliferation and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Immunofluorescence studies showed positive staining for IgG, IgA, C3, and kappa and lambda light chains in the capillary wall and mesangium area. Electron microscopy showed that the electron deposits in the thickened basement membrane were formed by randomly arranged 16- to 18-nm nonbranching fibrils. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. These findings corresponded with the diagnosis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis. Therefore, this case showed a rare combination of fibrillary glomerulonephritis and MGUS.

  15. Quantitative Immunofluorescence Analysis of Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, Stefan; Németh, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of eu- and heterochromatin is nonrandom, heterogeneous, and dynamic, which is mirrored by specific spatiotemporal arrangements of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here we describe a semiautomated method for the analysis of histone PTM localization patterns within the mammalian nucleus using confocal laser scanning microscope images of fixed, immunofluorescence stained cells as data source. The ImageJ-based process includes the segmentation of the nucleus, furthermore measurements of total fluorescence intensities, the heterogeneity of the staining, and the frequency of the brightest pixels in the region of interest (ROI). In the presented image analysis pipeline, the perinucleolar chromatin is selected as primary ROI, and the nuclear periphery as secondary ROI.

  16. Accuracy of molecular diagnostics in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid: comparison of commercial and modified mosaic indirect immunofluorescence tests as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are identified by autoantibodies (abs) against desmoglein 1, 3 (DSG1/3) and BP180/BP230, respectively. A novel mosaic to indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using purified BP180 recombinant proteins spotted on slide and transfected cells expressing BP230, DSG1, DSG3 is available. The commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic for indirect immunofluorescence (IIFc - IIF commercial, IIFm - IIF modified) and IgG ELISAs were evaluated in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) molecular diagnostics. To compare diagnostic accuracy of commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic IIF assay and to examine the diagnostic value of ELISAs in relation to mosaic IIF in routine laboratory diagnostics of pemphigus and BP. Sera from 37 BP and 19 pemphigus patients were studied. Associations between tests were assessed using Fisher's exact test. There are associations between the positive/negative samples detected by IIFc with desmoglein1 (DSG1)/desmoglein3 (DSG3)/BP230 transfected cells and ELISAs and no association between anti-BP180 IgG detection by IIFc and ELISA. IIFm with DSG1 and DSG3 showed both 100% sensitivity and 100% and 78% specificity, respectively, and 100% and 83% positive predictive value in relation to IIFc. IIFm with BP230 had 87% specificity, 55% sensitivity, whereas IIFm with BP180 had a 100% sensitivity and 13% specificity in relation to IIFc. The IIFc with DSG1/DSG3/BP230 transfected cells, excluding BP180 spots, is an alternative method to ELISA in pemphigus/BP diagnostics. IgG4 antibodies, both pathogenically and diagnostically important, are inconsistently detectable with IIFm.

  17. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, complement fixation, anticomplement immunofluorescence and passive haemaglutination techniques for detecting cytomegalovirus IgG antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, J C; Hannington, G; Bakir, T M.F.; Stern, H; Kangro, H; Griffiths, P D; Heath, R B [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK); Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-12-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were found to be comparable in sensitivity and specificity for detecting cytomegalovirus IgG antibody, and 10 to 100 times more sensitive than complement-fixation (CF), anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) and passive haemagglutination (PHA). In screening tests for antibody, the frequency of false-positive and -negative results was 0.6% for RIA and ELISA, 1.5% for CF, 1.6% for ACIF and 3.6% for PHA. PHA was the least satisfactory test, largely because of technical problems.

  18. Use of a Granulocyte Immunofluorescence Assay Designed for Humans for Detection of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, J; Viall, A; Streu, S; DiMuro, V; Riddle, A; Kirk, J; Perazzotti, L; Affeldt, K; Wagner, R; Vaden, S; Harris, T; Allenspach, K

    2017-07-01

    Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) previously have been shown to be serum markers in dogs with chronic enteropathies, with dogs that have food-responsive disease (FRD) having higher frequencies of seropositivity than dogs with steroid-responsive disease (SRD). The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay used in previous publications is time-consuming to perform, with low interobserver agreement. We hypothesized that a commercially available granulocyte IIF assay designed for humans could be used to detect perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in dogs. Forty-four dogs with FRD, 20 dogs with SRD, 20 control dogs, and 38 soft-coated wheaten terrier (SCWT) or SCWT-cross dogs. A granulocyte assay designed for humans was used to detect pANCA, cANCA, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), as well as antibodies against proteinase-3 protein (PR-3) and myeloperoxidase protein (MPO) in archived serum samples. Sensitivity of the granulocyte assay to predict FRD in dogs was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45, 0.75), and specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.91, 1.00). A significant association was identified between positive pANCA or cANCA result and diagnosis of FRD (P < 0.0001). Agreement between the two assays to detect ANCA in the same serum samples from SCWT with protein-losing enteropathy/protein-losing nephropathy (PLE/PLN) was substantial (kappa, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.53, 1.00). Eight ANCA-positive cases were positive for MPO or PR-3 antibodies. The granulocyte immunofluorescence assay used in our pilot study was easy and quick to perform. Agreement with the previously published method was good. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  20. Accuracy of molecular diagnostics in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid: comparison of commercial and modified mosaic indirect immunofluorescence tests as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Gornowicz-Porowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP are identified by autoantibodies (abs against desmoglein 1, 3 (DSG1/3 and BP180/BP230, respectively. A novel mosaic to indirect immunofluorescence (IIF using purified BP180 recombinant proteins spotted on slide and transfected cells expressing BP230, DSG1, DSG3 is available. The commercial (IgG detection and modified (IgG4 detection mosaic for indirect immunofluorescence (IIFc – IIF commercial, IIFm – IIF modified and IgG ELISAs were evaluated in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP molecular diagnostics. Aim : To compare diagnostic accuracy of commercial (IgG detection and modified (IgG4 detection mosaic IIF assay and to examine the diagnostic value of ELISAs in relation to mosaic IIF in routine laboratory diagnostics of pemphigus and BP. Material and methods : Sera from 37 BP and 19 pemphigus patients were studied. Associations between tests were assessed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: There are associations between the positive/negative samples detected by IIFc with desmoglein1 (DSG1/desmoglein3 (DSG3/BP230 transfected cells and ELISAs and no association between anti-BP180 IgG detection by IIFc and ELISA. IIFm with DSG1 and DSG3 showed both 100% sensitivity and 100% and 78% specificity, respectively, and 100% and 83% positive predictive value in relation to IIFc. IIFm with BP230 had 87% specificity, 55% sensitivity, whereas IIFm with BP180 had a 100% sensitivity and 13% specificity in relation to IIFc. Conclusions : The IIFc with DSG1/DSG3/BP230 transfected cells, excluding BP180 spots, is an alternative method to ELISA in pemphigus/BP diagnostics. IgG4 antibodies, both pathogenically and diagnostically important, are inconsistently detectable with IIFm.

  1. Choice of Illumination System & Fluorophore for Multiplex Immunofluorescence on FFPE Tissue Sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Prost

    Full Text Available The recent availability of novel dyes and alternative light sources to facilitate complex tissue immunofluorescence studies such as multiplex labelling has not been matched by reports critically evaluating the considerations and relative benefits of these new tools, particularly in combination. Product information is often limited to wavelengths used for older fluorophores (FITC, TRITC & corresponding Alexa dyes family. Consequently, novel agents such as Quantum dots are not widely appreciated or used, despite highly favourable properties including extremely bright emission, stability and potentially reduced tissue autofluorescence at the excitation wavelength. Using spectral analysis, we report here a detailed critical appraisal and comparative evaluation of different light sources and fluorophores in multiplex immunofluorescence of clinical biopsy sections. The comparison includes mercury light, metal halide and 3 different LED-based systems, using 7 Qdots (525, 565, 585, 605, 625, 705, Cy3 and Cy5. We discuss the considerations relevant to achieving the best combination of light source and fluorophore for accurate multiplex fluorescence quantitation. We highlight practical limitations and confounders to quantitation with filter-based approaches.

  2. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  3. An expert protocol for immunofluorescent detection of calcium channels in tsA-201 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Herzig, Stefan; Matthes, Jan

    Pore-forming subunits of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are large membrane proteins (260kDa) containing 24 transmembrane domains. Despite transfection with viral promoter driven vectors, biochemical analysis of VGCC is often hampered by rather low expression levels in heterologous systems rendering VGCC challenging targets. Especially in immunofluorescent detection, calcium channels are demanding proteins. We provide an expert step-by-step protocol with adapted conditions for handling procedures (tsA-201 cell culture, transient transfection, incubation time and temperature at 28°C or 37°C and immunostaining) to address the L-type calcium-channel pore Ca v 1.2 in an immunofluorescent approach. We performed immunocytochemical analysis of Ca v 1.2 expression at single-cell level in combination with detection of different markers for cellular organelles. We show confluency levels and shapes of tsA-201 cells at different time points during an experiment. Our experiments reveal sufficient levels of Ca v 1.2 protein and a correct Ca v 1.2 expression pattern in polygonal shaped cells already 12h after transfection. A sequence of elaborated protocol modifications allows subcellular localization analysis of Ca v 1.2 in an immunocytochemical approach. We provide a protocol that may be used to achieve insights into physiological and pathophysiological processes involving voltage gated calcium channels. Our protocol may be used for expression analysis of other challenging proteins and efficient overexpression may be exploited in related biochemical techniques requiring immunolabels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  5. Podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts: a pathological hallmark of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yasunori; Matsushima, Sayomi; Meguro, Shiori; Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Inui, Naoki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi; Iwashita, Toshihide

    2018-02-22

    Pathological differential diagnoses of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) include usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and pulmonary apical cap (PAC); however, there are no specific immunostaining makers to distinguish between these diseases. We performed immunohistochemistry using several pleural mesothelial cell-related markers, including cytokeratin-5/6, CAM5.2, WT-1, calretinin, desmin and podoplanin, for PPFE (n = 4), UIP (n = 10) and PAC (n = 3) lung sections. Among the examined markers, in PPFE and PAC lungs podoplanin commonly showed positivity for spindle cells both in thickened pleura and subpleural fibroelastosis lesions; these cells were also stained with α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of myofibroblasts. However, even in elastic fibre-rich cases, UIP lungs did not show such podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts in pleura/subpleura and fibroblastic foci. These findings were also verified using immunofluorescence. By contrast, immunohistochemically as well as morphologically, the difference between PPFE and PAC was not apparent. The presence of podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts could be a pathological hallmark of PPFE, suggesting a pathogenic process distinct from UIP but common to PAC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Multiplexed Immunofluorescence Reveals Potential PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway Vulnerabilities in Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Shannon; Rashid, Rumana; Lin, Jia-Ren; Du, Ziming; Donson, Andrew M; Hankinson, Todd C; Foreman, Nicholas K; Manley, Peter E; Kieran, Mark W; Reardon, David A; Sorger, Peter K; Santagata, Sandro

    2018-03-02

    Craniopharyngiomas are neoplasms of the sellar/parasellar region that are classified into adamantinomatous (ACP) and papillary (PCP) subtypes. Surgical resection of craniopharyngiomas is challenging, and recurrence is common, frequently leading to profound morbidity. BRAF V600E mutations render PCP susceptible to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, but effective targeted therapies are needed for ACP. We explored the feasibility of targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway in ACP and PCP. We mapped and quantified PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in ACP and PCP resections using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and RNA in situ hybridization. We used tissue-based cyclic immunofluorescence (t-CyCIF) to map the spatial distribution of immune cells and characterize cell cycle and signaling pathways in ACP tumor cells which intrinsically express PD-1. All ACP (15±14% of cells, n=23, average±S.D.) and PCP (35±22% of cells, n=18) resections expressed PD-L1. In ACP, PD-L1 was predominantly expressed by tumor cells comprising the cyst-lining. In PCP, PD-L1 was highly-expressed by tumor cells surrounding the stromal fibrovascular cores. ACP also exhibited tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 expression in whorled epithelial cells with nuclear-localized beta-catenin. These cells exhibited evidence of elevated mTOR and MAPK signaling. Profiling of immune populations in ACP and PCP showed a modest density of CD8+ T-cells. ACP exhibit PD-L1 expression in the tumor cyst-lining and intrinsic PD-1 expression in cells proposed to comprise an oncogenic stem-like population. In PCP, proliferative tumor cells express PD-L1 in a continuous band at the stromal-epithelial interface. Targeting PD-L1 and/or PD-1 in both subtypes of craniopharyngioma might therefore be an effective therapeutic strategy.

  7. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients show a characteristic necrotizing perifascicular myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescam-Mancini, Lénaig; Allenbach, Yves; Hervier, Baptiste; Devilliers, Hervé; Mariampillay, Kuberaka; Dubourg, Odile; Maisonobe, Thierry; Gherardi, Romain; Mezin, Paulette; Preusse, Corinna; Stenzel, Werner; Benveniste, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies can be classified as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, sporadic inclusion body myositis or non-specific myositis. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients are assigned to either polymyositis or dermatomyositis suggesting overlapping pathological features. We aimed to determine if anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive myopathy has a specific morphological phenotype. In a series of 53 muscle biopsies of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, relevant descriptive criteria defining a characteristic morphological pattern were identified. They were tested in a second series of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients and compared to 63 biopsies from patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. In anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, necrotic fibres, which strongly clustered in perifascicular regions, were frequently observed. Sarcolemmal complement deposition was detected specifically in perifascicular areas. Inflammation was mainly located in the perimysium and around vessels in 90.6%. Perimysial fragmentation was observed in 90% of cases. Major histocompatibility complex class I staining was diffusely positive, with a perifascicular reinforcement. Multivariate analysis showed that criteria defining perifascicular pathology: perifascicular necrosis, atrophy, and perimysial fragmentation allow the distinction of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, among patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients displayed perifascicular necrosis, whereas dermatomyositis patients exhibited perifascicular atrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Vincent; Adams, Joseph; Hardy, Donna J; Katayev, Alexander; Fleming, James K

    2018-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP) the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells) were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6%) than when compared to the current method (89.4%). Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6-97.5% of patterns and 71.0-93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  9. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ricchiuti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA. As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6% than when compared to the current method (89.4%. Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6–97.5% of patterns and 71.0–93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  10. Comparison of immunofluorescence investigations and a new anti-DNA-antibody radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeier, D.; Vogt, W.; Knedel, M.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of determining the anti-DNA antibody activity is simplified by high-molecular double strand DNA labelled with 125 I. Cases of suspected connective tissue disease should first be examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, since this method can detect a wider spectrum of diseases with similar symptoms. For a differential diagnosis of SLE, the anti-DNA antibody activity is then investigated by a radioimmunoassay. When assessing the antibody activity, the following criteria should be kept in mind: - Findings of less than 10 units/ml serum do not indicate pathological changes, - Higher antibody activities up to 35 units/ml serum may occur in SLE patients but are also possible in other ANA positive diseases with similar symptoms, - Activities over 35 units/ml serum are nearly always a sign of SLE. (orig./GSE) [de

  11. Comparison of immunofluorescence investigations and a new anti-DNA-antibody radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, D; Vogt, W; Knedel, M

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of determining the anti-DNA antibody activity is simplified by high-molecular double strand DNA labelled with /sup 125/I. Cases of suspected connective tissue disease should first be examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, since this method can detect a wider spectrum of diseases with similar symptoms. For a differential diagnosis of SLE, the anti-DNA antibody activity is then investigated by a radioimmunoassay. When assessing the antibody activity, the following criteria should be kept in mind: - Findings of less than 10 units/ml serum do not indicate pathological changes, - Higher antibody activities up to 35 units/ml serum may occur in SLE patients but are also possible in other ANA positive diseases with similar symptoms, - Activities over 35 units/ml serum are nearly always a sign of SLE.

  12. Quantum Dots-Based Immunofluorescent Imaging of Stromal Fibroblasts Caveolin-1 and Light Chain 3B Expression and Identification of Their Clinical Significance in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 expression deficiency and autophagy in tumor stromal fibroblasts (hereafter fibroblasts are involved in tumor proliferation and progression, particularly in breast and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B, markers of autophagy, in gastric cancer (GC and to analyze their clinical significances. Furthermore, because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated GC (EBVaGC is a unique subtype of GC; we compared the differential expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in EBVaGC and non-EBVaGC. Quantum dots (QDs-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to examine the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in 118 cases of GC with adequate stroma. QDs-based double immunofluorescence labeling was performed to detect the coexpression of Cav-1 and LC3B proteins. EBV-encoded small RNA was detected by QDs-based fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify EBVaGC. Multivariate analysis indicated that low fibroblastic Cav-1 level was an independent prognosticator (p = 0.029 that predicted poorer survival of GC patients. Positive fibroblastic LC3B was correlated with lower invasion (p = 0.032 and was positively associated with Cav-1 expression (r = 0.432, p < 0.001. EBV infection did not affect fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B expression. In conclusion, positive fibroblastic LC3B correlates with lower invasion, and low expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 is a novel predictor of poor GC prognosis.

  13. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

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    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  14. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

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    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  15. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, A L; Pogranichniy, R; Lin, T-L

    2013-11-01

    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Immunohistochemical testing of biopsy specimens and postmortem examination are the standard diagnostic methods, although direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing to detect feline coronavirus in macrophages in effusion specimens has been reported to have 100% specificity and has been recommended as an antemortem confirmatory test. The aim of this study was to compare the results of DIF testing in antemortem feline effusions with postmortem results using field samples. Effusion specimens were collected antemortem from 17 cats and tested by DIF, followed by postmortem examination. Histopathological examination of specimens collected at postmortem confirmed FIP in 10/17 cases and ruled out FIP out in 7/17 cases. Antemortem DIF testing was positive in all 10 cases confirmed as FIP at postmortem examination. In the seven cats where FIP was ruled out at postmortem examination, DIF was negative in five cases and positive in the remaining two cases. The calculated sensitivity of DIF testing was 100% and the specificity was 71.4%. Duplicate effusion specimens from eight cats that were initially DIF positive were stored refrigerated (4 °C) or at room temperature (22-25 °C) and subjected to serial DIF testing to determine the duration of positive results. DIF-positive specimens stored at both temperatures retained their positive status for at least 2 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  17. Nail unit in collagen vascular diseases: A clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence study

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    Nabil P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities of the nail unit are common in patients with connective tissue diseases. Clinical examination of the nail unit, coupled with biopsy of proximal nail fold offers an additional advantage in the diagnosis. Purpose: Our aim was to record clinical changes of the nail unit in connective tissue diseases and to study the histopathological (both H and E and periodic acid Schiff and direct immunofluorescence (DIF findings of nail-fold biopsy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight confirmed cases connective tissue diseases attending skin OPD were enrolled in the study. After detailed clinical examination of the nail unit, a crescentric biopsy was taken from the proximal nail fold (PNF. Histopathological and DIF studies were was carried out. Findings: Nail changes could be demonstrated in 65% connective tissue diseases. Specific histopathological (H and E and immunofluorescence findings were also encountered in many patients. Conclusion: Clinical examination of the nail unit offers additional clue in the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases. Though DIF of PNF biopsy is useful in the diagnosis, it is not an ideal site for H and E study, as the yield is very low. Limitations: Lack of adequate comparison group and non-utilization of capillary microscopy for the detection of nail fold capillary abnormalities.

  18. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

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    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  19. Characterisation of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1 Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle by Immunofluorescent Microscopy

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    Nathan Hodson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1; however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle. In human skeletal muscle, positive LAT1 staining was noted close to the sarcolemmal membrane (dystrophin positive staining, with a greater staining intensity for LAT1 observed in the sarcoplasmic regions of type II fibres (those not stained positively for myosin heavy-chain 1, Type II—25.07 ± 5.93, Type I—13.71 ± 1.98, p < 0.01, suggesting a greater abundance of this protein in these fibres. Finally, we observed association with LAT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suggesting LAT1 association close to the microvasculature. This is the first study to visualise the distribution and localisation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle. As such, this approach provides a validated experimental platform to study the role and regulation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle in response to various physiological and pathophysiological models.

  20. Kidney lesions in Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a light-, immunofluorescence-, and electron-microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, W. D.; Croker, B. P.; Tisher, C. C.

    1979-01-01

    The essential pathologic lesion in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a vasculitis that may involve the kidneys as well as the heart, brain, skin, and subcutaneous tissues. Histopathologic information concerning the response of the kidneys in RMSF is rather limited, however. In this study renal tissue from 17 children who died of RMSF was examined by light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy. A lymphocytic or mixed inflammation, or both, involving vessels and interstitium of the kidney was found in all patients. In addition, 10 patients had histologic evidence of acute tubular necrosis, and another 3 had glomerular lesions consisting of focal segmental tuft necrosis or increased cellularity secondary to neutophilic infiltration, or both. Immunofluorescence- and electron-microscopic studies failed to demonstrate immune-complex deposition within glomeruli, a finding that suggests that immunoglobulin and classic immune complexes were not involved in the pathogenesis of the renal lesions at the time of death. These findings suggest the possibility that the pathogenesis of the renal lesion in RMSF may be due to a direct action of the organism (Rickettsia rickettsii) on the vessel wall. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:525676

  1. Multicolor immunofluorescence reveals that p63- and/or K5-positive progenitor cells contribute to normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Stenman, Göran; Schroeder, Tina; Schumacher, Udo; Loening, Thomas; Stahnke, Lisa; Löhnert, Catharina; Siering, Robert Michael; Kuper, Arthur; Samoilova, Vera; Tiemann, Markus; Korsching, Eberhard; Buchwalow, Igor

    2017-05-01

    We contend that knowledge about the cellular composition of normal breast epithelium is a prerequisite for understanding proliferative breast disease. Against this background, we used multicolor immunofluorescence to study normal breast epithelium and two types of intraepithelial proliferative breast lesion for expression of the p63, basal keratin K5, glandular keratin K8/18, SMA, ER-alpha, and Ki67. We studied eight normal breast epithelium samples, 12 cases of usual ductal hyperplasia, and 33 cases of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (9 flat epithelial atypia, 14 low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and 10 cases of lobular neoplasia). Usual ductal hyperplasia showed striking similarity to normal luminal breast epithelium including p63+ and/or K5+ luminal progenitor cells and the full spectrum of luminal progeny cells. In normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, expression of ER-alpha was associated with lack of expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67. In contrast, we found in both types of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia robust expression of keratin K8/18 and a positive association between ER-alpha and Ki67 expression. However, these lesions were consistently negative for p63 and/or K5. Our observational study supports the view that usual ductal hyperplasia and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia are different entities rather than part of a spectrum of the same disease. We propose a new operational model of cell differentiation that may serve to better understand correlations between normal breast epithelium and proliferative breast diseases. From our data we conclude that p63+ and/or K5+ progenitor cells contribute to maintenance of normal epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

  2. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  3. Variability in the recognition of distinctive immunofluorescence patterns in different brands of HEp-2 cell slides

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    Alessandra Dellavance

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard for the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens. However, the culture conditions, cell fixation and permeabilization processes interfere directly in the preservation and spatial distribution of antigens. Therefore, one can assume that certain peculiarities in the processing of cellular substrate may affect the recognition of indirect immunofluorescence patterns associated with several autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of serum samples representing nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic, mitotic apparatus, and chromosome plate patterns on HEp-2 cell substrates from different suppliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven blinded observers, independent from the three selected reference centers, evaluated 17 samples yielding different nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic and mitotic apparatus patterns on HEp-2 cell slides from eight different brands. The slides were coded to maintain confidentiality of both brands and participating centers. RESULTS: The 17 HEp-2 cell patterns were identified on most substrates. Nonetheless, some slides showed deficit in the expression of several patterns: nuclear coarse speckled/U1-ribonucleoprotein associated with antibodies against RNP (U1RNP, centromeric protein F (CENP-F, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cytoplasmic fine speckled associated with anti-Jo-1 antibodies (histidyl synthetase, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA-1 and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 2 (NuMA-2. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall good quality of the assessed HEp-2 substrates, there was considerable inconsistency in results among different commercial substrates. The variations may be due to the evaluated batches, hence generalizations cannot be made as to the respective brands. It is recommended that each new batch or new brand be tested with a panel of reference sera representing the various patterns.

  4. Neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G in Chinese patients detected by immunofluorescence assay on a monkey brain substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Youming; Hu, Xueqiang; Peng, Fuhua; Lu, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuge; Yang, Yu; Qiu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Serum neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) is used as a biomarker to differentiate between neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the original assay is expensive and complex and shows low sensitivity. Here, we investigated the potential of NMO-IgG detection using an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay on monkey brains. NMO-IgG seroprevalence was determined in 168 samples by an IIF assay on a monkey brain substrate. The data were compared with those from a standard mouse brain IIF assay using McNemar and kappa tests. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) NMO patients, 7 of 18 (38.9%) longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis patients, 6 of 57 (10.5%) MS patients, and 5 of 10 (50%) optic neuritis patients were seropositive for NMO-IgG. None of the acute partial transverse myelitis patients (n = 3) or healthy controls (n = 20) was positive. Thus, the sensitivity of the test was 62% for the patients with clinically definite NMO. The specificity was 89.5%, considering the 57 MS patients as the control group. The modified IIF assay on monkey brains and the standard IIF assay based on mouse brains were not significantly different (McNemar test; p = 1.000). The two assays were concordant in 39 seropositive samples and 100 seronegative samples (kappa test; kappa = 0.592, p monkey brain assay was no better than the standard mouse brain IIF assay, we affirmed that NMO-IgG is a sensitive and specific biomarker to differentiate between NMO and MS. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, MF

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and

  6. Immunofluorescent determination of wheat protein in meat products

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    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-02-01

    foodstuffs is relatively difficult because of the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by various parts of the product. This paper deals with detection of wheat protein in meat products bought in the retail network of the Czech Republic. Ten cooked meat products, especially types of sausages and soft salami which stated wheat protein in their composition, were examined. The samples were processed using the method of immunofluorescence and stained with Texas Red fluorochrome. The presence of wheat protein was demonstrated in all the examined meat products. From the results it follows that the method of immunofluorescence is suitable for detection of wheat protein in meat products. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  7. Human cryptosporidiosis: detection of specific antibodies in the serum by an indirect immunofluorescence

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    Braz Lúcia M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp., a coccidian parasite usually found in the faeces of cattle, has been recently implicated as an agent of human intestinal disease, mainly in immunocompromised patients. In the study realized, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, specific immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM have been demonstrated in human serum against Cryptosporidium oocysts. Purified oocysts were used as antigens in the indirect immunofluorecence assay. After analyzing this test in sera from selected groups of patients, the frequency of both specific IgG and IgM of immunocompetent children who were excreting oocysts in their faeces was 62% and in children with negative excretion of oocysts was 20% and 40%, respectively. In adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and who were excreting Cryptosporidium in their stools, the frequency was 57% for IgG but only 2% for IgM. Twenty three percent of immunocompromised adults with not determined excretion of oocysts in their stools had anti-Cryptosporidium IgG in their sera. Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus had no IgM and only 14% had IgG detectable in their sera. The indirect immunoflorescence assay, when used with other parasitological techniques appears to be useful for retrospective population studies and for diagnosis of acute infection. The humoral immune response of HIV positive patients to this protozoan agent needs clarification.

  8. A Novel Tool for High-Throughput Screening of Granulocyte-Specific Antibodies Using the Automated Flow Cytometric Granulocyte Immunofluorescence Test (Flow-GIFT

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    Xuan Duc Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti—HNA 3a, n = 3; anti—HNA-1b, n = 1 and GAT (anti—HNA-2a, n = 1. The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of

  9. A novel tool for high-throughput screening of granulocyte-specific antibodies using the automated flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Duc; Dengler, Thomas; Schulz-Linkholt, Monika; Klüter, Harald

    2011-02-03

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT) has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT) were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti-HNA 3a, n = 3; anti-HNA-1b, n = 1) and GAT (anti-HNA-2a, n = 1). The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of blood products.

  10. Optimization of Single- and Dual-Color Immunofluorescence Protocols for Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Archival Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Ito, Reiko; Manley, Nancy R; Hale, Laura P

    2016-02-01

    Performance of immunofluorescence staining on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues is generally not considered to be feasible, primarily due to problems with tissue quality and autofluorescence. We report the development and application of procedures that allowed for the study of a unique archive of thymus tissues derived from autopsies of individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. Multiple independent treatments were used to minimize autofluorescence and maximize fluorescent antibody signals. Treatments with NH3/EtOH and Sudan Black B were particularly useful in decreasing autofluorescent moieties present in the tissue. Deconvolution microscopy was used to further enhance the signal-to-noise ratios. Together, these techniques provide high-quality single- and dual-color fluorescent images with low background and high contrast from paraffin blocks of thymus tissue that were prepared up to 60 years ago. The resulting high-quality images allow the application of a variety of image analyses to thymus tissues that previously were not accessible. Whereas the procedures presented remain to be tested for other tissue types and archival conditions, the approach described may facilitate greater utilization of older paraffin block archives for modern immunofluorescence studies. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  11. The detection of Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia cysts by immunofluorescence in animal tissues and fecal samples subjected to cycles of freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, S L; Sherlock, L A; Bemrick, W J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Giardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellets, or isolated cyst preparations, whereas Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from fecal samples. These samples were stained using an immunofluorescence technique after 1-3 freezing (-16 C) and thawing (20 C) cycles. Cysts were detected successfully by immunofluorescence in all samples. However, in those samples subjected to freeze-thawing, the cyst walls often became distorted and then were not detectable by bright field microscopy. Low voltage SEM demonstrated that the filaments in the distorted cyst wall underwent rearrangements of interfilament spacing. Quantitation of cyst recovery after freezing and thawing demonstrated that a substantial loss occurred after 1 cycle of alternating temperature when low concentrations of cysts were used, but not with high concentrations of cysts. Cyst recovery, after 3 freezing and thawing cycles, was dramatically lowered irrespective of the initial cyst concentration. These results demonstrated that immunofluorescence was an effective technique for the detection of Giardia spp. cysts in frozen samples and would suggest that freezing and thawing of fecal samples could prevent the detection of cysts when only bright field microscopy was employed.

  12. Double-label immunofluorescence method for simultaneous detection of adenovirus and herpes simplex virus from the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpita, P; Darougar, S

    1989-07-01

    The development and application of a double-label immunofluorescence method which has the potential to screen for single or dual infections from any site, in single shell vial cultures, is described. In this study, a total of 1,141 ocular specimens were inoculated in shell vials, centrifuged at 15,000 X g for 1 h, incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h, and fixed in methanol at room temperature for 15 min. The virus inclusions were detected by staining with a double-label indirect immunofluorescence procedure using mixtures of appropriate first antibodies, followed by fluorescein- and rhodamine-conjugated second antibodies. Each specimen was also inoculated in parallel by the conventional virus isolation method. The sensitivity and specificity of the double-label shell vial procedure were comparable to those with the conventional method, and the former test took only 48 h to complete. The test offers a rapid and simple single-vial procedure which allows for individual or simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. It results in savings in time and cost over the conventional virus isolation method and other shell vial procedures.

  13. Direct immunofluorescence assay compared to cell culture for the diagnosis of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, A Chantal; Oelze, Lindsay L; Saz, Ulas E; Greer, Jewel M; Demmler-Harrison, Gail J

    2010-09-01

    Direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) is commonly used for the rapid identification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in mucocutaneous lesions, yet little is known about its diagnostic accuracy. To determine the diagnostic yield and accuracy of HSV DFA for the diagnosis of mucocutaneous HSV infection in pediatric patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients who underwent HSV DFA testing by the Texas Children's Hospital Diagnostic Virology between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2005. HSV DFA sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LRs), and negative LRs were estimated using viral culture as the reference standard. 659 specimens were submitted for HSV DFA with concurrent viral cultures. Viral cultures were positive for HSV type 1 in 158 (24%) and HSV type 2 in 2 (0.3%). There were 433 different patients with a median age of 8.6 years. Types of lesions were as follows: 50% ulcerative, 26% vesicular, 8% erythema or purpura, 5% pustular, and 11% missing. Of the 659 specimens submitted for HSV DFA, 160 (24%) were inconclusive due to inadequate cells. Of the 499 adequate specimens, overall HSV DFA test accuracy was: sensitivity 61%, specificity 99%, LR positive 40, and LR negative 0.39. A quarter of specimens submitted for HSV DFA testing are not adequate for DFA testing. When HSV DFA can be performed, it is specific, but not sensitive, for the identification of mucocutaneous HSV infection in children. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunofluorescence-based screening identifies germ cell associated microRNA 302 as an antagonist to p63 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Andreas Hans Joachim; Beyer, Ulrike; Agami, Reuven

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor homologue p63 is required for proper skin and limb development, but specific isoforms of it also act as a "guardian of the germline." To gain insight into the regulation of p63 expression, we performed immunofluorescence-based screening assays. Using a large collection of micro...

  15. Anatomopatologia e imunofluorescência direta e indireta das lesões de pênfigo foliáceo endêmico resistentes à corticoterapia Pathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescent test of lesions of pemphigus foliaceous resistent to corticotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available São estudados 16 doentes de pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (PFE, sob tratamento com corticosteróides, que ainda apresentavam lesões eritemato-pápulo-verrucosas, geralmente hiperpigmentadas, que foram caracterizadas como lesões resistentes à corticoterapia (LRC. O estudo destas lesões foi feito através de anatomopatologia e de imunofluorescência direta (IFD. Anatomopatologicamente essas lesões mostraram tendência à hiperplasia epitelial e clivagem em níveis variáveis na epiderme o que difere dos achados nas lesões recentes do PFE e coincide com os achados nas lesões crônicas do PFE da era pré-corticóide. A IFD da pele lesada foi positiva para IgG em 93,75% dos casos, como ocorre nas fases iniciais do PFE, tendo sido negativa no único caso em que não houve clivagem. Adicionalmente, em oito desses doentes, foram estudados a IFD da pele sã e a imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. A IFD foi positiva em três destes casos e a IFI foi negativa nos oito.A group of 16 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus under corticotherapy and still showing erythematous, papulous, verrucous, in general hyperpigmented lesions, which were characterized as cortico therapy resistant lesions, were studied. Such study was made through anatomopathology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF. Anatomopathologically, such lesions showed tendencies to epitelial hyperplasia and cleavage in variable levels at the epidermis what differs from the early lesions of EPF and coincides with the chronic injuries of the EPF of the pre-corticoid era. The DIF of the injured skin was positive for IgG in 93.75% of cases, as it happens in the early stages of EPF, being negative in a simple case in which there was not cleavage. In addition, in eight of those patients, the DIF of the healthy skin and the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF were studied. The DIF was positive in three of these cases and in all eight the IIF was negative.

  16. IgA anti-Actin antibodies in children with celiac disease: comparison of immunofluorescence with Elisa assay in predicting severe intestinal damage

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    Mora Stefano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of serum IgA antibodies against actin filaments (AAA in patients with celiac disease (CD is strongly associated with mucosal damage and severe degrees of villous atrophy. The aims of the present study were (1 to verify the effectiveness of IgA-AAA in newly diagnosed CD patients in a clinical setting (2 to compare the immunofluorescence assay with ELISA assay; (3 to compare the correlation of our IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-Ab class with mucosal intestinal lesions. Methods 90 patients underwent endoscopy and multiple biopsies for suspected CD on the basis of symptoms, in presence of positive tTG-Ab tests. Twenty biopsied and 25 not-biopsied subjects with negative tTG-Ab were tested as control groups. IgA-AAA assays were performed by indirect immunofluorescence using rat epithelial intestinal cells, and by ELISA with a commercial kit. tTG-Ab assay was a radio-binding assay. Intestinal specimens were collected by upper endoscopy and the histological study was done according to the Marsh's classification modified by Oberhuber (M/O. Auto-antibodies assays and histological evaluation have been performed blindly by skilled operators. Results CD diagnosis was confirmed in 82 patients (type I M/O in 2 patients, IIIA in 18 patients, IIIB in 29 patients and IIIC in 33 patients. Two patients with type 1 lesion in presence of positive tTG-Ab and abdominal complaints, started a gluten free diet. The rate of IgA-AAA positivity (sensitivity by IFI and ELISA in histologically proven celiac disease patients, were 5.5% and 25% patients in IIIA, 27.5% and 34.4% patients in IIIB, 78.8% and 75% in IIIC patients, respectively. Patients with normal or nearly normal mucosa, regardless of tTG-Ab status, presented negative IgA-AAA IFI assay. On the other hand, 1 patient with normal mucosa but positive tTG-Ab, also presented positive IgA-AAA ELISA. All healthy non biopsied

  17. Evaluation of a Direct Immunofluorescent Assay and/or Conjunctival Cytology for Detection of Canine Distemper Virus Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Kantere, Maria C; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Pardali, Dimitra; Adamama Moraitou, Katerina; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2018-04-01

    Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR. For the direct FA, samples were stained with anti-CDV polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and imaged using a fluorescent microscope. Out of 57 dogs tested, 19 were PCR positive (15 positive in direct FA and 4 positive in cytology, including one that was negative by PCR), whereas 37 dogs were negative in all methods. A good agreement was observed between the FA and PCR, with a κ-value of 0.833 (95% CI: 0.678-0.989). Meanwhile, there was poor agreement between cytology and PCR (κ-value of 0.164; 95% CI: -0.045 to 0.373) and a fair agreement between FA and cytology (κ-value of 0.231; 95% CI: -0.026 to 0.487). Our results indicated a poor performance of cytology for the detection of CDV antigen. In contrast, FA is a 100% specific and an adequately sensitive assay (sensitivity: 78.95%, negative likelihood ratio: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09-0.50) for antemortem diagnosis of canine distemper.

  18. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

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    Sebastian Wendy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  19. A direct view by immunofluorescent comet assay (IFCA) of DNA damage induced by nicking and cutting enzymes, ionizing (137)Cs radiation, UV-A laser microbeam irradiation and the radiomimetic drug bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaravicius, Paulius; Rapp, Alexander; Greulich, Karl Otto

    2009-03-01

    In DNA repair research, DNA damage is induced by different agents, depending on the technical facilities of the investigating researchers. A quantitative comparison of different investigations is therefore often difficult. By using a modified variant of the neutral comet assay, where the histone H1 is detected by immunofluorescence [immunofluorescent comet assay (IFCA)], we achieve previously unprecedented resolution in the detection of fragmented chromatin and show that trillions of ultraviolet A photons (of a few eV), billions of bleomycin (BLM) molecules and thousands of gamma quanta (of 662 keV) generate, in first order, similar damage in the chromatin of HeLa cells. A somewhat more detailed inspection shows that the damage caused by 20 Gy ionizing radiation and by a single laser pulse of 10 microJ are comparable, while the damage caused by 12 microg/ml BLM depends highly on the individual cell. Taken together, this work provides a detailed view of DNA fragmentation induced by different treatments and allows comparing them to some extent, especially with respect to the neutral comet assay.

  20. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in formalin-fixed porcine intestinal tissue samples: comparison of immunofluorescence and in-situ hybridization, and evaluation of the effects of controlled autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Boesen, H T; Vigre, H; Boye, M

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA; with a Lawsonia intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibody) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH; with a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of the bacterium), were compared for their ability to detect L. intracellularis (the cause of porcine proliferative enteritis [PE]) in formalin-fixed samples of intestinal tissue. Of 69 intestinal samples with gross lesions of PE, 63 were positive by both FISH and IFA, but six were positive only by IFA. This indicated that the sensitivity of FISH was 91% that of IFA. However, both methods had a specificity of 100%. Fifty normal porcine intestines were negative by both tests. IFA was much less susceptible than FISH to the effects of autolysis. Thus, three of nine samples from pigs with PE were FISH-negative after being kept at 20 degrees C for 4 days, and seven were FISH negative after 2 weeks; after 4 weeks at this temperature, however, six of the nine samples were still IFA positive. After being kept at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks, the majority of samples (> or = 66%) were positive by both methods.

  1. Semi-automated, occupationally safe immunofluorescence microtip sensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium cells in sputum.

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    Shinnosuke Inoue

    Full Text Available An occupationally safe (biosafe sputum liquefaction protocol was developed for use with a semi-automated antibody-based microtip immunofluorescence sensor. The protocol effectively liquefied sputum and inactivated microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while preserving the antibody-binding activity of Mycobacterium cell surface antigens. Sputum was treated with a synergistic chemical-thermal protocol that included moderate concentrations of NaOH and detergent at 60°C for 5 to 10 min. Samples spiked with M. tuberculosis complex cells showed approximately 10(6-fold inactivation of the pathogen after treatment. Antibody binding was retained post-treatment, as determined by analysis with a microtip immunosensor. The sensor correctly distinguished between Mycobacterium species and other cell types naturally present in biosafe-treated sputum, with a detection limit of 100 CFU/mL for M. tuberculosis, in a 30-minute sample-to-result process. The microtip device was also semi-automated and shown to be compatible with low-cost, LED-powered fluorescence microscopy. The device and biosafe sputum liquefaction method opens the door to rapid detection of tuberculosis in settings with limited laboratory infrastructure.

  2. IFDOTMETER: A New Software Application for Automated Immunofluorescence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, S M S; Gragera-Hidalgo, Antonio; Cristo, Alejandro; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M; González-Polo, Rosa A; Fuentes, José M

    2016-04-01

    Most laboratories interested in autophagy use different imaging software for managing and analyzing heterogeneous parameters in immunofluorescence experiments (e.g., LC3-puncta quantification and determination of the number and size of lysosomes). One solution would be software that works on a user's laptop or workstation that can access all image settings and provide quick and easy-to-use analysis of data. Thus, we have designed and implemented an application called IFDOTMETER, which can run on all major operating systems because it has been programmed using JAVA (Sun Microsystems). Briefly, IFDOTMETER software has been created to quantify a variety of biological hallmarks, including mitochondrial morphology and nuclear condensation. The program interface is intuitive and user-friendly, making it useful for users not familiar with computer handling. By setting previously defined parameters, the software can automatically analyze a large number of images without the supervision of the researcher. Once analysis is complete, the results are stored in a spreadsheet. Using software for high-throughput cell image analysis offers researchers the possibility of performing comprehensive and precise analysis of a high number of images in an automated manner, making this routine task easier. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescent test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, I.J.; Fehr, K.; Wagenhaeuser, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence (CL-IF) assay and an adapted Farr radioimmunoassay (RIA), for the measurement of antibodies to native deoxyribonucleic acid, was performed using forty-two sera from patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and another forty-two from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both assays were specific for SLE. The CL-IF assay was statistically significantly more sensitive than the adapted RIA assay. This significant difference was due to greater sensitivity of the CL-IF assay in the cases of sera from patients with SLE of slight activity. Additional advantages of the CL-IF assay were its use to classify the immunoglobulin types of the antibodies (most commonly IgG or IgM) and to measure complement-fixing antibodies to native deoxyribonucleic acid; it affords a simple method of selecting and following SLE patients at risk of developing severe renal disease. These advantages plus the simplicity and inexpensiveness of the CL-IF assay make it a useful tool, especially for use in small laboratories, for the study of antibodies to native deoxyribonucleic acid in patients with SLE. (orig.) [de

  4. DNA Methylation Changes in Valproic Acid-Treated HeLa Cells as Assessed by Image Analysis, Immunofluorescence and Vibrational Microspectroscopy.

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    Giovana M B Veronezi

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been reported to affect the DNA methylation status in addition to inducing histone hyperacetylation in several cell types. In HeLa cells, VPA promotes histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. However, DNA demethylation was not checked in this cell model for standing effects longer than those provided by histone acetylation, which is a rapid and transient phenomenon. Demonstration of VPA-induced DNA demethylation in HeLa cells would contribute to understanding the effect of VPA on an aggressive tumor cell line. In the present work, DNA demethylation in VPA-treated HeLa cells was assessed by image analysis of chromatin texture, the abundance of 5-methylcytosine (5mC immunofluorescence signals and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy centered on spectral regions related to the vibration of-CH3 groups. Image analysis indicated that increased chromatin unpacking promoted by a 4-h-treatment with 1.0 mM VPA persisted for 24 h in the absence of the drug, suggesting the occurrence of DNA demethylation that was confirmed by decreased 5mC immunofluorescence signals. FT-IR spectra of DNA samples from 1 mM or 20 mM VPA-treated cells subjected to a peak fitting analysis of the spectral window for-CH3 stretching vibrations showed decreased vibrations and energy of these groups as a function of the decreased abundance of 5mC induced by increased VPA concentrations. Only the 20 mM-VPA treatment caused an increase in the ratio of -CH3 bending vibrations evaluated at 1375 cm-1 in relation to in-plane vibrations of overall cytosines evaluated at 1492 cm-1. CH3 stretching vibrations showed to be more sensitive than-CH3 bending vibrations, as detected with FT-IR microspectroscopy, for studies aiming to associate vibrational spectroscopy and changes in DNA 5mC abundance.

  5. Immunofluorescent histological studies of the role of fibronectin in the expression of the associative preferences of embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, P B; Armstrong, M T

    1981-08-01

    The identity of the chemical factors controlling the spreading behaviour of sheets of cells was examined in organ culture. When aggregates of two dissimilar tissues are apposed in organ culture, one tissue spreads reproducibly over the surface of the second. The present study employed indirect immunofluorescent localization techniques to evaluate the hypothesis that the spreading behaviour of chick embryonic heart tissue in culture is dominated by the presence or absence of the cell-surface and extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in the surface layers of the aggregates. Specifically, the hypothesis proposes that aggregates that display surface fibronectin earlier after culturing and/or in higher quantities segregate internally to aggregates that are slower to develop a surface layer of fibronectin or in which this layer contains reduced amounts of fibronectin. The hypothesis has been supported for 3 categories of behaviour of chick embryo heart tissue: (1) myocyte aggregates spread over myocyte aggregates containing a 20% admixture of heart fibroblasts, which in turn spread over heart fibroblast aggregates; (2) 5-day embryonic ventricle-tissue fragments maintained in culture for 0.5 days spread over ventricle fragments cultured for 2.5 days; and (3) 2-day embryonic ventricle spreads over 5-day ventricle. In all these situations, the aggregate type that segregates to an internal position displays more fibronectin at its surface than aggregate types that spread to occupy an external position. Evidence is presented that the fibronectin in heart tissue aggregates is elaborated by heart fibroblasts.

  6. Naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs studied from weaning to slaughter by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and polymerase chain reaction on faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    by immunofluorescence antibody test compared to 24% by immunohistochemistry on ileal samples. Thus, applied at the time of slaughter the antibody test appeared to be a highly sensitive ante-mortem diagnostic tool for identifying L. intracelluaris exposed pigs with or without current proliferative enteropathy. (c) 2004......The course of naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection was studied in 41 pigs by testing blood and faeces samples collected four to seven times from before weaning to slaughter 5 months old. At slaughter, a sample of ileum was taken for histopathology. In the first sampling when...... later on shed and/or were seropositive for L. intracellularis. The lowest prevalence of L. intracellularis was observed in 6-13 weeks old pigs and it seemed as though L. intracellularis in early infected pigs only activates a minor antibody response. At slaughter 66% of the pigs were found positive...

  7. In Situ Immunofluorescent Staining of Autophagy in Muscle Stem Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Castagnetti, Francesco

    2017-06-13

    Increasing evidence points to autophagy as a crucial regulatory process to preserve tissue homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and the autophagic process has been described in several muscular pathologies and agerelated muscle disorders. A recently described block of the autophagic process that correlates with the functional exhaustion of satellite cells during muscle repair supports the notion that active autophagy is coupled with productive muscle regeneration. These data uncover the crucial role of autophagy in satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration in both normal and pathological conditions, such as muscular dystrophies. Here, we provide a protocol to monitor the autophagic process in the adult Muscle Stem Cell (MuSC) compartment during muscle regenerative conditions. This protocol describes the setup methodology to perform in situ immunofluorescence imaging of LC3, an autophagy marker, and MyoD, a myogenic lineage marker, in muscle tissue sections from control and injured mice. The methodology reported allows for monitoring the autophagic process in one specific cell compartment, the MuSC compartment, which plays a central role in orchestrating muscle regeneration.

  8. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B.

    1982-01-01

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle. (author)

  9. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung)

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  10. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nødtvedt Ane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21% of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway.

  11. Construction of iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites with low nonspecific adsorption and strong quenching ability for competitive immunofluorescent detection of biomarkers in GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifei; Liu, Anran; Shangguan, Li; Mi, Li; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuanjian; Zhao, Yuewu; Li, Ying; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new immunofluorescent biosensor by utilizing a novel nanobody (Nb) and iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites for sensitive detection of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacdterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4-EPSPS), which considered as biomarkers of genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically, we prepared iron doped polyacrylic hydrazide modified reduced graphene nanocomposites (Fe@RGO/PAH) by in-situ polymerization approach and subsequent a one-pot reaction with hydrazine. The resulting Fe@RGO/PAH nanocomposites displayed low nonspecific adsorption to analytes (11% quenching caused by nonspecific adsorption) due to electrostatic, energetic and steric effect of the nanocomposites. After Nb immobilizing, the as-prepared Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs showed good selectivity and high quenching ability (92% quenching) in the presence of antigen (Ag) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified CdTe QDs (Ag/QDs@PEG), which is a nearly 4 fold than that of the unmodified GO in same condition. The high quenching ability of Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs can be used for detection of CP4-EPSPS based on competitive immunoassay with a linearly proportional concentration range of 5-100ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.34ng/mL. The good stability, reproducibility and specificity of the resulting immunofluorescent biosensor are demonstrated and might open a new window for investigation of fluorescent sensing with numerous multifunctional graphene based materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody reaction of human anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative sera with Neospora caninum antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Kang, Seung-Won; Choi, Won-Young

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Neospora caninum antibody was detected in anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative human sera by ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Twelve cases out of 172 (6.7%) Toxoplasma-positive sera cross-reacted with both T. gondii and N. caninum antigens, and one out of 110 Toxoplasma-negative sera reacted with N. caninum antigen by ELISA. By western blot, all 12 sera reacted with T. gondii antigens with various banding patterns but specifically at 30 kDa (SAG1) and 22 kD...

  13. Detection of viral infection by immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed tissues, pretreated with trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Barth

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of viral antigen in sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissues was demonstrated by trypsin digestion followed by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. The specimens may be used for retrospective diagnosis. The immunofluorescence technique has to be adapted to the suspected virus infection on the basis of previous histopathology study. Variations of trypsin concentration time and temperature of incubation, expose different viral antigens and have to be previously tested for each unknown system. For measles virus detection in lung a stronger digestion has to be applied as compared to adenovirus or respiratory disease viruses in the same tisue. Flavivirus in liver tissue needs a weaker digestion. The reproducibility of the method makes it useful as a routine technique in diagnosis of virus infection.A presença de antígeno viral em cortes de tecidos humanos fixados em formol e emblocados em parafina foi demonstrada pela digestão com tripsina foi demonstrada pela ingestão com tripsina seguida de imunofluorescência direta ou indireta. Os espécimens podem ser utilizados para diagnoses retrospectivas. A técnica da imunofluorescência deve ser adaptada à infecção viral suspeita segundo diagnosie histopatológica prévia. Os parâmetros para a digestão do tecido pela tripsina, relacionados à concentração, duração de atuação e temperatura, expõem diferentes antígenos virais e devem ser previamente testados para cada sistema a ser estabelecido. Uma digestão mais intensa deve ser aplicada para a detecção do vírus do sarampo em tecido pulmonar do que para adenovírus ou vírus respiratório sincicial no mesmo tecido. Por outro lado, o vírus da febre amarela em tecido de fígado necessita de uma digestão mais fraca.

  14. Validation of commercially available sphingosine kinase 2 antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A. Neubauer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2 is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death. In addition to being able to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis under certain conditions, it has recently been shown that SK2 can promote neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, well validated and reliable tools are required to study and better understand the true functions of SK2. Here, we compare two commercially available SK2 antibodies: a rabbit polyclonal antibody from Proteintech that recognizes amino acids 266-618 of human SK2a, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody from ECM Biosciences that recognizes amino acids 36-52 of human SK2a. We examine the performance of these antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining of endogenous SK2, using human HEK293 and HeLa cell lines, as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. Furthermore, we assess the specificity of these antibodies to the target protein through the use of siRNA-mediated SK2 knockdown and SK2 knockout (Sphk2-/- MEFs. Our results demonstrate that the Proteintech anti-SK2 antibody reproducibly displayed superior sensitivity and selectivity towards SK2 in immunoblot analyses, while the ECM Biosciences anti-SK2 antibody was reproducibly superior for SK2 immunoprecipitation and detection by immunofluorescence staining. Notably, both antibodies produced non-specific bands and staining in the MEFs, which was not observed with the human cell lines. Therefore, we conclude that the Proteintech SK2 antibody is a valuable reagent for use in immunoblot analyses, and the ECM Biosciences SK2 antibody is a useful tool for SK2 immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining, at least in the human cell lines employed in this study.

  15. [Application of Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence Staining in Detection of Phospholipase A2 Receptor on Paraffin Section of Renal Biopsy Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan-yan; Wang, Guo-qin; Sun, Li-jun; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-pu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the application of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining method in the detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) on paraffin section of renal biopsy tissue,and to find an accurate and fast method for the detection of PLA2R in renal tissue. The PLA2R of 193 cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining,and the antigen was repaired by the method of high pressure cooker (HPC) hot repair plus trypsin repair. The 193 samples including 139 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), 15 cases of membranous lupus nephritis, 8 cases of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy, 18 cases of IgA nephropathy, and 13 cases of minimal change diseases. To compare the dyeing effects, 22 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 4 different. of antigen repairing,which included HPC hot repair, HPC hot repair plus trypsin repair, water bath heat repair, and water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair. To compare the dyeing effects, 15 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 3 different. of antigen repairing,which included water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair, protease K digestion repair, and pepsin digestion repair. In 193 cases, the positive rate of PLA2R in IMN cases was 90.6% (126/139), and the other 54 patients without IMN were negative. Twenty-two IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using the HPC heat repair plus trypsin repaire or the water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair;while only a few cases of 22 IMN cases were positive by using the HPC hot repair alone or water bath heat repair alone. Fifteen IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair, but the distribution of positive deposits and the background were different. PLA2R immunohistochemical staining can effectively identify IMN and secondary MN. For

  16. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decho, Alan W; Beckman, Erin M; Chandler, G Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae

  17. Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Beane, Amanda

    2018-02-05

    Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT's contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes. We hypothesized that there is a positive association between the adoption of HIT and medical outcomes. We queried the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) by PubMed databases for peer-reviewed publications in the last 5 years that defined an HIT intervention and an effect on medical outcomes in terms of efficiency or effectiveness. We structured the review from the Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), and we conducted the review in accordance with the Assessment for Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). We narrowed our search from 3636 papers to 37 for final analysis. At least one improved medical outcome as a result of HIT adoption was identified in 81% (25/37) of research studies that met inclusion criteria, thus strongly supporting our hypothesis. No statistical difference in outcomes was identified as a result of HIT in 19% of included studies. Twelve categories of HIT and three categories of outcomes occurred 38 and 65 times, respectively. A strong majority of the literature shows positive effects of HIT on the effectiveness of medical outcomes, which positively supports efforts that prepare for stage 3 of meaningful use. This aligns with previous reviews in other time frames. ©Clemens Scott Kruse, Amanda Beane. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  18. Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any unnecessary surgery.

  19. [Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with unusual positivity of anti-ATLA (adult T-cell leukemia-cell-associated antigen) antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, T; Okamura, H; Okamura, T; Gondo, H; Kudo, J; Shibuya, T; Harada, M; Niho, Y

    1990-03-01

    A 56-year-old female was admitted because of generalized lymphadenopathy. Based upon histological findings of biopsied lymph node, malignant lymphoma, diffuse large cell type was diagnosed. The surface marker analysis showed that malignant cells were positive for CD4 and CD2 but negative for CD8. Although anti-ATLA (adult T-cell leukemia associated antigen) antibody was negative with the use of a gelatin particle agglutination method (P.A.), other methods such as an indirect immunofluorescence assay (I.F.), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E.I.A.) and a Western blotting assay revealed the positivity for anti-ATLA antibody. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L) was confirmed by the presence of monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in biopsied specimen. This case, showing a pattern of P.A. (-) and I.F. (+), is extremely unusual, because I.F. and P.A. show highly close correlation. Thus, it is important to employ different methods for screening of anti-ATLA antibodies in the diagnosis of ATL/L.

  20. AMP deaminase histochemical activity and immunofluorescent isozyme localization in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. L.; Sabina, R. L.; Ogasawara, N.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The cellular distribution of AMP deaminase (AMPda) isozymes was documented for rat soleus and plantaris muscles, utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation methods. AMPda is a ubiquitous enzyme existing as three distinct isozymes, A, B and C, which were initially purified from skeletal muscle, liver (and kidney), and heart, respectively. AMPda-A is primarily concentrated subsarcolemmally and intermyofibrillarly within muscle cells, while isozymes B and C are concentrated within non-myofiber elements of muscle tissue. AMPda-B is principally associated with connective tissues surrounding neural elements and the muscle spindle capsule, and AMPda-C is predominantly associated with circulatory elements, such as arterial and venous walls, capillary endothelium, and red blood cells. These specific localizations, combined with documented differences in kinetic properties, suggest multiple functional roles for the AMPda isozymes or temporal segregation of similar AMPda functions. Linkage of the AMPda substrate with adenosine production pathways at the AMP level and the localization of isozyme-C in vascular tissue suggest a regulatory role in the microcirculation.

  1. Embryonic and foetal Islet-1 positive cells in human hearts are also positive to c-Kit

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    C. Serradifalco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the mammalian heart develops from a primitive heart tube originating from two bilateral primary heart fields located in the lateral plate mesoderm. Cells belongings to the pre-cardiac mesoderm will differentiate into early cardiac progenitors, which express early transcription factors which are also common to the Isl-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells isolated from the developing pharyngeal mesoderm and the foetal and post-natal mice hearts. A second population of cardiac progenitor cells positive to c-Kit has been abundantly isolated from adult hearts. Until now, these two populations have been considered two different sets of progenitor cells present in the heart in different stages of an individual life. In the present study we collected embryonic, foetal and infant hearts, and we tested the hypotheses that c-Kit positive cells, usually isolated from the adult heart, are also present in the intra-uterine life and persist in the adult heart after birth, and that foetal Isl-1 positive cells are also positive to c-Kit. Using immunohistochemistry we studied the temporal distribution of Isl-1 positive and c-Kit/CD105 double positive cells, and by immunofluorescence and confocal analysis we studied the co-localization of c-Kit and Isl-1 positive cells. The results indicated that cardiomyocytes and interstitial cells were positive for c-Kit from the 9th to the 19th gestational week, that cells positive for both c-Kit and CD105 appeared in the interstitium at the 17th gestational week and persisted in the postnatal age, and that the Isl-1 positive cells were a subset of the c-Kit positive population.

  2. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

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    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  3. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

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    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  4. Quantum-dot-based immunofluorescent imaging of HER2 and ER provides new insights into breast cancer heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuang; Li Yan; Peng Jun; Xu Hao; Tang Hongwu; Zhang Zhiling; Pang Daiwen; Xia Heshun; Wu Qiongshui; Zeng Libo; Zhu Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous tumor, and better understanding of its heterogeneity is essential to improving treatment effect. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescent nanotechnology (QD-IHC) for molecular pathology has potential advantages in delineating tumor heterogeneity. This potential is explored in this paper by QD-IHC imaging of HER2 and ER. BC heterogeneity can be displayed more clearly and sensitively by QD-IHC than conventional IHC in BC tissue microarrays. Furthermore, the simultaneous imaging of ER and HER2 might help understand their interactions during the process of evolution of heterogeneous BC.

  5. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunofluorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell proliferation), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental findings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs. PMID:25206818

  6. Anti-human neutrophil antigen-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in neonates and children with immune neutropenias analyzed by extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Rie; Kurita, Emi; Taniguchi, Kikuyo; Karakawa, Shuhei; Okada, Satoshi; Kihara, Hirotaka; Fujii, Teruhisa; Kobayashi, Masao

    2017-11-01

    Anti-human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies have been implicated in the development of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAN) and autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). There are many conventional assay methods that detect anti-HNA antibodies. However, a method to measure multiple samples and detect several anti-HNA antibodies simultaneously is needed. We developed a new method, the extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay (EGIFA), to analyze anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in sera. The results obtained by EGIFA were evaluated in comparison with those from several standard assay methods. Anti-HNA antibodies in serum samples from nine familial cases with suspected NAN (n = 19) and children with suspected AIN (n = 88) were also measured by EGIFA. The evaluation of nine serum samples with anti-HNA antibodies suggested that EGIFA demonstrated equivalent specificity and superior sensitivity to monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of granulocyte antigens and had comparable sensitivity to the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test. EGIFA successfully detected anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibodies in seven of nine familial cases with suspected NAN. EGIFA detected anti-HNA antibodies in 40.9% of children with suspected AIN. Among them, isolated anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibody was detected in 4.5 or 12.5% of children, respectively, and anti-HNA-2 antibody was identified in 3.4% of children. The 30.8% (16 of 52) of children negative for anti-HNA antibody by EGIFA were positive for anti-HLA antibody. EGIFA facilitated the measurement of anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and/or -2 antibodies in sera. The prompt measurement of anti-HNA antibodies will improve the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with suspected NAN or AIN. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

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    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  9. [Standardized indirect immunofluorescence. Differentiation of mitochondrial, microsomal and ribosomal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, W

    1977-02-15

    By an extensive standardisation of the indirect immunofluorescence for the demonstration espeially of mitochondrial antibodies we succeeded in recognizing atypical fluorescence patterns and in describing their exact localisation. On the basis of absorption studies with mitochondrias, microsomas and ribosomas by comparative observation of sections of liver, stomach and kidneys of rats the preferred sort of reaction and the intensity of fluorescence of antibodies against mitochondria, microsomas and ribosomas were empirically established. Antimitochondrial antibodies react above all with the parietal cells of the stomach and the distal epithelia of the tubulus of the kidney. Antibodies against microsomas of liver and kidney are characterized by a brilliant diffuse cytoplasmatic fluorescence of the hepatocytes and by a comparatively weaker fluorescence of exclusively proximal tubuli of the kidneys of rats. Antibodies against ribosomas lead to a fluorescence especially of the main cells of the stomach. The differentiation of several cytoplasmatic antibodies is among others of interest for the diagnosis of certain autoimmune diseases. Although there are numerous still unclear findings and "overlap" phenomena the existence of high titre antibodies against mitochondrias speaks for a primarily biliary cirrhosis or a pseudo-LE-syndrome, the existence of antibodies against microsomas of kidney and liver of rats for a special form of a chronically active hepatitis and the existence of the very rare antibodies against ribosomas for an active lupus erythematodes disseminatus.

  10. Sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence in oral diseases. Study of 125 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Susana Mariela; Quarracino, María Cecilia; Aguas, Silvia Cristina; González, Ernestina Jesús; Harada, Laura; Krupitzki, Hugo; Mordoh, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is widely used for the diagnosis of bullous diseases and other autoimmune pathologies such as oral lichen planus. There is no evidence in the literature on how the following variants influence the detection rate of DIF: intraoral site chosen for the biopsy, perilesional locus or distant site from the clinical lesion, number of biopsies and instrument used. to determine if the following variants influenced the sensitivity (detection rate): intraoral site chosen for the biopsy, perilesional or distant site from the clinical lesion, number of biopsies and instrument used (punch or scalpel). A retrospective study was done at the Cátedra de Patología y Clínica Bucodental II at the Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires; 136 clinical medical histories were revised for the period March 2000 - March 2005 corresponding to patients with clinical diagnosis of OLP and bullous diseases (vulgar pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid). DIF detection rate was 65.8% in patients with OLP, 66.7% in cicatricial pemphigoid patients, in bullous pemphigoid 55.6%, in pemphigus vulgaris 100%, and in those cases in which certain diagnosis could not be obtained, the DIF positivity rate was 45.5% (Pearson chi(2) (4)= 21.5398 Pr= 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference between the different sites of biopsy (Fisher exact test: 0.825). DIF detection rate in perilesional biopsies was 66.1% and in those distant from the site of clinical lesion was 64.7% (Pearson chi(2) v1)= 0.0073 Pr= 0.932. When the number of biopsies were incremented, DIF detection rate also incremented (Pearson chi(2) = 8.7247 Pr= 0.003). The biopsies taken with punch had a higher detection rate than those taken with scalpel (39.1% versus 71.7%) (Pearson chi(2) = 49.0522 Pr= 0.000). While not statistically significant, the tendency outlined in this study indicates there are intraoral regions in which the detection rate of the DIF technique is

  11. Histomorphological and immunofluorescence evaluation of clear corneal incisions after microcoaxial phacoemulsification with 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Johar, Kaid; Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Arora, Anshul I

    2013-04-01

    To compare changes in the incision's histomorphology and denaturation of collagen I in rabbit eyes having microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm incision-compatible systems. Randomized experimental trial. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Thirty rabbit eyes were randomized into Group 1 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm incisions using Infiniti system [torsional ultrasound]) and Group 2 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 1.8 mm incisions using Stellaris system [longitudinal ultrasound]). Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups of 5 eyes each based on 1 of the 3 intervention options: phacoemulsification only, intraocular lens (IOL) insertion only, and phacoemulsification with IOL insertion. Left eyes were randomized for microcoaxial phacoemulsification, and right eyes were treated as controls. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 1 showed loss of epithelium at the roof of the incisions and Descemet membrane detachment at the floor of the incisions. These findings did not change after IOL insertion. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 2 showed loss of epithelium, but Descemet membrane remained attached. There was a longitudinal split in the incision's stroma in the direction of internal entry. The stromal damage increased after IOL implantation. Immunofluorescence studies showed no obvious irregularities in the arrangement of collagen I in either group. A dot blot analysis showed significant denaturation of collagen I in Group 2. The histomorphology of the 2.2 mm system incision showed localized Descemet membrane detachment and endothelial cell loss. The 1.8 mm system incision showed exaggerated stromal damage after IOL insertion. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Unique Immunofluorescence Protocol to Detect Protein Expression in Vascular Tissues: Tacking a Long Standing Pathological Hitch

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    Puneet GANDHI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging. Material and Method: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a protein implicated as a proliferation marker, was chosen relevant to its expression in solid tumors along with 3 other intracellular proteins exhibiting nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Staining was performed on 10 glioma tissue sections along with 5 of their cryo sections, 5 sections each of hepatocellular, lung, papillary-thyroid and renal cell carcinoma, with 10 non-malignant brain tissue samples serving as control. Specimens were imaged using epifluorescence microscopy, followed by software-based quantification of fluorescence signals for statistical analysis and validation. Results: We observed that the combined application of sodium-borohydride followed by crystal violet before antigen retrieval and a Sudan black B treatment after secondary antibody application proved to be most efficacious for masking autofluorescence/non-specific background in vascular tissues. Conclusion: This unique trio-methodology provides quantifiable observations with maximized fluorescence signal intensity of the target protein for longer retention time of the signal even after prolonged storage. The results can be extrapolated to other human tissues for different protein targets.

  13. HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER VIRUS-INFECTIONS IN AN ISOLATED RAIN-FOREST AREA OF CENTRAL LIBERIA - LIMITATIONS OF THE INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE SLIDE TEST FOR ANTIBODY SCREENING IN AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, F. W.; Pomeroy, K. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Asher, D. M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from 119 healthy individuals and 106 epilepsy patients inhabiting Grand Bassa County, Liberia, were tested for antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV) by indirect immunofluorescence. E6 Vero cells infected with Lassa fever virus (LAS), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), Congo

  14. Immunofluorescence Microscopy and mRNA Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) Including Primary Cilia Associated Signaling Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maj Linea; Awan, Aashir; Warzecha, Caroline Becker

    2016-01-01

    onto 16-well glass chambers, and continuing with the general IFM and qPCR anlysis. The techniques are illustrated with results on cellular localization of transcriptional factors and components of the Hedgehog, Wnt, PDGF, and TGFβ signaling pathways to primary cilia in stem cell maintenance......This chapter describes the procedures for immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown specifically under feeder-free conditions. A detailed protocol is provided outlining the steps from initially growing the cells, passaging...

  15. Performance of an ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay in Serological Diagnosis of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Bahador Sarkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological assays have been extensively evaluated for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and considered as a routine method for diagnosis of VL while these methods are not properly evaluated for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. This study aimed to assess the performance of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera from healthy controls along with 50 sera from non-CL patients were collected. Antigen was prepared from promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major. IFA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgG while ELISA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgM, total IgG, or IgG subclasses (IgG1 and 4. ELISA, for detection of total IgG and IgM, showed sensitivity of 83.6% and 84.7% and specificity of 62.7% and 54.6%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for detecting IgG1 and IgG4 were 64%, 75% and 85%, 49%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of IFA were 91.6% and 81%. Conclusion. Findings of this study demonstrated that serological test, especially IFA, can be used for proper diagnosis of CL.

  16. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

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    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  17. Performance analysis of automated evaluation of Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence tests in a routine setting - strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Wymke; Hahn, Melanie; Gerlach, Stefan; Hochstrate, Nicola; Affeldt, Kai; Giesen, Joyce; Fechner, Kai; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C

    2017-11-27

    Antibodies directed against dsDNA are a highly specific diagnostic marker for the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus and of particular importance in its diagnosis. To assess anti-dsDNA antibodies, the Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) is one of the assays considered to be the best choice. To overcome the drawback of subjective result interpretation that inheres indirect immunofluorescence assays in general, automated systems have been introduced into the market during the last years. Among these systems is the EUROPattern Suite, an advanced automated fluorescence microscope equipped with different software packages, capable of automated pattern interpretation and result suggestion for ANA, ANCA and CLIFT analysis. We analyzed the performance of the EUROPattern Suite with its automated fluorescence interpretation for CLIFT in a routine setting, reflecting the everyday life of a diagnostic laboratory. Three hundred and twelve consecutive samples were collected, sent to the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the Maastricht University Medical Centre with a request for anti-dsDNA analysis over a period of 7 months. Agreement between EUROPattern assay analysis and the visual read was 93.3%. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.1% and 93.2%, respectively. The EUROPattern Suite performed reliably and greatly supported result interpretation. Automated image acquisition is readily performed and automated image classification gives a reliable recommendation for assay evaluation to the operator. The EUROPattern Suite optimizes workflow and contributes to standardization between different operators or laboratories.

  18. Spatial Mixture Modelling for Unobserved Point Processes: Examples in Immunofluorescence Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunlin; Merl, Daniel; Kepler, Thomas B; West, Mike

    2009-12-04

    We discuss Bayesian modelling and computational methods in analysis of indirectly observed spatial point processes. The context involves noisy measurements on an underlying point process that provide indirect and noisy data on locations of point outcomes. We are interested in problems in which the spatial intensity function may be highly heterogenous, and so is modelled via flexible nonparametric Bayesian mixture models. Analysis aims to estimate the underlying intensity function and the abundance of realized but unobserved points. Our motivating applications involve immunological studies of multiple fluorescent intensity images in sections of lymphatic tissue where the point processes represent geographical configurations of cells. We are interested in estimating intensity functions and cell abundance for each of a series of such data sets to facilitate comparisons of outcomes at different times and with respect to differing experimental conditions. The analysis is heavily computational, utilizing recently introduced MCMC approaches for spatial point process mixtures and extending them to the broader new context here of unobserved outcomes. Further, our example applications are problems in which the individual objects of interest are not simply points, but rather small groups of pixels; this implies a need to work at an aggregate pixel region level and we develop the resulting novel methodology for this. Two examples with with immunofluorescence histology data demonstrate the models and computational methodology.

  19. In situ detection of the activation of Rac1 and RalA small GTPases in mouse adipocytes by immunofluorescent microscopy following in vivo and ex vivo insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Nihata, Yuma; Ueda, Sho; Satoh, Takaya

    2017-11-01

    Rac1 has been implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by mechanisms involving plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Although the uptake of glucose is also stimulated by insulin in adipose tissue, the role for Rac1 in adipocyte insulin signaling remains controversial. As a step to reveal the role for Rac1 in adipocytes, we aimed to establish immunofluorescent microscopy to detect the intracellular distribution of activated Rac1. The epitope-tagged Rac1-binding domain of a Rac1-specific target was utilized as a probe that specifically recognizes the activated form of Rac1. Rac1 activation in response to ex vivo and in vivo insulin stimulations in primary adipocyte culture and mouse white adipose tissue, respectively, was successfully observed by immunofluorescent microscopy. These Rac1 activations were mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Another small GTPase RalA has also been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Similarly to Rac1, immunofluorescent microscopy using an activated RalA-specific polypeptide probe allowed us to detect intracellular distribution of insulin-activated RalA in adipocytes. These novel approaches to visualize the activation status of small GTPases in adipocytes will largely contribute to the understanding of signal transduction mechanisms particularly for insulin action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dew drops on spider web appearance: a newly named pattern of IgG4 deposition in pemphigus with direct immunofluorescence

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    Marian Dmochowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel appearances in cutaneous pathology as well as mucocutaneous clinical signs are being described which indicate that this is still an attractive area for exploration. The H + E histology terms of “decorated tomb stoning” and “undecorated tomb stoning”, advocated by some pathologists, are misleading and as such should be avoided. Here, an appearance of IgG4 pemphigus deposits examined cost-effectively with direct immunofluorescence and suggested to be called “dew drops on spider web” is depicted in depth.

  1. Aberrant expression of epithelial leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive cells in the eutopic endometrium in endometriosis and implications in deep-infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallvé-Juanico, Júlia; Suárez-Salvador, Elena; Castellví, Josep; Ballesteros, Agustín; Taylor, Hugh S; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Santamaria, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    To characterize leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (LGR5 + ) cells from the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Prospective experimental study. University hospital/fertility clinic. Twenty-seven women with endometriosis who underwent surgery and 12 healthy egg donors, together comprising 39 endometrial samples. Obtaining of uterine aspirates by using a Cornier Pipelle. Immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from mice and healthy and pathologic human endometrium using antibodies against LGR5, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin, and epithelial and stromal LGR5 + cells isolated from healthy and pathologic human eutopic endometrium by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transcriptomic characterization by RNA high sequencing. Immunofluorescence showed that LGR5 + cells colocalized with epithelial markers in the stroma of the endometrium only in endometriotic patients. The results from RNA high sequencing of LGR5 + cells from epithelium and stroma did not show any statistically significant differences between them. The LGR5 + versus LGR5 - cells in pathologic endometrium showed 394 differentially expressed genes. The LGR5 + cells in deep-infiltrating endometriosis expressed inflammatory markers not present in the other types of the disease. Our results revealed the presence of aberrantly located LGR5 + cells coexpressing epithelial markers in the stromal compartment of women with endometriosis. These cells have a statistically significantly different expression profile in deep-infiltrating endometriosis in comparison with other types of endometriosis, independent of the menstrual cycle phase. Further studies are needed to elucidate their role and influence in reproductive outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Longitudinal behavior of autoimmune GH deficiency: from childhood to transition age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Annamaria; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Aitella, Ernesto; Lucci, Emma; Cozzolino, Domenico; Bellastella, Antonio; Bizzarro, Antonio; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2016-03-01

    Some cases of apparently idiopathic GH deficiency (GHD) may be caused by pituitary autoimmunity. To study the variations in pituitary function and antipituitary antibodies (APA) from childhood to transition age in patients with apparently idiopathic GHD. We conducted a longitudinal study. Pituitary function and APA detection by immunofluorescence were investigated in 24 childhood patients with isolated GHD before starting recombinant GH therapy and after the stopping of this therapy in transition age. Sera of patients positive for APA were processed by double immunofluorescence to identify their pituitary target. At diagnosis, 16 out of 24 patients were APA positive targeting only somatotrophs (group 1), while the remaining eight were APA negative (group 2). When retested off therapy, 12 out of 16 patients in group 1 persisted being APA positive, while the remaining four became negative with recovery of pituitary function. All patients in group 2 persisted being APA negative but still showing GHD. Of the 12 patients persistently APA positive, eight with confirmed GHD showed APA still targeting somatotrophs, whereas four showed APA targeting only gonadotrophs associated with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Patients with APA at middle but not at high titer in childhood may show a remission of autoimmune GHD in childhood after GH replacement therapy. As APA may shift their target in transition period, an early characterization of APA by double immunofluorescence is advisable in APA positive GHD patients showing delayed puberty, to allow an early diagnosis and an appropriate therapy, thus preventing the progression toward HH. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Detection of liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody using molecularly based immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkar, N; Ma, Y; Davies, E T; Cheeseman, P; Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    2002-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of two commercial molecularly based immunoassays detecting liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1). The performance of Varelisa and LKM1 enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with immunofluorescence, and two validated research techniques-an in house ELISA and a radioligand assay measuring antibodies to P4502D6. Thirty serum samples from three patients with autoimmune hepatitis type 2 covering immunofluorescence titres of 1/10 to 1/10 240 and 55 LKM1 negative controls were tested. All 30 sera that were LKM1 positive by immunofluorescence were positive by the in house ELISA, the radioligand assay, and LKM1-ELISA, and 29 were also positive by Varelisa. None of the 55 sera negative for LKM1 by immunofluorescence was positive by the in house ELISA and radioligand assay, but one was positive by Varelisa and 14 were positive using the LKM1-ELISA. Agreement between immunofluorescence, the in house ELISA, the radioligand assay, and Varelisa was high (kappa > 0.8), and agreement between immunofluorescence and LKM1-ELISA was moderate (kappa = 0.63). The assay kit marketed as Varelisa allows accurate detection of LKM1.

  4. Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody: positivity and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Téllez, Goitybell; Torres Rives, Bárbara; Rangel Velázquez, Suchiquil; Sánchez Rodríguez, Vicky; Ramos Ríos, María Antonia; Fuentes Smith, Lisset Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    To determine positivity and clinical correlation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), taking into account the interference of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). A prospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Immunology of the National Cuban Center of Medical Genetic during one year. Two hounded sixty-seven patients with indication for ANCA determination were included. ANCA and ANA determinations with different cut off points and assays were determined by indirect immunofluorescense. Anti proteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were determined by ELISA. Most positivity for ANCA was seen in patients with ANCA associated, primary small-vessel vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Presence of ANCA without positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase was higher in patients with ANA and little relation was observed between the perinuclear pattern confirmed in formalin and specificity by myeloperoxidase. Highest sensibility and specificity values for vasculitides diagnostic were achieved by ANCA determination using indirect immunofluorescense with a cut off 1/80 and confirming antigenic specificities with ELISA. ANCA can be present in a great number of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders in the population studied. This determination using indirect immunofluorescence and following by ELISA had a great value for vasculitis diagnosis. Anti mieloperoxidasa assay has a higher utility than the formalin assay when ANA is present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A quantum dot-immunofluorescent labeling method to investigate the interactions between a crinivirus and its whitefly vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. K. Ng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful vector-mediated plant virus transmission entails an intricate but poorly understood interplay of interactions among virus, vector, and plant. The complexity of interactions requires continually improving/evaluating tools and methods for investigating the determinants that are central to mediating virus transmission. A recent study using an organic fluorophore (Alexa Fluor-based immunofluorescent localization assay demonstrated that specific retention of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV virions in the anterior foregut or cibarium of its whitefly vector is required for virus transmission. Continuous exposure of organic fluorophore to high excitation light intensity can result in diminished or loss of signals, potentially confounding the identification of important interactions associated with virus transmission. This limitation can be circumvented by incorporation of photostable fluorescent nanocrystals, such as quantum dots (QDs, into the assay. We have developed and evaluated a QD-immunofluorescent labeling method for the in vitro and in situ localization of LIYV virions based on the recognition specificity of streptavidin-conjugated QD605 (S-QD605 for biotin-conjugated anti-LIYV IgG (B-αIgG. IgG biotinylation was verified in a blot overlay assay by probing SDS-PAGE separated B-αIgG with S-QD605. Immunoblot analyses of LIYV using B-αIgG and S-QD605 resulted in a virus detection limit comparable to that of DAS-ELISA. In membrane feeding experiments, QD signals were observed in the anterior foregut or cibarium of virion-fed whitefly vectors but absent in those of virion-fed whitefly non-vectors. Specific virion retention in whitefly vectors corresponded with successful virus transmission. A fluorescence photobleaching assay of viruliferous whiteflies fed B-αIgG and S-QD605 vs. those fed anti-LIYV IgG and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated IgG revealed that QD signal was stable and deteriorated ∼7 to 8 fold slower than that of Alexa

  6. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overcoming drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations showing AXL activation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition is critical in conquering ALK-positive lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Seike, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Chiba, Mika; Zou, Fenfei; Takahashi, Akiko; Ishikawa, Arimi; Kunugi, Shinobu; Noro, Rintaro; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) induce a dramatic response in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with the ALK fusion gene. However, acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs remains an inevitable problem. In this study, we aimed to discover novel therapeutic targets to conquer ALK-positive lung cancer. We established three types of ALK-TKI (crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib)-resistant H2228 NSCLC cell lines by high exposure and stepwise methods. We found these cells showed a loss of ALK signaling, overexpressed AXL with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and had cancer stem cell-like (CSC) properties, suggesting drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations. Similarly, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 treated H2228 cells also showed AXL overexpression with EMT features and ALK-TKI resistance. The AXL inhibitor, R428, or HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, were effective in reversing ALK-TKI resistance and EMT changes in both ALK-TKI-resistant and TGF-β1-exposed H2228 cells. Tumor volumes of xenograft mice implanted with established H2228-ceritinib-resistant (H2228-CER) cells were significantly reduced after treatment with ganetespib, or ganetespib in combination with ceritinib. Some ALK-positive NSCLC patients with AXL overexpression showed a poorer response to crizotinib therapy than patients with a low expression of AXL. ALK signaling-independent AXL overexpressed in drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations with EMT and CSC features may be commonly involved commonly involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs. This suggests AXL and HSP90 inhibitors may be promising therapeutic drugs to overcome drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations in ALK-positive NSCLC patients for the reason that ALK-positive NSCLC cells do not live through ALK-TKI therapy. PMID:29930762

  8. Dual-color immunofluorescent labeling with quantum dots of the diabetes-associated proteins aldose reductase and Toll-like receptor 4 in the kidneys of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaomin Liu,1,* Rui Hu,2,* Hongwei Lian,1,3 Yang Liu,4 Jing Liu,1 Jianwei Liu,1 Guimiao Lin,5 Liwei Liu,6 Xiaojian Duan,1 Ken-Tye Yong,2 Ling Ye1 1Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing Key Lab of Aging and Geriatrics, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore; 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 4Department of Geriatric Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 5Key Lab of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medical Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 6School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Diabetes is one of the major chronic diseases diagnosed worldwide with a common complication of diabetic nephropathy (DN. There are multiple possible mechanisms associated with DN. Aldose reductase (AR and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 may be involved in the occurrence and development of DN. Here, we describe the distribution of AR and TLR4 in cells and renal tissues of diabetic rats through a quantum dot (QD-based immunofluorescence technique and conventional immunohistochemistry. As a new type of nanosized fluorophore, QDs have been recognized in imaging applications and have broad prospects in biomedical research. The results of the reported study demonstrate that both the AR and the TLR4 proteins were upregulated in the renal tissues of diabetic rats. Further, to explore the relationship between AR and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of DN, a dual-color immunofluorescent labeling technique based on QDs was applied, where the expressions of AR and TLR4 in the renal tissues of diabetic rats were simultaneously observed – for the first time, as far as we are aware. The optimized QD-based immunofluorescence technique has not only shown a satisfying

  9. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EMMPRIN expression positively correlates with WHO grades of astrocytomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Li-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ma, Hsin-I; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    High-grade primary brain tumors possessed poor outcome due to invasiveness. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates peri-tumoral fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteinase and promote invasiveness. This study hypothesized that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN. Analyzing the public delinked database from the Gene Expression Omnibus profile, the results showed that the EMMPRIN mRNA level was higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in grade III (n = 19, p EMMPRIN levels positively correlated with WHO grades for astrocytomas (p = 0.008) and meningiomas (p = 0.048). EMMPRIN mRNA levels in conventional glioma cell lines (n = 36) was not less than those in glioma primary culture cells (n = 27) and glioblastoma stem-like cells (n = 12). The GBM8401, U87MG, and LN229 human glioma cell lines also overexpressed EMMPRIN. Hematoxylin and eosin, IHC, and immunofluorescence staining of xenografts confirmed that high-grade brain tumors overexpressed EMMPRIN. Lastly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer survival in WHO grade IV (n = 56) than in grade III astrocytomas (n = 21, by log-rank test; p = 0.0001, 95 % CI: 1.842-3.053). However, in high-grade astrocytomas, there was no difference in survival between high and low EMMPRIN mRNA levels. Thus, this study identified that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN, which positively correlates with WHO grades in human astrocytomas and meningiomas, and suggests that EMMPRIN may be a therapeutic target of brain tumor.

  11. Pattern of glomerular diseases in oman: A study based on light microscopy and immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy and immunofluorescence play an important part in the final diagnosis of renal biopsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of various glomerular diseases in Oman. A total of 424 renal biopsies were retrospectively analyzed at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between 1999 and 2010. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, minimal change disease (MCD, membranous glomerulopathy (MGN and IgA nephropathy were the most common primary glomerular diseases encountered, accounting for 21.2%, 17%, 12.3% and 8.3%, respectively, of all cases. Lupus nephritis was the most common secondary glomerular disease and was the most prevalent among all biopsies, accounting for 30.4% of all biopsies. Amyloidosis was seen in only two cases. The presence of fluorescein isothiocyanatefibrin in all renal cases was low when compared with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C1q markers. In conclusion, based on the findings of this study, lupus nephritis was the most common of all glomerular diseases and FSGS was the most common primary glomerular disease. The importance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrin in the diagnosis of renal biopsy needs to be further investigated.

  12. Surface-biofunctionalized multicore/shell CdTe@SiO2 composite particles for immunofluorescence assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lihong; Li, Yilin; Ding, Ke; Qiao, Ruirui; Rogach, Andrey L.; Gao, Mingyuan

    2011-12-01

    Strongly fluorescent multicore/shell structured CdTe@SiO2 composite particles of ~ 50 nm were synthesized via the reverse microemulsion method by using CdTe quantum dots co-stabilized by thioglycolic acid and thioglycerol. The optical stability of the CdTe@SiO2 composite particles in a wide pH range, under prolonged UV irradiation in pure water, or in different types of physiological buffers was systematically investigated. Towards immunofluorescence assay, both poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and carboxyl residues were simultaneously grafted on the surface of the silanol-terminated CdTe@SiO2 composite particles upon further reactions with silane reagents bearing a PEG segment and carboxyl group, respectively, in order to suppress the nonspecific interactions of the silica particles with proteins and meanwhile introduce reactive moieties to the fluorescent particles. Agarose gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering and conventional optical spectroscopy were combined to investigate the effectiveness of the surface modifications. Via the surface carboxyl residue, various antibodies were covalently conjugated to the fluorescent particles and the resultant fluorescent probes were used in detecting cancer cells through both direct fluorescent antibody and indirect fluorescent antibody assays, respectively.

  13. A comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy for the diagnosis of some haemorrhagic viruses in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mekki, A A; van der Groen, G

    1981-09-01

    Yellow fever, dengue (types 1, 2 and 4), Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses were inoculated into susceptible cell cultures and daily investigated by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and electron microscopy (EM) with a view to achieve an early detection-identification of these agents. Compared to the other cell lines tested (Vero, BHK-21 and Aedes albopictus), CV-1 cells were found to be more sensitive. Viral antigens were detected by IFA from a few hours post inoculation (CHIK and RVF) to a maximum of 3 days (YF and EBO). For most of the viruses studied, the cytopathic effect (CPE) commenced 2-3 days after the detection of viral antigens. Virus particles were detected by EM only in the case of EBO, MBG and LAS, before any CPE was observed in cell cultures.

  14. Positioning as Not-Understanding: The Value of Showing Uncertainty for Engaging in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica; Hammer, David; Radoff, Jennifer; Jaber, Lama Z.; Phillips, Anna M.

    2018-01-01

    Not understanding is central to scientific work: what scientists do is learn about the natural world, which involves seeking out what they do not know. In classrooms, however, the position of not-understanding is generally a liability; confusion is an unfortunate condition to resolve as quickly as possible, or to conceal. In this article, we argue…

  15. Selective expression of a splice variant of decay-accelerating factor in c-erbB-2-positive mammary carcinoma cells showing increased transendothelial invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Burkhard; Mikesch, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Ronald; Roetger, Antje; Kemming, Dirk; Schier, Katrin; Sauter, Guido; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    By differential-display-PCR a subclone of the SK-BR-3 cell line with high in vitro transendothelial invasiveness was identified to express increased levels of a new alternative splice variant of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF seems to play an important role in some malignant tumours since on the one hand the expression of complement inhibitors on the surface of tumour cells prevents the accumulation of complement factors and in consequence cell lysis. On the other hand, DAF has been identified as a ligand for the CD97 surface receptor which induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence procedures, Western blot analyses, and cDNA clone sequencing were employed to confirm the expression of DAF restricted to invasive tumour cells. Using a radioactive RNA-in situ hybridisation on freshly frozen tissue microarrays and RT-PCR on native tumour tissue, the expression of alternative spliced DAF mRNA was demonstrated in invasive breast cancer. Due to the fact that it could thereby not be detected in normal mammary tissues, it has to be confirmed in larger studies that the DAF splice variant might be a specific tumour marker for invasive breast cancer

  16. No serological evidence for Zika virus infection and low specificity for anti-Zika virus ELISA in malaria positive individuals among pregnant women from Madagascar in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Mertens, Eva; Winter, Doris; Maiga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Dekker, Denise; Jansen, Stephanie; Tappe, Dennis; Randriamampionona, Njary; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    It was previously reported that a malaria infection may interfere with the specificity of a commercial ELISA test against Zika virus (ZIKV). We analyzed 1,216 plasma samples from healthy, pregnant women collected in two sites in Madagascar in 2010 for ZIKV antibodies using a commercial ELISA and for Plasmodium infection by PCR. This screen revealed six putative ZIKV-positive samples by ELISA. These results could not be confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assays or virus neutralization tests. Four of these six samples were also positive for P. falciparum. We noted that the frequency of malaria positivity was higher in ZIKV-ELISA positive samples (50% and 100% in the two study sites) than ZIKV-negative samples (17% and 10%, respectively), suggesting that malaria may have led to false ZIKV-ELISA positives.

  17. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Qureshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  18. Application of serum anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) determination with ELISA for detection of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wen; Zhong Jianhui; Shen Junnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the interrelationship between presence of serum ACA and development of IUGR. Methods: Serum ACA contents were examined with ELISA in 5330 apparently normal pregnant women. The placentae in 16 pregnancies with IUGR and positive ACA were examined with immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Among the 5330 pregnant women there were 144 with positive ACA (2.70%), in whom there were 22 IUGR cases (22/144, 15.28% ). The rate of IUGR in the remaining ACA negative women was only 1.77% (92/5186), the difference being very significant (P<0.01 ). ACA IgG was positive in 5 of the IUGR neonates, All the placental tissues examined with immunofluorescence microscopy showed positive immunoglobulin fluorescence antibody and complement discoloration. Conclusion: Positive ACA is one of the causative factors of development of IUGR and determination of ACA in pregnant women was helpful for early detection of IUGR. (authors)

  19. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, C J; Lehmann, N I; Hawker, A J; Marshall, J A; Gust, I D [Fairfield Hospital for Communicable Diseases, Victoria (Australia). Virology Dept.

    1979-07-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy.

  20. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.J.; Lehmann, N.I.; Hawker, A.J.; Marshall, J.A.; Gust, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy. (author)

  1. Antibodies to UV irradiated DNA: the monitoring of DNA damage by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, A A; Gibson-D' Ambrosio, R E; D' Ambrosio, S M [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1984-10-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was modified to (1) characterize antibodies raised in rabbits against UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA (UVssDNA) complexed with methylated BSA and (2) directly detect pyrimidine dimers in irradiated DNA. The antisera specifically bound to UVssDNA, UVpoly(dT) and to a limited extent to UVdsDNA and UVpoly(dC). Fifty per cent of the maximum antibody binding was observed at a 1-5000 dilution against UVssDNA. Binding to ssDNA and poly(dT) was observed only at much higher concentrations of antibody, whereas no binding to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was observed. The extent of binding of the antibody was dependent on the UV dose to DNA and the concentration of antigen immobilized on the plate. The ability of various irradiated molecules, DNA, homopolymers and linkers to act as inhibitors of antibody binding establishes that the antigenic determinants are mainly thymine homodimers with lower affinity for cytosine dimers. Potential usefulness of the antibodies to directly quantitate pyrimidine dimers in cells exposed to UV radiation was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Flow cytometric analysis of immunostained human lymphocytes irradiated with 254 nm radiation indicated that greater than 50% of the population had significantly higher fluorescent intensity than unirradiated cells.

  2. Segment and fit thresholding: a new method for image analysis applied to microarray and immunofluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Elliot; Sinha, Jessica; Sinha, Arkadeep; Tang, Huiyuan; Calderone, Heather M; Hostetter, Galen; Winter, Jordan; Cherba, David; Brand, Randall E; Allen, Peter J; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Haab, Brian B

    2015-10-06

    Experiments involving the high-throughput quantification of image data require algorithms for automation. A challenge in the development of such algorithms is to properly interpret signals over a broad range of image characteristics, without the need for manual adjustment of parameters. Here we present a new approach for locating signals in image data, called Segment and Fit Thresholding (SFT). The method assesses statistical characteristics of small segments of the image and determines the best-fit trends between the statistics. Based on the relationships, SFT identifies segments belonging to background regions; analyzes the background to determine optimal thresholds; and analyzes all segments to identify signal pixels. We optimized the initial settings for locating background and signal in antibody microarray and immunofluorescence data and found that SFT performed well over multiple, diverse image characteristics without readjustment of settings. When used for the automated analysis of multicolor, tissue-microarray images, SFT correctly found the overlap of markers with known subcellular localization, and it performed better than a fixed threshold and Otsu's method for selected images. SFT promises to advance the goal of full automation in image analysis.

  3. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.

    2014-12-01

    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  4. Dual RNAseq shows the human mucosal immunity protein, MUC13, is a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection

    KAUST Repository

    LaMonte, Gregory; Orjuela-Sanchez, Pamela; Wang, Lawrence; Li, Shangzhong; Swann, Justine; Cowell, Annie; Zou, Bing Yu; Abdel- Haleem Mohamed, Alyaa; Villa-Galarce, Zaira; Moreno, Marta; Tong-Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph; Lewis, Nathan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium malaria infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using a genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we identify the human mucosal immunity gene, Mucin13 (MUC13), as strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm that MUC13 expression is upregulated in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, distinguishing both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes across all Human-infecting Plasmodium species. This data presents a novel interface of host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium, in that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed to assist the progression of infection.

  5. Dual RNAseq shows the human mucosal immunity protein, MUC13, is a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection

    KAUST Repository

    LaMonte, Gregory

    2017-10-03

    The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium malaria infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using a genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we identify the human mucosal immunity gene, Mucin13 (MUC13), as strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm that MUC13 expression is upregulated in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, distinguishing both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes across all Human-infecting Plasmodium species. This data presents a novel interface of host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium, in that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed to assist the progression of infection.

  6. Targeted Radiosensitization of ETS Fusion-Positive Prostate Cancer through PARP1 Inhibition

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    Sumin Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ETS gene fusions, which result in overexpression of an ETS transcription factor, are considered driving mutations in approximately half of all prostate cancers. Dysregulation of ETS transcription factors is also known to exist in Ewing's sarcoma, breast cancer, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We previously discovered that ERG, the predominant ETS family member in prostate cancer, interacts with the DNA damage response protein poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 in human prostate cancer specimens. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ERG-PARP1 interaction may confer radiation resistance by increasing DNA repair efficiency and that this radio-resistance could be reversed through PARP1 inhibition. Using lentiviral approaches, we established isogenic models of ERG overexpression in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, ERG overexpression increased clonogenic survival following radiation by 1.25 (±0.07 fold (mean ± SEM and also resulted in increased PARP1 activity. PARP1 inhibition with olaparib preferentially radiosensitized ERG-positive cells by a factor of 1.52 (±0.03 relative to ERG-negative cells (P < .05. Neutral and alkaline COMET assays and immunofluorescence microscopy assessing γ-H2AX foci showed increased short- and long-term efficiencies of DNA repair, respectively, following radiation that was preferentially reversed by PARP1 inhibition. These findings were verified in an in vivo xenograft model. Our findings demonstrate that ERG overexpression confers radiation resistance through increased efficiency of DNA repair following radiation that can be reversed through inhibition of PARP1. These results motivate the use of PARP1 inhibitors as radiosensitizers in patients with localized ETS fusion-positive cancers.

  7. Elucidating the Burden of HIV in Tissues Using Multiplexed Immunofluorescence and In Situ Hybridization: Methods for the Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Cells Harboring HIV In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Joshua J; Hussien, Rajaa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Brandon; Junger, Henrik; Dobi, Dejan; Henrich, Timothy J; Thanh, Cassandra; Gibson, Erica; Hogan, Louise E; McCune, Joseph; Hunt, Peter W; Stoddart, Cheryl A; Laszik, Zoltan G

    2018-02-01

    Persistent tissue reservoirs of HIV present a major barrier to cure. Defining subsets of infected cells in tissues is a major focus of HIV cure research. Herein, we describe a novel multiplexed in situ hybridization (ISH) (RNAscope) protocol to detect HIV-DNA (vDNA) and HIV-RNA (vRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues in combination with immunofluorescence (IF) phenotyping of the infected cells. We show that multiplexed IF and ISH (mIFISH) is suitable for quantitative assessment of HIV vRNA and vDNA and that multiparameter IF phenotyping allows precise identification of the cellular source of the ISH signal. We also provide semi-quantitative data on the impact of various tissue fixatives on the detectability of vDNA and vRNA with RNAscope technology. Finally, we describe methods to quantitate the ISH signal on whole-slide digital images and validation of the quantitative ISH data with quantitative real-time PCR for vRNA. It is our hope that this approach will provide insight into the biology of HIV tissue reservoirs and to inform strategies aimed at curing HIV.

  8. LIM kinase activity is required for microtubule organising centre positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Yubo; Cao, Yan; Wang, Qian; Du, Juan; Tian, Jianhui; Liang, Yuanjing; Ma, Wei

    2017-04-01

    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) activity is essential for cell migration and cell cycle progression. Little is known about LIMK1 expression and function in mammalian oocytes. In the present study we assessed LIMK1 protein expression, subcellular distribution and function during mouse oocyte meiosis. Western blot analysis revealed high and stable expression of LIMK1 from the germinal vesicle (GV) to MII stage. In contrast, activated LIMK1 (i.e. LIMK1 phosphorylated at threonine 508 (pLIMK1 Thr508 )) was only detected after GV breakdown, with levels increasing gradually to peak at MI and MII. Immunofluorescence showed pLIMK1 Thr508 was colocalised with the microtubule organising centre (MTOC) components pericentrin and γ-tubulin at the spindle poles. A direct interaction between γ-tubulin and pLIMK1 Thr508 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. LIMK inhibition with 1μM BMS3 damaged MTOC protein localisation to spindle poles, undermined the formation and positioning of functional MTOC and thus disrupted spindle formation and chromosome alignment. These effects were phenocopied by microinjection of LIMK1 antibody into mouse oocytes. In summary, the data demonstrate that LIMK activity is essential for MTOC organisation and distribution and so bipolar spindle formation and maintenance in mouse oocytes.

  9. Detection of adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV) bearing lymphocytes in concentrated red blood cells derived from ATL associated antibody (ATLA-Ab) positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Y; Ohya, K; Ueda, R; Fukuda, T

    1986-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia associated antibody (ATLA-Ab) positive persons were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) testing. Their lymphocytes were collected from concentrated red blood cells (CRC), and cultured in vitro with and without phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 10 days. The expression of ATL virus (ATLV) positive lymphocytes during the in vitro culture was then analyzed by IF assay using mouse monoclonal antibody ATL-19 reactive to p19 core protein of ATLV. 97% of ATLA-Ab positive CRC (36 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes after being cultured for more than 10 days with PHA, whereas, none of ATLA-Ab negative CRC (22 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes. All of the 10 ATLA-Ab positive CRC that were stored for 2, 4, and 7 days contained lymphocytes which expressed ATLV after in vitro culture, while 7 of 10 CRC stored for 14 days and only 1 of 10 CRCs stored for 20 days, expressed ATLV positive lymphocytes. This data indicates that almost all of the ATLA-Ab positive blood contained ATLV positive lymphocytes, and that the in vitro appearance of these ATLV positive lymphocytes was reduced by storing the CRC for more than 14 days.

  10. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a patient with anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody-positive mixed connective tissue disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 33-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD who developed nephrotic proteinuria. Both speckled antinuclear antibody (ANA and anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody were positive, but anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody and anti-Smith (Sm antibody were negative, while complement levels were normal. Renal biopsy revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN with diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM plus spike and bubble formation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the GBM. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed predominant deposition of IgG1 and IgG4, unlike typical lupus nephritis in which there is predominant deposition of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and C1q. Electron microscopy identified numerous large electron-dense deposits (EDD of various types in the subepithelial region of the GBM, but there were no EDD localized in the mesangium or subendothelium. Based on these findings, MGN was considered to be closely related to MCTD in this patient.

  11. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  12. [Efficacy of combination therapy with pegylated-interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin in autoantibody-positive chronic hepatitis C patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-xin; Yang, Yan-jia; Yang, Mei; Chen, Li-yu; Lu, Jia-jie; Ma, Yuan-ji; Liu, Kai; Lei, Xue-zhong; Tang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antiviral combination therapy with pegylated-interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) in patients with autoantibody-positive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to investigate the impact of the presence of autoantibodies on the treatment outcome. Eighty-six consecutive CHC patients who underwent a 48-week treatment regimen composed of Peg-IFNa-2a (135 or 180 mug/wk) plus weight-based RBV ( less than or equal to 65 kg, 800 mg/d; 65 to 75 kg, 1000 mg/d; more than or equal to75 kg, 1200 mg/d ). Prior to treatment (baseline) and at end of treatment (EOT; week 48), levels of antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), anti liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1), anti-La (SSB), and anti liver cytosolic-1 (LC-1) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. At baseline, during treatment (weeks 4, 12, 24, and 36), EOT, and 24 weeks after EOT, levels of HCV RNA were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as HCV RNA less than 10(3) copy/ml at week 4. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as HCV RNA load below the lower limit of detection at 24 weeks after EOT. Correlation between autoantibodies and treatment-induced reduced HCV RNA load was assessed by univariate analysis of variance or chi-squared tests. Autoantibodies were detected in 24 patients, which included 14 ANA-positive patients, five SMA-positive patients, three LKM1-positive patients, one patient with double-positivity for ANA and SSB, and one patient with double-positivity for ANA and LC-1. The autoantibody-positive patients and autoantibody-negative patients showed similar rates of RVR (70.8% vs. 72.5%, P more than 0.05) and SVR (81.4% vs. 82.2%, P more than 0.05). Antiviral therapy with Peg-IFNa-2a RBV can effectively reduce the HCV RNA load in autoantibody-positive CHC patients; however, the presence of autoantibodies may not be an independent predictor of therapy outcome.

  13. Evaluation of Immunofluorescence Antibody Test Used for the Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean Basin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Adel

    Full Text Available With an expected sensitivity (Se of 96% and specificity (Sp of 98%, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT is frequently used as a reference test to validate new diagnostic methods and estimate the canine leihmaniasis (CanL true prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. To review the diagnostic accuracy of IFAT to diagnose CanL in this area with reference to its Se and Sp and elucidate the potential causes of their variations, a systematic review was conducted (31 studies for the 26-year period. Three IFAT validation methods stood out: the classical contingency table method, methods based on statistical models and those based on experimental studies. A variation in the IFAT Se and Sp values and cut-off values was observed. For the classical validation method based on a meta-analysis, the Se of IFAT was estimated in this area as 89.86% and 31.25% in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, respectively. The Sp of IFAT was estimated in non-endemic and endemic areas as 98.12% and 96.57%, respectively. IFAT can be considered as a good standard test in non-endemic areas for CanL, but its accuracy declines in endemic areas due to the complexity of the disease. Indeed, the accuracy of IFAT is due to the negative results obtained in non-infected dogs from non-endemic areas and to the positive results obtained in sera of symptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. But IFAT results are not unequivocal when it comes to determining CanL infection on asymptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. Statistical methods might be a solution to overcome the lack of gold standard, to better categorize groups of animals investigated, to assess optimal cut-off values and to allow a better estimate of the true prevalence aiming information on preventive/control measures for CanL.

  14. Phytoplankton IF-FISH: Species-specific labeling of cellular proteins by immunofluorescence (IF) with simultaneous species identification by fluorescence immunohybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Megan E; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2016-05-01

    Phytoplankton rarely occur as unialgal populations. Therefore, to study species-specific protein expression, indicative of physiological status in natural populations, methods are needed that will both assay for a protein of interest and identify the species expressing it. Here we describe a protocol for IF-FISH, a dual labeling procedure using immunofluorescence (IF) labeling of a protein of interest followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the species expressing that protein. The protocol was developed to monitor expression of the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, using a large subunit (LSU) rRNA probe to identify K. brevis in a mixed population of morphologically similar Karenia species. We present this protocol as proof of concept that IF-FISH can be successfully applied to phytoplankton cells. This method is widely applicable for the analysis of single-cell protein expression of any protein of interest within phytoplankton communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The inhibition of PARP but not EGFR results in the radiosensitization of HPV/p16-positive HNSCC cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güster, Julian David; Weissleder, Stephanie Valerie; Busch, Chia-Jung; Kriegs, Malte; Petersen, Cordula; Knecht, Rainald; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Rieckmann, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCC comprise distinct tumor entities with different biological characteristics. Specific regimens for the comparably well curable HPV-positive entity that reduce side effects without compromising outcome have yet to be established. Therefore, we tested here whether the inhibition of EGFR or PARP may be used to specifically enhance the radiosensitivity of HPV-positive HNSCC cells. Materials and methods: Experiments were performed with five HPV/p16-positive HNSCC cell lines. Inhibitors used were cetuximab, olaparib and PF-00477736. The respective inhibition of EGFR, PARP and Chk1 was evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorescence analysis and assessment of cell cycle distribution. Cell survival was assessed by colony formation assay. Results: Inhibition of EGFR by cetuximab failed to radiosensitize any of the HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines tested. In contrast, PARP-inhibition resulted in a substantial radiosensitization of all strains, with the sensitization being further enhanced by the additional inhibition of Chk1. Conclusions: PARP-inhibition effectively radiosensitizes HPV-positive HNSCC cells and may therefore represent a viable alternative to chemotherapy possibly even allowing for a reduction in radiation dose. For the latter, PARP-inhibition may be combined with the inhibition of Chk1. In contrast, the inhibition of EGFR cannot be expected to radiosensitize HPV-positive HNSCC through the modulation of cellular radiosensitivity

  16. [Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies. Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griemberg, Gloria; Ferrarotti, Nidia F; Svibel, Graciela; Ravelli, Maria R; Taranto, Nestor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Pizzimenti, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas' disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas' disease showed fluorescence in both, membrane and flagellum (joint image). Fifty samples from normal blood donors and 57 samples from patients with conective tissue diseases were tested with C. luciliae. None of them presented the joint image except for two patients with lupus who were also chagasic. In addition, 54 samples from chagasic patients were studied and all of them presented the joint image. We also studied 46 samples from patients with leishmaniasis from whom 28 were coinfected with T. cruzi. The joint image was observed in 88.0% of the samples with leishmaniasis and in 89.3% of the co-infected samples. The results suggest that C. luciliae could be used as an economical, and of low risk, alternative substrate for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease, even though it does not discriminate for Leishmania spp. infection. This study also suggests that whenever atypical images are observed in C. luciliae during the search for anti-DNA antibodies, it would be convenient to submit the patient to clinical and serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis and Chagas' disease.

  17. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO CANDIDA ALBICANS GERM TUBE BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe increasing incidence of systemic candidiasis, which parallels the use of invasive and immunosuppressive medical procedures, necessitates development of rapid and cost effective tests for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Therefore in this study 85 mice were first immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and then infected by Candida albicans NCPF 3153. Other 85 mice were employed as control. The case and control mice were bled and then autopsied. Hearts and kidneys were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for systemic candidiasis. The 85 sera from histological proven cases and 85 control mice were adsorbed with heat killed blastospores of same strain of C. albicans. Anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in case and control mice. In addition, sera from 35 mice with proven cryptococcosis were also tested. While 84 mice with proven systemic candidiasis (100% had anti-germ tube antibodies, these antibodies were absent in all controls and mice with cryptococcosis. The specificity was 100%, indicating a high degree of discrimination was possible between systemic candidiasis and cryptococcosis in the mice studied. It must be concluded that anti-germ tube responses did not appear to be significantly reduced in immunocompromised mice.

  18. Semi-automated relative quantification of cell culture contamination with mycoplasma by Photoshop-based image analysis on immunofluorescence preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yerneni, Lakshmana K

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in cell culture is a serious setback for the cell-culturist. The experiments undertaken using contaminated cell cultures are known to yield unreliable or false results due to various morphological, biochemical and genetic effects. Earlier surveys revealed incidences of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures to range from 15 to 80%. Out of a vast array of methods for detecting mycoplasma in cell culture, the cytological methods directly demonstrate the contaminating organism present in association with the cultured cells. In this investigation, we report the adoption of a cytological immunofluorescence assay (IFA), in an attempt to obtain a semi-automated relative quantification of contamination by employing the user-friendly Photoshop-based image analysis. The study performed on 77 cell cultures randomly collected from various laboratories revealed mycoplasma contamination in 18 cell cultures simultaneously by IFA and Hoechst DNA fluorochrome staining methods. It was observed that the Photoshop-based image analysis on IFA stained slides was very valuable as a sensitive tool in providing quantitative assessment on the extent of contamination both per se and in comparison to cellularity of cell cultures. The technique could be useful in estimating the efficacy of anti-mycoplasma agents during decontaminating measures.

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  20. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1 derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1. Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG. Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  1. Clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy on anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 positive chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi; Quarneti, Chiara; Muratori, Paolo; Menichella, Rita; Pappas, Georgios; Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2009-06-01

    Anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (anti-LKM1), a serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, is also detected in a small proportion of patients with hepatitis C. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who are anti-LKM1 positive. Sixty consecutive anti-LKM1 positive and 120 age and sex-matched anti-LKM1 negative chronic hepatitis C patients were assessed at diagnosis and during follow-up. Of these, 26 anti-LKM1 positive and 72 anti-LKM1 negative received antiviral therapy. Anti-LKM1 was detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot. Number of HCV-infected hepatocytes and intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry. At diagnosis anti-LKM1 positive patients had higher IgG levels and more intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes (p 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). Viral genotypes distribution and response to therapy were identical. Hepatic flares during antiviral treatment only occurred in a minority of patients in concomitance with anti-LKM1 positivity. Immune system activation is more pronounced in anti-LKM1 positive patients with hepatitis C, possibly representing the expression of autoimmune mechanisms of liver damage. Antiviral treatment is as beneficial in these patients as in anti-LKM1 negative patients, and the rare necroinflammatory flares are effectively controlled by corticosteroids, allowing subsequent resumption of antiviral therapy.

  2. Modulation of lymphocyte nuclear matrix organization in vivo by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole: an autoradiographic and immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaly, N; Cadrin, M; Kaplan, J G; Brown, D L

    1988-01-01

    Assembly of active nuclei in lymphocytes stimulated by mitogen is paralleled by the elaboration of a structurally and biochemically complex nuclear matrix (NM). To examine the dynamics of individual NM polypeptide components during blastogenesis, we have applied immunofluorescence labelling with anti-NM antibodies to concanavalin A-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Whereas peripherin and PI2 antigens did not reorganize during stimulation, labelling of PI1 and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) antigens increased markedly in intensity and redistributed in concert with the previously reported NM restructuring. Double-labelling showed, furthermore, that snRNPs and the internal staining component of PI1 were largely co-localized. As an approach to studying the role of RNA and RNA synthesis in NM organization, we have further examined the effects of the inhibitor of RNA synthesis, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole (DRB), on NM antigen distribution. The rapid inhibition of 3H-uridine incorporation by DRB was accompanied by coordinate aggregation of snRNPs and of the internal PI1 component into large, brightly stained patches. Both 3H-uridine incorporation levels and antigen localization were readily reversed upon removal of DRB. We conclude that NM antigens behave independently during nuclear and NM assembly and that NM organization, as reflected by NM antigen distribution, is modulated by con A- and DRB-induced alterations in RNA synthesis. We propose, furthermore, that the PI1 antigen plays a role in RNA metabolism, and is possibly involved in RNA transport to the nuclear periphery.

  3. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  4. Alzheimer's-associated Aβ oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Jason; Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B.; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul; Klein, William L.

    2009-01-01

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-β 1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt Aβ oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble Aβ species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific Aβ antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (Aβ-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  5. A molecular method for typing Herpes simplex virus isolates as an alternative to immunofluorescence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typing of Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is required to identify the virus isolated in culture. The methods available for this include antigen detection by immunofluorescence (IF assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. This study was undertaken to standardize a molecular method for typing of HSV and compare it with a commercial IF reagent for typing. Objectives: To compare a molecular method for typing HSV isolates with a monoclonal antibody (MAb based IF test. Study design : This cross-sectional study utilized four reference strains and 42 HSV isolates obtained from patients between September 1998 and September 2004. These were subjected to testing using an MAb-based IF test and a PCR that detects the polymerase ( pol gene of HSV isolates. Results: The observed agreement of the MAb IF assay with the pol PCR was 95.7%. Fifty four point eight percent (23/42 of isolates tested by IF typing were found to be HSV-1, 40.5% (17/42 were HSV-2, and two (4.8% were untypable using the MAb IF assay. The two untypable isolates were found to be HSV-2 using the pol PCR. In addition, the cost per PCR test for typing is estimated to be around Rs 1,300 (USD 30, whereas the cost per MAb IF test is about Rs 1,500 (USD 35 including all overheads (reagents, instruments, personnel time, and consumables. Conclusion: The pol PCR is a cheaper and more easily reproducible method for typing HSV isolates as compared to the IF test. It could replace the IF-based method for routine typing of HSV isolates as availability of PCR machines (thermal cyclers is now more widespread than fluorescence microscopes in a country like India.

  6. Reações de imunofluorescência indireta: algumas modificações de sua técnica Indirect immunofluorescence tests: some modifications of their technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Propõem-se modificações de procedimentos rotineiros de reações de imunofluorescência indireta. A eluição das amostras de sangue dessecado contidas em papel-filtro é feita em placas ("godets" com tampas. Alças de níquel-cromo substituem pipetas capilares para a transferência de amostras de eluatos para as lâminas de microscopia. Propõe-se uma técnica rápida e eficiente de lavagem das preparações.Some simplifications intended for routine operations included immunofluorescence tests are proposed. The elution of dried blood samples is performed on test plates (water-color mixing plates, with a lid instead of in test tubes. Nickel-chromium wire loops are substituted for capillary pipettes in transferring eluate samples to microscope slides. A rapid and efficient washing technique is proposed.

  7. [Assessment of malaria screening management in blood donation control in the French Military Blood Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C

    2014-06-01

    The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by solid-phase immunoassays and immunofluorescence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Wiik, Allan; Høier-Madsen, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    -established rheumatic disorders, the newly developed EIA in which HEp-2 extracts were included had sensitivities and specificities comparable to or in some instances better than the IFA. The assays without HEp-2 extracts included had significantly lower sensitivities and specificities. In the outpatient population, up...... to 51% of patients had positive ANA tests that did not correspond to classic ANA-associated disease. However, in the assays in which the HEp-2 extracts were not included, the false-positive rate was ... and was mostly extracts included had a low sensitivity but a high specificity, particularly in nonselected populations. The choice of test is highly dependent on the clinical setting in which...

  9. The differential role of HTRA1 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cell line proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuqui, Bruna; Conceição, André Luis Giacometti; Termini, Lara; Sichero, Laura; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula; Calmon, Marília de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are strongly associated with the development of some malignancies. The E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins are the primary proteins responsible for cell homeostasis alteration and immortalization. Furthermore, the E6 protein from high-risk HPVs can interact with the PDZ (PSD-90/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of cellular proteins, triggering cell transformation. One protein that is associated with pathological conditions and has a PDZ domain is the protease HTRA1 (high temperature requirement 1). This protein is poorly expressed in some cancers, suggesting a tumor suppressor role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HTRA1 overexpression in HPV16-positive (CasKi) and HPV-negative (C33) cervical cell lines. The cells were transfected with a vector containing the HTRA1 ORF or an empty vector. HTRA1 overexpression was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The cells were subjected to cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and cell cycle assays. C33 cells expressing HTRA1 grew significantly fewer colonies and showed less proliferation than cells without HTRA1 expression. In contrast, in the CasKi cells overexpressing HTRA1, there was an increase in the cell growth rate and in the colonies density compared to cells expressing low levels of HTRA1. An apoptosis assay showed that HTRA1 does not interfere with the apoptosis rate in these cells. A cell cycle immunofluorescence assay revealed more CasKi cells overexpressing HTRA1 in the S phase and more C33 HTRA1-transfected cells in the G0/G1 phase, suggesting that HTRA1 plays different roles in the cell cycle progression of these cells. HTRA1 overexpression prevents cell proliferation in the HPV-negative cell line and increases cell proliferation in the HPV-positive cell line. Although the E6/HTRA1 interaction has already been described in the literature, more studies are required to confirm whether the present functional findings are a result of this interaction

  10. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP, but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Beebe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA.Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6 and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7.Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls.Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  11. HIV-positive females show blunted neurophysiological responses in an emotion-attention dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Widmayer, Susan M; Nash, Allan J

    2014-06-01

    Although HIV is associated with decreased emotional and cognitive functioning, the mechanisms through which affective changes can alter cognitive processes in HIV-infected individuals are unknown. We aimed to clarify this question through testing the extent to which emotionally negative stimuli prime attention to a subsequent infrequently occurring auditory tone in HIV+ compared to HIV- females. Attention to emotional compared to non-emotional pictures was measured via the LPP ERP. Subsequent attention was indexed through the N1 and late processing negativity ERP. We also assessed mood and cognitive functioning in both groups. In HIV- females, emotionally negative pictures, compared to neutral pictures, resulted in an enhanced LPP to the pictures and an enhanced N1 to subsequent tones. The HIV+ group did not show a difference in the LPP measure between picture categories, and accordingly, did not show a priming effect to the subsequent infrequent tones. The ERP findings, combined with neuropsychological deficits, suggest that HIV+ females show impairments in attention to emotionally-laden stimuli and that this impairment might be related to a loss of affective priming. This study is the first to provide physiological evidence that the LPP, a measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli, is reduced in HIV-infected individuals. These results set the stage for future work aimed at localizing brain activation to emotional stimuli in HIV+ individuals. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Green Approach To Synthesize Crystalline Nanoscale ZnII-Coordination Polymers: Cell Growth Inhibition and Immunofluorescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Somali; Ganguly, Sumi; Manna, Krishnendu; Mondal, Sanchaita; Mahapatra, Supratim; Das, Debasis

    2018-04-02

    Five new coordination polymers (CPs) namely, [{Zn(μ 2 -H 2 O) 0.5 (5N 3 -IPA)(2,2'-bpe)}] ∞ (1), [{Zn(μ 2 -H 2 O) 0.5 (5N 3 -IPA)(1,10-phen)}] ∞ (2), [{Zn(5N 3 -IPA)(1,2-bpe)}] ∞ (3), [{Zn(5N 3 -IPA)(1,2-bpey)}] ∞ (4), and [{Zn(H 2 O)(5N 3 -IPA)(4,4'-tme)}(H 2 O) 0.5 ] ∞ (5) (5N 3 -H 2 IPA = 5-azidoisophthalic acid, 2,2'-bpe= 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 1,2-bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, 1,2-bpey = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, 4,4'-tme = 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine), have been synthesized based on a mixed ligand approach adopting a solvothermal technique. Depending upon the intrinsic structural flexibility of the bis-pyridyl coligands, interesting structural topologies have also been observed in the resulting CPs: Sra SrAl2 type topology for 3 and a 3-fold interpenetrated dmp topology for 4. A green hand grinding technique has been implemented to reduce the particle size of the CPs to generate nanoscale CPs (NCPs). SEM studies of NCPs reveal the formation of square and spherical particles for NCP 1 and 2, respectively, and nano rod for NCP 3, 4, and 5. Remarkably, when scaled down to nano range all the NCPs retain their crystalline nature. The cytotoxic activity of the NCPs (1-5) has been studied using human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT 116). Significant cell death is observed for NCP 2, which is further corroborated by cell growth inhibition study. The observed cell death is likely to be due to mitochondrial-assisted apoptosis as is evident from immunofluorescence study.

  13. Ellagic Acid-Changed Epigenome of Ribosomal Genes and Condensed RPA194-Positive Regions of Nucleoli in Tumour Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legartová, S; Sbardella, G; Kozubek, S; Bártová, E

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on the morphology of nucleoli and on the pattern of major proteins of the nucleolus. After EA treatment of HeLa cells, we observed condensation of nucleoli as documented by the pattern of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). EA also induced condensation of RPA194-positive nucleolar regions, but no morphological changes were observed in nucleolar compartments positive for UBF1/2 proteins or fibrillarin. Studied morphological changes induced by EA were compared with the morphology of control, non-treated cells and with pronounced condensation of all nucleolar domains caused by actinomycin D (ACT-D) treatment. Similarly as ACT-D, but in a lesser extent, EA induced an increased number of 53BP1-positive DNA lesions. However, the main marker of DNA lesions, γH2AX, was not accumulated in body-like nuclear structures. An increased level of γH2AX was found by immunofluorescence and Western blots only after EA treatment. Intriguingly, the levels of fibrillarin, UBF1/2 and γH2AX were increased at the promoters of ribosomal genes, while 53BP1 and CARM1 levels were decreased by EA treatment at these genomic regions. In the entire genome, EA reduced H3R17 dimethylation. Taken together, ellagic acid is capable of significantly changing the nucleolar morphology and protein levels inside the nucleolus.

  14. Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Premer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. It also stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulosa and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. The rat has 3 subtypes of angiotensin II receptors: AT1a, AT1b, and AT2. mRNAs for all three subtypes occur in the adrenal and brain. To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence revealed AT1a and AT2 receptors in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla. AT1b immunofluorescence was present in the zona glomerulosa, but not the medulla. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling for the AT1a receptor in glomerulosa and medullary cells localized it to plasma membrane, endocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and the nucleus. AT1b and AT2, but not AT1a, immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were AT1b positive while ovoid cells were AT2 positive. In the brain, neurons were AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 positive, but glia was only AT1b positive. Highest levels of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor immunofluorescence were in the subfornical organ, median eminence, area postrema, paraventricular nucleus, and solitary tract nucleus. These studies complement those employing different techniques to characterize Ang II receptors.

  15. EBV induces persistent NF-κB activation and contributes to survival of EBV-positive neoplastic T- or NK-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Takada

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been detected in several T- and NK-cell neoplasms such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV. However, how this virus contributes to lymphomagenesis in T or NK cells remains largely unknown. Here, we examined NF-κB activation in EBV-positive T or NK cell lines, SNT8, SNT15, SNT16, SNK6, and primary EBV-positive and clonally proliferating T/NK cells obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with CAEBV. Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and immunofluorescent staining revealed persistent NF-κB activation in EBV-infected cell lines and primary cells from patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of EBV in infected T cells. We performed an in vitro infection assay using MOLT4 cells infected with EBV. The infection directly induced NF-κB activation, promoted survival, and inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in MOLT4 cells. The luciferase assay suggested that LMP1 mediated NF-κB activation in MOLT4 cells. IMD-0354, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB that suppresses NF-κB activation in cell lines, inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that EBV induces NF-κB-mediated survival signals in T and NK cells, and therefore, may contribute to the lymphomagenesis of these cells.

  16. Mosquito cell line C6/36 shows resistence to Cyt1Aa6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Huang, E.; Tang, B.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-269 ISSN 0019-5189 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Grant - others:National Nature Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010; Transformation Fund for Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; Fujian Colleges and Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * C6/36 cells * indirect immunofluorescence assay Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2012 http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13748/1/IJEB%2050(4)%20265-269.pdf

  17. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  18. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  19. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  20. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  1. Collective Behaviour: Physiology Determines Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Seebacher, Frank

    2018-04-23

    An animal's position within a group affects feeding - front positions generally offer richer pickings. However, a new study shows that position can be influenced by feeding because big meals reduce scope for locomotion. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  4. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander, E-mail: muellerh@ma.tum.de; Wolf, Michael M., E-mail: m.wolf@tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reeb, David, E-mail: reeb.qit@gmail.com [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.

  5. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Wolf, Michael M.; Reeb, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task

  6. A Novel High-Content Immunofluorescence Assay as a Tool to Identify at the Single Cell Level γ-Globin Inducing Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Durlak

    Full Text Available The identification of drugs capable of reactivating γ-globin to ameliorate β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell anemia is still a challenge, as available γ-globin inducers still have limited clinical indications. High-throughput screenings (HTS aimed to identify new potentially therapeutic drugs require suitable first-step-screening methods combining the possibility to detect variation in the γ/β globin ratio with the robustness of a cell line. We took advantage of a K562 cell line variant expressing β-globin (β-K562 to set up a new multiplexed high-content immunofluorescence assay for the quantification of γ- and β-globin content at single-cell level. The assay was validated by using the known globin inducers hemin, hydroxyurea and butyric acid and further tested in a pilot screening that confirmed HDACs as targets for γ-globin induction (as proved by siRNA-mediated HDAC3 knockdown and by treatment with HDACs inhibitors entinostat and dacinostat and identified Heme-oxygenases as novel candidate targets for γ-globin induction. Indeed, Heme-oxygenase2 siRNA knockdown as well as its inhibition by Tin protoporphyrin-IX (TinPPIX greatly increased γ-globin expression. This result is particularly interesting as several metalloporphyrins have already been developed for clinical uses and could be tested (alone or in combination with other drugs to improve pharmacological γ-globin reactivation for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies.

  7. Diagnóstico de criptosporidiose em amostras fecais de bezerros por imunofluorescência direta e microscopia de contraste de fase Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in fecal samples of calves using direct immunofluorescence and phase contrast microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    different amounts of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The screening of the five aliquots revealed that the DIF and MCF showed respectively, detection thresholds of 3.3x104 (2 positive aliquots and 3.3x105 (1 positive aliquot oocysts per gram of fecal sample. Further analyses were accomplished in order to compare the positivity results and to determine semi-quantitatively the number of oocysts per field of microscopy, in both methods, in 300 fecal samples from calves. Among the 300 samples, 19.7% (59/300 were positive by DIF, result that was statistically significant (P=0.0098 when compared with the positivity obtained by the PCM, which was 11.7% (35/300. The positive samples were submitted to the nested-PCR assay for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA, following sequencing of amplified fragments, allowing the identification of Cryptosporidium andersoni in 11.9% (7/59 and C. parvum in 88.1% (52/59 of the samples. The present results indicate that the DIF was more effective than PCM in the detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples from calves.

  8. Development of a potent DOTA-conjugated bombesin antagonist for targeting GRPr-positive tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansi, Rosalba; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Wang, Xuejuan [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Forrer, Flavio [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Erasmus Medical Centre, Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Waser, Beatrice; Cescato, Renzo; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland); Graham, Keith; Borkowski, Sandra [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin-based antagonists show a higher uptake in tumour-bearing mouse models than agonists of similar or even distinctly higher receptor affinity. Very similar results were obtained with another family of G protein-coupled receptor ligands, the bombesin family. We describe a new conjugate, RM2, with the chelator DOTA coupled to D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH{sub 2} via the cationic spacer 4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine for labelling with radiometals such as {sup 111}In and {sup 68}Ga. RM2 was synthesized on a solid support and evaluated in vitro in PC-3 cells. IC{sub 50} and K{sub d} values were determined. The antagonist potency was evaluated by immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca{sup 2+} mobilization assays. Biodistribution studies were performed in PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing mice with {sup 111}In-RM2 and {sup 68}Ga-RM2, respectively. PET/CT studies were performed on PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing nude mice with {sup 68}Ga-RM2. RM2 and {sup 111}In-RM2 are high-affinity and selective ligands for the GRP receptor (7.7{+-}3.3 nmol/l for RM2; 9.3{+-}3.3 nmol/l for {sup nat}In-RM2). The potent antagonistic properties were confirmed by an immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca{sup 2+} mobilization assays. {sup 68}Ga- and {sup 111}In-RM2 showed high and specific uptake in both the tumour and the pancreas. Uptake in the tumour remained high (15.2{+-}4.8%IA/g at 1 h; 11.7{+-}2.4%IA/g at 4 h), whereas a relatively fast washout from the pancreas and the other abdominal organs was observed. Uptake in the pancreas decreased rapidly from 22.6{+-}4.7%IA/g at 1 h to 1.5{+-}0.5%IA/g at 4 h. RM2 was shown to be a potent GRPr antagonist. Pharmacokinetics and imaging studies indicate that {sup 111}In-RM2 and {sup 68}Ga-RM2 are ideal candidates for clinical SPECT and PET studies. (orig.)

  9. Development of a potent DOTA-conjugated bombesin antagonist for targeting GRPr-positive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Rosalba; Maecke, Helmut R.; Wang, Xuejuan; Forrer, Flavio; Waser, Beatrice; Cescato, Renzo; Reubi, Jean Claude; Graham, Keith; Borkowski, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin-based antagonists show a higher uptake in tumour-bearing mouse models than agonists of similar or even distinctly higher receptor affinity. Very similar results were obtained with another family of G protein-coupled receptor ligands, the bombesin family. We describe a new conjugate, RM2, with the chelator DOTA coupled to D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH 2 via the cationic spacer 4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine for labelling with radiometals such as 111 In and 68 Ga. RM2 was synthesized on a solid support and evaluated in vitro in PC-3 cells. IC 50 and K d values were determined. The antagonist potency was evaluated by immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca 2+ mobilization assays. Biodistribution studies were performed in PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing mice with 111 In-RM2 and 68 Ga-RM2, respectively. PET/CT studies were performed on PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing nude mice with 68 Ga-RM2. RM2 and 111 In-RM2 are high-affinity and selective ligands for the GRP receptor (7.7±3.3 nmol/l for RM2; 9.3±3.3 nmol/l for nat In-RM2). The potent antagonistic properties were confirmed by an immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca 2+ mobilization assays. 68 Ga- and 111 In-RM2 showed high and specific uptake in both the tumour and the pancreas. Uptake in the tumour remained high (15.2±4.8%IA/g at 1 h; 11.7±2.4%IA/g at 4 h), whereas a relatively fast washout from the pancreas and the other abdominal organs was observed. Uptake in the pancreas decreased rapidly from 22.6±4.7%IA/g at 1 h to 1.5±0.5%IA/g at 4 h. RM2 was shown to be a potent GRPr antagonist. Pharmacokinetics and imaging studies indicate that 111 In-RM2 and 68 Ga-RM2 are ideal candidates for clinical SPECT and PET studies. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of various primer sets for detection of Toxoplasma gondii by polymerase chain reaction in fetal tissues from naturally aborted foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smielewska-Loś, E

    2003-01-01

    Tissues from 4 aborted polar foxes (3 samples of brain and 4 samples of liver) were selected for Toxoplasma gondii PCR assay. Positive results of serological tests of mothers and immunofluorescence test (IFT) of fetal organ smears were the criteria of sample selection. Five sets of primers designed from B1 gene and ITS1 sequences of T. gondii were used for detection of the parasite in fetal fox tissues. All used primer sets successfully amplified T. gondii DNA in PCR from organs which were positive by IFT. Single tube nested PCR also showed positive result from a sample negative by IFT, but this product was not confirmed. The studies showed usefullness of PCR for routine diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in carnivores.

  11. Monocytes isolated by positive and negative magnetic sorting techniques show different molecular characteristics and immunophenotypic behaviour [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashdeep Bhattacharjee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic sorting of cells, based on  microbead conjugated antibodies (Abs, employs positive as well as negative immunomagnetic separation methods, for isolation of a specific cell population. These microbeads are suggested to be nontoxic, biodegradable carriers conjugated to various antibodies. Isolation of cells through positive selection involves the attachment of antibody conjugated microbeads to the cells of interest, followed by their isolation in the presence of a strong magnetic field to obtain higher purity. Negative selection involves attachment of microbead conjugated antibodies to all other cell populations except the cells of interest, which remain untagged. In the present study, we compared the two methods for their effect on functional and immunophenotypic behavior of isolated CD14+ monocytes. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood collected from healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation. Human blood derived monocytes were isolated through positive selection and negative selection, making use of the appropriate monocyte isolation kit. Monocytes were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and their activation and proliferation capacity were examined. The degradation or dissociation of cell-bound microbeads was also investigated. Results: We observed an impaired LPS sensitivity as well as poor activation and proliferation capacity upon stimulation by LPS in positively sorted CD14+ monocytes as compared to negatively sorted CD14+ monocytes. The attached microbeads did not degrade and remained attached to the cells even after 6 days of culture. Conclusions: Our results suggest that positively sorted CD14+ cells exhibit hampered functionality and may result in inaccurate analysis and observations in downstream applications. However, these cells can be used for immediate analytical procedures.

  12. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Max; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Ward, Ashley J W; Krause, Stefan; Krause, Jens

    2013-04-07

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false-positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications.

  13. Detection of serum antitrichomonal antibodies in urogenital trichomoniasis by immunofluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt R

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a frequently encountered genital pathogen in both males and females. In females, vaginitis due to this parasite is one of the most common manifestation. The indirect fluorescent technique (IFA test was carried out to detect antitrichomonal antibodies in 370 female patients using whole cell antigen. Seventy one (19.18% gave positive reaction for either of the class IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The level of the IgG class antibodies was found to be higher i.e. 58 (81.69% than IgM 11 (15.27% antibodies, which may be suggestive of past infection or a prolonged manifestation by the organisms.

  14. Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, Tanja; Keta, Olitija; Korićanac, Lela; Žakula, Jelena; Petrović, Ivan; Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra; Todorović, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to γ-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany) microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany). Obtained results show that the level of γH2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of γH2AX foci. (author)

  15. Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulat, Tanja; Keta, Olitija; Korićanac, Lela; Žakula, Jelena; Petrović, Ivan; Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Todorović, Danijela, E-mail: dtodorovic@medf.kg.ac.rs [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2016-03-15

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to γ-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany) microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany). Obtained results show that the level of γH2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of γH2AX foci. (author)

  16. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  17. Eyeball Position in Facial Approximation: Accuracy of Methods for Predicting Globe Positioning in Lateral View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednikova Mala, Pavla; Veleminska, Jana

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the accuracy of traditional and validated newly proposed methods for globe positioning in lateral view. Eighty lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from Central Europe were taken, and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. The anteroposterior eyeball position was estimated as the most accurate method based on the proportion of the orbital height (SEE = 1.9 mm) and was followed by the "tangent to the iris method" showing SEE = 2.4 mm. The traditional "tangent to the cornea method" underestimated the eyeball projection by SEE = 5.8 mm. Concerning the superoinferior eyeball position, the results showed a deviation from a central to a more superior position by 0.3 mm, on average, and the traditional method of central positioning of the globe could not be rejected as inaccurate (SEE = 0.3 mm). Based on regression analyzes or proportionality of the orbital height, the SEE = 2.1 mm. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Feasibility of a novel positive feedback effect of 131I-promoted Bac-Egr1-hNIS expression in malignant glioma via baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Lipeng; Han Bing; Xu Haoping; Zhang Miao; Li Biao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As intracellular iodine is released rapidly, increased expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is required for effective radioiodine treatment of tumor. As Egr1 promoter is activated by 131 I and may promote human NIS (hNIS) expression, hNIS also induces 131 I uptake and activates Egr1, so the existence of a positive feedback effect of 131 I-promoted Egr1-hNIS expression is possible. Our purpose was to investigate the possible existence of this positive feedback effect through a series of in vitro pioneer studies. Method: Recombinant baculovirus (Bac-Egr1-hNIS) encoding the hNIS gene under the control of a radiation-inducible Egrl promoter was constructed. To test 131 I-promoted hNIS expression, human malignant glioma U87 cells were transfected with Bac-Egr1-hNIS, stimulated with or without 131 I; the expression of hNIS protein was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry test. In addition, the uptake and efflux of 131 I were determined after the incubation of Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with or without 131 I. Results: Immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry test showed a higher hNIS protein expression in Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with 131 I stimulation than in cells without stimulation. Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells accumulated up to about 4.05 times of 131 I after 131 I stimulation. The amount of 131 I uptake in both groups showed a baculovirus dose-dependent manner. However, rapid efflux of radioactivity was observed in both groups, with 50% lost during the first 2 min after the 131 I-containing medium had been replaced by a nonradioactive medium. Conclusion: Our results indicated that an improved transgene expression of 131 I-stimulated hNIS in U87 cells using a baculovirus vector containing the Egr1 promoter is possible, and the increased expression of hNIS is responsible for a higher 131 I uptake. It might provide a reference for the existence of a positive feedback effect in 131 I-promoted Bac-Egr1-h

  19. Detector Position Estimation for PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2012-06-11

    Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks.

  20. Detector position estimation for PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks.

  1. A novel assay for detecting antibodies to cytochrome P4502D6, the molecular target of liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkar, N; Ma, Y; Hussain, M; Muratori, L; Targett, C; Williams, R; Bianchi, F B; Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    1999-03-04

    Liver Kidney Microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody, the diagnostic marker of autoimmune hepatitis type 2, is also found in a proportion of patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). It is detected conventionally by the subjective immunofluorescence technique. Our aim was to establish a simple and objective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures antibodies to cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), the target of LKM1. An indirect ELISA using eukaryotically expressed CYP2D6 was designed. Absorbance values obtained against a reference microsomal preparation were subtracted from those obtained against a microsomal preparation over-expressing CYP2D6, thus removing the non-CYP2D6-specific reaction. Sera from 51 LKM1 positive patients (21 autoimmune hepatitis and 30 with HCV infection), 111 LKM1 negative patients with chronic liver disease (including 20 with HCV infection) and 43 healthy controls were tested. Of 51 patients positive by immunofluorescence, 48 were also positive by ELISA while all the 154 LKM1 negative subjects were also negative by ELISA. There was a high degree of association between IFL and ELISA as demonstrated by a kappa reliability value of 0.96. The absorbance values by ELISA correlated with immunofluorescence LKM1 titres both in autoimmune hepatitis (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) and HCV infection (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). The simple, objective ELISA described has the potential to replace the standard immunofluorescence technique.

  2. Anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Molina, Maria I; Gamiz, Maria J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and video-oculographic findings in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This is a prospective case series. The study was set at an outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Fourteen individuals with symptoms of BPPV and positional downbeating nystagmus (pDBN) were included in the study. The diagnosis was based on a history of brief episodes of vertigo and the presence of pDBN confirmed in the video-oculographic examination during Dix-Hallpike test (DH) or head-hanging maneuver. Patients were treated by particle repositioning maneuver and the effectiveness was evaluated at 7, 30, and 180 days posttreatment. The treatment was repeated up to 4 times if pDBN was persistent. The main outcome measure is the number of patients without pDBN at 30 and 180 days. Video-oculography showed a predominant pDBN in response to DH. Of the 14 patients, 7 had arterial hypertension, and 5 of 14 cases presented abnormalities on the caloric test. Horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was found in 3 of 14 individuals. Positional nystagmus at different positional test was observed in 5 of 14 individuals, suggesting the involvement of several canals. Of the 14 patients, 10 (71%) did not present vertigo, and the positional tests were negative at 30 days. However, 3 cases presented a positive DH with persistence of BPPV episodes and pDBN at 30 days, and another developed a contralateral posterior canal affectation. One of the patients maintained a persistent pDBN at 180 days despite the repeated maneuvers. Video-oculography demonstrates that anterior canal BPPV is characterized by a predominant downbeating nystagmus in response to DH. These individuals may show alterations in the vestibular caloric, and they can have multicanal affectation.

  3. Collective irrationality and positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Stamatios C; Zabzina, Natalia; Latty, Tanya; Sumpter, David J T

    2011-04-26

    Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent "irrationalities". We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions.

  4. Collective irrationality and positive feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios C Nicolis

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent "irrationalities". We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions.

  5. Design of precision position adjustable scoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhili; Zhang Kai; Dong Jinping

    2014-01-01

    In isotopes separation technologies, the centrifuge method has been the most popular technology now. Separation performance of centrifugal machines is greatly influenced by the flow field in the centrifugal machines. And the position of scoops in the centrifuges has a significant influence on the flow field. To obtain a better flow field characteristic and find the best position of scoops in the centrifuges, a position adjustable scoop system was studied. A micro stage and a linear encoder were used in the system to improve the position accuracy of the scoop. Eddy current sensors had been used in a position calibration measurement. The measurement result showed the sensitivity and stability of the position system could meet the performance expectation. But as the driving mean, the steel wire and pulley limit the control precision. On the basis of this scheme, an ultrasonic motor was used as driving mean. Experimental results showed the control accuracy was improved. This scheme laid a foundation to obtain internal flow field parameters of centrifuge and get the optimal feeding tube position. (authors)

  6. Desarrollo de improntas para el diagnóstico del virus Epstein-Barr por inmunofluorescencia indirecta Development of slides for Epstein-Barr virus diagnosis by indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán R. Pérez

    2005-08-01

    mononucleosis. Detection of anti-viral capside antigen (VCA antibodies indicates previous or present EBV infection. Moreover, high titles of anti-VCA antibodies are observed in EBV-associated neoplasic disorders, such as lymphomas in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was the development and optimization of P3HR1 cell slides for the EBV serologic detection by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assay. P3HR1 exponential growth culture cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-mirystoil-13-acetate, collected at different time points and used for slide preparation. IIF assay was performed in each slide using an anti-EBV positive serum as primary antibody. An 11% increase in VCA expression was observed at 40 hours post-stimulation. Data was confirmed by western blot and immunodetection. Intra- and inter-lot precisions of the developed slides were evaluated for IgG and IgM antibodies using EBV-positive sera and positive samples for other members of the Herpesviridae family. Neither false-positive or false negative results were obtained for EBV detection nor cross-reaction was observed with other members of the Herpesviridae family with the developed slides. In conclusion, the slides here presented can be a useful instrument for acute EBV infection diagnosis and for the serologic detection of IgG anti-VCA antibodies in EBV-associated neoplastic disorders.

  7. The value of tests of cure following cervical chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D J; Mann, C H; Matthews, R S; Leeming, J G; Clay, J C

    1993-01-01

    Test of cure (TOC) was performed 2, 4 and 6 weeks after treatment for cervical chlamydia infection with 10-14 days of Deteclo one tablet twice daily, erythromycin 500 mg twice daily or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily. Testing was by chlamydia culture and IDEIA (DAKO diagnostics Ltd). Discrepant results were subsequently checked by immunofluorescence (Syva MicroTrak) of both sets of left over transport media. Two hundred and three patients attended on at least one occasion; 189, 146 and 107 at 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Of these 127, 70 and 34, respectively, denied sexual intercourse or had consistently used condoms. Fourteen were positive over the study period by either or both methods of detection. Of 8 culture positive results 3 were negative by IDEIA. Two of these had elementary bodies (EBs) on immunofluorescence of both sets of saved transport media. One had EBs on immunofluorescence of the saved culture transport medium only. None of the 6 IDEIA positive, culture negative patients had immunofluorescent EBs in the IDEIA transport media although one had EBs in the saved culture transport medium. One IDEIA suspicious, culture negative patient had EBs in both sets of saved transport media. There was no significant difference in the rate of chlamydia detection from patients admitting to or denying unprotected intercourse. TOC has a low yield in cases of cervical chlamydial infection when there has been careful contact tracing and treatment has been completed. If TOC is performed culture should be used if available and where antigen detection methods are used confirmation should be sought for any positive results.

  8. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S.; Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W.; Daxboeck, F.; Reisinger, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)

  9. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with cat-scratch disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S. [Div. of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Daxboeck, F. [Clinical Inst. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Div. of Hospital Hygiene, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Reisinger, E.C. [Div. of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Rostock (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)

  10. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  12. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  13. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  14. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  15. Antibody-Based Detection of ERG Rearrangement-Positive Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Park

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions occur in 50% of prostate cancers and result in the overexpression of a chimeric fusion transcript that encodes a truncated ERG product. Previous attempts to detect truncated ERG products have been hindered by a lack of specific antibodies. Here, we characterize a rabbit anti-ERG monoclonal antibody (clone EPR 3864; Epitomics, Burlingame, CA using immunoblot analysis on prostate cancer cell lines, synthetic TMPRSS2-ERG constructs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. We correlated ERG protein expression with the presence of ERG gene rearrangements in prostate cancertissues using a combined immunohistochemistry(IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. We independently evaluated two patient cohorts and observed ERG expression confined to prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial reoplasia associated with ERG-positive cancer, as well as vessels and lymphocytes (where ERG has a known biologic role. Image analysis of 131 cases demonstrated nearly 100% sensitivity for detecting ERG rearrangement prostate cancer, with only 2 (1.5% of 131 cases demonstrating strong ERG protein expression without any known ERG gene fusion. The combired pathology evaluation of 207 patient tumors for ERG protein expression had 95.7% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity for determining ERG rearrangement prostate cancer. Ir conclusion, this study qualifies a specific anti-ERG antibody and demonstrates exquisite association between ERG gene rearrangement and truncated ERG protein product expression. Giver the ease of performing IHC versus FISH, ERG protein expression may be useful for molecularly subtypirg prostate cancer based or ERG rearrangement status and suggests clinical utility it prostate needle biopsy evaluation.

  16. Desempeño de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa en el diagnóstico del virus Influenza A(H1N1 Direct immunofluorescence assay performance in diagnosis of the Influenza A(H1N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pianciola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de abril de 2009, a menos de un mes de la detección en México del primer humano con virus Influenza A(H1N1, la enfermedad ya se había propagado a más de 40 países superando los 10 000 casos notificados. Dada su naturaleza impredecible, este tipo de virus requiere métodos diagnósticos apropiados, confiables y seguros, pero que también estén al alcance de los laboratorios clínicos. Mediante el estudio de 291 muestras de pacientes con sospecha de infección por virus Influenza A(H1N1 en Neuquén, Argentina, el presente trabajo compara los dos métodos de diagnóstico utilizados simultáneamente: la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa (DFA y la de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR. La DFA dio una sensibilidad de 44,4%, especificidad de 99,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 95,2% y valor predictivo negativo de 90,7%. Los resultados positivos de la metodología pueden considerarse verdaderos positivos. Un resultado negativo no excluye la presencia del virus y la muestra debe examinarse mediante RT-PCR. Del total de 291 muestras, 45 resultaron positivas por RT-PCR y 21 por DFA.By 25 April 2009, less than one month after the first human with Influenza A(H1N1 virus was detected in Mexico, the disease had already spread to more than 40 countries, with over 10 000 cases reported. Due to its unpredictability, this type of virus requires appropriate, reliable, and safe diagnostic methods that are also accessible to clinical laboratories. Through the analysis of 291 samples taken from patients with suspected Influenza A(H1N1 virus infection in Neuquén, Argentina, this study compares the two diagnostic methods used simultaneously: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. DFA had a sensitivity of 44.4%, a specificity of 99.6%, a positive predictive value of 95.2%, and a negative predictive value of 90.7%. Positive results obtained with this method can be considered true

  17. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  18. Positive Classroom Management. A Step-by-Step Guide to Successfully Running the Show Without Destroying Student Dignity. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Robert

    This book provides K-12 teachers with concrete, step-by-step guidance on how to improve student behavior through positive classroom management. It explains how to take control of the classroom, offering an alternative to threats, rewards, and punishments. The book is divided into an introduction and three sections with seven chapters. The…

  19. Phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the nucleoli and the Golgi complex in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, Franz-Josef; Herberg, Natalie; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2007-06-29

    Enzymatic activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is controlled by posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. For example, N-terminal fatty acid modifications target eNOS to the Golgi complex where it becomes phosphorylated. We show here by immunofluorescence analysis that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is enriched in the perinuclear region of interphase C6 rat glioma cells. Confocal double immunofluorescence microscopy with the Golgi marker protein 58K revealed that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, we observed several spots in the nucleus of C6 cells that were positive for phospho-eNOS Ser-1176. Confocal double immunofluorescence analysis with the nucleolus marker protein fibrillarin revealed that within the nucleus phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is exclusively associated with the nucleoli. It is known that in mitotic cells nucleoli are lost during prophase and rebuild during telophase. In agreement with this, we find no nucleoli-like distribution of phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 in metaphase and anaphase C6 glioma cells. Our finding that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is selectively associated with the nucleoli points to a so far unknown role for eNOS in interphase glioma cells.

  20. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  1. Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: older Chinese look away from positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Lu, Alice Y; Goren, Deborah; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Wadlinger, Heather A; Wilson, Hugh R

    2008-06-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that with age, people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life, leading them to pay more attention to positive relative to negative/neutral stimuli. The authors argue that cultures that differ in what they consider to be emotionally meaningful may show this preference to different extents. Using eye-tracking techniques, the authors compared visual attention toward emotional (happy, fearful, sad, and angry) and neutral facial expressions among 46 younger and 57 older Hong Kong Chinese. In contrast to prior Western findings, older but not younger Chinese looked away from happy facial expressions, suggesting that they do not show attentional preferences toward positive stimuli.

  2. K5/K14-positive cells contribute to salivary gland-like breast tumors with myoepithelial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boecker, Werner; Stenman, Goeran; Loening, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    different cell lineages and define their cellular hierarchy in tumors with myoepithelial differentiation. isTILT analysis of a series of 28 breast, salivary, and lacrimal gland tumors, including pleomorphic adenomas (n=8), epithelial-myoepithelial tumors (n=9), and adenoid cystic carcinomas (n=11) revealed...... heterologeous cell differentiations such as squamous and mesenchymal progenies. p63 was co-expressed with K5/K14 in basal-like progenitor cells, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not in glandular cells. Our results show that the corresponding counterpart tumors of breast and salivary/lacrimal glands have....... For that reason, we performed an in situ triple immunofluorescence lineage/differentiation tracing (isTILT) and qRT-PCR study of basal (K5/K14), glandular (K7/K8/18), and epidermal-specific squamous (K10) keratins, p63, and smooth muscle actin (SMA; myoepithelial marker) with the aim to construct and trace...

  3. Quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemical detection of EGFR gene mutations in the non-small cell lung cancers using mutation-specific antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu YG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Gang Qu,1 Qian Zhang,2 Qi Pan,3 Xian-Da Zhao,4 Yan-Hua Huang,2 Fu-Chun Chen,3 Hong-Lei Chen41Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Wuhan Nano Tumor Diagnosis Engineering Research Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Thoracosurgery, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Wenling, Wenling, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status plays an important role in therapeutic decision making for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Since EGFR mutation-specific antibodies (E746-A750del and L858R have been developed, EGFR mutation detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC is a suitable screening test. On this basis, we want to establish a new screening test, quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemistry (QDs-IHC, to assess EGFR gene mutation in NSCLC tissues, and we compared it to traditional IHC and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS.Materials and methods: EGFR gene mutations were detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS in 65 cases of NSCLC composed of 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and ten pleural effusion cell blocks, including 13 squamous cell carcinomas, two adenosquamous carcinomas, and 50 adenocarcinomas.Results: Positive rates of EGFR gene mutations detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS were 40.0%, 36.9%, and 46.2%, respectively, in 65 cases of NSCLC patients. The sensitivity of QDs-IHC when detecting EGFR mutations, as compared to ADx-ARMS, was 86.7% (26/30; the specificity for both antibodies was 100.0% (26/26. IHC sensitivity was 80.0% (24/30 and the specificity was 92.31% (24/26. When detecting EGFR mutations, QDs-IHC and ADx-ARMS had perfect consistency (κ=0.882; P<0.01. Excellent agreement was observed

  4. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Universitetsundervisningens (u)mulige position i Akademia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kasper Anthon

    2016-01-01

    uses positioning theory to analyse how six interviewed academics position themselves and others as right and wrong participants in Academia in relation to their teaching and research activities. My analysis shows that a dominant research discourse, driven by a harsh research-publishing obligation...

  6. [Positioning diagnosis of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo by VNG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Taisheng; Lin, Peng; Song, Wei; Dong, Hong

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the value of positioning diagnosis of VNG (Videonystagmograph) in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BPPV were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their positional nystagmus recorded by VNG in Dix-Hallpike and roll tests were analyzed to summarize the characteristics of nystagmus on nystagmography of various BPPV. Of 126 patients with BPPV diagnosed in our center, the posterior semicircular canals (PSC) were involved in 98 patients (77.8%), whereas the horizontal semicircular canal (HSC) and anterior semicircular canal (ASC) were involved in 17 (13.5%) and 5 (3.9%), respectively. Six patients (4.8%) confirmed combined-BPPV had HSC-BPPV and ipsilateral PSC-BPPV. Twenty-eight patients with PSC-BPPV had reversal phase on nystagmography. The nystagmus of patients with P/ASC-canalithiasis showed upward/downward on the vertical phase of nystagmography and orientated the opposite side on horizontal phase in the head hanging position, and the nystagmus reversed when returned to sit. Nystagmus on horizontal phase could be provoked when the head turned to both sides of the roll tests in patients with HSC-BPPV. If the nystagmus and the head-turning shared the same direction, then HSC-canalithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the stronger nystagmus indicates the lesion side. If the nystagmus and the head-turning had the opposite direction, then HSC-cupulolithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the weaker nystagmus indicates the lesion side. Positional nystagmus can be recorded objectively using VNG, According to which positioning the semicircular canal involved would be easier and more accurate. The recording conserved also could be helpful for clinical diagnosis and repositioning of BPPV.

  7. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Koon H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM and/or optic neuritis (ON. A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA and cell-based IIFA. Methods Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes. Results In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250, 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250, and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000; however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69% were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3, RM with LETM (3, a single attack of LETM (1, relapsing ON (1 and a single ON attack (1. Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17 and seronegative (n = 6 by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive

  8. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  9. Occurrence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered swine in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine slaughtered in Iporã, Northwest Paraná state. Blood samples were obtained from 500 finishing swine. All animals were raised under intensive farming; the blood samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Animals with titers of ?64 were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of the tested samples, 63 (12.6% were positive by IFAT; 58 (92.06% of these showed titers of 64 (4.7%, with titers 256 and two (3.1% titers of 1024. These pigs might be considered a source of T. gondii infection for humans

  10. Local systematic differences in 2MASS positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We have found that positions in the 2MASS All-sky Catalog of Point Sources show local systematic differences with characteristic length-scales of ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 arcminutes when compared with several catalogs. We have observed that when 2MASS positions are used in the computation of proper motions, the mentioned systematic differences cause systematic errors in the resulting proper motions. We have developed a method to locally rectify 2MASS with respect to UCAC4 in order to diminish the systematic differences between these catalogs. The rectified 2MASS catalog with the proposed method can be regarded as an extension of UCAC4 for astrometry with accuracy ˜ 90 mas in its positions, with negligible systematic errors. Also we show that the use of these rectified positions removes the observed systematic pattern in proper motions derived from original 2MASS positions.

  11. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  12. Immunocytochemical detection of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase in human brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J E; Hume, R; Busuttil, A; Burchell, A

    1993-10-01

    Using an antibody raised against the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase, this enzyme was immunolocalized in many astrocytes in 20 normal human brains. Double immunofluorescence studies showed co-localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with glucose-6-phosphatase in astrocytes. However, not all GFAP-positive cells were also glucose-6-phosphatase positive, indicating that some astrocytes do not contain demonstrable expression of this enzyme. Reactive astrocytes in a variety of abnormal brains were strongly glucose-6-phosphatase positive, but neoplastic astrocytes were often only weakly positive. Expression of the enzyme could not be demonstrated in radial glia, neurons or oligodendroglia. Astrocytes normally contain glycogen and the demonstration that some astrocytes also contain glucose-6-phosphatase indicates that they are competent for both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, which may be critical for neuronal welfare.

  13. Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. ... The risk factors among smear positive TB patients were co-illness (32.5%), previous history of TB (7.5%) and history of positive TB contact (4.7%). These findings also show that as CD4+ T Cells ...

  14. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  15. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  16. ‘True’ antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis, low sensitivity of the routine assays, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURATORI, P; MURATORI, L; GERSHWIN, M E; CZAJA, A J; PAPPAS, G; MACCARIELLO, S; GRANITO, A; CASSANI, F; LORIA, P; LENZI, M; BIANCHI, F B

    2004-01-01

    Anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) is considered the serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but may be missing in a proportion of these patients. We assessed sensitivity and specificity of the currently available techniques for AMA detection in a large series of PBC patients and controls, and analysed their clinical and immunological features according to the AMA status. By indirect immunofluorescence on rat tissue sections and HEp-2 cells, Western immunoblot with bovine submitochondrial particles, and two ELISAs with AMA-specific recombinant proteins, we evaluated the presence of AMA in 127 PBC patients, 166 patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and 100 with non alcoholic fatty liver disease. In PBC patients Western immunoblot detects AMA significantly more often than indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells (85% versus 72%, P = 0·02) or rodent tissue sections (71%, P = 0·01); both ELISAs are only slightly less sensitive than Western immunoblot (81% and 78%). Ten patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease were AMA-positive by indirect immunofluorescence, but none recognized AMA-specific epitopes in Western immunoblot or in ELISAs. Twelve patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis were AMA-positive by indirect immunofluorescence, but only 6 (3·6%) reacted by Western immunoblot and ELISAs. Western immunoblot or ELISA should be regarded as first-line assay for the detection of AMA. Up to 15% of PBC patients are consistently AMA-negative, yet they share the same clinical, biochemical and histological features of AMA-positive PBC. Detection of AMA in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis might identify a subset of patients at risk of developing a hepatitic/cholestatic syndrome. PMID:14678277

  17. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  18. Immunomicroscopic localization of aminopeptidase N in the pig enterocyte. Implications for the route of intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) in the pig enterocyte was investigated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunogold staining). By indirect immunofluorescence on either frozen or paraffin-embedded sections, a very intense staining in the microvillar....... Labelling was demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus and in a minor fraction of the intracellular smooth vesicles positioned between the Golgi apparatus and the microvillar membrane. These observations are compatible with the view that newly synthesized aminopeptidase N is delivered directly to the microvillar...

  19. Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kaleczyc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be

  20. Overexpressed HDAC8 in cervical cancer cells shows functional redundancy of tubulin deacetylation with HDAC6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, G R; Ramulu, Hemalatha Golaconda; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2018-05-02

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic gene regulation via deacetylation of acetylated lysine residues of both histone and non-histone proteins. Among the 18 HDACs identified in humans, HDAC8, a class I HDAC, is best understood structurally and enzymatically. However, its precise subcellular location, function in normal cellular physiology, its protein partners and substrates still remain elusive. The subcellular localization of HDAC8 was studied using immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. The binding parterns were identified employing immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by MALDI-TOF analysis and confirmed using in-silico protein-protein interaction studies, HPLC-based in vitro deacetylation assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectrophotometric analysis, Circular dichroism (CD) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Functional characterization of the binding was carried out using immunoblot and knockdown by siRNA. Using one way ANOVA statistical significance (n = 3) was determined. Here, we show that HDAC8 and its phosphorylated form (pHDAC8) localized predominantly in the cytoplasm in cancerous, HeLa, and non-cancerous (normal), HEK293T, cells, although nucleolar localization was observed in HeLa cells. The study identified Alpha tubulin as a novel interacting partner of HDAC8. Further, the results indicated binding and deacetylation of tubulin at ac-lys40 by HDAC8. Knockdown of HDAC8 by siRNA, inhibition of HDAC8 and/or HDAC6 by PCI-34051 and tubastatin respectively, cell-migration, cell morphology and cell cycle analysis clearly explained HDAC8 as tubulin deacetylase in HeLa cells and HDAC6 in HEK 293 T cells. HDAC8 shows functional redundancy with HDAC6 when overexpressed in cervical cancer cells, HeLa, and deacetylaes ac-lys40 of alpha tubulin leading to cervical cancer proliferation and progression.

  1. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  2. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  3. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  4. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  5. A sensitive, reproducible and objective immunofluorescence analysis method of dystrophin in individual fibers in samples from patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Beekman

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is characterized by the absence or reduced levels of dystrophin expression on the inner surface of the sarcolemmal membrane of muscle fibers. Clinical development of therapeutic approaches aiming to increase dystrophin levels requires sensitive and reproducible measurement of differences in dystrophin expression in muscle biopsies of treated patients with DMD. This, however, poses a technical challenge due to intra- and inter-donor variance in the occurrence of revertant fibers and low trace dystrophin expression throughout the biopsies. We have developed an immunofluorescence and semi-automated image analysis method that measures the sarcolemmal dystrophin intensity per individual fiber for the entire fiber population in a muscle biopsy. Cross-sections of muscle co-stained for dystrophin and spectrin have been imaged by confocal microscopy, and image analysis was performed using Definiens software. Dystrophin intensity has been measured in the sarcolemmal mask of spectrin for each individual muscle fiber and multiple membrane intensity parameters (mean, maximum, quantiles per fiber were calculated. A histogram can depict the distribution of dystrophin intensities for the fiber population in the biopsy. This method was tested by measuring dystrophin in DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy, and healthy muscle samples. Analysis of duplicate or quadruplicate sections of DMD biopsies on the same or multiple days, by different operators, or using different antibodies, was shown to be objective and reproducible (inter-assay precision, CV 2-17% and intra-assay precision, CV 2-10%. Moreover, the method was sufficiently sensitive to detect consistently small differences in dystrophin between two biopsies from a patient with DMD before and after treatment with an investigational compound.

  6. Positivity for Convective Semi-discretizations

    KAUST Repository

    Fekete, Imre

    2017-04-19

    We propose a technique for investigating stability properties like positivity and forward invariance of an interval for method-of-lines discretizations, and apply the technique to study positivity preservation for a class of TVD semi-discretizations of 1D scalar hyperbolic conservation laws. This technique is a generalization of the approach suggested in Khalsaraei (J Comput Appl Math 235(1): 137–143, 2010). We give more relaxed conditions on the time-step for positivity preservation for slope-limited semi-discretizations integrated in time with explicit Runge–Kutta methods. We show that the step-size restrictions derived are sharp in a certain sense, and that many higher-order explicit Runge–Kutta methods, including the classical 4th-order method and all non-confluent methods with a negative Butcher coefficient, cannot generally maintain positivity for these semi-discretizations under any positive step size. We also apply the proposed technique to centered finite difference discretizations of scalar hyperbolic and parabolic problems.

  7. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  8. Differentiation of Mouse Ovarian Stem Cells Toward Oocyte-Like Structure by Coculture with Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvari, Soraya; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Rajabi, Zahra; Gerayeli Malek, Valliollah; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence has confirmed existence and function of ovarian stem cells (OSCs). In this study, a novel approach on differentiation of OSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) has been addressed. Recently, different methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of OSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate OSCs. Cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured and formed colonies were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. For differentiation induction, colonies transferred on inactive granulosa cells. Results showed that cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the pluripotency characteristics of cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for OCT4, DAZL, MVH, and SSEA1 in colonies as well. Results of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence confirmed that some OLCs were generated within the germ stem cell (GSCs) colonies. The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economic than other techniques. Our results demonstrate that granulosa cells were effective in inducing the differentiation of OSCs into OLCs through direct cell-to-cell contacts.

  9. Anti-actin IgA antibodies in severe coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Muratori, P; Cassani, F; Pappas, G; Muratori, L; Agostinelli, D; Veronesi, L; Bortolotti, R; Petrolini, N; Bianchi, F B; Volta, U

    2004-08-01

    Anti-actin IgA antibodies have been found in sera of coeliacs. Our aim was to define the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-actin IgA in coeliacs before and after gluten withdrawal. One hundred and two biopsy-proven coeliacs, 95 disease controls and 50 blood donors were studied. Anti-actin IgA were evaluated by different methods: (a) antimicrofilament positivity on HEp-2 cells and on cultured fibroblasts by immunofluorescence; (b) anti-actin positivity by enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA); and (c) presence of the tubular/glomerular pattern of anti-smooth muscle antibodies on rat kidney sections by immunofluorescence. Antimicrofilament IgA were present in 27% of coeliacs and in none of the controls. Antimicrofilament antibodies were found in 25 of 54 (46%) coeliacs with severe villous atrophy and in three of 48 (6%) with mild damage (P < 0.0001). In the 20 patients tested, antimicrofilaments IgA disappeared after gluten withdrawal in accordance with histological recovery. Our study shows a significant correlation between antimicrofilament IgA and the severity of intestinal damage in untreated coeliacs. The disappearance of antimicrofilament IgA after gluten withdrawal predicts the normalization of intestinal mucosa and could be considered a useful tool in the follow-up of severe coeliac disease.

  10. [Preparation and application of monoclonal antibodies against DR region of Na+-K+-ATPase α1 subunit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaofei; Wu, Litao; DU, Xiaojuan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fujun; Han, Yan; Lyu, Shemin; Li, Dongmin

    2016-12-01

    Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies against DR region (897DVEDSYGQQWTYEQR911) of Na + -K + -ATPase α1 subunit and identify their properties. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with DR-keyholelimpet hemocyanin (KLH). Splenocytes from the immunized mice were collected and subsequently fused with SP2/0 mouse myeloma cells. Positive hybridoma clones were obtained after cell fusion and selection. ELISA was used to detect DR antibody titer in the cell supernatants. DR region-specific monoclonal antibodies were analyzed by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Na + -K + -ATPase activity was detected by SensoLyte R FDP Protein Phosphatase Assay Kit and the protective effect of the monoclonal antibody against high glucose-induced cell injury was assessed in H9c2 cells. Results Three hybridoma cell lines which secreted stable DR monoclonal antibody were obtained. The strongest positive cell line, named DRm217, was selected to prepare ascites. Dot blotting, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay showed that DRm217 recognized specially DR region of Na + -K + -ATPase and bound on H9c2 cell membranes. DRm217 stimulated Na + -K + -ATPase activity and alleviated high glucose-induced H9c2 cells injury. Conclusion The monoclonal antibodies against DR region of Na + -K + -ATPase α1 subunit is prepared.

  11. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic test and immunofluorescence assay compared to real time RT-PCR in children with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:The influenza burden among children is underestimated. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of the rapid influenza detection test (RIDT BD Directigen™ EZ Flu A B® and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA used among children with influenza-like illness (ILI consulted in the ambulatory care clinic.Material/Methods:A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 59 months, presentation of ILI according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition (fever >37.8°C, cough and/or sore throat in the absence of another known cause of illness, duration of symptoms shorter than 96 hours. Two nasal swabs and one pharyngeal swab were obtained from patients and tested by RIDT, DFA and real time RT-PCR as the reference method.Results:For influenza A (H1N1pdm09 virus sensitivity of RIDT was 62.2�0(95�0CI 46.5–76.2� specificity 97.1�0(95�0CI 91.8–99.4� PPV 90.3�0(95�0CI 74.3–98� NPV 85.7�0(95�0CI 78.1–91.5� for DFA sensitivity was 60�0(95�0CI 51.9–63.2� specificity 96�0(95�0CI 88.7–98.8� PPV 93.1�0(95�0CI 80.5–98� NPV 72.7�0(95�0CI 67.2–74.9� Analysis of logistic regression revealed that the chance of receiving a true positive result of RIDT was twice as high when the test was conducted during the first 48 hours of symptoms (OR 0.40 vs OR 0.22.Conclusions:The accuracy of RIDT is comparable with DFA and both methods are very specific but moderately sensitive in diagnosis of influenza in young children. Both methods may be recommended for screening for influenza among children.

  12. Aging is associated with an expansion of CD49fhi mammary stem cells that show a decline in function and increased transformation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Zhang, Fuchuang; Gu, Xiang; Wu, Anqi; Wang, Danhan; Chen, Yuanhong; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Yeh, I-Tien; Daniel, Benjamin J; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Rebel, Vivienne L; Walter, Christi A; Lu, Jianxin; Huang, Changjiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer incidence increases during aging, yet the mechanism of age-associated mammary tumorigenesis is unclear. Mammary stem cells are believed to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, but how their function changes with age is unknown. We compared mammary epithelial cells isolated from young and old mammary glands of different cohorts of C57BL6/J and BALB/c mice, and our findings revealed that old mammary glands were characterized by increased basal cell pool comprised of mostly CD49f hi cells, altered luminal-to-basal cell ratio, and irregular ductal morphology. More interestingly, basal stem cells in old mice were increased in frequency, but showed a functional decline of differentiation and increased neoplastic transformation potential. Gene signature enrichment analysis revealed a significant enrichment of a luminal cell gene expression signature in the basal stem cell-enriched population from old mice, suggesting some luminal cells were expressing basal markers. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the presence of luminal cells with high CD49f expression in hyperplastic lesions implicating these cells as undergoing luminal to basal phenotypic changes during aging. Whole transcriptome analysis showed elevated immune and inflammatory responses in old basal stem cells and stromal cells, which may be the underlying cause for increased CD49f hi basal-like cells in aged glands.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of positioning treatments in infants with positional head shape deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, B Lynne; Stewart, Alistair W; De Chalain, Tristan B; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2010-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials of treatment for deformational plagiocephaly and brachycephaly have been lacking in the literature. Infants (n = 126) presenting to a plagiocephaly clinic were randomized to either positioning strategies or to positioning plus the use of a Safe T Sleep™ positioning wrap. Head shape was measured using a digital photographic technique, and neck function was assessed. They were followed up at home 3, 6 and 12 months later. There was no difference in head shape outcomes for the two treatment groups after 12 months of follow-up, with 42% of infants having head shapes in the normal range by that time. Eighty per cent of children showed good improvement. Those that had poor improvement were more likely to have both plagiocephaly and brachycephaly and to have presented later to clinic. Most infants improved over the 12-month study period, although the use of a sleep positioning wrap did not increase the rate of improvement. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  15. Men and women show similar survival outcome in stage IV breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-Gang; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Liao, Xu-Lin; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Su, Jing-Jun; He, Zhen-Yu

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathological features, patterns of distant metastases, and survival outcome between stage IV male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC). Patients diagnosed with stage IV MBC and FBC between 2010 and 2013 were included using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze risk factors for overall survival (OS). A total of 4997 patients were identified, including 60 MBC and 4937 FBC. Compared with FBC, patients with MBC were associated with a significantly higher rate of estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive, unmarried, lung metastases, and a lower frequency of liver metastases. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no significant difference in OS between MBC and FBC. In the propensity score-matched population, there was also no difference in survival between MBC and FBC. Multivariate analysis of MBC showed that OS was longer for patients aged 50-69 years and with estrogen receptor-positive disease. There was no significant difference in survival outcome between stage IV MBC and FBC, but significant differences in clinicopathological features and patterns of metastases between the genders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A necessidade da imunofluorescência direta no diagnóstico da dermatose bolhosa por IgA The need for direct immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of IgA bullous dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A dermatose bolhosa por imunoglobulina da classe A linear (DbIgA do adulto é uma doença autoimune rara caracterizada por formação de bolhas subepidérmicas e depósito linear de imunoglobulina da classe A (IgA na zona da membrana basal (ZMB. Por possuir aspectos clínicos e histológicos semelhantes a outras dermatoses bolhosas, principalmente a dermatite herpetiforme e o penfigoide bolhoso, faz-se necessária a realização de imunofluorescência direta para confirmação diagnóstica. Apresenta-se então, neste artigo, relato de caso ilustrando essa necessidade.Linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis (DbIgA of adults is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by subepidermal blistering and linear deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA in the basement membrane zone (BMZ. Owing to the fact it presents clinical and histological aspects similar to other bullous dermatosis, mainly dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid, direct immunofluorescence is required to confirm diagnosis. In this article, we describe a case that illustrates this need.

  17. The influence of body position on Bielschowsky's test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Souza-Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the veracity of Jampolsky's statement that Bielschowsky's head tilt test is inverted if performed with the patient in the upside-down position and to interpret its neuromuscular mechanism. Methods: We present a series of 10 patients selected from a referred sample who were diagnosed with superior oblique paresis. Hypertropia was measured in the primary position, with the head erect and tilted toward both shoulders with the patient in the erect, supine, and upside-down positions. The last position was achieved by hanging the patient upside-down. Results: As expected, our results showed the veracity of Jampolsky's statement. The forced head tilt difference was inverted or significantly decreased when the test was performed in the upside-down position. Moreover, in all patients, Bielschowsky's phenomenon was neutralized in the supine body position, in which hypertropia with the head erect tended to vanish. In 3 patients, it disappeared completely. Conclusions: This study showed that, in patients with superior oblique paresis, differences in the extent of hypertropia in Bielschowsky's test tended to vanish when the test was performed with the patient in the supine position and invert when it was performed with the patient in the upside-down position.

  18. Avaliação sorológica para detecção de anticorpos anti-Leishmania em cães e gatos no bairro de Santa Rita de Cássia, Município de Barra Mansa, Estado do Rio de Janeiro Serological evaluation for detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs and cats in the district of Santa Rita de Cássia, municipality of Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Borges Figueiredo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um caso canino de leishmaniose tegumentar americana na localidade de Santa Rita de Cássia, município de Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado um inquérito sorológico em 177 cães e 43 gatos. Na avaliação das amostras de soros caninos, 10% foram positivos na reação de imunofluorescência indireta e 10,7% no ensaio imunoenzimático. Entre as amostras de soros felinos testados, nenhum animal foi positivo na reação de imunofluorescência indireta e apenas um (2,4% felino apresentou reação positiva ao ensaio imunoenzimático. A detecção de Leishmania braziliensis, autóctone em Barra Mansa, faz um alerta para a instalação de um possível foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana nessa região.From a canine case of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the locality of Santa Rita de Cássia, municipality of Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, a serological survey was performed on 177 dogs and 43 cats. Evaluation of the canine serum samples showed that 10% had a positive reaction in the indirect immunofluorescence test and 10.7% in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among the feline serum samples tested, none of the animals had a positive reaction in the indirect immunofluorescence test and only one (2.4% showed a positive reaction in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The detection of an autochthonous case of Leishmania braziliensis in Barra Mansa gives warning that a focus of american cutaneous leishmaniasis is possibly becoming established in this region.

  19. Single-cell quantitative HER2 measurement identifies heterogeneity and distinct subgroups within traditionally defined HER2-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsum, Matthew D; Geretti, Elena; Paragas, Violette; Kudla, Arthur J; Moulis, Sharon P; Luus, Lia; Wickham, Thomas J; McDonagh, Charlotte F; MacBeath, Gavin; Hendriks, Bart S

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for breast and gastric cancer prognosis and patient treatment decisions. HER2 positivity, as defined by IHC or fluorescent in situ hybridization testing, remains an imprecise predictor of patient response to HER2-targeted therapies. Challenges to correct HER2 assessment and patient stratification include intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of quantitative and/or objective assays, and differences between measuring HER2 amplification at the protein versus gene level. We developed a novel immunofluorescence method for quantitation of HER2 protein expression at the single-cell level on FFPE patient samples. Our assay uses automated image analysis to identify and classify tumor versus non-tumor cells, as well as quantitate the HER2 staining for each tumor cell. The HER2 staining level is converted to HER2 protein expression using a standard cell pellet array stained in parallel with the tissue sample. This approach allows assessment of HER2 expression and heterogeneity within a tissue section at the single-cell level. By using this assay, we identified distinct subgroups of HER2 heterogeneity within traditional definitions of HER2 positivity in both breast and gastric cancers. Quantitative assessment of intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity may offer an opportunity to improve the identification of patients likely to respond to HER2-targeted therapies. The broad applicability of the assay was demonstrated by measuring HER2 expression profiles on multiple tumor types, and on normal and diseased heart tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  1. Maternal microchimerism: increased in the insulin positive compartment of type 1 diabetes pancreas but not in infiltrating immune cells or replicating islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Ye

    Full Text Available Maternal microchimeric cells (MMc transfer across the placenta during pregnancy. Increased levels of MMc have been observed in several autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes but their role is unknown. It has been suggested that MMc are 1 effector cells of the immune response, 2 targets of the autoimmune response or 3 play a role in tissue repair. The aim of this study was to define the cellular phenotype of MMc in control (n = 14 and type 1 diabetes pancreas (n = 8.Using sex chromosome-based fluorescence in-situ hybridization, MMc were identified in male pancreas and their phenotype determined by concomitant immunofluorescence.In normal pancreas, MMc positive for endocrine, exocrine, duct and acinar markers were identified suggesting that these cells are derived from maternal progenitors. Increased frequencies of MMc were observed in type 1 diabetes pancreas (p = 0.03 with particular enrichment in the insulin positive fraction (p = 0.01. MMc did not contribute to infiltrating immune cells or Ki67+ islet cell populations in type 1 diabetes.These studies provide support for the hypothesis that MMc in human pancreas are derived from pancreatic precursors. Increased frequencies of MMc beta cells may contribute to the initiation of autoimmunity or to tissue repair but do not infiltrate islets in type 1 diabetes.

  2. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  3. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  4. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 μm. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 μm used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer

  5. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  6. Smooth muscle antibodies and type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Muratori, Luigi; Agostinelli, Daniela; Pappas, Georgios; Veronesi, Lorenza; Granito, Alessandro; Cassani, Fabio; Terlizzi, Paolo; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2002-12-01

    Smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) characterize type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Our aim was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of different immunofluorescence substrates for the detection of SMA. Sera from 55 patients with type 1 AIH 20 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 20 with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and 25 blood donors were studied for SMA and anti-microfilaments reactivity by immunofluorescence on rat tissue sections, cultured fibroblasts and commercially available HEp-2 cells (collectively revealing the so called anti-actin pattern), and for the XR1 system by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. SMA was classified on the basis of its immunofluorescence pattern (V--vessels, G--glomerular, T--tubular). As further control group, we studied 26 patients with a diagnosis other than AIH, selected on the basis of a SMA-non-T/XR1 positivity. In patients with AIH the SMA-T pattern on rodent tissue, and anti-MF on fibroblasts and on HEp-2 cells were present in 80, 82 and 80%, respectively. Five out of 11 SMA-non T positive AIH patients were anti-MF positive. None of the pathological and healthy controls was positive for SMA-T or anti-MF reactivity. XR1 system was present in 84% of AIH patients and in 5% of pathological controls (p = 0.01). Two out of 26 SMA-non-T/XR1 positive sera were positive for anti-MF by fibroblasts and HEp-2 cells. A significant correlation was found between SMA-T pattern and anti-MF reactivity; no correlation was found between XR1 system and SMA-T pattern or anti-MF reactivity. SMA-T pattern is highly sensitive and specific first diagnostic test for type 1 AIH; anti-MF can be used as additional tool for the diagnosis, particularly when, despite the absence of the SMA-T pattern, AIH is strongly suspected.

  7. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Junyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo system is established. The fractional-order controller for pneumatic position servo and its implementation in industrial computer is designed. The experiments with fractional-order controller are carried out under various conditions, which include sine position signal with different frequency and amplitude, step position signal, and variety inertial load. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and verify their fine control performance for pneumatic position servo system.

  8. Value Positions in E-government strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Reinwald, Anja Kaldahl; Skorve, Espen

    2017-01-01

    by value positions deeply enshrined in the traditions of public administration. We present a theory directed con-tent analysis of value positions in the national e-government strategy for Denmark published for the first time in 1994 and latest in 2016. Our comparison of the value positions in the two e......-government strategies show consistency over time when looking at the ideals of professionalism, service, and efficiency. While the least dominant ideal of engagement, has declined. The 22-year timespan separating the development of these two strategies had major technological advances, but little transformational...... impact on Danish e-government strategies in their general value positions. We discuss how our findings contribute to previous research on values in e-government and have practical implications for working with e-government strategies....

  9. Resources that promote positive youth development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a crucial developmental phase that shapes people´s futures. Positive psychology investigates the variables that promote the optimal development of human beings. It recognizes that all children and adolescents have strengths that will develop once these strengths match the resources needed to achieve this in the various settings in which they live. The aim of this study was to analyze from a multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. psychological, sociological, and economic the effect of resources that promote positive youth development. The sample consisted of 200 middle school students (15 to 19 years. EQS statistical software was used to analyse a structural equation model in which the study variables comprised 4 factors: one for each resource (economic, psychological, sociological, and one for positive youth development. The results showed a direct association between psychological and social resources and positive development, and between social resources and psychological assets. However, no association was found between economic resources and positive youth development. These results suggest that the main influences on positive youth development are psychological and social resources.

  10. Absence of positive eigenvalues for hard-core N-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, K.; Skibsted, Erik

    We show absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized 2-body hard-core Schrödinger operators under the condition of bounded strictly convex obstacles. A scheme for showing absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized N-body hard-core Schrödinger operators, N≥ 2, is presented. This scheme inv...

  11. Patient positioning and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2005-07-01

    Rotational beds, prone position, and semi-recumbent position have been proposed as procedures to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Rotational therapy uses a special bed designed to turn continuously, or nearly continuously, the patient from side to side; specific designs include kinetic therapy and continuous lateral rotation therapy. A meta-analysis of studies evaluating the effect of rotational bed therapy shows a decrease in the risk of pneumonia but no effect on mortality. Two studies reported a lower risk of VAP in patients placed in a prone position, with no effect on mortality. Studies using radiolabeled enteral feeding solutions in mechanically ventilated patients have reported that aspiration of gastric contents occurs to a greater degree when patients are in the supine position, compared with the semirecumbent position. One study reported a lower rate of VAP in patients randomized to semi-recumbent compared to supine position. Although each of the techniques discussed in this paper has been shown to reduce the risk of VAP, none has been shown to affect mortality. The available evidence suggests that semi-recumbent position should be used routinely, rotational therapy should be considered in selected patients, and prone position should not be used as a technique to reduce the risk of VAP.

  12. Theoretical optimum of implant positional index design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, W; Kraft, S; Krüger, T; Nelson, K

    2009-08-01

    Rotational freedom of the implant-abutment connection influences its screw joint stability; for optimization, influential factors need to be evaluated based on a previously developed closed formula. The underlying hypothesis is that the manufacturing tolerances, geometric pattern, and dimensions of the index do not influence positional stability. We used the dimensions of 5 commonly used implant systems with a clearance of 20 microm to calculate the extent of rotational freedom; a 3D simulation (SolidWorks) validated the analytical findings. Polygonal positional indices showed the highest degrees of rotational freedom. The polygonal profile displayed higher positional stability than the polygons, but less positional accuracy than the cam-groove connection. Features of a maximal rotation-safe positional index were determined. The analytical calculation of rotational freedom of implant positional indices is possible. Rotational freedom is dependent on the geometric design of the index and may be decreased by incorporating specific aspects into the positional index design.

  13. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  14. Positive Technologies for Understanding and Promoting Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa María; Carrillo, Alba; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-26

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.

  15. Positive School and Classroom Environment: Precursors of Successful Implementation of Positive Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.

  16. Patterns of positive selection in six Mammalian genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiol, Carolin; Vinar, Tomás; da Fonseca, Rute R

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide scans for positively selected genes (PSGs) in mammals have provided insight into the dynamics of genome evolution, the genetic basis of differences between species, and the functions of individual genes. However, previous scans have been limited in power and accuracy owing to small...... several new lineage- and clade-specific tests to be applied. Of approximately 16,500 human genes with high-confidence orthologs in at least two other species, 400 genes showed significant evidence of positive selection (FDR... showed evidence of positive selection on particular lineages or clades. As in previous studies, the identified PSGs were enriched for roles in defense/immunity, chemosensory perception, and reproduction, but enrichments were also evident for more specific functions, such as complement-mediated immunity...

  17. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  18. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  19. Vehicle positioning based on UWB technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kang, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase of the number of urban cars, the vehicle internet is becoming a trend of smart transportion. In such vehicle network, accurate location is very crucial in many new applications such as autopilot, semi-autopilot and Car-to-x communications. UWB technology has been used for indoor closed range positioning and ranging widely, while UWB outdoor positioning and ranging research is relatively less. This paper proposed UWB as the vehicle positioning technology and developed a method based on two-way-ranging (TWR) to solve the ranging problem between vehicles. At the same time, the improved TOA method was used to locate vehicles, which has higher precision compared with traditional GPS or LBS. A hardware module is introduced and the simulation results show that the modules are capable of precise positioning for vehicles in vehicle network.

  20. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Nielsen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved in sensory perception or immune defenses. However, the group of genes that show the strongest evidence for positive selection also includes a surprising number of genes involved in tumor suppression and apoptosis, and of genes involved in spermatogenesis. We hypothesize that positive selection in some of these genes may be driven by genomic conflict due to apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Genes with maximal expression in the brain show little or no evidence for positive selection, while genes with maximal expression in the testis tend to be enriched with positively selected genes. Genes on the X chromosome also tend to show an elevated tendency for positive selection. We also present polymorphism data from 20 Caucasian Americans and 19 African Americans for the 50 annotated genes showing the strongest evidence for positive selection. The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations.

  1. Positive real balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Ciuprina, G; Ioan, D

    2007-01-01

    We extend the positive real balancing procedure for passive linear systems to the nonlinear systems case. We show that, just like in the linear case, model reduction based on this technique preserves passivity.

  2. Sustained attention to objects' motion sharpens position representations: Attention to changing position and attention to motion are distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christina J; Rollings, Victoria; Hardie, Amy

    2017-06-01

    In tasks where people monitor moving objects, such the multiple object tracking task (MOT), observers attempt to keep track of targets as they move amongst distracters. The literature is mixed as to whether observers make use of motion information to facilitate performance. We sought to address this by two means: first by superimposing arrows on objects which varied in their informativeness about motion direction and second by asking observers to attend to motion direction. Using a position monitoring task, we calculated mean error magnitudes as a measure of the precision with which target positions are represented. We also calculated perceptual lags versus extrapolated reports, which are the times at which positions of targets best match position reports. We find that the presence of motion information in the form of superimposed arrows made no difference to position report precision nor perceptual lag. However, when we explicitly instructed observers to attend to motion, we saw facilitatory effects on position reports and in some cases reports that best matched extrapolated rather than lagging positions for small set sizes. The results indicate that attention to changing positions does not automatically recruit attention to motion, showing a dissociation between sustained attention to changing positions and attention to motion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Wang, Jennifer; Koo, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well-being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East-West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co-occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European-, immigrant Asian-, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Is Marcus Gunn jaw winking a primitive reflex? Rat neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Cheng Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a possible trigeminal proprioceptive-oculomotor neural pathway and explore possible synaptic connections between neurons in this pathway. Attempt to bring a new insight to mechanism of Marcus Gunn syndrome (MGS. METHODS: Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing was applied and combined with immunofluorescent stain in rats. After electrophysiological identifying mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme neurons, intracellular injection of tracer was performed to trace axon trajectory. RESULTS: Following injections of anterograde tracers into the Vme, labeled terminals were observed ipsilateral in oculomotor and trochlear nuclei (III/IV, as well as in their premotor neurons in interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN. Combining with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunofluorescent stain, it showed that Vme projecting terminals contact upon ChAT positive III/IV motoneurons under confocal microscope. By retrograde labeling premotor neurons of the III, it showed that Vme neuronal terminals contact with retrogradely labeled pre-oculomotor neurons in the INC/DN. Axons of intracellularly labeled Vme neurons that respond to electric stimuli of the masseter nerve traveled into the ipsilateral III. CONCLUSION: There may exist a trigeminal proprioceptive- oculomotor system neural circuit in the rat, which is probably related to vertical-torsional eye movements. Possible association of this pathway with MGS etiology was discussed.

  5. A Metastatic Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland in a Female Cat: Clinicopathological, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin GAL

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-rich invasive human breast cancer is a rare enigmatic entity among special types of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Our paper reports a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in a female cat with the gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical description of the tumor. A 13-year-old intact adult female, mixed-breed cat was presented by the owner to the Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A complete necropsy examination was performed in our laboratory. The tissue samples were collected and processed by paraffin technique for further histological, histochemical, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical examination. During the necropsy examination, a subcutaneous mass was discovered on the chest. Several variably sized, well-demarcated neoplasms were noted in the right axillary lymph node, right thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. Histologically, the cells frequently formed tubuloacinar structures. The morphology of the described tumor showed features of a poorly differentiated mammary carcinoma. Numerous tumoral cells were large and polygonal, with abundant cytoplasm that showed foam-like cytoplasm. The tumoral cells contained either multiple small or large and solitary vacuoles that pushed the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of the neoplastic cells were positive for Oil-Red-O and negatively with Periodic Acid–Schiff. As for immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry, nonvacuolated and vacuolated neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma. This is the second reliable record of a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in female cat and the first one with internal metastases.

  6. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen.

  7. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2004-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  8. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  9. Education positive approach: contributions to human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the current theoretical perspectives underlying educational proposals aimed at promoting the positive development of the people. Firstly we show the most important characteristics of the positive approach. Then, we focus on the positive concept of the inner and its relation to eudaimonia, self-care and emotional selfgovernance. Thirdly, with reference to the contributions of Positive Psychology and Prevention Science we examine the two points of view –hedonic and eudaemonic– from which different pedagogical approaches are based and focus towards education for the welfare, social-emotional development and educational character. We conclude that, despite the lack of practical knowledge about happiness and the art of living, a positive education oriented to the human construction processes must promote both emotional and social skills such as feelings and moral responsibilities for the optimal development of human being.

  10. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  11. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  12. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  13. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  14. Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives:Some empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  15. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  16. Beam position optimisation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.; Hoban, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The introduction of IMRT has not generally resulted in the use of optimised beam positions because to find the global solution of the problem a time consuming stochastic optimisation method must be used. Although a deterministic method may not achieve the global minimum it should achieve a superior dose distribution compared to no optimisation. This study aimed to develop and test such a method. The beam optimisation method developed relies on an iterative process to achieve the desired number of beams from a large initial number of beams. The number of beams is reduced in a 'weeding-out' process based on the total fluence which each beam delivers. The process is gradual, with only three beams removed each time (following a small number of iterations), ensuring that the reduction in beams does not dramatically affect the fluence maps of those remaining. A comparison was made between the dose distributions achieved when the beams positions were optimised in this fashion and when the beams positions were evenly distributed. The method has been shown to work quite effectively and efficiently. The Figure shows a comparison in dose distribution with optimised and non optimised beam positions for 5 beams. It can be clearly seen that there is an improvement in the dose distribution delivered to the tumour and a reduction in the dose to the critical structure with beam position optimisation. A method for beam position optimisation for use in IMRT optimisations has been developed. This method although not necessarily achieving the global minimum in beam position still achieves quite a dramatic improvement compared with no beam position optimisation and is very efficiently achieved. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Towards a Perron--Frobenius Theory for Eventually Positive Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Glück, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the spectral theory of so-called eventually positive operators, i.e.\\ operators $T$ which may not be positive but whose powers $T^n$ become positive for large enough $n$. While the spectral theory of such operators is well understood in finite dimensions, the infinite dimensional case has received much less attention in the literature. We show that several sensible notions of "eventual positivity" can be defined in the infinite dimensional setting, and in con...

  18. Fractional-order positive position feedback compensator for active vibration control of a smart composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, L.; Alijani, F.; HosseinNia, S. Hassan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a rectangular carbon fibre composite plate with free edges is presented. The plate is subjected to out-of-plane excitation by a modal vibration exciter and controlled by Macro Fibre Composite (MFC) transducers. Vibration measurements are performed by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) system. A fractional-order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) compensator is proposed, implemented and compared to the standard integer-order PPF. MFC actuator and sensor are positioned on the plate based on maximal modal strain criterion, so as to control the second natural mode of the plate. Both integer and fractional-order PPF allowed for the effective control of the second mode of vibration. However, the newly proposed fractional-order controller is found to be more efficient in achieving the same performance with less actuation voltage. Moreover, it shows promising performance in reducing spillover effect due to uncontrolled modes.

  19. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  20. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  1. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period...... in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s): Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal......Background: Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake.  Methods: We calculated the ratio...

  2. Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjirou Fujii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hyperbolic positioning method with antenna arrays consisting of proximately-located antennas and a multi-channel pseudolite is proposed in order to overcome the problems of indoor positioning with conventional pseudolites (ground-based GPS transmitters. A two-dimensional positioning experiment using actual devices is conducted. The experimental result shows that the positioning accuracy varies centimeter- to meter-level according to the geometric relation between the pseudolite antennas and the receiver. It also shows that the bias error of the carrier-phase difference observables is more serious than their random error. Based on the size of the bias error of carrier-phase difference that is inverse-calculated from the experimental result, three-dimensional positioning performance is evaluated by computer simulation. In addition, in the three-dimensional positioning scenario, an initial value convergence analysis of the non-linear least squares is conducted. Its result shows that initial values that can converge to a right position exist at least under the proposed antenna setup. The simulated values and evaluation methods introduced in this work can be applied to various antenna setups; therefore, by using them, positioning performance can be predicted in advance of installing an actual system.

  3. High Accuracy Positioning using Jet Thrusters for Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi ChenHuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadcopter is equipped with four additional jet thrusters on its horizontal plane and vertical to each other in order to improve the maneuverability and positioning accuracy of quadcopter. A dynamic model of the quadcopter with jet thrusters is derived and two controllers are implemented in simulation, one is a dual loop state feedback controller for pose control and another is an auxiliary jet thruster controller for accurate positioning. Step response simulations showed that the jet thruster can control the quadcopter with less overshoot compared to the conventional one. Over 10s loiter simulation with disturbance, the quadcopter with jet thruster decrease 85% of RMS error of horizontal disturbance compared to a conventional quadcopter with only a dual loop state feedback controller. The jet thruster controller shows the possibility for further accurate in the field of quadcopter positioning.

  4. Couples with dementia: Positioning the 'we'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Nilsson, Elin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how spouses in couples with dementia position themselves in relation to each other by analysing their use of pronouns, especially the we. The study uses joint interviews with 11 couples. Based on a quantitative analysis of pronoun use, it is argued that the pronoun we is used by all the spouses; however, it is used less frequently by the spouses with dementia in comparison with healthy spouses. A qualitative analysis of the use of the pronoun we shows that the spouses position, experience and consider themselves as a couple and that they position and experience themselves as individuals in relation to the couple. One of the challenges for couples with dementia is to be able to retain a we in face of the progression of the dementia disease. By positioning themselves in various ways, the spouses establish and negotiate quite a complex and emotionally charged web of relationships. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Aliasing errors in measurements of beam position and ellipticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used in accelerators and ion experiments to measure currents, position, and azimuthal asymmetry. These usually consist of discrete arrays of electromagnetic field detectors, with detectors located at several equally spaced azimuthal positions at the beam tube wall. The discrete nature of these arrays introduces systematic errors into the data, independent of uncertainties resulting from signal noise, lack of recording dynamic range, etc. Computer simulations were used to understand and quantify these aliasing errors. If required, aliasing errors can be significantly reduced by employing more than the usual four detectors in the BPMs. These simulations show that the error in measurements of the centroid position of a large beam is indistinguishable from the error in the position of a filament. The simulations also show that aliasing errors in the measurement of beam ellipticity are very large unless the beam is accurately centered. The simulations were used to quantify the aliasing errors in beam parameter measurements during early experiments on the DARHT-II accelerator, demonstrating that they affected the measurements only slightly, if at all

  6. Aliasing errors in measurements of beam position and ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2005-09-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used in accelerators and ion experiments to measure currents, position, and azimuthal asymmetry. These usually consist of discrete arrays of electromagnetic field detectors, with detectors located at several equally spaced azimuthal positions at the beam tube wall. The discrete nature of these arrays introduces systematic errors into the data, independent of uncertainties resulting from signal noise, lack of recording dynamic range, etc. Computer simulations were used to understand and quantify these aliasing errors. If required, aliasing errors can be significantly reduced by employing more than the usual four detectors in the BPMs. These simulations show that the error in measurements of the centroid position of a large beam is indistinguishable from the error in the position of a filament. The simulations also show that aliasing errors in the measurement of beam ellipticity are very large unless the beam is accurately centered. The simulations were used to quantify the aliasing errors in beam parameter measurements during early experiments on the DARHT-II accelerator, demonstrating that they affected the measurements only slightly, if at all.

  7. Positive magnetoresistance in Fe3Se4 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Jiang, J. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2011-04-01

    We report the magnetotransport properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane. The temperature dependence of resistance of Fe3Se4 nanowires at a zero field shows thermal activated behavior below 295 K. The exponential relationship in resistance is consistent with the model of strong localization with variable-range hopping (VRH) for a finite one-dimensional wire. Resistance versus magnetic field curves below 100 K show small positive magnetoresistance (MR). The field dependencies of log[R(H)/R(0)] explain the positive MR as the effect of magnetic field on the VRH conduction.

  8. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  9. Specificities of anti-neutrophil autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, J; Halberg, P; Jacobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antigens recognized by neutrophil-specific autoantibodies from patients with RA. Sera from 62 RA patients were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Positive sera were further tested by ELISAs for antibodies against various granule proteins...

  10. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  11. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  12. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  13. [Are positive illusions adaptive?: self- and other-rating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Miki

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between children's overly positive self-perceptions of their own social competence and mental health. Elementary school students (grades fourth to sixth, n=331) and their homeroom teachers (n=9) participated in the study. The positive illusion was measured by the difference between the self-rating and the other (homeroom teachers) -rating. And, the index of mental health was administered in both self-rating and other (homeroom teachers and same-sex classmates) -rating forms. Positive illusions about children's social competence were positively related to self-ratings of mental health. However, the present study also found detrimental effects of such positive illusions. Children with excessively positive views of their social competence were viewed by teachers and same-sex classmates as significantly more aggressive than those children who showed more evidence of self-devaluation. In addition, children with overly positive self-perceptions were not as accepted by same-sex classmates.

  14. CPR in medical TV shows: non-health care student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Abdullah; Meyer, Nicole C; Almutairi, Waleed; Daher, Noha S

    2018-01-01

    There are over a dozen medical shows airing on television, many of which are during prime time. Researchers have recently become more interested in the role of these shows, and the awareness on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Several cases have been reported where a lay person resuscitated a family member using medical TV shows as a reference. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate college students' perception on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and when to shock using an automated external defibrillator based on their experience of watching medical TV shows. A total of 170 students (nonmedical major) were surveyed in four different colleges in the United States. The survey consisted of questions that reflect their perception and knowledge acquired from watching medical TV shows. A stepwise regression was used to determine the significant predictors of "How often do you watch medical drama TV shows" in addition to chi-square analysis for nominal variables. Regression model showed significant effect that TV shows did change students' perception positively ( p <0.001), and they would select shock on asystole as the frequency of watching increases ( p =0.023). The findings of this study show that high percentage of nonmedical college students are influenced significantly by medical shows. One particular influence is the false belief about when a shock using the automated external defibrillator (AED) is appropriate as it is portrayed falsely in most medical shows. This finding raises a concern about how these shows portray basic life support, especially when not following American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. We recommend the medical advisors in these shows to use AHA guidelines and AHA to expand its expenditures to include medical shows to educate the public on the appropriate action to rescue an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patient.

  15. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  16. Attentional bias for positive emotional stimuli: A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Sander, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite an initial focus on negative threatening stimuli, researchers have more recently expanded the investigation of attentional biases toward positive rewarding stimuli. The present meta-analysis systematically compared attentional bias for positive compared with neutral visual stimuli across 243 studies (N = 9,120 healthy participants) that used different types of attentional paradigms and positive stimuli. Factors were tested that, as postulated by several attentional models derived from theories of emotion, might modulate this bias. Overall, results showed a significant, albeit modest (Hedges' g = .258), attentional bias for positive as compared with neutral stimuli. Moderator analyses revealed that the magnitude of this attentional bias varied as a function of arousal and that this bias was significantly larger when the emotional stimulus was relevant to specific concerns (e.g., hunger) of the participants compared with other positive stimuli that were less relevant to the participants' concerns. Moreover, the moderator analyses showed that attentional bias for positive stimuli was larger in paradigms that measure early, rather than late, attentional processing, suggesting that attentional bias for positive stimuli occurs rapidly and involuntarily. Implications for theories of emotion and attention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nansook

    2009-01-01

    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  18. Positive Maladjustment as a Transition from Chaos to Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration describes patterns and explains mechanisms of human development and has been successfully applied to understanding of gifted individuals. This article shows how the concepts of chaos theory and self-organization such as the sensitivity to initial conditions, positive and negative feedback, bifurcation…

  19. Induced abortion among HIV-positive women in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Nguyen Thi, Thuy Hanh

    2010-01-01

    an abortion after being diagnosed as HIV-positive, exploring their reflections, concerns and dilemmas. The results show that the HIV-positive pregnant women sought to balance their desires for a child with their worries of being unable to fulfill their responsibilities as mothers. Even while strongly desiring...

  20. JS-K, a nitric oxide prodrug, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2.2.15 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyun; Li, Guangmin; Gou, Ying; Xiao, Dongyan; Luo, Guo; Saavedra, Joseph E; Liu, Jie; Wang, Huan

    2017-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most important cause of cancer-related death, and 85% of HCC is caused by chronic HBV infection, the prognosis of patients and the reduction of HBV DNA levels remain unsatisfactory. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing diazeniumdiolates, is effective against various tumors, but little is known on its effects on HBV positive HCC. We found that JS-K reduced the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells. This study aimed to further examine anti-tumor effects of JS-K on HepG2.2.15 cells. The MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to study the cell growth inhibition of JS-K; scratch assay and transwell assay were performed to detect cell migration. The cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The immunofluorescence, flow cytometry analysis, and western blot were used to study DNA damage and cell apoptosis. JS-K inhibited HepG2.2.15 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, suppressed cell colony formation and migration, arrested cells gather in the G2 phase. JS-K (1-20μM) increased the expression of DNA damage-associated protein phosphorylation H 2 AX (γH 2 AX), phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 (p-Chk2), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated rad3-related (p-ATR) and apoptotic-associated proteins cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-7, cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved PARP). The study demonstrated JS-K is effective against HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells, the mechanisms are not only related to inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion, but also related with induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. JS-K is a promising anti-cancer candidate against HBV-positive HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  2. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, situating it within the field of positive psychology. The theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn build their enduring personal resources (physical, intellectual, social, and psychological). Reviews…

  4. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  5. Replacing Military Personnel in Support Positions With Civilian Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    burdened costs , as they are known, would include the per-person share of costs for recruit -processing centers, schools, and training bases and would...sector so that, in principle, those same positions could be filled by civilian employees. To cut costs , DoD could transfer some of those positions to...functions more cost -effectively. DoD competed and outsourced many positions outlined in those plans. However, CBO does not have information showing

  6. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  7. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  8. Study of positive-parity yrast band in 83Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the positive-parity yrast band in the odd-A 81,83,85 Rb (Z=37) isotopes show remarkable changes as N increases. The objective of the present work is to study the structure of the lowest positive-parity band in 83 Rb from lifetime studies

  9. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P; Dimmic, Matt

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome......, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals...... that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence...

  10. Characterization of pituitary cells targeted by antipituitary antibodies in patients with isolated autoimmune diseases without pituitary insufficiency may help to foresee the kind of future hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, A; Dello Iacovo, A; Bellastella, G; Savoia, A; Cozzolino, D; Sinisi, A A; Bizzarro, A; Bellastella, A; Giugliano, D

    2014-10-01

    Detection of antipituitary antibodies (APA) at high levels and with a particular immunofluorescence pattern in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes may indicate a possible future autoimmune pituitary involvement. This longitudinal study was aimed at characterizing in patients with a single organ-specific autoimmune disease the pituitary cells targeted by APA at start, verifying whether this characterization allows to foresee the kind of possible subsequent hypopituitarism. Thirty-six APA positive and 40 APA negative patients with isolated autoimmune diseases participated in the study. None of them had pituitary dysfunction at entry. Characterization by four-layer immunofluorescence of pituitary cells targeted by APA in APA positive patients at entry and study of pituitary function in all patients were performed every 6 months during a 5 year follow-up. Antipituitary antibodies immunostained selectively one type of pituitary-secreting cells in 21 patients (58.3 %, group 1), and several types of pituitary cells in the remaining 15 (41.7 %, group 2). All patients in group 1 showed subsequently a pituitary insufficiency, corresponding to the type of cells targeted by APA in 18 of them (85.7 %). Only 8 out of 15 patients in group 2 (53.3 %) showed a hypopituitarism, isolated in 7 and combined in the other one. None of APA negative patients showed hypopituitarism. The characterization of pituitary cells targeted by APA in patients with isolated autoimmune diseases, when the pituitary function is still normal, may help to foresee the kind of subsequent hypopituitarism, especially when APA immunostained selectively only one type of pituitary cells. A careful follow-up of pituitary function in these patients is advisable to allow an early diagnosis of hypopituitarism, even in subclinical phase and a consequent timely replacement therapy.

  11. Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for WiFi-PDR Integrated Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN GuoLiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning still faces lots of fundamental technical problems although it has been widely applied. A novel indoor positioning technology by using the smart phone with the assisting of the widely available and economically signals of WiFi is proposed. It also includes the principles and characteristics in indoor positioning. Firstly, improve the system's accuracy by fusing the WiFi fingerprinting positioning and PDR (ped estrian dead reckoning positioning with UKF (unscented Kalman filter. Secondly, improve the real-time performance by clustering the WiFi fingerprinting with k-means clustering algorithm. An investigation test was conducted at the indoor environment to learn about its performance on a HUAWEI P6-U06 smart phone. The result shows that compared to the pattern-matching system without clustering, an average reduction of 51% in the time cost can be obtained without degrading the positioning accuracy. When the state of personnel is walking, the average positioning error of WiFi is 7.76 m, the average positioning error of PDR is 4.57 m. After UKF fusing, the system's average positioning error is down to 1.24 m. It shows that the algorithm greatly improves the system's real-time and positioning accuracy.

  12. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia–loss of pleasure–and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression. PMID:26441703

  13. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gerard Dillon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia--loss of pleasure--and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression.

  14. Crossreactivity of boar sperm monoclonal antibodies with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monoclonal antibodies against the head (H mabs) and tail (Tmabs) of boar spermatozoa were produced. Spermatozoa from boar, stallion, bull, human, ram, goat and rabbit were independently incubated with the monoclonal antibodies and later stained by immunofluorescence method. There were positive reactions of the ...

  15. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  16. Strategic positioning in banking industry: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Mashoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.

  17. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  18. Perfectionism in students and positive career planning attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Mutinelli, Sofia; Corr, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain job market, university students who show positive attitudes in their career planning have an advantage. Yet, we know little what personality characteristics are associated with individual differences in career planning attitudes. The present study examined 177 university students to investigate whether perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed) predicted students' positive career planning attitudes (career adaptability, career optimism, and per...

  19. Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Carswell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern smartphones are a great platform for Location Based Services (LBS. While outdoor LBS for smartphones has proven to be very successful, indoor LBS for smartphones has not yet fully developed due to the lack of an accurate positioning technology. In this paper we present an accurate indoor positioning approach for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS smartphones that uses the innate ability of mobile phones to produce ultrasound, combined with Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA asynchronous trilateration. We evaluate our indoor positioning approach by describing its strengths and weaknesses, and determine its absolute accuracy. This is accomplished through a range of experiments that involve variables such as position of control point microphones, position of phone within the room, direction speaker is facing and presence of user in the signal path. Test results show that our Lok8 (locate mobile positioning system can achieve accuracies better than 10 cm in a real-world environment.

  20. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.

  1. Automated two-site immunofluorescent assay for the measurement of serum chromogranin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Théodora; Moreira, Baptiste; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Bories, Phuong-Nhi

    2014-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is the best-characterized biological marker common to neuroendocrine tumours and is therefore recommended for their diagnosis. The measurement of serum CgA is of great importance for reaching an early diagnosis and thus reducing the delay before treatment is instigated. The Kryptor CgA assay is the first fully automated assay available. The aim of this study was to evaluate its analytical performance. The imprecision and linearity of the Kryptor CgA assay were evaluated. This assay was compared with the Cis Bio CgA RIA assay in 78 serum samples. Its clinical utility was assessed in serum from 229 patients. The study performed on imprecision of Kryptor measurements showed intra- and inter-run CVs ≤ 5%. The study of linearity showed a satisfactory recovery rate for CgA concentrations up to 1200 μg/L. The Kryptor and RIA assays agreed well on the basis of the cut-off values provided by the two manufacturers. The Bland and Altman plot of the values obtained (range: 20-5560 μg/L) provided a mean difference of -10.1 μg/L (SD: 116). The clinical sensitivities of Kryptor CgA for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (n 20) and gastroenteropancreatic NETs (n 17) were respectively 100 and 94%. The Kryptor assay for CgA shows reliable analytical and clinical characteristics and allows a fast delivery of results. © 2013.

  2. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada’s (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N = 188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the ...

  3. Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide

  4. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting—remembering the positive past—and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. PMID:28655195

  5. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting-remembering the positive past-and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Daily positive spillover and crossover from mothers' work to youth health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-12-01

    Prior research shows that employees' work experiences can "spill over" into their family lives and "cross over" to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same 8 consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers' positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of 2-level models showed that mothers' positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics.

  7. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same, eight, consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers’ positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of two-level models showed that mothers’ positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics. PMID:25243577

  8. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis of primary school children in Geoje island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jin; Lee, Bo Young; Chung, Hyun Kee; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Chung, Hae Jin

    2003-01-01

    The status of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) egg positive rate of primary school children in Geoje island was investigated by using adhesive cellotape anal swap method, in September, 2002. Total egg positive rates of E. vermicularis were 9.8% (74/754) and those of male and female were 10.8% and 8.7%, respectively. Among three schools examined, Myeongsa primary school showed the highest egg positive rate (12.6%) followed by Yeoncho [9.8% (26/266)] and Geoje [9.1% (35/385)]. As for the age groups, the 2nd grade had the highest egg positive rate (15.3%), whereas the 5th grade showed the lowest egg positive rate (2.6%). The above result led us to confirm that the egg positive rates of E. vermicularis in primary school children in Geoje island were not significantly different from the those in the whole country including urban and rural areas, showing more than 10%. PMID:12666734

  9. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  10. Viewing-position effects in the Stroop task: Initial fixation position modulates Stroop effects in fully colored words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Patrick; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    In two experiments that we conducted with adult (Experiment 1) and child (Experiment 2) participants, we experimentally controlled the eyes' first fixation in the word using a variable viewing-position technique in a classical all-letter-coloring Stroop procedure. We explored the impact of initial-fixation position (optimal viewing position [OVP] vs. end of the word) on the magnitude of Stroop effects (both interference and facilitation). The results showed that both interference and facilitation effects were reduced when the first fixation was located at the end of the word rather than at the OVP. These data make a new contribution to the study of the role of low-level processes in Stroop effects and add support to the growing body of research indicating that oculomotor processes can act as moderators of cognitive processes in the determination of Stroop effects.

  11. Evidence for Very Recent Positive Selection in Mongolians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Jun; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Munkhtulga, Lkagvasuren; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2017-08-01

    Mongols, the founders of the largest continental empire in history, successfully adapted to the harsh environments of Inner Asia through nomadic pastoralism. Considerable interest exists in ascertaining whether genetic adaptation also contributed to the Mongols' success, and dissecting the genome diversity of present-day populations in Mongolia can help address this question. To this end, we determined the genotypes of nearly 2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96 unrelated Mongolian individuals in Ulaanbaatar city, and performed genome-wide scans for population-specific positive selection. We discovered signatures of Mongolian-specific positive selection at the chromosomal region 3p12.1, in which hits in genome-wide association studies were reported for medical and biological traits related to energy metabolism and reproduction. The top SNP, rs117799927, showed a distinctive geographic distribution: the frequency of the derived allele, rs117799927 G, was extremely low among worldwide populations (0.005) but exceptionally high in Mongolians (0.247). Approximate Bayesian computation-based age estimation showed that the rs117799927 G allele emerged or positive selection began to operate 50 generations before the present, near the age of the climate anomaly named Late Antique Little Ice Age. Furthermore, rs117799927 showed significant associations with multiple adiposity-related traits in Mongolians and allelic difference in enhancer activity in cells of adipocyte lineage, suggesting that positive selection at 3p12.1 might be related to adaptation in the energy metabolism system. These findings provide novel evidence for a very recent positive-selection event in Homo sapiens and offer insights into the roles of genes in 3p12.1 in the adaptive evolution of our species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative nonlinguistic emotion vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri eLaukka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Which emotions are associated with universally recognized nonverbal signals? We address this issue by examining how reliably nonlinguistic vocalizations (affect bursts can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey 9 positive and 9 negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from nonlinguistic vocalizations.

  13. Using standard serology blood tests to diagnose latent syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Katunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To conduct a comparative assessment of the results of regulated serological tests obtained as a result of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis. Materials and methods. The authors examined 187 patient medical records with newly diagnosed latent syphilis in FGBU GNTsDK (State Research Center for Dermatology, Venereology and Cosmetology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, in 2006-2015. The results of patient blood tests were analyzed with the use of non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR and treponemal (passive hemagglutination test, immune-enzyme assay (IgA, IgM, IgG, IFabs, immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test serology tests. Results. According to the results of blood tests of latent syphilis patients, the largest number of positive results was obtained as a result of treponemal serology tests such as immune-enzyme assay (100%, passive hemagglutination test (100% and IFabs (100%. The greatest number of negative results was observed in non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR serology tests: in 136 (72.7% patients; evidently positive results (4+ test results were obtained in 8 (4.3% patients only. According to the results of a comparative analysis of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis obtained with the use of treponemal serology tests, the greatest number of evidently positive results (4+ was noted for the passive hemagglutination test (67.9%. Negative treponemal test results were obtained with the use of the immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test (21.9% and 11.8% of cases, respectively. Moreover, weakly positive results prevailed for the immunofluorescence test: in 65 (34.7% patients. Conclusion. These data confirm that the following treponemal tests belong to the most reliable ones for revealing patients suffering from latent syphilis: immune-enzyme assay, passive hemagglutination test and IFabs.

  14. [Immunohistochemistry diagnosis of fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, D C; Duarte, M I; Pagliari, C; de Oliveira, M S

    1998-01-01

    Because the mycosis incidence has increased a lot with the appearing of AIDS, the Immunohistochemistry study among fungus shows the importance of fast methods for their identification that have advantage of been a durable method in comparison with immunofluorescence and the possibility of making retrospective studies in material embedded in paraffin. The Immunohistochemistry reaction with Histoplasma capsulatum, Pneumocystis carinii; and Criptococcus neoformans antibodies were sensitive, specifics, and intensely positive in all the cases previously diagnosed as Histoplasmosis, Pneumocystosis and Cryptococcosis, without cross-reaction with other fungus; while the anti-Candida albicans antibody showed weak positiveness in four Histoplasmosis cases, in one of Paracoccidioidomycosis cases and Sporotrichosis case; and the reactions with the antibody anti-P. brasiliensis were intensely positive in all the Paracoccidioidomycosis cases and weakly positive in two Histoplasmosis and two of the four Candidiasis cases. The previous identification of each fungi on tissue sample was made by Grocott method. This preliminary study showed that it is necessary to use other kinds of antibody and fungus, in order to get more details about the possible occurrence of cross-reactions. We suggest the use of new antibodies, with new standardizations in order to find the best titles for each reaction and eliminate the cross-reactions.

  15. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  16. Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views.

  17. Immunofluorescence Analysis of Testicular Biopsies With Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Markers Shows Significant MVH Negative Germ Cell Depletion With Older Age of Orchidopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Sun, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses ...... age of orchidopexy using a germ cell marker and a Sertoli cell marker on testicular biopsies.......Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses...

  18. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  19. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids of Pigs by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, A. Katrin; Runge, Martin; Ganter, Martin; Feenstra, Anne A.; Delbeck, Friedrich; Kirchhoff, Helga

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 102 CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11 other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Friis medium and (ii) with DNA extracted from the BALFs. In addition, PCR was performed with postmortem lung washings from 19 of the 40 pigs, and immunofluorescence tests were carried out with sections of lungs from 18 of the 40 pigs. M. hyopneumoniae could not be detected in 18 of the 40 pigs by any of the five methods tested. The remaining 22 pigs showed a positive reaction by the PCR with DNA extracted from the BALFs and variable positive reactions by the other tests. A complete correspondence could be observed between the immunofluorescence test result and the result of PCR with DNA. The investigation shows that the PCR with DNA extracted from BALFs is a suitable technique for the sensitive and specific in vivo detection of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:9650949

  20. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  1. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting ...

  2. GABAergic Neurons of the Rat Dorsal Hippocampus Express Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, E.A.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive cells in the different strata of CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus is examined by way of quantitative immunofluorescent double labeling employing M35, the

  3. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  4. Depression reduces perceptual sensitivity for positive words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ilardi, Stephen S; Young, Keith M; Stroupe, Natalie N; O'Hare, Aminda J; Bistricky, Steven L; Collison, Elizabeth; Gibson, Linzi; Schuster, Jonathan; Lepping, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of maladaptive attentional biases for lexical information (e.g., Atchley, Ilardi, & Enloe, 2003; Atchley, Stringer, Mathias, Ilardi, & Minatrea, 2007) and for pictographic stimuli (e.g., Gotlib, Krasnoperova, Yue, & Joormann, 2004) among patients with depression. The current research looks for depressotypic processing biases among depressed out-patients and non-clinical controls, using both verbal and pictorial stimuli. A d' measure (sensitivity index) was used to examine each participant's perceptual sensitivity threshold. Never-depressed controls evidenced a detection bias for positive picture stimuli, while depressed participants had no such bias. With verbal stimuli, depressed individuals showed specific decrements in the detection of positive person-referent words (WINNER), but not with positive non-person-referent words (SUNSHINE) or with negative words. Never-depressed participants showed no such differences across word types. In the current study, depression is characterised both by an absence of the normal positivistic biases seen in individuals without mood disorders (consistent with McCabe & Gotlib, 1995), and by a specific reduction in sensitivity for person-referent positive information that might be inconsistent with depressotypic self-schemas.

  5. Social dominance, values and ideological positioning in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Dominance Theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 stress that systematic inter group discrimination is related to social ideologies that contribute to coordinate institutions and individuals behaviors. The acceptance of inequity legitimating ideologies is partially determined for individuals general desire of group based domination. This desire is captured by Social Orientation Domination construct -SDO. Pursuing the objective of exploring SDO levels and its relationship with variables such ideological positioning and values, a descriptive correlation study, with a non experimental design, was carried out based on a convenience sample composed by 254 college students from Buenos Aires city surroundings . Results show that SDO is positively associated with Power and Achievement values and negatively with Benevolence and Universalism. SDO is stronger in participants right side ideologically positioned. Participants show a low SDO, emphasize self- trascendence and openness to change values and tend to a left side ideological positioning. Age, participant’s quality of “students” and prevailed career orientation can be seen as factors conditioning a more hierarchies attenuating believes and behaviors. 

  6. Products Positioning on a Heterogeneous Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMTU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses realized on markets showed in time that these are not amorphous masses of buyers but are formed of different divisions that we can often find under the name of market segments. Market can be divided in more segments of request composed of buyers, instinctively in the search of the same characteristic of the products. The liability of the firm is that of defining well the segments and serves them well with perfectly adapted products. Business positioning on well-defined segments of consumers leads to a relationship optimization between the business field and consumers. The present study takes into discussion positioning strategy, from the 4 proposed business strategies. We have tried to underline the fact that the correspondent or defective model for issuing and application of the positioning strategy determined the success or the failure at the level of the entire firm.

  7. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  8. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  9. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  10. Assessment of Positive Illusions of the Physical Attractiveness of Romantic Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Koudenburg, N.; Swami, V.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness occur when individuals' ratings of their partner's attractiveness are more positive than more objective ratings. Ratings that may serve as a''reality benchmark' include ratings by the partner him/herself and observer ratings. The present study compared the effects of using different reality benchmarks on the strength of positive partner physical attractiveness illusions (n = 70 couples). Results showed that individuals positively bi...

  11. Pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (fogo-selvagem no grupo indígena Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil Endemic pemphigus foliaceus among the Xavánte indians, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Friedman

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito soro-epidemiológico através de testes de imunofluorescência indireta e imunoprecipitação visando determinar a prevalência do pênfígo foliáceo endêmico (PFE na população indígena Xavánte do Brasil Central. Do total de 163 amostras de soro testadas, 5 (3,1% foram positivas à imunofluorescência. Todos os soros positivos procediam de indivíduos com sintomas clínicos da doença. Não foram observadas diferenças do PFE entre os Xavánte e a população em geral sob o ponto de vista imunológico, já que se verificou uma predominância da IgG4 entre os anticorpos nos pacientes indígenas.A sero-epidemiological survey was carried out by means of indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation tests in order to determine the prevalence of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF among the Xavánte Indians from Central Brazil. Out of 163 serum samples, 5 (3.1% tested positive for immunofluorescence. All positive sera were from patients showing clinical signs of the disease. The immunological features of EPF among the Xavánte do not differ from those of non-Indian populations, as was observed a predominance of IgG4 among the antibodies of the Indian subjects.

  12. Competitive intelligence: An exploratory literature review of its positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative-exploratory literature review. The primary concern of the author is to explore the positioning of the competitive intelligence function within organisations so as to establish the best positioning. To ensure reliability of the literary exploration, only peer-reviewed journal articles were used. The findings of this article will make it possible to generalise about the best position of the competitive intelligence function and to develop some valuable propositions for future studies. The findings show that there is no single criterion on which to base the positioning of the competitive intelligence function within organisations. This article will assist business managers to understand and improve their positioning of the competitive intelligence function. This article has therefore academic value.

  13. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Extracellular Matrix Synthesis and Degradation in a Rabbit Model of Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at determining if the electroacupuncture (EA is able to protect degenerated disc in vivo. New Zealand white rabbits (n=40 were used for the study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. EA intervention was applied to one of the four groups. Magnetic resonance imaging and Pfirrmann’s classification were obtained for each group to evaluate EA treatment on the intervertebral disc degeneration. Discs were analyzed using immunofluorescence for the labeling of collagens 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. For protein expression analysis, western blot was used for biglycan and decorin. Outcomes indicated that EA intervention decreased the grades compared with the compressed disc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a significant increase of collagens 1 and 2, TIMP-1, and BMP-2 positive cells, in contrast to MMP-13 after EA treatment for 28 days. The protein expression showed a sign of regeneration that decorin and biglycan were upregulated. It was concluded that EA contributed to the extracellular matrix (ECM anabolic processes and increased the ECM components. MMPs and their inhibitors involved in the mechanism of EA intervention on ECM decreased disc. It kept a dynamic balance between ECM synthesis and degradation.

  14. Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (β=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (β=1.3, Pbenefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (β=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (β=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (β=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (β=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  16. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  17. Overlapping Neural Correlates of Reading Emotionally Positive and Negative Adjectives

    OpenAIRE

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive wor...

  18. Lupus erythematosus and localized scleroderma coexistent at the same sites: a rare presentation of overlap syndrome of connective-tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Anabella; Lynch, Peter J; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-05-01

    Overlap syndromes are known to occur with connective-tissue diseases (CTDs). Rarely, the overlap occurs at the same tissue site. We report the case of a patient with clinical and histopathologic findings consistent with the presence of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and localized scleroderma within the same lesions. Based on our case and other reported cases in the literature, the following features are common in patients with an overlap of lupus erythematosus (LE) and localized scleroderma: predilection for young women, photodistributed lesions, DLE, linear morphology clinically, and positivity along the dermoepidermal junction on direct immunofluorescence. Most patients showed good response to antimalarials, topical steroids, or systemic steroids.

  19. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K.S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  20. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  1. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  2. Reconstruction of Cluster Positions in the LHCb Velo

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, C; Szumlak, T

    2007-01-01

    This note describes the `Velo Cluster Position Tool'. This software is used in the GAUDI framework to estimate the hit position of a particle traversing the silicon sensors of the LHCb VELO and to estimate the uncertainty on this position. This estimate and its uncertainty are used in the LHCb track fit. The definition of the cluster centre is given and the baseline linear approximation method presented. The position error is strongly dependent on the angle of incidence of the particle on the silicon sensors measured perpendicularly to the strips -- known as the projected angle -- and on the silicon sensor pitch at the point of incidence, and is parametrised in terms of these variables. Pull plots are presented to show the quality of the current tuning implemented for simulation events.

  3. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Corley, Robin P; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children's externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences.

  4. Dopaminergic Immunofluorescence Studies in Kidney Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J J; Van Sciver, R E; McGrath, H E; Kemp, B A; Jose, P A; Carey, R M; Felder, R A

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a highly integrated system of specialized differentiated cells that are responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. While much of today's research focuses on isolated nephron segments or cells from nephron segments grown in tissue culture, an often overlooked technique that can provide a unique view of many cell types in the kidney is slice culture. Here, we describe techniques that use freshly excised kidney tissue from rats to perform a variety of experiments shortly after isolating the tissue. By slicing the rat kidney in a "bread loaf" format, multiple studies can be performed on slices from the same tissue in parallel. Cryosectioning and staining of the tissue allow for the evaluation of physiological or biochemical responses in a wide variety of specific nephron segments. The procedures described within this chapter can also be extended to human or mouse kidney tissue.

  5. Streptococcus pneumonia YlxR at 1.35 A shows a putative new fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Górnicki, P; Maj, L; Dementieva, I; Laskowski, R; Joachimiak, A

    2001-11-01

    The structure of the YlxR protein of unknown function from Streptococcus pneumonia was determined to 1.35 A. YlxR is expressed from the nusA/infB operon in bacteria and belongs to a small protein family (COG2740) that shares a conserved sequence motif GRGA(Y/W). The family shows no significant amino-acid sequence similarity with other proteins. Three-wavelength diffraction MAD data were collected to 1.7 A from orthorhombic crystals using synchrotron radiation and the structure was determined using a semi-automated approach. The YlxR structure resembles a two-layer alpha/beta sandwich with the overall shape of a cylinder and shows no structural homology to proteins of known structure. Structural analysis revealed that the YlxR structure represents a new protein fold that belongs to the alpha-beta plait superfamily. The distribution of the electrostatic surface potential shows a large positively charged patch on one side of the protein, a feature often found in nucleic acid-binding proteins. Three sulfate ions bind to this positively charged surface. Analysis of potential binding sites uncovered several substantial clefts, with the largest spanning 3/4 of the protein. A similar distribution of binding sites and a large sharply bent cleft are observed in RNA-binding proteins that are unrelated in sequence and structure. It is proposed that YlxR is an RNA-binding protein.

  6. Modelled seasonal influenza mortality shows marked differences in risk by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Trang Q T; Pierse, Nevil; Telfar-Barnard, Lucy Frances; Zhang, Jane; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Influenza is responsible for a large number of deaths which can only be estimated using modelling methods. Such methods have rarely been applied to describe the major socio-demographic characteristics of this disease burden. We used quasi Poisson regression models with weekly counts of deaths and isolates of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial virus for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average mortality rate was 13.5 per 100,000 people which was 1.8% of all deaths in New Zealand. Influenza mortality differed markedly by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Relatively vulnerable groups were males aged 65-79 years (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 1.9 compared with females), Māori (RR = 3.6, 95% CI: 3.6, 3.7 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years), Pacific (RR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.4, 2.4 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years) and those living in the most deprived areas (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.4) for New Zealand Deprivation (NZDep) 9&10 (the most deprived) compared with NZDep 1&2 (the least deprived). These results support targeting influenza vaccination and other interventions to the most vulnerable groups, in particular Māori and Pacific people and men aged 65-79 years and those living in the most deprived areas. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Your position in society matters for how happy you are

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders; Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    in society (subjective position). The study drew on data from the European Social Survey. Two important findings emerged from the analysis. First, an individual's subjective position in society is a more important predictor of happiness than objective measures such as income, education and labour market......This article shows that people's perception of their position in society is strongly correlated with their level of happiness, and thus that differences in happiness levels among countries in different welfare state clusters are influenced by people's perceptions of their relative position...... position. Second, the link between individuals’ perceived position in society and their level of happiness is moderated by the welfare state. In the Nordic countries, people's perceptions of their position in society have less influence on happiness whereas in Eastern European countries we found a strong...

  8. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  9. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  10. SU-E-I-88: Mammography Imaging: Does Positioning Matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Szabunio, M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In mammography, compression is imperative for quality images and glandular radiation exposure dose. The thickness of the compressed breast directly determines mammography acquisition parameters. The compressed thickness varies due to variation in technologist practice, even for the same patient imaged at different time. This study is to investigate potential effect of the variation in breast positioning on radiation dose and image quality. Methods: Radiation dose at different thicknesses was measured with a BR-12 breast phantom for both conventional craniocaudal view and tomosynthesis in a Hologic Tomosynthesis mammography system. The CIRS stereotactic needle biopsy training phantom embedded dense masses and microcalcification in various sizes were imaged for image quality evaluation. Radiologists evaluated images. Clinical mammograms from the same patient but acquired at different time were retrospectively retrieved to evaluate potential effects of variation in positioning. Results: Acquisition parameters (kVp and mAs) increase with the increased phantom thickness. Radiation exposure increases following an exponential trend. The stereotactic phantom images showed loss of spatial and contrast resolution with inappropriate positioning. The compressed pressure may not be a good indicator for appropriate positioning. The inclusion of different amount of pectoralis muscle may lead to the same compressed pressure but different compressed thickness. The initial retrospective study of 3 patients showed that there were potential large variations in positioning the same patient at different examination time, resulting in large variations in patient radiation dose and image quality. Conclusion: Variations in patient positioning potentially influence patient radiation dose and image quality. The technologist has the critical responsibility to position patient to provide quality images in spite of different breast and body types. To reduce intra and inter practice

  11. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  12. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  13. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Qin, Danyang; Na, Zhenyu; Cui, Yang; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-05

    To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning.

  14. Stability improvement for coil position locking of joule balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Liu, Yongmeng; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Dawei; Li, Zhengkun; Tan, Jiubin; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The relative vertical position locking precision between the exciting and suspended coils is an important uncertainty for the Planck constant traceability in joule balance. In order to improve the relative vertical position locking precision, several stability experiments are conducted. The stability characteristics of the suspended and exciting coils are measured using a six-axis laser interferometer system; meanwhile, the effectiveness of the active vibration isolation table is measured using a vibration measurement sensor. The piezoelectric ceramic actuators with PID controller are used to compensate the relative vertical displacement drifts while a six-axis laser interferometer system is used to measure the positions of two coils. Experimental results show that the relative vertical position is stably locked.

  15. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  16. Strategic marketing positioning of Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Cuculeski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind the fact that tourism is an industry that involves the work of lots of providers, it is of great importance to especially analyse the strategic marketing approach of a destination. That should be done in order to improve the image and the position in the mind of the consumer. This paper has the aim to show an overview of the strategy in marketing overall, as well as the image that Ohrid has as a destination in terms of tourism. The SWOT analysis provides efforts in order to improve the image and to help in the strategy creation and positioning in terms of tourism. The paper is ought to be part of a bigger research project in this regard, a research project that should help Ohrid in the pursue of gaining a distinctive image and proper marketing strategy.

  17. Transient virus expression during murine leukemia induction by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.

    1977-01-01

    Most x-irradiation-induced thymomas in C57BL/6 mice are virus-free when assayed by immunofluorescence for the gs antigen (gsa) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Virus was induced transiently in bone marrow cells and later appeared in thymus cells. Six to 7 weeks post irradiation, thymocytes and bone marrow cells were MuLV gsa-negative and remained negative for the lifetime of most animals, whether or not they contracted overt leukemia. During the period when MuLV gsa-positive bone marrow cells were found, XC-positive syncytia-producing bone marrow cells were also found. Virus information was expressed, therefore, for a limited duration, long before any signs of leukemia in the animal were evident. MuLV gsa-positive thymocytes taken from mice 4 weeks after x-irradiation were cocultivated with a series of indicator cells. B-tropic virus, in addition to a xenotropic virus, was isolated from these cells. Ecotropic virus was not found in normal mouse thymocytes, in irradiated thymocytes a few days after termination of the X-irradiation sequence, or in most primary thymomas. All thymocytes produced only xenotropic virus in the cocultivation assays. Expression of the ecotropic virus was, therefore, transient, as assayed by immunofluorescence, XC syncytia formation, and virus isolation from MuLV gsa-positive thymus cells

  18. Why victimology should stay positive: The ongoing need for positive victimology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Natti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the need for positive victimology and its unique contribution to victimology. Victimology presented a shift in attention and awareness in practice, research and theory, by focusing on victims of crime and of abuse of power, and on victims’ rights and victims’ services. Positive victimology indicates a more specified shift in attention and awareness, within the larger shift of victimology. This shift stands in line with positive psychology, positive criminology and the idea of victims’ victimology. It denotes an approach to provide the following, as much as possible: 1. A wide range of social responses to the victims and their victimization that victims can experience as positive, 2. Positive outcomes of healing and recovery for victims, and 3. Positive integration of victims. Within each of those, positive victimology suggests a pragmatic coordinated system that ranges from definitions of negative poles to those of positive ones. When moving towards the positive pole at any given coordinate, a sense of justice is an important factor that might reduce the impact of the harm. Support is also a crucial factor and at the very positive pole, stands human, inter-personal love.

  19. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations.

  20. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Hoffmann, Martin; Grewe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm 2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array. (paper)

  1. Optimal left ventricular lead position assessed with phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogers, Mark J.; Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V.; Bommel, Rutger J. van; Borleffs, C.J.W.; Schalij, Martin J.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Hiel, Bernies van der; Younis, Imad Al

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between the site of latest mechanical activation as assessed with gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS), left ventricular (LV) lead position and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The patient population consisted of consecutive patients with advanced heart failure in whom CRT was currently indicated. Before implantation, 2-D echocardiography and GMPS were performed. The echocardiography was performed to assess LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). The site of latest mechanical activation was assessed by phase analysis of GMPS studies and related to LV lead position on fluoroscopy. Echocardiography was repeated after 6 months of CRT. CRT response was defined as a decrease of ≥15% in LVESV. Enrolled in the study were 90 patients (72% men, 67±10 years) with advanced heart failure. In 52 patients (58%), the LV lead was positioned at the site of latest mechanical activation (concordant), and in 38 patients (42%) the LV lead was positioned outside the site of latest mechanical activation (discordant). CRT response was significantly more often documented in patients with a concordant LV lead position than in patients with a discordant LV lead position (79% vs. 26%, p<0.01). After 6 months, patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LVEF, LVESV and LVEDV (p<0.05), whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvement in these variables. Patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LV volumes and LV systolic function, whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvements. (orig.)

  2. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 is highly expressed in Her2-positive breast cancer and regulates erbB2 protein stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overexpression of HER-2/Neu occurs in about 25–30% of breast cancer patients and is indicative of poor prognosis. While Her2/Neu overexpression is primarily a result of erbB2 amplification, it has recently been recognized that erbB2 levels are also regulated on the protein level. However, factors that regulate Her2/Neu protein stability are less well understood. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of specific pSer/Thr-Pro motifs that have been phosphorylated in response to mitogenic signaling. We have previously reported that Pin1-catalyzed post-phosphorylational modification of signal transduction modulates the oncogenic pathways downstream from c-neu. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in human Her2+ breast cancer, and to study if Pin1 affects the expression of Her2/Neu itself. Methods Immunohistochemistry for Her2 and Pin1 were performed on two hundred twenty-three human breast cancers, with 59% of the specimen from primary cancers and 41% from metastatic sites. Pin1 inhibition was achieved using siRNA in Her2+ breast cancer cell lines, and its effects were studied using cell viability assays, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Results Sixty-four samples (28.7% stained positive for Her2 (IHC 3+, and 54% (122/223 of all breast cancers stained positive for Pin1. Of the Her2-positive cancers 40 (62.5% were also Pin1-positive, based on strong nuclear or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Inhibition of Pin1 via RNAi resulted in significant suppression of Her2-positive tumor cell growth in BT474, SKBR3 and AU565 cells. Pin1 inhibition greatly increased the sensitivity of Her2-positive breast cancer cells to the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin, while it did not increase their sensitivity to Trastuzumab, suggesting that Pin1 might act on Her2 signaling. We found that Pin1 interacted with the protein complex that contains ubiquitinated erbB2 and that Pin1 inhibition accelerated erbB2

  3. Long-term trajectories of positive and negative symptoms in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen; Mors, Ole; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about course of illness can help clinicians to develop effective interventions and improve treatment outcomes. The goal of this study was to construct positive and negative symptom trajectories based on structured clinical assessments collected over 10years within a cohort....... Positive symptoms showed a general pattern of reduction and stabilization over time while negative symptoms typically showed less variation over the ten years. Results have implications for the focus, timing and length of interventions in first episode psychosis....... was assessed using the Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Symptom trajectories were constructed using Latent Class Analysis. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectories were identified for positive symptoms (response - 47%, delayed response - 12%, relapse - 15%, non-response - 13% and episodic...

  4. Indoor Positioning System Using Depth Maps and Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Duque Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new Indoor Positioning System (IPS based on the combination of WiFi Positioning System (WPS and depth maps, for estimating the location of people. The combination of both technologies improves the efficiency of existing methods, based uniquely on wireless positioning techniques. While other positioning systems force users to wear special devices, the system proposed in this paper just requires the use of smartphones, besides the installation of RGB-D sensors in the sensing area. Furthermore, the system is not intrusive, being not necessary to know people’s identity. The paper exposes the method developed for putting together and exploiting both types of sensory information with positioning purposes: the measurements of the level of the signal received from different access points (APs of the wireless network and the depth maps provided by the RGB-D cameras. The obtained results show a significant improvement in terms of positioning with respect to common WiFi-based systems.

  5. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  6. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  7. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being.

  8. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China. Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  9. Homocysteine Aggravates Cortical Neural Cell Injury through Neuronal Autophagy Overactivation following Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqian Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine (Hcy levels have been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood to date. In the current study, we hypothesized that neuronal autophagy activation may be involved in the toxic effect of Hcy on cortical neurons following cerebral ischemia. Brain cell injury was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining. The level and localization of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence double labeling. The oxidative DNA damage was revealed by immunofluorescence of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Hcy treatment aggravated neuronal cell death, significantly increased the formation of autophagosomes and the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in the brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO. Immunofluorescence analysis of LC3B and Beclin-1 distribution indicated that their expression occurred mainly in neurons (NeuN-positive and hardly in astrocytes (GFAP-positive. 8-OHdG expression was also increased in the ischemic cortex of Hcy-treated animals. Conversely, LC3B and Beclin-1 overexpression and autophagosome accumulation caused by Hcy were partially blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA. Hcy administration enhanced neuronal autophagy, which contributes to cell death following cerebral ischemia. The oxidative damage-mediated autophagy may be a molecular mechanism underlying neuronal cell toxicity of elevated Hcy level.

  10. Paraffin-based immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of glomerular diseases in renal biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M.U.; Khadim, M.T.; Atique, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine sensitivity and specificity of paraffin-based immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of glomerular diseases in renal biopsies using immunofluorescence as gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from August 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Seventy renal biopsy specimens fulfilling the inclusion criteria for light microscopy and immuno-fluorescence during the study period were evaluated. Antibodies to immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and components of complement system (C3) were applied on 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsy specimens previously classified by means of light microscopy and immunofluorescence (IF). Staining for these antibodies was recorded as positive and negative for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and IF in paired proportions presuming IF as gold standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of individual antibody were calculated. Results: Of 70 patients, mean age was 33 +- 18 years ranging from 2 to 80 years. Forty five (64%) were males and 25 (36%) were females. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of individual antibodies to IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 were very low and generally in the range of 40 - 60%. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsy specimens were very low and therefore, not suitable for evaluation of renal biopsies in current circumstances. (author)

  11. Analysis of tag-position bias in MPSS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattray Magnus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS technology was recently developed as a high-throughput technology for measuring the concentration of mRNA transcripts in a sample. It has previously been observed that the position of the signature tag in a transcript (distance from 3' end can affect the measurement, but this effect has not been studied in detail. Results We quantify the effect of tag-position bias in Classic and Signature MPSS technology using published data from Arabidopsis, rice and human. We investigate the relationship between measured concentration and tag-position using nonlinear regression methods. The observed relationship is shown to be broadly consistent across different data sets. We find that there exist different and significant biases in both Classic and Signature MPSS data. For Classic MPSS data, genes with tag-position in the middle-range have highest measured abundance on average while genes with tag-position in the high-range, far from the 3' end, show a significant decrease. For Signature MPSS data, high-range tag-position genes tend to have a flatter relationship between tag-position and measured abundance. Thus, our results confirm that the Signature MPSS method fixes a substantial problem with the Classic MPSS method. For both Classic and Signature MPSS data there is a positive correlation between measured abundance and tag-position for low-range tag-position genes. Compared with the effects of mRNA length and number of exons, tag-position bias seems to be more significant in Arabadopsis. The tag-position bias is reflected both in the measured abundance of genes with a significant tag count and in the proportion of unexpressed genes identified. Conclusion Tag-position bias should be taken into consideration when measuring mRNA transcript abundance using MPSS technology, both in Classic and Signature MPSS methods.

  12. Open table-top device positioning technique to reduce small bowel obstruction. Positioning accuracy and impact on conformal radiation therapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, V.; Flentje, M.; Engenhart, R.; Metzger, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    The immobilization error of patients positioned on the opern table-top device in prone prosition as well as the movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis by this positioning technique was determined. The positioning error is of special importance for the 3-dimensional treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy. The positioning error was determined by superposing 106 portal films with the corresponding simultor films from 21 patients with carcinoma of the rectum who received 3D-planned conformal radiotherapy (o-field technique with irregular blocks). The movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis was studied by comparing simulator films after barium swallow in supine and open table-top position as well with 3D-treatment plans of the same patient in both positions in 3 cases. The positioning error along the medio-lateral, dorso-ventral und cranio-caudal axis was 1.4/-0.6/1.8 mm and the standard deviation 4.4/6.8/6.3 mm, respectively. In comparison to the supine position more rotation errors in the sagittal view were observed (37% and 9% respectively) with a media of 5.1 . Six out of 22 patients showed no adhesions of the small bowel and a complete movement out of the tratment field was achieved. 14 out of 16 Patients with adhesions revealed a partial movement of the small bowel out of the treatment field. Comparing 3D-treatment plans in both positions again demonstrated a marked reduction of the irradiated small bowel volume with the use of the open table-top decive. (orig.) [de

  13. Positive Orientation and the Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miciuk Łukasz Roland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between positive orientation (PO defined as a basic predisposition to perceive and evaluate positive aspects of life, the future and oneself and the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM. Hypotheses postulated positive correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness; a negative correlation was predicted between PO and neuroticism. Two hundred Polish students completed the following measures: SES (Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, SWLS (The Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffin, LOT-R (The Life Orientation Test - Revised; Scheier, Carver & Bridges and NEOFFI (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Costa & McCrae. The results confirmed correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism; correlations with openness and agreeableness were not supported. According to canonical correlations, PO shows a clear affinity to the FFM.

  14. Existence of positive solutions for a multi-point four-order boundary-value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Truong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions to a multi-point boundary-value problem for a fourth-order differential equation. Our main tools are the Guo-Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem and the monotone iterative technique. We also show that the set of positive solutions is compact.

  15. Automatic multi-camera calibration for deployable positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Maria; Karlsson, Mikael; Rudner, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance with automated positioning and tracking of subjects and vehicles in 3D is desired in many defence and security applications. Camera systems with stereo or multiple cameras are often used for 3D positioning. In such systems, accurate camera calibration is needed to obtain a reliable 3D position estimate. There is also a need for automated camera calibration to facilitate fast deployment of semi-mobile multi-camera 3D positioning systems. In this paper we investigate a method for automatic calibration of the extrinsic camera parameters (relative camera pose and orientation) of a multi-camera positioning system. It is based on estimation of the essential matrix between each camera pair using the 5-point method for intrinsically calibrated cameras. The method is compared to a manual calibration method using real HD video data from a field trial with a multicamera positioning system. The method is also evaluated on simulated data from a stereo camera model. The results show that the reprojection error of the automated camera calibration method is close to or smaller than the error for the manual calibration method and that the automated calibration method can replace the manual calibration.

  16. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    fails to be appropriately integrated in the CNS, errors in head position may occur, resulting in an inaccurate reference for HNPS, and conversely if neck proprioceptive information is inaccurate, then control of head position may be affected. The cerebellum and cortex also play a role in control of head position, providing feed-forward and modulatory influences depending on the task requirements. Position-matching tasks have been the most popular means of testing position sense in the cervical spine. These allow the appreciation of absolute, constant and variable errors in positioning and have been shown to be reliable. The results of such tests indicate that errors are relatively low (2-5 degrees). It is apparent that error is not consistently affected by age, a finding similar to studies undertaken in peripheral joints. Furthermore, the range of motion in which subjects are tested does not consistently affect accuracy in a predictable manner. However, it is evident that impairments in position sense are observed in individuals who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and individuals with chronic head and neck pain of non-traumatic origin (e.g. cervical spondylosis). While researchers advocate comprehensive retraining protocols, which include eye and neck motion targeting tasks and coordination exercises, as well as co-contraction exercises to reduce such impairments, some studies show that more general exercises and manipulation may be of benefit. Overall, there is limited information concerning the efficacy of treatment programmes.

  17. Testis-expressed profilins 3 and 4 show distinct functional characteristics and localize in the acroplaxome-manchette complex in spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothkegel Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple profilin isoforms exist in mammals; at least four are expressed in the mammalian testis. The testis-specific isoforms profilin-3 (PFN3 and profilin-4 (PFN4 may have specialized roles in spermatogenic cells which are distinct from known functions fulfilled by the "somatic" profilins, profilin-1 (PFN1 and profilin-2 (PFN2. Results Ligand interactions and spatial distributions of PFN3 and PFN4 were compared by biochemical, molecular and immunological methods; PFN1 and PFN2 were employed as controls. β-actin, phosphoinositides, poly-L-proline and mDia3, but not VASP, were confirmed as in vitro interaction partners of PFN3. In parallel experiments, PFN4 bound to selected phosphoinositides but not to poly-L-proline, proline-rich proteins, or actin. Immunofluorescence microscopy of PFN3 and PFN4 revealed distinct subcellular locations in differentiating spermatids. Both were associated first with the acroplaxome and later with the transient manchette. Predicted 3D structures indicated that PFN3 has the actin-binding site conserved, but retains only approximately half of the common poly-L-proline binding site. PFN4, in comparison, has lost both, polyproline and actin binding sites completely, which is well in line with the experimental data. Conclusion The testis-specific isoform PFN3 showed major hallmarks of the well characterized "somatic" profilin isoforms, albeit with distinct binding affinities. PFN4, on the other hand, did not interact with actin or polyproline in vitro. Rather, it seemed to be specialized for phospholipid binding, possibly providing cellular functions which are distinct from actin dynamics regulation.

  18. A Vision/Inertia Integrated Positioning Method Using Position and Orientation Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching which can be adopted on intelligent vehicle such as automated guided vehicle (AGV and mobile robot is proposed in this work. The method is introduced firstly. Landmarks are placed into the navigation field and camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU are installed on the vehicle. Vision processor calculates the azimuth and position information from the pictures which include artificial landmarks with the known direction and position. Inertial navigation system (INS calculates the azimuth and position of vehicle in real time and the calculated pixel position of landmark can be computed from the INS output position. Then the needed mathematical models are established and integrated navigation is implemented by Kalman filter with the observation of azimuth and the calculated pixel position of landmark. Navigation errors and IMU errors are estimated and compensated in real time so that high precision navigation results can be got. Finally, simulation and test are performed, respectively. Both simulation and test results prove that this vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching has feasibility and it can achieve centimeter-level autonomic continuous navigation.

  19. Positive implicit attitudes toward odor words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2007-07-01

    Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.

  20. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  1. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  2. Comparative evaluations of the detection of antinuclear antibodies by means of various immunofluorescence techniques and by means of a radioimmunoassay under particular consideration of disseminated Lupus erythematodus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemuend, R.

    1980-01-01

    On a group of 146 test persons (in 50 cases desseminated lupus erythematodus had been confirmed), for the first time comparative evaluations were made with four methods (A to D) under the application of a repurified fluorescinisothiocyanat FITC) serum, in order to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The ANA detection was obtained by immunofluorescence (IFL) on frozen sections of mouse livers; by IFL on chicken erythrocytes smears, previously treated with hydrochloric acid; by IFL on ethanol-fixed flagellates Crithidia luciliae; and by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of a test kit with reference sera. These two tests served to detect antibodies - with respect to negative DNA - which are of particular importance in lupous nephritis. A good correlation of both methods was proved by means of various statistic methods and by follow-up observations and examinations of the reference sera. Possible reasons responsible for the deviations, which were found between the two tests, are described. Of all 4 tests, RIA and IFL on Crithida resulted to be the most closely ones to the relevant laboratory values and reflect very evidently the activity of the desseminated lupus erethematodus. The particularly well correlation with the blood sedimentation rate, proteinuria and with the complement level becomes very obvious. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied methods are discussed and it is emphasized that at present the method of choice for the detection of DNA antibodies is the combined examination of the patient serum, both, in the IFL on Crithidia and in the RIA. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Positive emotions in earthquake survivors in El Salvador (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Cervellón, Priscilla; Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vidales, Diana; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, within a more extensive intervention program, the existence of positive emotions and positive coping in the refugees at the two largest shelters created after the earthquakes of El Salvador in January, 2001. One hundred and fifteen survivors were interviewed in the shelters about different aspects related to positive cognitions and emotions experienced during their sojourn at the camps, as well as their perception of aspects of posttraumatic growth. The results show that most of the people affected by the earthquake revealed a consistent pattern of positive reactions and emotions. The potential implications of these results in the individual sphere, as buffering elements to protect people from the effects of a traumatic experience receive comment.

  4. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  6. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  7. Effects of nursing position on transformational leadership practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to identify significant differences in nursing leadership strengths by position title. Recent reports show aspects of transformational leadership (TL) related to position, age, and educational level. This study focuses on differentiating the strength of leadership practices across the range of nursing management positions. The Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-assessment survey, and a variety of demographic questions, were used to anonymously poll voluntary members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders. Nursing positions of director level and above were strongest in leadership practices. Those at manager and below were identified as needing additional leadership development. LPI-S subscales Enable Others to Act and Model the Way were strongest. Those at the manager level and below will benefit most from additional education and training. Even upper levels of management would gain from enhancing the LPI practices of Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision.

  8. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  9. Dopant concentration dependence of radiation-induced positive hysteresis of Ce:GSO and Ce:GSOZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Positive hysteresis and radiation tolerance to high-dose radiation exposure were investigated for Ce 0.5, 1, and 1.5%-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) and for Zr co-doped GSO with the same Ce concentrations (GSOZ). When they were irradiated by 200–800 Gy 60 Co in 200 Gy steps, all Ce-doped GSO samples exhibited light yield enhancement (positive hysteresis). On the other hand, the light yield of GSOZ decreased greatly. Ce 0.5%-doped GSO showed the highest positive hysteresis, with ∼20% light yield enhancement. When the Ce concentration was increased, the positive hysteresis became weaker. - Highlights: • Positive hysteresis Ce 0.5, 1, and 1.5% doped GSO and GSOZ are studied. • Ce 0.5, 1, and 1.5% doped GSO show the positive hysteresis by 2–8 M rad 60 Co irradiation. • Ce 0.5, 1, and 1.5% doped GSOZ do not show the positive hysteresis. • By Zn co-doping, radiation tolerance of GSO becomes weaker. • By dense Ce doping, radiation tolerance of GSO and GSOZ are improved

  10. Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Coin Toss Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Gimbert and Horn gave an algorithm for solving simple stochastic games with running time O(r! n) where n is the number of positions of the simple stochastic game and r is the number of its coin toss positions. Chatterjee et al. pointed out that a variant of strategy iteration can be implemented...... to solve this problem in time 4 r n O(1). In this paper, we show that an algorithm combining value iteration with retrograde analysis achieves a time bound of O(r 2 r (r logr + n)), thus improving both time bounds. We also improve the analysis of Chatterjee et al. and show that their algorithm in fact has...

  11. Cylinder Position Servo Control Based on Fuzzy PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary position control of cylinder has always been the hard challenge in pneumatic system. We try to develop a cylinder position servo control method by combining fuzzy PID with the theoretical model of the proportional valve-controlled cylinder system. The pressure differential equation of cylinder, pressure-flow equation of proportional valve, and moment equilibrium equation of cylinder are established. And the mathematical models of the cylinder driving system are linearized. Then fuzzy PID control algorithm is designed for the cylinder position control, including the detail analysis of fuzzy variables and domain, fuzzy logic rules, and defuzzification. The stability of the proposed fuzzy PID controller is theoretically proved according to the small gain theorem. Experiments for targets position of 250 mm, 300 mm, and 350 mm were done and the results showed that the absolute error of the position control is less than 0.25 mm. And comparative experiment between fuzzy PID and classical PID verified the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  13. Facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma in a feline leukemia virus-positive cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Reis Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Neuroblastic tumors can originate from the central neuraxis, olfactory epithelium, adrenal medullary region or autonomous system. Ganglioneuroblastoma are a type of neuroblastic tumor, with very few case descriptions in animals. Diagnosis of facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma was made in a feline leukemia virus-positive 11-month-old cat. The cat had hyporexia, left head tilt, depressed mental state, horizontal nystagmus, inability to retract the pinched left lip, anisocoria, ptosis, and absence of the menace reflex. Gross necropsy showed a mass at the left facial nerve root region. Histological examination of this mass showed neoplastic proliferation of neuroblasts arranged in a cohesive pattern and mature ganglion cells. Ganglion cells were positive for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, S100, and glial fibrillary acidic protein by immunohistochemistry, while neuroblasts were positive for vimentin, S100, neuron-specific enolase and feline leukemia virus.

  14. Studies of pyrrole black electrodes as possible battery positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Fleischmann, M.; Pletcher, D.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that a polypyrrole, pyrrole black, may be formed anodically in several aqueous acids. The polypyrrole film shows a redox couple at less positive potentials than that required to form the film and the charge associated with these reduction and oxidation processes together with their stabilty to cycling varies with the anion in solution and the potential where the polypyrrole is formed; over-oxidation of the film caused by taking its potential too positive has a particularly disadvantageous affect. In the acids HBr and HI, the polypyrrole films can act as a storage medium for Br/sub 2/ or I/sub 2/ so that they may be used as a substrate for a X/sub 2//X/sup -/ electrode. Such electrodes may be charge/discharge cycled and the pyrrole/Br/sub 2/ electrode shows promise as a battery positive electrode.

  15. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  16. Efficient Interaction Recognition through Positive Action Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to decompose two-person interaction into a Positive Action and a Negative Action for more efficient behavior recognition. A Positive Action plays the decisive role in a two-person exchange. Thus, interaction recognition can be simplified to Positive Action-based recognition, focusing on an action representation of just one person. Recently, a new depth sensor has become widely available, the Microsoft Kinect camera, which provides RGB-D data with 3D spatial information for quantitative analysis. However, there are few publicly accessible test datasets using this camera, to assess two-person interaction recognition approaches. Therefore, we created a new dataset with six types of complex human interactions (i.e., named K3HI, including kicking, pointing, punching, pushing, exchanging an object, and shaking hands. Three types of features were extracted for each Positive Action: joint, plane, and velocity features. We used continuous Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to evaluate the Positive Action-based interaction recognition method and the traditional two-person interaction recognition approach with our test dataset. Experimental results showed that the proposed recognition technique is more accurate than the traditional method, shortens the sample training time, and therefore achieves comprehensive superiority.

  17. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR, and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF. For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning.

  18. Response of Autonomic Nervous System to Body Positions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aiguo; Gonnella, G.; Federici, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Simone, F.; Zenzola, A.; Santostasi, R.

    Two mathematical methods, the Fourier and wavelet transforms, were used to study the short term cardiovascular control system. Time series, picked from electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure lasting 6 minutes, were analyzed in supine position (SUP), during the first (HD1) and the second parts (HD2) of 90° head down tilt, and during recovery (REC). The wavelet transform was performed using the Haar function of period T=2j (j=1,2,...,6) to obtain wavelet coefficients. Power spectra components were analyzed within three bands, VLF (0.003-0.04), LF (0.04-0.15) and HF (0.15-0.4) with the frequency unit cycle/interval. Wavelet transform demonstrated a higher discrimination among all analyzed periods than the Fourier transform. For the Fourier analysis, the LF of R-R intervals and VLF of systolic blood pressure show more evident difference for different body positions. For the wavelet analysis, the systolic blood pressures show much more evident differences than the R-R intervals. This study suggests a difference in the response of the vessels and the heart to different body positions. The partial dissociation between VLF and LF results is a physiologically relevant finding of this work.

  19. The role of negative and positive memories in fear of dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Jøssing, Marit; Krohn, Christina

    2017-01-01

    is influenced by memories of positive and negative childhood experiences with dental care. More specifically, we predicted that the emotional impact, sense of reliving, rehearsal, and belief in the accuracy of a negative treatment memory would be associated with increased dental fear, while positive treatment...... memories would show the opposite relation. Methods One hundred thirty-six young adults leaving childhood dental care responded to a online measures of dental fear, the most negative and most positive memory of dental treatment, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Negative memories...... of events that involved pain and dentist behaviors such as impatience or scolding were frequently described and significantly associated with dental fear and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Positive memories were more frequent, but did not show a consistent relationship with dental fear. Conclusions...

  20. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  1. Influence of Ephemeris Error on GPS Single Point Positioning Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Ma; Wang, Meng

    2013-09-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) user makes use of the navigation message transmitted from GPS satellites to achieve its location. Because the receiver uses the satellite's location in position calculations, an ephemeris error, a difference between the expected and actual orbital position of a GPS satellite, reduces user accuracy. The influence extent is decided by the precision of broadcast ephemeris from the control station upload. Simulation analysis with the Yuma almanac show that maximum positioning error exists in the case where the ephemeris error is along the line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Meanwhile, the error is dependent on the relationship between the observer and spatial constellation at some time period.

  2. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

  3. PerPos: a Translucent Positioning Middleware Supporting Adaptation of Internal Positioning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2010-01-01

    of application specific features that can be applied to the internal position processing of the middleware. To evaluate these capabilities we extend the internal position processing of the middleware with functionality supporting probabilistic position tracking and strategies for minimization of the energy......A positioning middleware benefits the development of location aware applications. Traditionally, positioning middleware provides position transparency in the sense that it hides low-level details. However, many applications require access to specific details of the usually hidden positioning...

  4. Positive Politeness & Social Harmony in Literary Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal F. Abbas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of politeness are not arbitrarily chosen by speakers in interaction. Instead, the choice of a strategy is constrained by a number of contextual features (socio-cultural variables, such as the relative power of the speakers, the social distance of the speakers and what the speakers happen to be negotiating at the time of speaking. This study focuses on the linguistic strategies of politeness, and more specifically on the positive politeness, as represented in fiction. The novel chosen is that of Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables- a novel in which the main character Anne Shirley tries her best to establish common grounds with others until she achieves friendly and social harmonious relationships with nearly everybody. To show the above point, Brown and Levinson’s (1987 theory of politeness is adopted to account for the linguistic strategies, in addition to some subsequent contribution provided by Spencer-Oatey (2002 to account for sociality rights and obligations. This model is chosen to explore the relation between language use and the social relationship of the speakers. A point of departure, and according to O’Driscoll (1996, Brown and Levinson’s hierarchy of politeness strategies allows attention to positive to cover more ground than that subsumed under positive politeness (super-strategy 2. That is why baldly on-record (super-strategy 1 is used to pay positive face. The analysis shows that most of Anne’s directives in this speech event, which are linguistic realizations of both super-strategy 1 and 2, are meant to establish common grounds to achieve friendly and harmonious relationships with others.

  5. Felt power explains the link between position power and experienced emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Bachmann, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The approach/inhibition theory by Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson (2003) predicts that powerful people should feel more positive and less negative emotions. To date, results of studies investigating this prediction are inconsistent. We fill this gap with four studies in which we investigated the role of different conceptualizations of power: felt power and position power. In Study 1, participants were made to feel more or less powerful and we tested how their felt power was related to different emotional states. In Studies 2, 3, and 4, participants were assigned to either a high or a low power role and engaged in an interaction with a virtual human, after which participants reported on how powerful they felt and the emotions they experienced during the interaction. We meta-analytically combined the results of the four studies and found that felt power was positively related to positive emotions (happiness and serenity) and negatively to negative emotions (fear, anger, and sadness), whereas position power did not show any significant overall relation with any of the emotional states. Importantly, felt power mediated the relationship between position power and emotion. In summary, we show that how powerful a person feels in a given social interaction is the driving force linking the person's position power to his or her emotional states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. FINANCIAL POSITION AND ITS RELEVANCE TO STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial position of an economic entity is a concept that can have different meanings, depending on the stakeholder category that make its analysis. In energy sector, which is considered of high importance in the national economy, we consider that the most important category of stakeholder is the state (government, because ensuring the functionality of this sector is an crucial condition for development of others sectors from national economy. For this reason, we can look at the informational needs of other stakeholder categories trough the state’s “sine qua non” condition to ensure the optimal functionality of this sector, which manifests itself like this: the functioning of the sector involves the attraction of investors, the functioning of the sector involves the existence of human resources, the functioning of the sector cannot be ensured without the existence of commercial relations that involves suppliers and clients and for insuring the functioning of the sector it is often require various financing sources. All those aspects are giving raise to some categories of stakeholder interested over the parameters in which the energy sector entities are functioning, one of the interest domain being the financial position of the companies activating in its field. Over the present study we had in view to highlight the main present approaches regarding the concept of financial position, but also the main issues fallowed by the main stakeholder categories in their attempt to appreciate the financial position of the entities activating in energy sector which are listed to Bucharest Stock Exchange. The results of this study have showed that there is some base requirements regarding the informational needs of stakeholder regarding the financial position of the companies activating in energy sector, and those are related to the concepts of going concern, overall solvency ratio, general liquidity ratio and indebtedness degree. After this study

  7. Research on Integration of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning in Professional Athletic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GNSS is widely used in professional athletic training as an outdoor location based services, and the indoor positioning technology has gradually flourished in the gymnasium. To keep up with the demand for athletic training in indoor and outdoor environment, integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology can achieve a seamless indoor/outdoor position solution. The proposed method uses GPS/BEIDOU with IMU-MEMS technology for outdoor positioning and UWB with IMU-MEMS technology for indoor positioning to provide high precision positioning services. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve meter level position accuracy in outdoor environment and centimeter level position accuracy in indoor environment, it can provide precise and real-time positioning service for effective athletic training aid.

  8. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  9. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  10. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope. Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism. They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results.

  11. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  12. Positive emotion impedes emotional but not cognitive conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Obermeier, Christian; Kanske, Philipp; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. Participants categorized either spoken vowels (cognitive task) or their emotional valence (emotional task) and ignored the visual stimulus dimension. Behaviorally, a positive target showed no influence on cognitive conflict processing, but impeded emotional conflict processing. In the emotional task, response time conflict costs were higher for positive than for neutral targets. In the EEG, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the P200 and N200 ERP components in emotional but not in cognitive conflict processing. In the emotional conflict task, the P200 and N200 conflict effect was larger for emotional than neutral targets. Thus, our results show that emotion affects conflict processing differently as a function of conflict type and emotional valence. This suggests that there are conflict- and valence-specific mechanisms modulating executive control.

  13. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4% samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

  14. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    archipelago; (3 Currently, Davedan Show has developed in Nusa Dua, Bali sustainably because of its positive implications to the economics aspect of the stakeholders, the enrichment of Balinese performing arts, and the identity of Nusa Dua tourism area of Bali.

  15. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Carvalho Espírito-Santo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs. This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK; Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA- IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM; and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4% showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%. All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%, differed significantly from COPT in positivity P<0.05, and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377 and IFA (Kappa = 0.347. Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  16. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  17. Positive Eigenvalues of Generalized Words in Two Hermitian Positive Definite Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher; Johnson, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    We define a word in two positive definite (complex Hermitian) matrices $A$ and $B$ as a finite product of real powers of $A$ and $B$. The question of which words have only positive eigenvalues is addressed. This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics, and it was previously approached by the authors for words in two real positive definite matrices with positive integral exponents. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eig...

  18. Flomoxef showed excellent in vitro activity against clinically important gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens causing community- and hospital-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwen; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Zhipeng; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the in vitro activity of flomoxef against clinical pathogens. A total of 545 clinical isolates, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes, were isolated consecutively from clinical specimens from Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 2013. MICs were determined using broth microdilution method. esbl and ampC genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Flomoxef showed excellent activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, with susceptibility rate of 88.8%, 88.3%, and 97.7%, separately. Moreover, flomoxef exhibited great activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, with MIC50/MIC90 of 0.125/(0.5-1) μg/mL. Flomoxef showed MIC50/MIC90 of 0.5/0.5 μg/mL against MSSA, 0.125/0.25 μg/mL against S. pyogenes, and 2/16 μg/mL against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, flomoxef is one of the cephamycins showing excellent activity against ESBL-producing or ESBL-nonproducing E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis and was also potent against MSSA, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Softness and amplitudes’ positivity for spinning particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, Brando [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-02-07

    We derive positivity bounds for scattering amplitudes of particles with arbitrary spin using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The bounds imply the positivity of certain low-energy coefficients of the effective action that controls the dynamics of the light degrees of freedom. We show that low-energy amplitudes strictly softer than O(p{sup 4}) do not admit unitary ultraviolet completions unless the theory is free. This enforces a bound on the energy growth of scattering amplitudes in the region of validity of the effective theory. We discuss explicit examples including the Goldstino from spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and the theory of a spin-1/2 fermion with a shift symmetry.

  20. Investigating Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Positive Psychotherapy Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghorbani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Persian version of positive psychotherapy inventory in university students. Research method was descriptive, correlational type. The sample of the study consist of 432 MS and PhD students, 225 female and 207 male, aged between 23 to 45 of state universities of Tehran who were selected through multi-stage random sampling. To study reliability, convergent and structural validity of instrument the sample group completed, positive psychotherapy inventory (Rashid and Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle and Hills. To investigating the reliability Cronbach alpha and test- retest method, and for validity of instrument structural validity exploratory factor analysis method and convergent validity were used. Results showed the total internal consistency of positive psychotherapy inventory was 0.80 and subscales internal consistency was between 0.80 to 0.92 respectively. In addition test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.70 for total inventory and between 0.63 to 0.73 for the subscales. Also the correlation coefficients between positive psychotherapy inventory and oxford happiness inventory were 0.73, which indicated a satisfactory convergent validity for positive psychotherapy inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis results showed three factors model of positive psychotherapy inventory in the Iranian sample. These three factors explained 79.99 variance of total inventory.

  1. Novel electro-hydraulic position control system for primary mirror supporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbin Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern large-scale telescope, primary mirror supporting system technology faces the difficulties of theoretically uniform output force request and bias compensation. Therefore, a novel position control system combining hydraulic system with servo motor system is introduced. The novel system ensures uniform output force on supporting points without complicating the mechanical structure. The structures of both primary mirror supporting system and novel position system are described. Then, the mathematical model of novel position control system is derived for controller selection. A proportional–derivative controller is adopted for simulations and experiments of step response and triangle path tracking. The results show that proportional–derivative controller guarantees the system with micrometer-level positioning ability. A modified proportional–derivative controller is utilized to promote system behavior with faster response overshoot. The novel position control system is then applied on primary mirror supporting system. Coupling effect is observed among actuator partitions, and relocation of virtual pivot supporting point is chosen as the decoupling measurement. The position keeping ability of the primary mirror supporting system is verified by rotating the mirror cell at a considerably high rate. The experiment results show that the decoupled system performs better with smaller bias and shorter recovery time.

  2. Is decreased diameter of renal pelvis in prone position an indicator of successful pyeloplasty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gyanendra; Sharma, Anshu; Leung, Vivian Yee-Fong; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients who had undergone pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction, by measuring the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions, and determine whether a decrease in APD in prone position can exclude obstruction in dilated renal system. From January 2012 to December 2013, patients who had undergone pyeloplasty were evaluated by ultrasound in two centers. The difference of APD of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions was obtained. Correlation was made with the pre- and post-pyeloplasty renal function by radionuclide renogram. There were 42 patients (31 males, 11 females; age range 5 months to 18 years). Residual hydronephrosis was detected in 41 patients of whom 35 patients (85%) showed decrease in APD by >10% in prone position. These patients and the one without hydronephrosis showed either no deterioration or improvement in renal function. Six patients (15%) showed either no change or increase in APD in prone position. Three patients (7.5%) were confirmed to have decrease in renal function indicating obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) showed no deterioration of renal function, but sluggish drainage on radionuclide renogram. Demonstration of decreased APD of renal pelvis in prone position by ultrasound is useful to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed dilated renal system, and it correctly identified 85% candidates with successful pyeloplasty. In patients with no decrease or increase in APD at prone position, further follow-up is recommended to rule out obstruction

  3. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  4. Face-down positioning versus non-supine positioning in macular hole surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the full thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure rate in patients positioning non-supine (NSP) compared with patients positioning face-down (FDP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed two FTMH case series-postoperative positioning was FDP and NSP, respectively. All eyes were...... group fully complied with the recommended positioning protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Results from consistent FTMH repair indicate similar anatomical success rates in FDP and NSP groups, suggesting that FDP is unnecessary. Objective monitoring of positioning would be beneficial in future FTMH studies to be able...

  5. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children’s externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences. PMID:22577341

  6. The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the positive energy conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, P.S.; Wald, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The position so far is summarized. Penrose derived an inequality; if a data set was found to violate this then the assumptions deriving the inequality must be false. In this case it could show a counter example to the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The authors have shown elsewhere that a positive energy argument of Geroch can be modified to rule out a violation of Penrose's inequality with any time-symmetric initial data set whose apparent horizon consists of a single component. This increases confidence in the hypothesis and also indicates there may be a close relationship between this conjecture and the positive energy conjecture. (UK)

  7. Bds/gps Integrated Positioning Method Research Based on Nonlinear Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Yuan, W.; Sun, H.

    2017-09-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate BDS/GPS integrated positioning, it is necessary to overcome the adverse effects of signal attenuation, multipath effect and echo interference to ensure the result of continuous and accurate navigation and positioning. In this paper, pseudo-range positioning is used as the mathematical model. In the stage of data preprocessing, using precise and smooth carrier phase measurement value to promote the rough pseudo-range measurement value without ambiguity. At last, the Extended Kalman Filter(EKF), the Unscented Kalman Filter(UKF) and the Particle Filter(PF) algorithm are applied in the integrated positioning method for higher positioning accuracy. The experimental results show that the positioning accuracy of PF is the highest, and UKF is better than EKF.

  8. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  9. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  10. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  11. Position and width of normal adult optic chiasm as measured in coronal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Jin Sook

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the position and transverse dimension of the adult optic chiasm in normal Korean adult. The authors analysed 3D coronal volume images (TR/TE=30/13, flip angle=30 .deg. ) of 136 normal adult subjects without known visual abnormality. All MRI examinations were performed using a 0.5T system. MRI was reviewed retrospectively to determine the position (horizontal and tilted) of the potic chiosm and the transverse dimension of the optic chiasm was measured. Seventy- five (55%) of the 136 normal subjects had horizontal position, and sixty-one (45%) had tilted position. Thirty- eight (62%) of 61 with tilted position showed higher position on the right side, and twenty-three (38%) showed higher position on the side. The average transverse dimension(mean SD) was 15.2 ± 0.7mm in men and 14.6 ± 1.0mm in women. The difference of transverse dimension between men and women was statistically significant. Tilted position of the adult optic chiasm on coronal MRI was seen in approximately half of normal adults. The average of transverse dimension of normal optic chiasm was 15mm

  12. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  13. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. EnTracked: Energy-Efficient Robust Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Godsk, Torben

    2009-01-01

    conditions and mobility, schedules position updates to both minimize energy consumption and optimize robustness. The realized system tracks pedestrian targets equipped with GPS-enabled devices. The system is configurable to realize different trade-offs between energy consumption and robustness. We provide...... of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly deliver position updates when faced with changing conditions such as delays due to positioning and communication, and changing positioning accuracy. This work proposes EnTracked --- a system that, based on the estimation and prediction of system...... extensive experimental results by profiling how devices consume power, by emulation on collected data and by validation in several real-world deployments. Results from this profiling show how a device consumes power while tracking its position. Results from the emulation indicate that the system can...

  15. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  16. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen [College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images.

  18. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2008-01-01

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images

  19. Evaluation of an ELISA kit in the serological diagnosis of Babesia bovis for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Artiles, J.M.; Alves-Branco, F.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detect antibodies to Babesia bovis, an intraerytrocitic bovine parasite was evaluated using known negative and positive samples and the results were compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results obtained with field samples were used to estimate seroprevalence of B. bovis in an endemic area to the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) vector of bovine babesiosis. Percentage of positivity (PP) values (optical density of tested serum/mean optical density of positive control) on 274 negative samples, had major values ranged in the frequency of 4.0 to 7.0 PP. Comparison between ELISA and IFAT showed an agreement of 93.3% on field sera samples, collected in areas of low, good and high soil fertility in the region of Bage (31 degree 20 min 13 sec S, 54 degree 06 min 21 sec W), RS, Brazil. From 5,082 tested sera, 3,751 (73%) were positive for B. bovis antibodies. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between results from calves living in areas of low and good soil fertility (80 and 82% of seroprevalence, respectively). However, calves living in soil of high fertility showed a minor inoculation rate for B. bovis (63% of seroprevalence), indicating needs of measures to prevent losses due to babesiosis. (author)

  20. [Phenotype-based primary screening for drugs promoting neuronal subtype differentiation in embryonic stem cells with light microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-ning; Wang, Dan-ying; Pan, Zong-fu; Mei, Yu-qin; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhu, Dan-yan; Lou, Yi-jia

    2012-07-01

    To set up a platform for phenotype-based primary screening of drug candidates promoting neuronal subtype differentiation in embryonic stem cells (ES) with light microscope. Hanging drop culture 4-/4+ method was employed to harvest the cells around embryoid body (EB) at differentiation endpoint. Morphological evaluation for neuron-like cells was performed with light microscope. Axons for more than three times of the length of the cell body were considered as neuron-like cells. The compound(s) that promote neuron-like cells was further evaluated. Icariin (ICA, 10(-6)mol/L) and Isobavachin (IBA, 10(-7)mol/L) were selected to screen the differentiation-promoting activity on ES cells. Immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies (ChAT, GABA) was used to evaluate the neuron subtypes. The cells treated with IBA showed neuron-like phenotype, but the cells treated with ICA did not exhibit the morphological changes. ES cells treated with IBA was further confirmed to be cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Phenotypic screening with light microscope for molecules promoting neuronal differentiation is an effective method with advantages of less labor and material consuming and time saving, and false-positive results derived from immunofluorescence can be avoided. The method confirms that IBA is able to facilitate ES cells differentiating into neuronal cells, including cholinergic neurons and GABAergic neurons.

  1. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  2. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinqiao; Sha, Bin; Zhou, Wenhao; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  3. Two Unique Cases with Anti-GluR Antibody-Positive Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuzono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of anti-glutamic acid receptor (anti-GluR antibody-positive encephalitis in males with symptoms such as Parkinsonism, urinary retention, and paralytic ileus. Although non-herpetic encephalitis typically shows magnetic resonance imaging (MRI lesions in the limbic system during early stages, the present cases showed MRI lesions during later stages in the bilateral claustrum and pons. In both cases, anti-GluRε2 and δ2 antibodies were later shown to be positive in the cerebrospinal fluid but negative in the serum. Although early detection of anti-GluR antibodies is essential, early treatment may be significantly more important.

  4. An IMU-Aided Body-Shadowing Error Compensation Method for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhongliang; Fu, Xiao; Wang, Hanhua

    2018-01-20

    Research on indoor positioning technologies has recently become a hotspot because of the huge social and economic potential of indoor location-based services (ILBS). Wireless positioning signals have a considerable attenuation in received signal strength (RSS) when transmitting through human bodies, which would cause significant ranging and positioning errors in RSS-based systems. This paper mainly focuses on the body-shadowing impairment of RSS-based ranging and positioning, and derives a mathematical expression of the relation between the body-shadowing effect and the positioning error. In addition, an inertial measurement unit-aided (IMU-aided) body-shadowing detection strategy is designed, and an error compensation model is established to mitigate the effect of body-shadowing. A Bluetooth positioning algorithm with body-shadowing error compensation (BP-BEC) is then proposed to improve both the positioning accuracy and the robustness in indoor body-shadowing environments. Experiments are conducted in two indoor test beds, and the performance of both the BP-BEC algorithm and the algorithms without body-shadowing error compensation (named no-BEC) is evaluated. The results show that the BP-BEC outperforms the no-BEC by about 60.1% and 73.6% in terms of positioning accuracy and robustness, respectively. Moreover, the execution time of the BP-BEC algorithm is also evaluated, and results show that the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm has an insignificant effect on real-time localization.

  5. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  6. Establishment of human iPSC line NCCSi003-A from CD34+cells of peripheral blood collected during apheresis of healthy donor from Indian ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fernandes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present generation of iPSCs from CD34+ cells isolated from peripheral blood, collected during apheresis of a healthy female individual. We nucleofected the CD34+cells by episomal vectors containing Oct4, Sox2, L-Myc, Lin28, Klf4 and p53DD (dominant negative mutation in p53. The resultant colonies showed cobble-stone appearance and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. The colonies demonstrated presence of pluripotency markers by immunofluorescence, flow-cytometry and PCR. The plasmids were lost from cells subsequently during passages as assessed by PCR. Karyotype analysis demonstrated a stable genome. The cells had capability to differentiate to cells from all three-germ lineages in vitro.

  7. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Trait emotional intelligence and mental distress: the mediating role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  9. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  10. Verification of the Cross Immunoreactivity of A60, a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Neuronal Nuclear Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shanping; Xiong, Guoxiang; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S

    2016-01-01

    A60, the mouse monoclonal antibody against the neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), is the most widely used neuronal marker in neuroscience research and neuropathological assays. Previous studies identified fragments of A60-immunoprecipitated protein as Synapsin I (Syn I), suggesting the antibody will demonstrate cross immunoreactivity. However, the likelihood of cross reactivity has never been verified by immunohistochemical techniques. Using our established tissue processing and immunofluorescent staining protocols, we found that A60 consistently labeled mossy fiber terminals in hippocampal area CA3. These A60-positive mossy fiber terminals could also be labeled by Syn I antibody. After treating brain slices with saponin in order to better preserve various membrane and/or vesicular proteins for immunostaining, we observed that A60 could also label additional synapses in various brain areas. Therefore, we used A60 together with a rabbit monoclonal NeuN antibody to confirm the existence of this cross reactivity. We showed that the putative band positive for A60 and Syn I could not be detected by the rabbit anti-NeuN in Western blotting. As efficient as Millipore A60 to recognize neuronal nuclei, the rabbit NeuN antibody demonstrated no labeling of synaptic structures in immunofluorescent staining. The present study successfully verified the cross reactivity present in immunohistochemistry, cautioning that A60 may not be the ideal biomarker to verify neuronal identity due to its cross immunoreactivity. In contrast, the rabbit monoclonal NeuN antibody used in this study may be a better candidate to substitute for A60.

  11. The oral microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Poovorawan, Yong; Dahlén, Gunnar; Wade, William G

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a range of oral conditions, and increased numbers of disease-associated microbial species have previously been found in HIV-positive subjects. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing to compare the composition of the oral microbiome in HIV-positive and -negative individuals. Plaque and saliva were collected from 37 HIV-positive individuals and 37 HIV-negative individuals, and their bacterial composition determined by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 855,222 sequences were analysed. The number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected was significantly lower in the saliva of HIV-positive individuals (mean = 303.3) than in that of HIV-negative individuals (mean = 365.5) (P PCoA) based on community membership (Jaccard index) and structure (Yue and Clayton measure of dissimilarity) showed significant separation of plaque and saliva samples [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), P PCoA plots did not show any clear separation based on HIV status. However, AMOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the community membership of saliva between HIV-positive and -negative groups (P = 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis effect size revealed an OTU identified as Haemophilus parainfluenzae to be significantly associated with HIV-positive individuals, whilst Streptococcus mitis/HOT473 was most significantly associated with HIV-negative individuals. In conclusion, this study has confirmed that the microbial composition of saliva and plaque is different. The oral microbiomes of HIV-positive and -negative individuals were found to be similar overall, although there were minor but significant differences in the composition of the salivary microbiota of the two groups.

  12. An Examination of Psychometric Properties of Positive Functional Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saide Umut ZEYBEK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community sample’s PFAS score. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS’ life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66

  13. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

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    Xianglong eZENG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759 on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1 medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2 small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1 interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but in