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Sample records for showed high values

  1. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  2. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  3. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W

    2018-05-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  5. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  6. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  7. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  8. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  9. Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in the prediction of quantiles of daily Standard&Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 returns we consider how to use high-frequency 5-minute data. We examine methods that incorporate the high frequency information either indirectly, through combining forecasts (using forecasts generated from returns sampled at different intraday interval, or directly, through combining high frequency information into one model. We consider subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging methods for the indirect case, and factor models with principal component approach, for both direct and indirect cases. We show that in forecasting the daily S&P 500 index return quantile (Value-at-Risk or VaR is simply the negative of it, using high-frequency information is beneficial, often substantially and particularly so, in forecasting downside risk. Our empirical results show that the averaging methods (subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging, which serve as different ways of forming the ensemble average from using high-frequency intraday information, provide an excellent forecasting performance compared to using just low-frequency daily information.

  10. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  11. High throughput screening and profiling of high-value carotenoids from a wide diversity of bacteria in surface seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Dalal

    2018-09-30

    Carotenoids are valuable natural colorants that exhibit numerous health promoting properties, and thus are widely used in food, feeds, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, we isolated and identified novel microbial sources that produced high-value carotenoids using high throughput screening (HTS). A total of 701 pigmented microbial strains library including marine bacteria and red yeast was constructed. Carotenoids profiling using HPLC-DAD-MS methods showed 88 marine bacterial strains with potential for the production of high-value carotenoids including astaxanthin (28 strains), zeaxanthin (21 strains), lutein (1 strains) and canthaxanthin (2 strains). A comprehensive 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains can be classified into 30 species belonging to five bacterial classes (Flavobacteriia, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacilli). Importantly, we discovered novel producers of zeaxanthin and lutein, and a high diversity in both carotenoids and producing microbial strains, which are promising and highly selective biotechnological sources for high-value carotenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  13. Yeast synthetic biology for high-value metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Guo, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, high-value metabolites have been produced through direct extraction from natural biological sources which are inefficient, given the low abundance of these compounds. On the other hand, these high-value metabolites are usually difficult to be synthesized chemically, due to their complex structures. In the last few years, the discovery of genes involved in the synthetic pathways of these metabolites, combined with advances in synthetic biology tools, has allowed the construction of increasing numbers of yeast cell factories for production of these metabolites from renewable biomass. This review summarizes recent advances in synthetic biology in terms of the use of yeasts as microbial hosts for the identification of the pathways involved in the synthesis, as well as for the production of high-value metabolites. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  14. PCSK9 Inhibitors Show Value for Patients and the US Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Han; Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as cholesterol-lowering therapies for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. To estimate the long-term health and economic value of PCSK9 inhibitors for Americans (51 years and older). We conducted simulations using the Future Elderly Model, an established dynamic microsimulation model to project the lifetime outcomes for the US population aged 51 years and older. Health effects estimates and confidence intervals from published meta-analysis studies were used to project changes in life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years, and lifetime medical spending resulting from the use of PCSK9 inhibitors. We considered two treatment scenarios: 1) current FDA eligibility and 2) an extended eligibility scenario that includes patients with no pre-existing cardiovascular disease but at high risk. We assumed that the price of PCSK9 inhibitors was discounted by 35% in the first 12 years and by 57% thereafter, with gradual uptake of the drug in eligible populations. Use of PCSK9 inhibitors by individuals covered by current FDA approval would extend life expectancy at the age of 51 years by an estimated 1.1 years and would yield a lifetime net value of $5800 per person. If use was extended to those at high risk for cardiovascular disease, PCSK9 inhibitors would generate a lifetime net benefit of $14,100 per person. Expanded access to PCSK9 inhibitors would offer positive long-term net value for patients and the US health care system at the current discounted prices. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  16. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages.

  17. High historical values of foEs—Reality or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, J.; Boška, J.; Burešová, D.; Kouba, D.

    2012-01-01

    Very high values of foEs had sometimes been reported in the past. These values, as well as all other ionogram-scaled values, had been derived from ionograms under the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode of sounding radio waves. In the past it was impossible to check the validity of this assumption. However, modern digisondes determine clearly the oblique or extraordinary mode reflections. To test the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode for high values of foEs, seven summers (June 2004-August 2010) from a midlatitude station Pruhonice are chosen. All hourly values of foEs≥6.0 MHz are selected from this data set, altogether 282 values. In 90% of cases the “classical” way of evaluation of foEs provides values higher than “true” values from modern digisonde (average difference about 1 MHz). 38% of “classical” foEs are oblique reflections, which however do not occur in direction perpendicular to geomagnetic field. The occurrence of high values of foEs varies very much from year to year between 0 and 130 events per year. As for diurnal variation, a pronounced maximum occurs at ˜10:00LT and 16:00LT (secondary), and a minimum after midnight.

  18. Desserts with a high nutritional value in the industry employees nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telegenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of the sweet foods with a high nutritional value development. Evaluation of the organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of model jelly samples with jost and spirulina showed that the proposed formula and technology gives a product with high consumer properties. There is a theoretically substantiated expediency of a jost and spirulina jelly implementation in such restaurant enterprises as dining rooms in the industrial plants. Using the jost and spirulina nutritional supplements can expand the range of the preventive nutrition foods.

  19. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  20. Review: Bilirubin pKa studies; new models and theories indicate high pKa values in water, dimethylformamide and DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, a poorly-soluble, unstable substance, are essential for understanding its functions. Our prior solvent partition studies, of unlabeled and [14C] UCB, indicated pKa values above 8.0. These high values were attributed to effects of internal H-bonding in UCB. Many earlier and subsequent studies have reported lower pKa values, some even below 5.0, which are often used to describe the behavior of UCB. We here review 18 published studies that assessed aqueous pKa values of UCB, critically evaluating their methodologies in relation to essential preconditions for valid pKa measurements (short-duration experiments with purified UCB below saturation and accounting for self-association of UCB. Results These re-assessments identified major deficiencies that invalidate the results of all but our partition studies. New theoretical modeling of UCB titrations shows remarkable, unexpected effects of self-association, yielding falsely low pKa estimates, and provides some rationalization of the titration anomalies. The titration behavior reported for a soluble thioether conjugate of UCB at high aqueous concentrations is shown to be highly anomalous. Theoretical re-interpretations of data in DMSO and dimethylformamide show that those indirectly-derived aqueous pKa values are unacceptable, and indicate new, high average pKa values for UCB in non-aqueous media (>11 in DMSO and, probably, >10 in dimethylformamide. Conclusions No reliable aqueous pKa values of UCB are available for comparison with our partition-derived results. A companion paper shows that only the high pKa values can explain the pH-dependence of UCB binding to phospholipids, cyclodextrins, and alkyl-glycoside and bile salt micelles.

  1. Correlations of Consumers, Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits ─A Case Study on Taiwan International Orchid Show

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the correlations of consumers’ Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits. Leisure Motivation contains the dimensions of Intellectual Factor, Social Factor, Competence-Mastery, and Stimulus-Avoidance; and, Leisure Value covers Product Value, Service Value, and Experience Value. Visitors to Taiwan International Orchid Show are selected as the research samples for the questionnaire survey. Total 600 copies are distributed on site and 488 valid ones are...

  2. Valuing carbon assets for high-tech with application to the wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Liyan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Gubo

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional methods for high-tech evaluation, we introduce a new, more active idea for considering the carbon asset effect, in addition to the economic and technological considerations for strategic significance. The method proposed in this paper considers a reduced amount of carbon emissions, less than that of the current industry baseline, to be an asset that is beneficial to a firm that adopts a new technology. The measured carbon asset values vary across different technologies, in different industries and over time. The new method is applied to the valuing of wind energy technology and uses the Weibull distribution to estimate the wind energy capacity and a concrete sensitivity analysis. These applications support the validity of the new method and show that the impact of the fluctuations of carbon sinks on the values of carbon assets is significantly greater than that of volatility in the production output. The paper also presents some policy recommendations based on the results. - Highlights: • Carbon asset dimension for high-tech evaluation. • Valuing wind energy technology by Weibull distribution. • Greater impact of the carbon sink price on the carbon asset value than that of production output. • The environmental risk could be measured based on the carbon asset assessment.

  3. Characterisation of transition state structures for protein folding using 'high', 'medium' and 'low' {Phi}-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geierhaas, Christian D; Salvatella, Xavier; Clarke, Jane; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2008-03-01

    It has been suggested that Phi-values, which allow structural information about transition states (TSs) for protein folding to be obtained, are most reliably interpreted when divided into three classes (high, medium and low). High Phi-values indicate almost completely folded regions in the TS, intermediate Phi-values regions with a detectable amount of structure and low Phi-values indicate mostly unstructured regions. To explore the extent to which this classification can be used to characterise in detail the structure of TSs for protein folding, we used Phi-values divided into these classes as restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. This type of procedure is related to that used in NMR spectroscopy to define the structure of native proteins from the measurement of inter-proton distances derived from nuclear Overhauser effects. We illustrate this approach by determining the TS ensembles of five proteins and by showing that the results are similar to those obtained by using as restraints the actual numerical Phi-values measured experimentally. Our results indicate that the simultaneous consideration of a set of low-resolution Phi-values can provide sufficient information for characterising the architecture of a TS for folding of a protein.

  4. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  5. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  6. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  7. The value of multi ultra high-b-value DWI in grading cerebral astrocytomas and its association with aquaporin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Qin, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Le

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the value of multi-ultrahigh-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (UHBV-DWI) in differentiating high-grade astrocytomas (HGAs) from low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), analyze its association with aquaporin (AQP) expression. 40 astrocytomas divided into LGAs (N = 15) and HGAs (N = 25) were studied. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and UHBV-ADC values in solid parts and peritumoral edema were compared between LGAs and HGAs groups by the t-test. Using receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the better parameter. Using real time polymerase chain reaction to assess AQP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Using spearman correlation analysis to assess the correlation of AQP mRNA with each parameter. ADC values in solid parts of HGAs were significantly lower than LGAs (p = 0.02), while UHBV-ADC values of HGAs were significantly higher than LGAs (p  0.05); ADC value showed a negative correlation with AQP4 mRNA (r = -0.357; p = 0.024). UHBV-ADC value positively correlated with the AQP4 mRNA (r = 0.646; p value may be related with the AQP4 mRNA levels. UHBV-DWI could be of value in the assessment of astrocytoma. Advances in knowledge: UHBV-DWI generated by multi UHBV could have particular value for astrocytoma grading, and the level of AQP4 mRNA might be potentially linked to the change of UHBV-DWI parameter, and we might find the exact reason for the difference of UHBV-ADC between the LGAs and HGAs.

  8. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    Value-based care emphasizes achieving the greatest overall health benefit for every dollar spent. We present an interesting case of stroke, which made us consider how frequently health care providers are utilizing value-based care. A 73-year-old Caucasian, who was initially admitted for a hypertensive emergency, was transferred to our facility for worsening slurring of speech and left-sided weakness. The patient had an extensive chronic cerebrovascular disease, including multiple embolic type strokes, mainly in the distribution of the right temporal-occipital cerebral artery and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). The patient had a known history of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. He was complicated by intracranial hemorrhage while on anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism. He was chronically on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) and statin.  Following the transfer, stroke protocol, including the activation of the stroke team, a computed tomography (CT) imaging study, and the rapid stabilization of the patient was initiated. His vitals were stable, and the physical examination was significant for the drooping of the left angle of the mouth, a nonreactive right pupil consistent with the previous stroke, a decreased strength in the left upper and lower extremities, and a faint systolic murmur. His previous stroke was shown to be embolic, involving both the right temporal and occipital regions, which was re-demonstrated in a CT scan. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain showed a new, restricted diffusion in the right pons that was compatible with an acute stroke as well as diffusely atherosclerotic vessels with a focal stenosis of the branch vessels. A transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated no new thrombus in the heart. A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed known PFO, and repeat hypercoagulation evaluation was negative, as it was in his previous cerebrovascular accident (CVA

  9. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 forecasting informed by b-value variability, in particular in assessing the significance of b-value variations identified by sample sizes with fewer than 200 events above the completeness threshold.

  10. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A metal-free nitrogen-doped diamond electrode was synthesized. • The electrode exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for nitrobenzene reduction. • The electrode exhibits high selectivity for reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. • High energy efficiency was obtained compared with graphite electrode. -- Abstract: Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC–MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN

  12. Microprocessor-controlled meter of high Q-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, S.N.; Konstantinov, V.I.; Masalov, V.L.; Sevrukova, L.M.; Tokarev, A.D.; Usiv, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the functional model of a high-precision microcomputer-controlled test facility for studying the electric and physical parameters of superconducting cavities. The basic unit of the test facility is high-stability retunable RF oscillator. It is designed following the scheme of the frequency phase tuning using standard equipment. The systematic error in measuring the loaded Q-value of reentrant cavities is not larger than 5%. A dedicated built-in microcomputer is used to control the measuring test facility and to make the commutations required. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  14. Value-based insurance design: consumers' views on paying more for high-cost, low-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Marjorie

    2010-11-01

    Value-based insurance designs frequently lower consumers' cost sharing to motivate healthy behavior, such as adhering to medication regimens. Few health care purchasers have followed the more controversial approach of using increased cost sharing to temper demand for high-cost, low-value medical care. Yet there is evidence that when health care's affordability is at stake, the public may be willing to compromise on coverage of certain medical problems and less effective treatments. Businesses should engage employees in discussions about if and how this type of value-based insurance design should apply to their own insurance coverage. A similar process could also be used for Medicare and other public-sector programs.

  15. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U{sup VI} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng, E-mail: ecitluofeng@163.com

    2016-07-05

    Graphical abstract: Table of content Herein, through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples afforded ultra-high adsorption capacity for UVI ions from water with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g. - Highlights: • This work shows the record uptake capability of U{sup VI} (360 mg/g) in MOFs. • This work shows, for the first time, photo-switching behaviour towards U{sup VI} in aqueous solution. • This work demonstrates a simple and effective method to largely enhance uptake capability of U{sup VI}. • This work demonstrates a distinct method to prepare photo-sensitive MOFs for photo-switching behaviour towards guest molecules. - Abstract: Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U{sup VI} ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U{sup VI} ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U{sup VI} ions from water at pH value of 4 with

  16. Penning trap mass spectrometry Q-value determinations for highly forbidden β-decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Rachel; Bollen, Georg; Eibach, Martin; Gamage, Nadeesha; Gulyuz, Kerim; Hamaker, Alec; Izzo, Chris; Kandegedara, Rathnayake; Redshaw, Matt; Ringle, Ryan; Valverde, Adrian; Yandow, Isaac; Low Energy Beam Ion Trap Team

    2017-09-01

    Over the last several decades, extremely sensitive, ultra-low background beta and gamma detection techniques have been developed. These techniques have enabled the observation of very rare processes, such as highly forbidden beta decays e.g. of 113Cd, 50V and 138La. Half-life measurements of highly forbidden beta decays provide a testing ground for theoretical nuclear models, and the comparison of calculated and measured energy spectra could enable a determination of the values of the weak coupling constants. Precision Q-value measurements also allow for systematic tests of the beta-particle detection techniques. We will present the results and current status of Q value determinations for highly forbidden beta decays. The Q values, the mass difference between parent and daughter nuclides, are measured using the high precision Penning trap mass spectrometer LEBIT at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

  17. A multimodal high-value curriculum affects drivers of utilization and performance on the high-value care component of the internal medicine in-training exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Loertscher, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Background : Teaching the practice of high-value care (HVC) is an increasingly important function of graduate medical education but best practices and long-term outcomes remain unknown. Objective : Whether a multimodal curriculum designed to address specific drivers of low-value care would affect resident attitudes, skills, and performance of HVC as tested by the Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (ITE). Methods : In 2012, we performed a baseline needs assessment among internal medicine residents at a community program regarding drivers of healthcare utilization. We then created a multimodal curriculum with online interactive worksheets, lectures, and faculty buy-in to target specific skills, knowledge, and culture deficiencies. Perceived drivers of care and performance on the Internal Medicine ITE were assessed yearly through 2016. Results : Fourteen of 27 (52%) residents completed the initial needs assessment while the curriculum was eventually seen by at least 24 of 27 (89%). The ITE was taken by every resident every year. Long-term, 3-year follow-up demonstrated persistent improvement in many drivers of utilization (patient requests, reliance on subspecialists, defensive medicine, and academic curiosity) and improvement with sustained high performance on the high-value component of the ITE. Conclusion : A multimodal curriculum targeting specific drivers of low-value care can change culture and lead to sustained improvement in the practice of HVC.

  18. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  19. Singular value decomposition metrics show limitations of detector design in diffuse fluorescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Frederic; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Pogue, Brian W

    2010-11-29

    The spatial resolution and recovered contrast of images reconstructed from diffuse fluorescence tomography data are limited by the high scattering properties of light propagation in biological tissue. As a result, the image reconstruction process can be exceedingly vulnerable to inaccurate prior knowledge of tissue optical properties and stochastic noise. In light of these limitations, the optimal source-detector geometry for a fluorescence tomography system is non-trivial, requiring analytical methods to guide design. Analysis of the singular value decomposition of the matrix to be inverted for image reconstruction is one potential approach, providing key quantitative metrics, such as singular image mode spatial resolution and singular data mode frequency as a function of singular mode. In the present study, these metrics are used to analyze the effects of different sources of noise and model errors as related to image quality in the form of spatial resolution and contrast recovery. The image quality is demonstrated to be inherently noise-limited even when detection geometries were increased in complexity to allow maximal tissue sampling, suggesting that detection noise characteristics outweigh detection geometry for achieving optimal reconstructions.

  20. Revalidation and rationale for high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J Donald

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our prior solvent partition analysis, published in 1992, yielded pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin of about 8.1 and 8.4, but these results have been challenged and studies by other methods have suggested pKa values below 5.0. Methods We repeated our published solvent partition studies, using 14C-unconjugated bilirubin highly purified by extraction of residual labeled impurities from CHCl3 into an aqueous buffer, pH 7.0. Partition ratios at six pH values from 5.0 to 9.0 were determined by radioassay and compared with our prior values obtained by diazo assay. Results At pH values ranging from 4.8 to 9.2, stable aqueous/chloroform 14C-partition ratios did not differ significantly from our published partition ratios based on diazo assay. Conclusion These results support the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin, above 8.0, derived from our earlier solvent partition study. In both studies, our measurements were based on the rapid analysis of clearly under-saturated solutions of highly-purified bilirubin over a wide pH range, using properly purified and preserved solvents. No previous direct estimate of the aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin meets all these preconditions. Three theoretical factors acting in combination, each related to the unique, extensive internal H-bonding of the -COOH groups, are proposed to support high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin in water: a donation of an H-bond from the -OH moiety of the -COOH group, which is broken on ionization; b hindered solvation of the -COO- group after ionization; and c restricted rotation of the -COO- and -COOH groups. Our findings and rationale rebut methodological and theoretical criticisms leveled against our prior work. High pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin dictate that: a bilirubin diacid, which readily diffuses across membranes and can cause neurotoxicity, is the dominant unbound bilirubin species of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma at

  1. Training Physicians to Provide High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammen, L.A.; Stalmeijer, R.E.; Paternotte, E.; Pool, A.O.; Driessen, E.W.; Scheele, F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Objective To understand the circumstances in which the delivery of high-value, cost-conscious care is learned, with a goal

  2. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  3. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  4. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  5. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  6. High b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal brain at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu; Ulug, Aziz Muefit; Firat, Zeynep; Bayram, Ali; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Kovanlikaya, Ilhami

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the normative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at 3 T using high b-value (3000 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and compare the signal characteristics of the high b value with standard b-value (1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective study which included 20 volunteers (10 M, 10 F, mean age: 38.7 ± 14.9) without any known clinical disease or radiological findings. All brain examinations were performed with 3 T MR by using similar parameters of b1000 and b3000 DWI sequences. DWI and ADC maps were obtained. Signal intensity, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR), contrast ratio (CR), and ADC values of bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal white matter, parietal gray matter, pons, thalamus, splenium of corpus callosum were measured on b1000 and b3000 DW images. Results: In all anatomic locations, MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b3000 images were significantly lower than MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b1000 images (p < 0.001). The CNR and CR values at the posterior limb of internal capsule and pons were significantly increased on b3000 images (p < 0.001) and decreased in the other regions measured. Conclusion: The ADC values calculated from standard b-value DWI were significantly higher than those calculated from high b-value DWI. These results agree with the previous studies. In the regions where CNR values increase with high b value, b3000 DWI images may provide additional clinical information.

  7. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicich, Eric M.; Swaab, Roderick I.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  8. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2 H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Creating Value for Customer in Business Networks of High-Tech Goods Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wiechoczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main paper goal is to recognize the category of value for customer with respect to high-tech products, and to propose a model of creation of this value in business networks established by manufacturers. The research methods include critical analysis of the literature, documentation method, as well as the case research method and observation method. The results of the research proved that the value offered to buyers is characterized by growing multidimensionality which results in increasing complexity of the creation process of this value by their manufacturers. Due to the fact that they do not have complex skills and resources to create the value independently, they form business networks. These networks include increasingly larger group of entities, in which the importance of individual cooperants is highly diversified.

  10. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  11. Pasteurellaceae bacteria from the oral cavity of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus Harrisii) show high minimum inhibitory concentration values towards aminoglycosides and clindamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutman, N.; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    of the oral microbiota. In medical management of such bite wounds, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles are crucial. Prior to this investigation, no available data on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values existed. A total of 26 isolates obtained from the oral cavity of 26 healthy Tasmanian devils...... for antimicrobial therapy against bite wound infections caused by Pasteurellaceae originating from the oral cavity of Tasmanian devils....

  12. Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137 Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137 Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137 Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)

  13. The green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Charophyta) shows high iron and aluminium tolerance: protection mechanisms and photosynthetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herburger, Klaus; Remias, Daniel; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Streptophyte green algae, ancestors of Embryophytes, occur frequently in terrestrial habitats being exposed to high light intensities, water scarcity and potentially toxic metal cations under acidic conditions. The filamentous Zygogonium ericetorum synthesizes a purple vacuolar ferrous pigment, which is lost after aplanospore formation. However, it is unknown whether this cellular reorganization also removes excessive iron from the protoplast and how Z. ericetorum copes with high concentrations of aluminium. Here we show that aplanospore formation shifts iron into the extracellular space of the algal filament. Upon germination of aplanospores, aluminium is bound in the parental cell wall. Both processes reduce iron and aluminium in unpigmented filaments. Comparison of the photosynthetic oxygen production in response to light and temperature gradients in two different Z. ericetorum strains from an Austrian alpine and a Scottish highland habitat revealed lower values in the latter strain. In contrast, the Scottish strain showed a higher optimum quantum yield of PSII during desiccation stress followed by rehydration. Furthermore, pigmented filaments of both strains exhibited a higher light and temperature dependent oxygen production when compared to the unpigmented phenotype. Our results demonstrate a high metal tolerance of Z. ericetorum, which is crucial for surviving in acidic terrestrial habitats. © FEMS 2016.

  14. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    dynamical downscaling, based on simple PDF skill scores. The measure can assess the full quality of the PDFs and at the same time integrates a flexible manner to weight differently the PDF tails. In this study we apply the referred method to characaterize the PDF added value of a high resolution simulation with the WRF model. Results from a WRF climate simulation centred at the Iberian Penisnula with two nested grids, a larger one at 27km and a smaller one at 9km. This simulation is forced by ERA-Interim. The observational data used covers from rain gauges precipitation records to observational regular grids of daily precipitation. Two regular gridded precipitation datasets are used. A Portuguese grid precipitation dataset developed at 0.2°× 0.2°, from observed rain gauges daily precipitation. A second one corresponding to the ENSEMBLES observational gridded dataset for Europe, which includes daily precipitation values at 0.25°. The analisys shows an important PDF added value from the higher resolution simulation, regarding the full PDF and the extremes. This method shows higher potential to be applied to other simulation exercises and to evaluate other variables.

  15. Head-To-Head Comparison Between High- and Standard-b-Value DWI for Detecting Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungmin; Suh, Chong Hyun; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between high-b-value (> 1000 s/mm 2 ) and standard-b-value (800-1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI regarding diagnostic performance in the detection of prostate cancer. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to April 1, 2017. The analysis included diagnostic accuracy studies in which high- and standard-b-value DWI were used for prostate cancer detection with histopathologic examination as the reference standard. Methodologic quality was assessed with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Sensitivity and specificity of all studies were calculated and were pooled and plotted in a hierarchic summary ROC plot. Meta-regression and multiple-subgroup analyses were performed to compare the diagnostic performances of high- and standard-b-value DWI. Eleven studies (789 patients) were included. High-b-value DWI had greater pooled sensitivity (0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.87]) (p = 0.03) and specificity (0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]) (p = 0.01) than standard-b-value DWI (sensitivity, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.86]); specificity, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.77-0.93] (p value DWI (p ≤ 0.05). Sensitivity was significantly higher for high- than for standard-b-value DWI only in the following subgroups: peripheral zone only, transition zone only, multiparametric protocol (DWI and T2-weighted imaging), visual assessment of DW images, and per-lesion analysis (p ≤ 0.04). In a head-to-head comparison, high-b-value DWI had significantly better sensitivity and specificity for detection of prostate cancer than did standard-b-value DWI. Multiple-subgroup analyses showed that specificity was consistently superior for high-b-value DWI.

  16. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Atmosphere, PK-6530, Succ. Centre-ville, B.P. 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Elia, Ramon [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Ouranos Consortium, Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions. (orig.)

  17. The system of values, motivation and self-attitude: gender features in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I. Vartanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62 included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1, achievement motivation (2, learning and cognitive motivation, (3 and motivation of affiliation (4. This enabled to further estimate the factor and correlation analysis of the parameters studied, which shows that the system of values is significantly different in males and females of the same age, even in relation to the same mean value of motivation. Motivation, values and self-attitude organize stable systems – on the current sample allocated the four most common systems, i.e. the four factors that are specific for both males and females. Simultaneously, there are systems of values dependent on expressiveness and the combination of a certain type of motivation, and independent of the type of motivation. Female educational and cognitive motivation and positional (status motivation related to the values were merged into one factor, but for males one factor includes achievement motivation and (with the opposite sign affiliation motivation. While the self-realization of females occurs in the process of learning (the value of «selfimprovement in their studies», and in the future they see an opportunity for self-realization through the value of «happy family life», the males with this motivation connect their opportunity for self-realization with other values, i.e. «health», «recognition by other team members», «my authority.»

  18. Spatial Heterodyne Observation of Water (SHOW) from a high altitude aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, A. E.; Langille, J.; Solheim, B.; Degenstein, D. A.; Letros, D.; Lloyd, N. D.; Loewen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water instrument (SHOW) is limb-sounding satellite prototype that is being developed in collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, York University, the Canadian Space Agency and ABB. The SHOW instrument combines a field-widened SHS with an imaging system to observe limb-scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm - 1366 nm). Currently, the instrument has been optimized for deployment on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. Flying at an altitude of 70, 000 ft the ER-2 configuration and SHOW viewing geometry provides high spatial resolution (limb-measurements of water vapor in the Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. During an observation campaign from July 15 - July 22, the SHOW instrument performed 10 hours of observations from the ER-2. This paper describes the SHOW measurement technique and presents the preliminary analysis and results from these flights. These observations are used to validate the SHOW measurement technique and demonstrate the sampling capabilities of the instrument.

  19. Influence of customer value orientation, brand value, and business ethics level on organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslier Maureen Valenzuela Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Customer value orientation, brand value and business ethics are critical variables to developing long-term relationships with customers and achieve sustainable sales growth over time. This research shows how the degree of orientation to customer value by the sales forces, brand value and business ethical standards could significantly influence organizational performance. Design/methodology/approach – The study contributes to an explanatory model through a structural equation model (SEM and empirical evidence of research applied to 327 executives – occupying medium and high positions in several companies in Chile – who manage their business globally. Findings – The results support the hypothesis that customer value orientation, brand value and business ethics influence organizational performance. Originality/value – This research shows how the degree of orientation to customer value by the sales forces, brand value and business ethical standards could significantly influence organizational performance in a country like Chile.

  20. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  1. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for the High-Value Chemicals Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek

    and cheap fertilizer as a medium for the cultivation of engineered cyanobacterial strains is shown. Alternative strategy to engineer Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a universal platform for the sustainable production of diverse range high-value phenylpropanoids which find use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics......Emerging problems like increasing global warming and depletion of fossil fuels bring serious concerns regarding production of food and various chemicals in the future. Clearly, there is a need for finding alternative and more sustainable ways of producing chemicals in order to satisfy increasing...... consumer demands of an ever growing population. Considering the ability to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass, cyanobacteria and microalgae have potential for becoming such alternative in the future. Biosynthesis of a great number of plant high-value secondary metabolites requires...

  2. High and ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Lipponer, Christine; Guberina, Nika; Olbricht, Tobias; Schenck, Marcus; Schlosser, Thomas W; Gratz, Marcel; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prostate cancer. However, the routine use of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2) is not clear up to present. Moreover, the complex diffusion behavior of malignant and benign prostate tissues hampers precise predictions of contrast in DWI images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To quantitatively analyze DWI with different b values in prostate cancer and to identify b values best suitable for cancer detection. Forty-one patients with histologically proven prostate cancer were examined with high resolution T2-weighted imaging and DWI at 3 Tesla. Five different b values (0, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 s/mm(2)) were applied. ADC values of tumors and reference areas were measured on ADC maps derived from different pairs of b values. Furthermore, signal intensities of DW images of tumors and reference areas were measured. For analysis, contrast ratios of ADC values and signal intensities of DW images were calculated and compared. No significant differences were found between contrast ratios measured on ADC maps of all analyzed b value pairs (P = 0.43). Contrast ratios calculated from signal intensities of DW images were highest at b values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) and differed significantly from contrast ratios at b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2) (P values, contrast ratios of DW images are significantly higher at b-values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) in comparison to b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2). Therefore, diagnostic performance of DWI in prostate cancer might be increased by application of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2). © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  3. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability 
and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mehr, Hamed Mahdavian; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel) and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well--balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation-sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  4. Added-values of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data in crop yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of crop yield before harvest is critical for food market and administrative planning. Remote sensing derived parameters have been used for estimating crop yield by using either empirical or crop growth models. The uses of remote sensing vegetation index (VI) in crop yield modeling have been typically evaluated at regional and country scales using coarse spatial resolution (a few hundred to kilo-meters) data or assessed over a small region at field level using moderate resolution spatial resolution data (10-100m). Both data sources have shown great potential in capturing spatial and temporal variability in crop yield. However, the added value of data with both high spatial and temporal resolution data has not been evaluated due to the lack of such data source with routine, global coverage. In recent years, more moderate resolution data have become freely available and data fusion approaches that combine data acquired from different spatial and temporal resolutions have been developed. These make the monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield at field scale become possible. Here we investigate the added value of the high spatial and temporal VI for describing variability of crop yield. The explanatory ability of crop yield based on high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data was evaluated in a rain-fed agricultural area in the U.S. Corn Belt. Results show that the fused Landsat-MODIS (high spatial and temporal) VI explains yield variability better than single data source (Landsat or MODIS alone), with EVI2 performing slightly better than NDVI. The maximum VI describes yield variability better than cumulative VI. Even though VI is effective in explaining yield variability within season, the inter-annual variability is more complex and need additional information (e.g. weather, water use and management). Our findings augment the importance of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data and supports new moderate

  5. Memory, priority encoding, and overcoming high-value proactive interference in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    It is often necessary to remember important information while directing attention away from encoding less valuable information. To examine how aging influences the ability to control and update the encoding of high-value information, younger and older adults studied six lists of words that varied in terms of the point values associated with each word. The words were paired with the same high and low point values for three study-test cycles, but on the fourth and subsequent cycles the value-word pairings were switched such that the lowest value pairs became the highest values (and vice versa). For the first three study-test cycles, younger adults outperformed older adults in terms of the number of words recalled and overall point totals, but performance was similar in terms of selectively remembering high-value words. When the values were switched, both groups displayed substantial interference from the previous pairings. Although both groups improved with additional study-test cycles, only younger adults were able to fully recover from the interference effects. A similar, and more pronounced, set of results were obtained when positive and negative point values were paired with the words. The findings are interpreted in a value-directed remembering framework, emphasizing the role of benefits and costs of strategic encoding and age-related differences in the effects of interference on memory.

  6. Optimal high b-value for diffusion weighted MRI in diagnosing high risk prostate cancers in the peripheral zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harsh K; Mertan, Francesca V; Sankineni, Sandeep; Bernardo, Marcelino; Senegas, Julien; Keupp, Jochen; Daar, Dagane; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the optimal b-value(s) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) associated with intermediate-high risk cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Forty-two consecutive patients underwent multi b-value (16 evenly spaced b-values between 0 and 2000 s/mm 2 ) DWI along with multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) of the prostate at 3 Tesla followed by trans-rectal ultrasound/MRI fusion guided targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions detected at MP-MRI. Computed DWI images up to a simulated b-value of 4000 s/mm 2 were also obtained using a pair of b-values (b = 133 and 400 or 667 or 933 s/mm 2 ) from the multi b-value DWI. The contrast ratio of average intensity of the targeted lesions and the background PZ was determined. Receiver operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUCs) were obtained for separating patients eligible for active surveillance with low risk prostate cancers from intermediate-high risk prostate cancers as per the cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA) scoring system. The AUC first increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching maximum at b = 1600 s/mm 2 (0.74) with no statistically significant different AUC of DWI with b-values 1067-2000 s/mm 2 . The AUC of computed DWI increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching a maximum of 0.75 around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . There was no statistically significant difference between the AUC of optimal acquired DWI and either of optimal computed DWI. The optimal b-value for acquired DWI in differentiating intermediate-high from low risk prostate cancers in the PZ is b = 1600 s/mm 2 . The computed DWI has similar performance as that of acquired DWI with the optimal performance around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:125-131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    A particle-γ-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-α-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in 12 C+ 169 Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/αxn/2αxn channels are measured at E lab =5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-α-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-α-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in 16 O(E lab ≅5.6A MeV) + 169 Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-α-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-α multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-α-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  8. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  9. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  10. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Sone, Koji; Kobayashi, Toshikazu

    1993-01-01

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against γ-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against γ-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against γ-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author)

  11. Clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosonuma, Tomonori; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Sakuma, Tohru; Hayashi, Daichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer. The subjects were 15 patients diagnosed endoscopically with rectal cancer (m in 1 patient, sm in 0, mp in 3, ss in 7, se in 1, a in 3) and 20 patients diagnosed endoscopically with colon cancer and no other lesions (control group). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5T system. DWI was performed in the axial plane using echo planar imaging sequence (repetition time/echo time 1200/66, field of view 306 X 350 mm, reconstruction matrix 156 x 256, pixel size 2.0 x 1.4 x 8.0 mm) and acquired with 2 b-values (50 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Low and high b-value DW images were analyzed visually. A lesion was positive by detection of a focal area of high signal in the rectum in high b-value images. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of areas of high signal in high b-value images were calculated from the low and high b-value images. High b-value images enabled visualization of all 15 rectal cancers. In the control group, 13 cases were classified as negative and 7 cases as positive for rectal cancer. Sensitivity for detection of rectal cancer was 100% (15/15), and specificity was 65% (13/20). The mean ADC values in 7 patients with false-positive lesions and in 15 patients with rectal cancer were 1.374 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (standard deviation [SD]: 0.157) and 1.194 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (SD: 0.152), respectively (P=0.026). DWI with low and high b-values may be used to screen for rectal cancer. (author)

  12. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye; Liu, Mengqi [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanya (China); Zhou, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lv, Bin [Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT, Beijing (China); Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gui, Qiuping [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  13. The clinical value of bilateral breast MR imaging: is it worth performing on patients showing suspicious microcalcifications on mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Ayano; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Jinno, Hiromitsu [Keio University, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kameyama, Kaori [Keio University, Division of Diagnostic Pathology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of bilateral breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) in patients showing suspicious microcalcifications on mammography and negative ultrasound findings. Fifty patients underwent MRI before stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB). MR findings were classified into five types for interpretation, and types 4 and 5 were considered malignant. SVAB revealed 13 carcinomas and 37 benign lesions. Malignant lesions were more frequently found in cases of positive MRI diagnoses than in negative MRI diagnoses (P < 0.001). Mammography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 44%, whereas mammography plus MRI had a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 96%. In the evaluation of mammographically detected microcalcifications, bilateral breast MRI is of good diagnostic value and may alter the indications for SVAB. (orig.)

  14. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Popp, Steffen; Singler, Katrin; Smolarsky, Alexander; Bertsch, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Greve, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic and predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) in patients with syncope. We performed an analysis of consecutive patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department. The primary end point was the accuracy to diagnose a cardiac syncope. In addition, the study explored the prognostic relevance of cTnThs in patients with cardiac and noncardiac syncope. A total of 360 patients were enrolled (median age, 70.5 years; male, 55.8%; 23.9% aged >80 years). Cardiac syncope was present in 22% of patients, reflex syncope was present in 40% of patients, syncope due to orthostatic hypotension was present in 20% of patients, and unexplained syncope was present in 17.5% of patients. A total of 148 patients (41%) had cTnThs levels above the 99% confidence interval (CI) (cutoff point). The diagnostic accuracy for cTnThs levels to determine the diagnosis of cardiac syncope was quantified by the area under the curve (0.77; CI, 0.72-0.83; P value of cTnThs levels within 30 days: Patients with increased cTnThs levels had a 52% likelihood for adverse events, patients with cTnThs levels below the cutoff point had a low risk (negative predictive value, 83.5%). Increased cTnThs levels indicate adverse prognosis in patients with noncardiac causes of syncope, but not in patients with cardiac syncope being a risk factor for adverse outcome by itself. Patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department have a high proportion of life-threatening conditions. cTnThs levels show a limited diagnostic and predictive accuracy for the identification of patients with syncope at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  17. Analysis of high-throughput biological data using their rank values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Doulaye

    2018-01-01

    High-throughput biological technologies are routinely used to generate gene expression profiling or cytogenetics data. To achieve high performance, methods available in the literature become more specialized and often require high computational resources. Here, we propose a new versatile method based on the data-ordering rank values. We use linear algebra, the Perron-Frobenius theorem and also extend a method presented earlier for searching differentially expressed genes for the detection of recurrent copy number aberration. A result derived from the proposed method is a one-sample Student's t-test based on rank values. The proposed method is to our knowledge the only that applies to gene expression profiling and to cytogenetics data sets. This new method is fast, deterministic, and requires a low computational load. Probabilities are associated with genes to allow a statistically significant subset selection in the data set. Stability scores are also introduced as quality parameters. The performance and comparative analyses were carried out using real data sets. The proposed method can be accessed through an R package available from the CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) website: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/fcros .

  18. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  19. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  20. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  2. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  3. The role of between-parent values agreement in parent-to-child transmission of academic values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigates the intergenerational transmission of academic task values within family in early adolescence. Social learning processes are assumed to operate through the students' perceptions of their parents' values. The major goal of this study is to show that this values transmission is facilitated by between-parent value agreement. Based on a longitudinal data set including 1019 German students, their mothers (N = 847), and fathers (N = 733), structural equation models showed significant effects of the parents' task values regarding math and German language as academic subjects on the respective task values reported by the students, mediated through the student-perceived parental values. This transmission chain was only found if the between-parent agreement was high. The results are discussed in terms of parent-specific mechanisms fostering transmission if both parents agree on academic values, such as an improved perceptive accuracy as well as the increased salience and mutual reinforcement of parental messages. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wetting dynamics at high values of contact line speed

    OpenAIRE

    Пономарев, К. О.; Феоктистов, Дмитрий Владимирович; Орлова, Евгения Георгиевна

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results analyses of dynamic contact angle change under the conditions of substrate wetting by distilled water at high values of the contact line speed was conducted. Three spreading modes for copper substrates with different roughness were selected: drop formation, spreading and equilibrium contact angle formation. Peculiarity of droplet spreading on superhydrophobic surface is found. It consists in a monotonic increase of the advancing dynamic contact angle. The effect of the dr...

  5. Tooth enamel oxygen "isoscapes" show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P

    2016-10-07

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ 18 O p ) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as 'non-local' to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ 18 O p is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ 18 O values-a process known to be problematic.

  6. Correlation of Resistivity Value with Geotechnical N-Value of Sedimentary Area in Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akip Tan, S. N. Mohd; Edy Tonnizam, M.; Saad, R.; Dan, M. F. Md; Nordiana, M. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical resistivity survey and the geotechnical SPT blow counts (N-value) were carried out simultaneously on the tropically weathered sedimentary rock mass for an excavation project at Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia. This study aims to determine subsurface profile by using 2D-resistivity methods and correlate with N-value derived from boring works. Four boreholes were investigated in five survey lines that revealed the site is underlain by moderately to completely weathered sandstone, clay, silt and shale. Data analysis from 2D-resistivity image shows that zones with high resistivity value generally have high N-value, and vice versa. Five zones have inversed the proportional relation between N-value and resistivity Ωm value due to different types of soil lithology. It indicates that 2D-resistivity is significance to detect bodies of anomalous materials or estimating the depth of bedrock. As a conclusion, the integration of geophysical and geotechnical analysis provides a promise approach to understand some relationship concerning the subsurface subsurface ground through the combination of 2D-resistivity and N-value.

  7. High-Value Consults: A Curriculum to Promote Point-of-Care, Evidence-Based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiwada, Deepa Rani; Kohli, Amar; McNamara, Megan; Smith, Kenneth J; Zimmer, Shanta; McNeil, Melissa; Spagnoletti, Carla; Rubio, Doris; Berlacher, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    In an era when value-based care is paramount, teaching trainees to explicitly communicate the evidence behind recommendations fosters high-value care (HVC) in the consultation process. To implement an HVC consult curriculum highlighting the need for clear consult questions, evidence-based recommendations to improve consult teaching, clinical decision-making, and the educational value of consults. A pilot curriculum was implemented for residents on cardiology consult electives utilizing faculty and fellows as evidence-based medicine (EBM) coaches. The curriculum included an online module, an EBM teaching point template, EBM presentations on rounds, and "coach" feedback on notes. A total of 15 residents and 4 fellows on cardiology consults participated, and 87% (13 of 15) of residents on consults felt the curriculum was educationally valuable. A total of 80% (72 of 90) of residents on general medicine rotations responded to the survey, and 25 of 72 residents (35%) had a consult with the EBM template. General medicine teams felt the EBM teaching points affected clinical decision-making (48%, 12 of 25) and favored dissemination of the curriculum (90%, 72 of 80). Checklist-guided chart review showed a 22% improvement in evidence-based summaries behind recommendations (7 of 36 precurriculum to 70 of 146 charts postcurriculum, P  = .015). The HVC consult curriculum during a cardiology elective was perceived by residents to influence clinical decision-making and evidence-based recommendations, and was found to be educationally valuable on both parties in the consult process.

  8. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  9. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  10. High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Sandra; Kuczyk, Markus A; Schrader, Andres J; Al Ghazal, Andreas; Steinestel, Julie; Lehmann, Rieke; Wegener, Gerd; Schnoeller, Thomas J; Cronauer, Marcus V; Jentzmik, Florian; Schrader, Mark

    2013-01-01

    High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis

  11. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of ‘thick tails’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Arend J.; Linton, J.D.; Linton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a ‘thick tailed’ power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is

  12. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  13. The influence of attention on value integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Chater, Nick

    2017-08-01

    People often have to make decisions based on many pieces of information. Previous work has found that people are able to integrate values presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream to make informed judgements on the overall stream value (Tsetsos et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012). It is also well known that attentional mechanisms influence how people process information. However, it is unknown how attentional factors impact value judgements of integrated material. The current study is the first of its kind to investigate whether value judgements are influenced by attentional processes when assimilating information. Experiments 1-3 examined whether the attentional salience of an item within an RSVP stream affected judgements of overall stream value. The results showed that the presence of an irrelevant high or low value salient item biased people to judge the stream as having a higher or lower overall mean value, respectively. Experiments 4-7 directly tested Tsetsos et al.'s (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012) theory examining whether extreme values in an RSVP stream become over-weighted, thereby capturing attention more than other values in the stream. The results showed that the presence of both a high (Experiments 4, 6 and 7) and a low (Experiment 5) value outlier captures attention leading to less accurate report of subsequent items in the stream. Taken together, the results showed that valuations can be influenced by attentional processes, and can lead to less accurate subjective judgements.

  14. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen [College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images.

  15. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2008-01-01

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images

  16. Scanning the horizon for high value-add manufacturing science: Accelerating manufacturing readiness for the next generation of disruptive, high-value curative cell therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Williams, David J

    2018-05-01

    Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics. In this short report, a long lens look within the pluripotent stem cell therapeutic space, both embryonic and induced, is used to gain early insights on where critical technology and manufacturing challenges may emerge. This report offers a future perspective on the development and innovation that will be needed within manufacturing science to add value in the production and commercialization of the next generation of advanced cell therapies and precision medicines. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  18. The value of diffusion weighted imaging in differentiating intracranial tuberculomas from high-grade astrocytomas and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Juan; Luo Tianyou; Lv Fajin; Fang Weidong; Wu Jingquan; Ouyang Yu; Li Yongmei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating intracranial tuberculomas from high-grade astrocytomas and metastases. Methods: The conventional MR imaging and DWI were performed in 50 eases (14 cases with intracranial tuberculomas, 15 cases with high- grade astrocytomas, and 21 cases with metastases) before treatment or operation. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) values were calculated from the mass as well as from the peripheral edema regions of intracranial lesions. Results: The mean ADC values and rADC values were (1.2±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.6±0.3 in the mass of intracranial tuberculomas respectively; (0.8±0.1) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.1±0.1 in the parenehyma of high-grade astrocytomas; (0.8±0.1) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.0±0.2 in the parenchyma of metastases. There was significant difference of the mean ADC values (F=33.57, P -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 2.5±0.2 in the peripheral edema regions of intracranial tuberculomas respectively; (1.4±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.8±0.3 in the peripheral edema regions of high-grade astrocytomas; and (1.9±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 2.3±0.5 in the peripheral edema regions of metastases. There was also significant difference in the mean ADC values (F23.17, P<0.01) or rADC values (F=5.94, P<0.01) among the peripheral edema regions of the three groups. Conclusion: The ADC values and rADC values are quite effective in differentiating intracranial tuberculoma from high-grade astrocytoma and metastasis. (authors)

  19. Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-10-01

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as ‘non-local’ to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values-a process known to be problematic.

  20. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  1. The Attitudes of Israeli Arab and Jewish High School Students towards Extrinsic and Intrinsic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the attitudes of Israeli Arab (n = 259) and Jewish (n = 259) high school students toward extrinsic and intrinsic values. A questionnaire, which consisted of eight value scales in two groups--extrinsic and intrinsic values--was administered. Participants were asked to state whether they agreed or…

  2. Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, L.; Sandstroem, R.

    1996-03-01

    New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. One or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs.

  3. Relationships among motivation (self-efficacy and task value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Writing performance was determined by a robust testing procedure which is usually employed in high-stakes writing tests. The results showed that four motivational constructs (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attainment value and cost), and four writing strategy categories (metacognitive, cognitive, affective and effort regulation) ...

  4. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and results. In this prospective observational study, patients were classied into categories of infection, namely denite, probable and possible. Of 76 neonates, 1 had denite infection, 5 probable infection, 30 possible infection, and 32 no infection. .e neutrophil CD64 index at a cut-o. value of 1.8 had a high negative ...

  5. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  6. The system of values, motivation and self-attitude: gender features in high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Irina I. Vartanova

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62) included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1), a...

  7. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  8. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  9. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  10. Comparison of three dehydration scales showed that they were of limited or no value for assessing small children with acute diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska, Dominika; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Mduma, Esto; Gidion, Joshua; Falszewska, Anna; Szajewska, Hania

    2018-02-20

    We explored the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical dehydration scale (CDS), the World Health Organization (WHO) scale and the Gorelick scale for assessing dehydration in children admitted to a Tanzanian referral hospital. This was a prospective, observational study, carried out from April 2015 to January 2017 on children aged one month to five years admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhoea lasting less than five days. Before rehydration therapy, each patient's weight was recorded and the degree of dehydration was assessed based on the three scales. The reference standard was the percentage weight change between admission and discharge. The main outcomes were the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of the scales. Data from 124 eligible patients were available. The CDS showed limited value for ruling in cases with some dehydration (LR 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.8), but was of no value in assessing no and moderate to severe dehydration. The WHO and Gorelick scales were of no value in evaluating any degree of dehydration. The WHO and Gorelick dehydration scales were no use for assessing dehydration in small children, and the CDS was of limited use for predicting cases with some dehydration. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evanescently Coupled Rectangular Microresonators in Silicon-on-Insulator with High Q-Values: Experimental Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mendez-Astudillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on evanescently coupled rectangular microresonators with dimensions up to 20 × 10 μm2 in silicon-on-insulator in an add-drop filter configuration. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the device was experimentally characterized and a high Q value of 13,000 was demonstrated as well as the multimode optical resonance characteristics in the drop port. We also show a 95% energy transfer between ports when the device is operated in TM-polarization and determine the full symmetry of the device by using an eight-port configuration, allowing the drop waveguide to be placed on any of its sides, providing a way to filter and route optical signals. We used the FDTD method to analyze the device and e-beam lithography and dry etching techniques for fabrication.

  12. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  13. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  14. Value of improved lipid control in patients at high risk for adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P

    2016-06-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.

  15. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  16. Strategic value-directed learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie; Irish, Muireann; Savage, Greg; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2018-02-12

    In healthy adults, the ability to prioritize learning of highly valued information is supported by executive functions and enhances subsequent memory retrieval for this information. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), marked deficits are evident in learning and memory, presenting in the context of executive dysfunction. It is unclear whether these patients show a typical memory bias for higher valued stimuli. We administered a value-directed word-list learning task to AD (n = 10) and bvFTD (n = 21) patients and age-matched healthy controls (n = 22). Each word was assigned a low, medium or high point value, and participants were instructed to maximize the number of points earned across three learning trials. Participants' memory for the words was assessed on a delayed recall trial, followed by a recognition test for the words and corresponding point values. Relative to controls, both patient groups showed poorer overall learning, delayed recall and recognition. Despite these impairments, patients with AD preferentially recalled high-value words on learning trials and showed significant value-directed enhancement of recognition memory for the words and points. Conversely, bvFTD patients did not prioritize recall of high-value words during learning trials, and this reduced selectivity was related to inhibitory dysfunction. Nonetheless, bvFTD patients showed value-directed enhancement of recognition memory for the point values, suggesting a mismatch between memory of high-value information and the ability to apply this in a motivationally salient context. Our findings demonstrate that value-directed enhancement of memory may persist to some degree in patients with dementia, despite pronounced deficits in learning and memory. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Clinical utility of high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in post-resuscitative encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Hitoshi; Danjou, Wataru; Yamazaki, Kei

    2002-01-01

    It is very important to estimate brain functional capacity immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to determine subsequent treatment strategy and to elucidate the pathophysiology of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, computed tomography scanning, electric encephalography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging do not contribute significantly to the assessment of brain functions immediately after CPR. Recently, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been applied to the patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, no papers have described serial clinical and repeated DW-MRI studies of patients during the acute phase of post-resuscitative encephalopathy. Moreover, in some cases, high signal intensity in the cortex after CPR is indistinguishable from normal cortex. Thus, we tried to apply high b-value DW-MRI to estimate the brain function of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. This study was performed on 11 patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy and 5 healthy volunteers as controls. DW-MRI was performed using GYROSCAN 1.5 Tesla MR imager (Philips) with single-shot echo-planner imaging sequences performed 3 times, first within 24 hours after CPR, second between day 3 to 6, and third more than 7 days after CPR. And we tested the usefulness of DW-MRI at 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 in b value. Five patients survived, one fully recovered and four remained in a vegetative state. The other six died with clinical brain death. The first DW-MRI revealed in high signal intensity in the frontal and the parietal lobes in all patients who eventually progressed to a vegetative state or brain death. This result was much more wide-spread in the latter patients, while it was never seen in the patients who recovered fully. The high signal intensity areas increased in follow-up DW-MRI studies. The signal intensity remained high in some parts, while it decreased in other parts with

  18. Clinical utility of high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in post-resuscitative encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Hitoshi; Danjou, Wataru; Yamazaki, Kei [Sapporo City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    It is very important to estimate brain functional capacity immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to determine subsequent treatment strategy and to elucidate the pathophysiology of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, computed tomography scanning, electric encephalography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging do not contribute significantly to the assessment of brain functions immediately after CPR. Recently, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been applied to the patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, no papers have described serial clinical and repeated DW-MRI studies of patients during the acute phase of post-resuscitative encephalopathy. Moreover, in some cases, high signal intensity in the cortex after CPR is indistinguishable from normal cortex. Thus, we tried to apply high b-value DW-MRI to estimate the brain function of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. This study was performed on 11 patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy and 5 healthy volunteers as controls. DW-MRI was performed using GYROSCAN 1.5 Tesla MR imager (Philips) with single-shot echo-planner imaging sequences performed 3 times, first within 24 hours after CPR, second between day 3 to 6, and third more than 7 days after CPR. And we tested the usefulness of DW-MRI at 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 in b value. Five patients survived, one fully recovered and four remained in a vegetative state. The other six died with clinical brain death. The first DW-MRI revealed in high signal intensity in the frontal and the parietal lobes in all patients who eventually progressed to a vegetative state or brain death. This result was much more wide-spread in the latter patients, while it was never seen in the patients who recovered fully. The high signal intensity areas increased in follow-up DW-MRI studies. The signal intensity remained high in some parts, while it decreased in other parts with

  19. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  20. Dynamic Interplay of Value and Sensory Information in High-Speed Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan-Seref, Kivilcim; Steinemann, Natalie A; Blangero, Annabelle; Kelly, Simon P

    2018-03-05

    In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively [1-6], but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases are affected by starting the integrator closer to the more valuable bound. Here, we show significant departures from this account for humans making rapid sensory-instructed action choices. Behavior was best explained by a simple model in which the evidence representation-and hence, rate of accumulation-is itself biased by value and is non-stationary, increasing over the short decision time frame. Because the value bias initially dominates, the model uniquely predicts a dynamic "turn-around" effect on low-value cues, where the accumulator first launches toward the incorrect action but is then re-routed to the correct one. This was clearly exhibited in electrophysiological signals reflecting motor preparation and evidence accumulation. Finally, we construct an extended model that implements this dynamic effect through plausible sensory neural response modulations and demonstrate the correspondence between decision signal dynamics simulated from a behavioral fit of that model and the empirical decision signals. Our findings suggest that value and sensory information can exert simultaneous and dynamically countervailing influences on the trajectory of the accumulation-to-bound process, driving rapid, sensory-guided actions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing High Value Care in Gastroenterology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Katzka, David A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify common areas in gastroenterology practice where studies performed provide an opportunity for enhancing value or lowering costs. We provide examples of topics in gastroenterology where clinicians could enhance value by either using less invasive testing, choosing a single best test, or by using patient symptoms to guide additional testing. The topics selected for review are selected in esophageal, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer; functional gastrointestinal diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth, constipation); immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases; and pancreaticobiliary pathology. We propose guidance to alter practice based on current evidence. These studies support the need to review current practice and to continue performing research to further validate the proposed guidance to enhance value of care in gastroenterology and hepatology. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Formulation of a rice-based beverage of high nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M J; González, D; Jaffé, W G; Calderón, M

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of this work was the production of a beverage with a nutritive value similar to that of milk, but available at a lower cost. A traditional beverage in Venezuela, "Chicha de Arroz" (Rice Chicha), was chosen. The various formulas studied were based on rice, non-fat milk and different kinds of soy flour, in addition to sugar, vegetable oil, vitamins, ferrous sulfate and different flavors. A product with protein and caloric values similar to those of milk was obtained. Twenty formulas were prepared and submitted to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial evaluations with respect to flavor, color, viscosity and stability during period of refrigeration. The most adequate formula was prepared on a pilot-plant scale. Rat assays gave the same PER results as those of casein. Consumer acceptability was tested on 1,080 school children, and showed to be greater than 95%. The stability was superior to that of milk and the cost, approximately three-fourths that of the latter. In the school-snack program of the National Institute of Nutrition, milk is now being replaced by this Chicha.

  3. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  4. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  5. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  6. Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, T I

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease(aprA) gene was previously cloned on a pUBHO-derivative plasmid. High levels of expression and gene stability were demonstrated when B. subtilis cells were grown on the laboratory medium 2XSG. B. subtilis cells harboring the multicopy aprA gene were grown on basal medium, supplemented with 1 % chicken feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were monitored throughout the cultivation time. A high level of keratinolytic activity was obtained, and this indicates that alkaline protease is acting as a keratinase. Furthermore, considerable amounts of soluble proteins and free amino acids were obtained as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of feather. Biodegradation of feather waste using these cells represents an alternative way to improve the nutritional value of feather, since feather waste is currently utilized on a limited basis as a dietary protein supplement for animal feedstuffs. Moreover, the release of free amino acids from feather and the secreted keratinase enzyme would promote industries based on feather waste.

  7. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  8. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  9. Logic-type Schmitt circuit using multi-valued gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, M.; Tanaka, M.

    Logic-type Schmitt circuits (LTSCs) proposed in this paper by author's proposal are a new detector for a multi-valued multi-threshold logic circuit, and it realizes the high resolution with a little hysteresis or the high noise margin. The detector consists of the combinations of the multi-valued gates (MVGs) and a positive reaction device (PRD), and each circuit can be realized by the conventional elements. This paper shows their practical circuits, and describes the regions and the conditions for their operation.

  10. High-value, cost-conscious health care: concepts for clinicians to evaluate the benefits, harms, and costs of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Douglas K; Qaseem, Amir; Chou, Roger; Shekelle, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing unsustainably, and further efforts to control costs are inevitable and essential. Efforts to control expenditures should focus on the value, in addition to the costs, of health care interventions. Whether an intervention provides high value depends on assessing whether its health benefits justify its costs. High-cost interventions may provide good value because they are highly beneficial; conversely, low-cost interventions may have little or no value if they provide little benefit. Thus, the challenge becomes determining how to slow the rate of increase in costs while preserving high-value, high-quality care. A first step is to decrease or eliminate care that provides no benefit and may even be harmful. A second step is to provide medical interventions that provide good value: medical benefits that are commensurate with their costs. This article discusses 3 key concepts for understanding how to assess the value of health care interventions. First, assessing the benefits, harms, and costs of an intervention is essential to understand whether it provides good value. Second, assessing the cost of an intervention should include not only the cost of the intervention itself but also any downstream costs that occur because the intervention was performed. Third, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates the additional cost required to obtain additional health benefits and provides a key measure of the value of a health care intervention.

  11. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  12. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  13. Discarded seeds from red pepper (Capsicum annum) processing industry as a sustainable source of high added-value compounds and edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Taheur, Fadia Ben; Jridi, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Capsicum annum discarded seeds from processing industry with their corresponding extracted oil were investigated. C. annum seeds had high levels of crude proteins (18.30%), crude oil (11.04%), and dietary fibers (60.96%). The lipophilic fraction of C. annum seeds showed higher radical scavenging activity compared to their hydrophilic fraction, while this latter exhibited the highest reducing power. The results of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acids present in C. annum seed oil were mainly polyunsaturated (84.23%), with linoleic acid being the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (70.93%). The major monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (12.18%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (11.90%). C. annum seed oil showed high absorbance in the UV-B, UV-A, and visible ranges. Owing to their composition, C. annum seeds discarded from pepper processing industry as by-product could be potentially used as high added-value ingredients in some food or nutraceutical formulations because they are well endowed with essential nutriments required for human health.

  14. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tellurium-123m-labeled isosteres of palmitoleic and oleic acids show high myocardial uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Grigsby, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    These studies were directed at determining if the telluro fatty acids prepared by the isosteric replacement of the Δ 9 -double bonds of oleic and palmitoleic acids with /sup 123m/Te would show heart uptake in rats. The isostere of palmitoleic acid, 9-tellurapentadecanoic acid(II), was prepared by basic hydrolysis of the product formed by the coupling of /sup 123m/Te-sodium hexyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Similarly, the isostere of oleic acid, 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid(IV), was prepared by the same route beginning with the reaction of /sup 123m/Te-sodium octyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Both /sup 123m/Te-(II) and /sup 123m/Te-(IV) showed remarkably high heart uptake in rats (2 to 3% dose/gm) ten minutes after intravenous administration, and the heart/blood ratios were high (20-30/1). Finally, the hearts of rats injected with /sup 123m/Te-(IV) have been clearly imaged with a rectilinear scanner

  16. Value dimensions of corporate culture of state-owned enterprise employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požega Željko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines value dimensions of the organizational culture of employees in Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d., a joint stock company wholly owned by the government of the Republic of Croatia, with the aim of identifying the corporate culture and value differences within the company in relation to employee gender, age and type of workplace. Hofstede’s research on organizational culture value dimensions forms the theoretical framework of this paper. Descriptive statistical methods, i.e., frequencies, comparison of means and ranking were used in the analysis. The results show a difference in values between older and younger employees, as well as between employees working in an office and those working in the field which leads to the conclusion that in this company there are different sub-cultural elements within a single corporate culture. Moreover, the results show that value dimensions of employees in Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d. are somewhat different from earlier findings of Hofstede’s research into value dimensions of employees in the Republic of Croatia in that the power distance is lower; uncertainty avoidance remains relatively high; individualism of employees has risen considerably, the culture is still impregnated with feminine values and there is a high degree of long-term orientation of employees. The analysis of respondents’ answers indicates that personal time and family time are highly valued. In addition, physical working conditions, good working relations with immediate supervisors and good cooperation with colleagues were also rated high on the scale of importance. It was also found that the most important work objective was job security, and that personal steadiness, stability and persistence were most valued personal traits.

  17. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  19. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, Deborah; Horton, Patrick; Jones, Matthew; Ramsdale, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m 3 . This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m 3 ) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10 -6 Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the high density

  20. Spatial Differentiation of Landscape Values in the Murray River Region of Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Pfueller, Sharron; Whitelaw, Paul; Winter, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    This research advances the understanding of the location of perceived landscape values through a statistically based approach to spatial analysis of value densities. Survey data were obtained from a sample of people living in and using the Murray River region, Australia, where declining environmental quality prompted a reevaluation of its conservation status. When densities of 12 perceived landscape values were mapped using geographic information systems (GIS), valued places clustered along the entire river bank and in associated National/State Parks and reserves. While simple density mapping revealed high value densities in various locations, it did not indicate what density of a landscape value could be regarded as a statistically significant hotspot or distinguish whether overlapping areas of high density for different values indicate identical or adjacent locations. A spatial statistic Getis-Ord Gi* was used to indicate statistically significant spatial clusters of high value densities or “hotspots”. Of 251 hotspots, 40% were for single non-use values, primarily spiritual, therapeutic or intrinsic. Four hotspots had 11 landscape values. Two, lacking economic value, were located in ecologically important river red gum forests and two, lacking wilderness value, were near the major towns of Echuca-Moama and Albury-Wodonga. Hotspots for eight values showed statistically significant associations with another value. There were high associations between learning and heritage values while economic and biological diversity values showed moderate associations with several other direct and indirect use values. This approach may improve confidence in the interpretation of spatial analysis of landscape values by enhancing understanding of value relationships.

  1. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  2. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  3. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderer, Brigitte; Matthes, Jörg; Binder, Alice; Marquart, Franziska; Mayrhofer, Mira; Obereder, Agnes; Spielvogel, Ines

    2018-01-01

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i.e., snack high in nutritional value), or placements of fruit gums (i.e., snack low in nutritional value). Afterwards, food consumption was measured by giving children the option to choose between fruit gums or mandarins. Children in both snack placement conditions showed stronger preference for the snack low in nutritional value (i.e., fruit gum) compared to the control group. Interestingly, neither restrictive nor active food-related mediation prevented the effects of the placements on children's choice of snacks low in nutritional value. Compared to children with a low BMI, children with high BMI levels had a stronger disposition to choose the fruit gums if a snack high in nutritional value (i.e., mandarin) was presented. Thus, making snacks high in nutritional attractive for children through media presentation might need stronger persuasive cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  5. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  6. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  7. Surviving the Lead Reliability Engineer Role in High Unit Value Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a) the project constitutes one of a kind (or two-of-a-kind) national asset type of project, b) very large cost, and c) a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer. We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries.

  8. INTERRELATION OF PERSONAL VALUE SYSTEMS AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-LEVEL HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivaniš

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A successful high-level management is aware of the fact that, in competitive surroundings, business ethics enables growth and development, increases efficiency and productivity. In this sense, at the time when ethical behaviour is of paramount importance if one wants to retain an enterprise on the market, it has become essential to perceive the relationship between personal values of high-level management with ethical behaviour which is the purpose of this paper. The results of the research in this paper indicate the correlation between the personal value system and the ethical/unethical behaviour of hotel manager of large companies in Croatia.

  9. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  10. Promoting High-Value Practice by Reducing Unnecessary Transfusions With a Patient Blood Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Divyajot; Pratzer, Ariella; Scher, Lauren J; Saag, Harry S; Adler, Nicole; Volpicelli, Frank M; Auron, Moises; Frank, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Although blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for some patients, transfusion has been named 1 of the top 5 overused procedures in US hospitals. As unnecessary transfusions only increase risk and cost without providing benefit, improving transfusion practice is an effective way of promoting high-value care. Most high-quality clinical trials supporting a restrictive transfusion strategy have been published in the past 5 to 10 years, so the value of a successful patient blood management program has only recently been recognized. We review the most recent transfusion practice guidelines and the evidence supporting these guidelines. We also discuss several medical societies' Choosing Wisely campaigns to reduce or eliminate overuse of transfusions. A blueprint is presented for developing a patient blood management program, which includes discussion of specific methods for optimizing transfusion practice.

  11. Diagnostic value of ADC in patients with prostate cancer: influence of the choice of b values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörmer, Gregor; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Seiwerts, Matthias; Moche, Michael; Garnov, Nikita; Franz, Toni; Do, Minh; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Horn, Lars-Christian; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of the choice of b values on the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for detection and grading of prostate cancer (PCa). Forty-one patients with biopsy-proven PCa underwent endorectal 3-T MRI before prostatectomy. Different combinations of b values (0-800 s/mm(2)) were used to calculate four representative ADC maps. Mean ADCs of tumours and non-malignant tissue were determined. Tumour appearance on different ADC maps was rated by three radiologists as good, fair or poor by assigning a visual score (VS) of 2, 1 or 0, respectively. Differences in the ADC values with the choice of b values were analysed using one-way ANOVA. Choice of b values had a highly (P < 0.001) significant influence on the absolute ADC in each tissue. Maps using b = [50, 800] and [0, 800] were rated best (VS= 1.6 ± 0.3) and second best (1.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), respectively. For low-grade carcinomas (Gleason score ≤ 6, 13/41 patients), only the former choice received scores better than fair (VS = 1.4 ± 0.3). Mean tumour ADCs showed significant negative correlation (Spearman's ρ -0.38 to -0.46, P < 0.05) with Gleason score. Absolute ADC values strongly depend on the choice of b values and therefore should be used with caution for diagnostic purposes. A minimum b value greater than zero is recommended for ADC calculation to improve the visual assessment of PCa in ADC maps. • Absolute ADC values are highly dependent on the choice of b values. • Absolute ADC thresholds should be used carefully to predict tumour aggressiveness. • Subjective ratings of ADC maps involving b = 0 s/mm ( 2 ) are poor to fair. • Minimum b value greater than 0 s/mm ( 2 ) is recommended for ADC calculation.

  12. Religion, group threat and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Sheikh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacred or protected values have important influences on decision making, particularly in the context of intergroup disputes. Thus far, we know little about the process of a value becoming sacred or why one person may be more likely than another to hold a sacred value. We present evidence that participation in religious ritual and perceived threat to the group lead people to be more likely to consider preferences as protected or sacred values. Specifically, three studies carried out with Americans and Palestinians show: (a that the more people participate in religious ritual the more likely they are to report a preference to be a sacred value (Studies 1--3; (b that people claim more sacred values when they are reminded of religious ritual (Study 2; and (c that the effect of religious ritual on the likelihood of holding a sacred value is amplified by the perception of high threat to the in-group (Study 3. We discuss implications of these findings for understanding intergroup conflicts, and suggest avenues for future research into the emergence and spread of sacred values.

  13. [Clinical auxiliary diagnosis value of high frequency ultrasonographic measurements of the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in carpal tunnel syndrome patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Chen, F M; Wang, L; Zhang, P X; Jiang, X R

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the meaning and value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, 48 patients (unilateral hand) with CTS were analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Open carpal tunnel release procedure was performed in the 48 CTS patients, and the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone measured using vernier caliper under direct vision. The accuracy of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments was evaluated using high-frequency ultrasound. high-frequency ultrasound measurement of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone and pisiform bone, and determination of the diagnostic threshold measurement index using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity and specificity were performed and the correlation between the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments and nerve conduction study (NCS) analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in the CTS patients were (0.42±0.08) cm (high-frequency ultrasound) and (0.41±0.06) cm (operation) at hamate hook bone, and there was no significant difference between the two ways (t=0.672, P>0.05). The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at hamate hook bone was 0.385 cm, the sensitivity 0.775, and the specificity 0.788. The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was 0.315 cm, the sensitivity 0.950, and the specificity 1.000. The transverse carpal ligaments thickness and wrist-index finger sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV), wrist-middle finger SCV showed a negative correlation. High frequency ultrasound measurements of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments is a valuable method for the diagnosis of CTS.

  14. The value of tax shields with a fixed book-value leverage ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The value of tax shields depends only on the nature of the stochastic process of the net increases of debt. The value of tax shields in a world with no leverage cost is the tax rate times the current debt plus the present value of the net increases of debt. We develop valuation formulae for a company that maintains a fixed book-value leverage ratio and show that it is more realistic than to assume, as Miles-Ezzell (1980) do, a fixed market-value leverage ratio. We also show that Miles-Ezzell ...

  15. Reward modulates oculomotor competition between differently valued stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Berno; Silvis, Jeroen D; Donk, Mieke; Theeuwes, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The present work explored the effects of reward in the well-known global effect paradigm in which two objects appear simultaneously in close spatial proximity. The experiment consisted of three phases (i) a pre-training phase that served as a baseline, (ii) a reward-training phase to associate differently colored stimuli with high, low and no reward value, and (iii) a post-training phase in which rewards were no longer delivered, to examine whether objects previously associated with higher reward value attracted the eyes more strongly than those associated with low or no reward value. Unlike previous reward studies, the differently valued objects directly competed with each other on the same trial. The results showed that initially eye movements were not biased towards any particular stimulus, while in the reward-training phase, eye movements started to land progressively closer towards stimuli that were associated with a high reward value. Even though rewards were no longer delivered, this bias remained robustly present in the post-training phase. A time course analysis showed that the effect of reward was present for the fastest saccades (around 170 ms) and increased with increasing latency. Although strategic effects for slower saccades cannot be ruled out, we suggest that fast oculomotor responses became habituated and were no longer under strategic attentional control. Together the results imply that reward affects oculomotor competition in favor of stimuli previously associated high reward, when multiple reward associated objects compete for selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  17. Prolonged hypoxia increases survival even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio showing cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kopp

    Full Text Available Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf, when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf. Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a

  18. Arterial spin labeling-based Z-maps have high specificity and positive predictive value for neurodegenerative dementia compared to FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faellmar, David; Larsson, Elna-Marie [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Haller, Sven [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); University of Geneva, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Affidea CDRC - Centre Diagnostique Radiologique de Carouge, Carouge (Switzerland); Lilja, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Danfors, Torsten [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Uppsala (Sweden); Kilander, Lena [Uppsala University, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala (Sweden); Tolboom, Nelleke; Croon, Philip M.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kellner, Elias [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Verfaillie, Sander C.J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Cerebral perfusion analysis based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI has been proposed as an alternative to FDG-PET in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Z-maps show normal distribution values relating an image to a database of controls. They are routinely used for FDG-PET to demonstrate disease-specific patterns of hypometabolism at the individual level. This study aimed to compare the performance of Z-maps based on ASL to FDG-PET. Data were combined from two separate sites, each cohort consisting of patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 18 + 7), frontotemporal dementia (n = 12 + 8) and controls (n = 9 + 29). Subjects underwent pseudocontinuous ASL and FDG-PET. Z-maps were created for each subject and modality. Four experienced physicians visually assessed the 166 Z-maps in random order, blinded to modality and diagnosis. Discrimination of patients versus controls using ASL-based Z-maps yielded high specificity (84%) and positive predictive value (80%), but significantly lower sensitivity compared to FDG-PET-based Z-maps (53% vs. 96%, p < 0.001). Among true-positive cases, correct diagnoses were made in 76% (ASL) and 84% (FDG-PET) (p = 0.168). ASL-based Z-maps can be used for visual assessment of neurodegenerative dementia with high specificity and positive predictive value, but with inferior sensitivity compared to FDG-PET. (orig.)

  19. Strategies for microbial synthesis of high-value phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijin; Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2018-03-01

    Phytochemicals are of great pharmaceutical and agricultural importance, but often exhibit low abundance in nature. Recent demonstrations of industrial-scale production of phytochemicals in yeast have shown that microbial production of these high-value chemicals is a promising alternative to sourcing these molecules from native plant hosts. However, a number of challenges remain in the broader application of this approach, including the limited knowledge of plant secondary metabolism and the inefficient reconstitution of plant metabolic pathways in microbial hosts. In this Review, we discuss recent strategies to achieve microbial biosynthesis of complex phytochemicals, including strategies to: (1) reconstruct plant biosynthetic pathways that have not been fully elucidated by mining enzymes from native and non-native hosts or by enzyme engineering; (2) enhance plant enzyme activity, specifically cytochrome P450 activity, by improving efficiency, selectivity, expression or electron transfer; and (3) enhance overall reaction efficiency of multi-enzyme pathways by dynamic control, compartmentalization or optimization with the host's metabolism. We also highlight remaining challenges to — and future opportunities of — this approach.

  20. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (−20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content...... storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again...... not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46–3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable...

  1. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  2. Adaptive iterated function systems filter for images highly corrupted with fixed - Value impulse noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavadivu, P.; Eliahim Jeevaraj, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Iterated Functions Systems (AIFS) Filter presented in this paper has an outstanding potential to attenuate the fixed-value impulse noise in images. This filter has two distinct phases namely noise detection and noise correction which uses Measure of Statistics and Iterated Function Systems (IFS) respectively. The performance of AIFS filter is assessed by three metrics namely, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Structural Similarity Index Matrix (MSSIM) and Human Visual Perception (HVP). The quantitative measures PSNR and MSSIM endorse the merit of this filter in terms of degree of noise suppression and details/edge preservation respectively, in comparison with the high performing filters reported in the recent literature. The qualitative measure HVP confirms the noise suppression ability of the devised filter. This computationally simple noise filter broadly finds application wherein the images are highly degraded by fixed-value impulse noise.

  3. Investigation of the added value of high-energy electrons in intensity-modulated radiotherapy: four clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korevaar, Erik W.; Huizenga, Henk; Loef, Johan; Stroom, Joep C.; Leer, Jan Willem H.; Brahme, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with photon beams is currently pursued in many clinics. Theoretically, inclusion of intensity- and energy-modulated high-energy electron beams (15-50 MeV) offers additional possibilities to improve radiotherapy treatments of deep-seated tumors. In this study the added value of high-energy electron beams in IMRT treatments was investigated. Methods and Materials: In a comparative treatment planning study, conventional treatment plans and various types of IMRT plans were constructed for four clinical cases (cancer of the bladder, pancreas, chordoma of the sacrum, and breast). The conventional plans were used for the actual treatment of the patients. The IMRT plans were optimized using the Orbit optimization code (Loef et al., 2000) with a radiobiologic objective function. The IMRT plans were either photon or combined electron and photon beam plans, with or without dose homogeneity constraints assuming standard or increased radiosensitivities of organs at risk. Results: Large improvements in expected treatment outcome are found using IMRT plans compared to conventional plans, but differences in tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) values between IMRT plans with and without electrons are small. However, the use of electrons improves the dose-volume histograms for organs at risk, especially at lower dose levels (e.g., 0-40 Gy). Conclusions: This preliminary study indicates that addition of higher energy electrons to IMRT can only marginally improve treatment outcome for the selected cases. The dose-volume histograms of organs at risk show improvements for IMRT with higher energy electrons, which may reduce tumor induction but does not substantially reduce NTCP

  4. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  5. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  6. Measuring Values in Environmental Research: A Test of an Environmental Portrait Value Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Four human values are considered to underlie individuals’ environmental beliefs and behaviors: biospheric (i.e., concern for environment), altruistic (i.e., concern for others), egoistic (i.e., concern for personal resources) and hedonic values (i.e., concern for pleasure and comfort). These values are typically measured with an adapted and shortened version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), to which we refer as the Environmental-SVS (E-SVS). Despite being well-validated, recent research has indicated some concerns about the SVS methodology (e.g., comprehensibility, self-presentation biases) and suggested an alternative method of measuring human values: The Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). However, the PVQ has not yet been adapted and applied to measure values most relevant to understand environmental beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, we tested the Environmental-PVQ (E-PVQ) – a PVQ variant of E-SVS –and compared it with the E-SVS in two studies. Our findings provide strong support for the validity and reliability of both the E-SVS and E-PVQ. In addition, we find that respondents slightly preferred the E-PVQ over the E-SVS (Study 1). In general, both scales correlate similarly to environmental self-identity (Study 1), energy behaviors (Studies 1 and 2), pro-environmental personal norms, climate change beliefs and policy support (Study 2). Accordingly, both methodologies show highly similar results and seem well-suited for measuring human values underlying environmental behaviors and beliefs. PMID:29743874

  7. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  9. Value Reappraisal as a Conceptual Model for Task-Value Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Hoang, Theresa V.; Flaggs, Darolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss task-value interventions as one type of relevance intervention and propose a process model of value reappraisal whereby task-value interventions elicit cognitive-affective responses that lead to attitude change and in turn affect academic outcomes. The model incorporates a metacognitive component showing that students can intentionally…

  10. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  11. The impact of big data analytics on firms’ high value business performance

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, A; Hackney, R; Tassabehji, R; Castelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Big Data Analytics (BDA) is an emerging phenomenon with the reported potential to transform how firms manage and enhance high value businesses performance. The purpose of our study is to investigate the impact of BDA on operations management in the manufacturing sector, which is an acknowledged infrequently researched context. Using an interpretive qualitative approach, this empirical study leverages a comparative case study of three manufacturing companies with varying levels of BDA usage (e...

  12. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  13. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  14. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between two-point and multi-point analyses using high-B-value diffusion MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hitoshi; Maeda, Masayuki; Araki, Akinobu

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of calculating apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) using high-B-value diffusion images. Echo planar diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained at 1.5 tesla in five standard locations in six subjects using gradient strengths corresponding to B values from 0 to 3000 s/mm 2 . Estimation of ADCs was made using two methods: a nonlinear regression model using measurements from a full set of B values (multi-point method) and linear estimation using B values of 0 and max only (two-point method). A high correlation between the two methods was noted (r=0.99), and the mean percentage differences were -0.53% and 0.53% in phantom and human brain, respectively. These results suggest there is little error in estimating ADCs calculated by the two-point technique using high-B-value diffusion MR images. (author)

  15. The Economic Value of Predicting Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    evaluation. More specifically, the model mostly generates positive (negative) economic value during times of high (low) macroeconomic uncertainty. Overall, the expectations hypothesis remains a useful benchmark for investment decisions in bond markets, especially in low uncertainty states.......This paper studies whether the evident statistical predictability of bond risk premia translates into economic gains for investors. We propose a novel estimation strategy for affine term structure models that jointly fits yields and bond excess returns, thereby capturing predictive information...... otherwise hidden to standard estimations. The model predicts excess returns with high regression R2s and high forecast accuracy but cannot outperform the expectations hypothesis out-of-sample in terms of economic value, showing a general contrast between statistical and economic metrics of forecast...

  16. High predictive value of brain MRI imaging in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaurepaire, Isaure; Grévent, David; Rio, Marlène; Desguerre, Isabelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Levy, Raphaël; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barcia, Giulia; Funalot, Benoit; Besmond, Claude; Metodiev, Metodi D; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Assouline, Zahra; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice. This study is aimed at investigating the potential role of brain MRI in distinguishing primary RC deficiency from phenocopies and other aetiologies. Starting from a large series of 189 patients (median age: 3.5 years (8 days-56 years), 58% males) showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency, for whom both brain MRIs and disease-causing mutations were available, we retrospectively studied the positive predictive value (PPV) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of brain MRI imaging and its ability to discriminate between two groups: primary deficiency of the mitochondrial RC machinery and phenocopies. Detection of (1) brainstem hyperintensity with basal ganglia involvement (P≤0.001) and (2) lactate peak with either brainstem or basal ganglia hyperintensity was highly suggestive of primary RC deficiency (P≤0.01). Fourteen items had a PPV>95% and LR+ was greater than 9 for seven signs. Biallelic SLC19A3 mutations represented the main differential diagnosis. Non-significant differences between the two groups were found for cortical/subcortical atrophy, leucoencephalopathy and involvement of caudate nuclei, spinothalamic tract and corpus callosum. Based on these results and owing to invasiveness of skeletal muscle biopsies and cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing, we suggest giving consideration to brain MRI imaging as a diagnostic marker and an informative investigation to be performed in patients showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency. © Article author(s) (or their

  17. [Clinical value of CT-guided high frequency-induced thermotherapy as a treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Yang-Kui; Wang, Li-Gang; Ouyang, Yu-Shu

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of CT-guided high frequency-induced thermotherapy (HiTT) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Seventeen patients of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with 21 lesions underwent comprehensive treatment with HiTT as the principle approach. As to the patients with obstructive jaundice, percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) or bile duct endoprosthesis placement was performed first to improve the liver function, then HiTT was performed; and patients without obstructive jaundice underwent CT-guided HiTT directly, 1-2 weeks later, chemotherapy was given for 4 - 6 courses. CT scan 1 week after HiTT showed a short-term achievement rate of 100% (17/17), and the single puncture in situ ablation rate was 76.1% (16/21). The average life span in the near future was 13.5 months. The adverse effects included topo-bleeding, pain after procedure, liver function damage, defervescence, etc. All the patients recovered after symptomatic treatment. The clinical value of CT-guided HiTT for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is obvious.

  18. The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2009-09-01

    Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation.

  19. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  20. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  1. Paper Money Value Change: Comparative Banking Fiqhiyyah Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdul Karim Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considered one of the significant issues in Islamic financial fiqh because it bears a close relation to financial commitment. Many fiqh treatments from a Sharia perspective were found in Islamic ancient fiqh. This issue was apparent in Islamic banks investment especially in murabahah. The study concludes that it is a must who owes amount of money and its value changes to high or low to pay the value of money then, and not the actual amount. Furthermore, it shows that the treatment of fluctuations in money value comes by linking its value with some indicators, including stable currency and the linkage to gold or silver.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2115

  2. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  3. A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1993-01-01

    A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The circuit analysis of this novel design is described and the measured performances of a practical circuit are provided

  4. Environmental performance, profitability, asset utilization, debt monitoring and firm value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukit, R. Br; Haryanto, B.; Ginting, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growing issue on firm value shows that firm value is not only determined by the firm ability to increase financial profit, but also by the company's concern in maintaining the environmental condition. The industrial development produces waste that pollutes the environment that has potential to serious impact on the next life. In addition to provide financial benefits, companies are increasingly facing pressure to be socially responsible for the survival of the company. However, past findings demonstrate that the effect of environmental performance, profitability, and asset utilization to the firm’s value are still unclear. This study aims to test whether environmental performance, firm profitability and asset utilization can effectively enhance firm value in two different conditions: intensive debt monitoring and less intensive debt monitoring. Sample of companies is taken from the list of Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2013 to 2015. Using multiple regression analysis, discloses that: in intensive monitoring, managers tend to have high firm value when company has high environmental performance and or high profitability and high asset utilization. Monitoring system needs to be intensified especially for companies with the above characteristics.

  5. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jesús eGázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N=441 were boys and 50.2% (N=444 were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence.

  6. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  7. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  8. Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ching; Chiu, Chi-yue; Tam, Kim-pong; Lee, Sau-lai; Lau, Ivy Yee-man; Peng, Siqing

    2007-02-01

    Cross-cultural psychologists assume that core cultural values define to a large extent what a culture is. Typically, core values are identified through an actual self-importance approach, in which core values are those that members of the culture as a group strongly endorse. In this article, the authors propose a perceived cultural importance approach to identifying core values, in which core values are values that members of the culture as a group generally believe to be important in the culture. In 5 studies, the authors examine the utility of the perceived cultural importance approach. Results consistently showed that, compared with values of high actual self-importance, values of high perceived cultural importance play a more important role in cultural identification. These findings have important implications for conceptualizing and measuring cultures. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. What is The Role of Land Value in The Urban Corridor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatulloh, A. R.; Buchori, I.; Pradoto, W.; Riyanto, B.; Winarendri, J.

    2018-02-01

    The high movement causes traffic congestion and indicates high movement intensity along the corridor. The higher attraction of the land use will encourage the higher attraction of movement and economic values in the location. This attraction is also affected by the high mobility in the corridor supported by available transport infrastructure. Thus this causes land values become increase significantly. Land use along the corridor can be seen as commercial function because this activity is able to survive in the premium location. The purpose of this research is to identify the effect of land use change toward land values in the commercial corridor. This research used positivistic method with descriptive analysis. The result shows that the land values change in commercial use in the corridor has different pattern of land use change pattern according to physical condition and land use which causes highly economic attraction. The new commercial land is influenced by the distance to city centre or CBD (Central Business District). Land use and public facilities that have local and city scope services do not give the significant impact to land values change.

  10. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  11. Image Denoising Using Singular Value Difference in the Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular value (SV difference is the difference in the singular values between a noisy image and the original image; it varies regularly with noise intensity. This paper proposes an image denoising method using the singular value difference in the wavelet domain. First, the SV difference model is generated for different noise variances in the three directions of the wavelet transform and the noise variance of a new image is used to make the calculation by the diagonal part. Next, the single-level discrete 2-D wavelet transform is used to decompose each noisy image into its low-frequency and high-frequency parts. Then, singular value decomposition (SVD is used to obtain the SVs of the three high-frequency parts. Finally, the three denoised high-frequency parts are reconstructed by SVD from the SV difference, and the final denoised image is obtained using the inverse wavelet transform. Experiments show the effectiveness of this method compared with relevant existing methods.

  12. High values of disorder-generated multifractals and logarithmically correlated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Giraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the introductory section of the article we give a brief account of recent insights into statistics of high and extreme values of disorder-generated multifractals following a recent work by the first author with P. Le Doussal and A. Rosso (FLR) employing a close relation between multifractality and logarithmically correlated random fields. We then substantiate some aspects of the FLR approach analytically for multifractal eigenvectors in the Ruijsenaars–Schneider ensemble (RSE) of random matrices introduced by E. Bogomolny and the second author by providing an ab initio calculation that reveals hidden logarithmic correlations at the background of the disorder-generated multifractality. In the rest we investigate numerically a few representative models of that class, including the study of the highest component of multifractal eigenvectors in the Ruijsenaars–Schneider ensemble

  13. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  14. Relationships between Post-materialistic Values and Religiousness, Attitudes towards Nationalism, and Attitudes towards Gender Roles among High School Students in the City of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sinovčić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Inglehart's modernisation theory, socio-economic growth leads to changes in values. Following a longer period of economic growth, a gradual change from materialistic to post-materialistic values is established. The main goal of this study, which is based on Inglehart's theory, was to assess the relationship between post-materialistic values on one side and religiousness, attitudes towards nationalism, and attitudes towards gender roles on the other among high school students in the city of Split. The research was conducted on a convenience sample of 427 high school students from Split (there were 269 female students and 158 male students with the average age of 17 years. The results indicated that the students from the sample had mixed materialistic and post-materialistic values. Statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in all measured variables. For this reason, analyses were conducted separately by gender. Using multiple regression analysis, it was established that the model with post-materialistic values as the outcome was statistically significant regardless of gender. Discriminative analysis additionally showed that the measured attitudes discriminated groups of students with different levels of post-materialistic values (most prominently, attitudes towards gender roles and religiousness among female students, and attitudes towards nationalism and gender roles among male students. The main finding of the study was that of a difference between male and female students in terms of measured religiousness and two sets of attitudes, as well as gender differences in the relationship between the measured religiousness and the measured attitudes on one side and post-materialistic values on the other. Higher post-materialistic values were associated with lower religiousness among female students and lower acceptance of nationalism among male students.

  15. Advantages of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging to diagnose pseudo-responses in patients with recurrent glioma after bevacizumab treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru; Aoki, Tomokazu; Yamanaka, Masami; Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yuji; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of pseudo-responses after bevacizumab treatment is difficult. Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is associated with cell density, it may facilitate the differentiation between true- and pseudo-responses. Furthermore, as high b-value DWI is even more sensitive to diffusion, it has been reported to be diagnostically useful in various clinical settings. Materials and methods: Between September 2008 and May 2011, 10 patients (5 males, 5 females; age range 6–65 years) with recurrent glioma were treated with bevacizumab. All underwent pre- and post-treatment MRI including T2- or FLAIR imaging, post-gadolinium contrast T1-weighted imaging, and DWI with b-1000 and b-4000. Response rates were evaluated by MacDonald- and by response assessment in neuro-oncology working group (RANO) criteria. We also assessed the response rate by calculating the size of high intensity areas using high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria. Prognostic factors were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival curves (log-rank test). Results: It was easier to identify pseudo-responses with RANO- than MacDonald criteria, however the reduction of edema by bevacizumab rendered the early diagnosis of tumor progression difficult by RANO criteria. In some patients with recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria did, while MacDonald- and RANO criteria did not identify pseudo-responses at an early point after the start of therapy. Discussion and conclusion: High b-value DWI reflects cell density more accurately than regular b-value DWI. Our findings suggest that in patients with recurrent glioma, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria are useful for the differentiation between pseudo- and true responses to treatment with bevacizumab

  16. Advantages of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging to diagnose pseudo-responses in patients with recurrent glioma after bevacizumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru; Aoki, Tomokazu; Yamanaka, Masami; Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yuji; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    The diagnosis of pseudo-responses after bevacizumab treatment is difficult. Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is associated with cell density, it may facilitate the differentiation between true- and pseudo-responses. Furthermore, as high b-value DWI is even more sensitive to diffusion, it has been reported to be diagnostically useful in various clinical settings. Between September 2008 and May 2011, 10 patients (5 males, 5 females; age range 6-65 years) with recurrent glioma were treated with bevacizumab. All underwent pre- and post-treatment MRI including T2- or FLAIR imaging, post-gadolinium contrast T1-weighted imaging, and DWI with b-1000 and b-4000. Response rates were evaluated by MacDonald- and by response assessment in neuro-oncology working group (RANO) criteria. We also assessed the response rate by calculating the size of high intensity areas using high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria. Prognostic factors were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves (log-rank test). It was easier to identify pseudo-responses with RANO- than MacDonald criteria, however the reduction of edema by bevacizumab rendered the early diagnosis of tumor progression difficult by RANO criteria. In some patients with recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria did, while MacDonald- and RANO criteria did not identify pseudo-responses at an early point after the start of therapy. High b-value DWI reflects cell density more accurately than regular b-value DWI. Our findings suggest that in patients with recurrent glioma, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria are useful for the differentiation between pseudo- and true responses to treatment with bevacizumab. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-metallic coils and resonators: Methods for high Q-value resonant geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mett, R. R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Sidabras, J. W.; Hyde, J. S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method of decreasing ohmic losses and increasing Q-value in metallic resonators at high frequencies is presented. The method overcomes the skin-depth limitation of rf current flow cross section. The method uses layers of conductive foil of thickness less than a skin depth and capacitive gaps between layers. The capacitive gaps can substantially equalize the rf current flowing in each layer, resulting in a total cross-sectional dimension for rf current flow many times larger than a skin depth. Analytic theory and finite-element simulations indicate that, for a variety of structures, the Q-value enhancement over a single thick conductor approaches the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth if the total number of layers is greater than one-third the square of the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth. The layer number requirement is due to counter-currents in each foil layer caused by the surrounding rf magnetic fields. We call structures that exhibit this type of Q-enhancement “meta-metallic.” In addition, end effects due to rf magnetic fields wrapping around the ends of the foils can substantially reduce the Q-value for some classes of structures. Foil structures with Q-values that are substantially influenced by such end effects are discussed as are five classes of structures that are not. We focus particularly on 400 MHz, which is the resonant frequency of protons at 9.4 T. Simulations at 400 MHz are shown with comparison to measurements on fabricated structures. The methods and geometries described here are general for magnetic resonance and can be used at frequencies much higher than 400 MHz.

  18. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264

  19. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  20. Free Recall Test Experience Potentiates Strategy-Driven Effects of Value on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in…

  1. Vacuum expectation values of high-dimensional operators and their contributions to the Bjorken and Ellis-Jaffe sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesian, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating unknown vacuum expectation values of high-dimensional operators. The method is based on the idea that the factorization hypothesis is self-consistent. Results are obtained for all vacuum expectation values of dimension-7 operators, and some estimates for dimension-10 operators are presented as well. The resulting values are used to compute corrections of higher dimensions to the Bjorken and Ellis-Jaffe sum rules

  2. Paper Money Value Change: Comparative Banking Fiqhiyyah Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdu Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considered one of the significant issues in Islamicfinancial fiqh because it bears a close relation to financial commitment. Many fiqh treatments from a Sharia perspective were found in Islamic ancient fiqh. This issue was apparent in Islamic banks investment especially in murâbahah. The study concludes that it is a must who owes amount of money and its value changes to high or low to pay the value of money then,and not the actual amount. Furthermore, it shows that the  treatment of fluctuations in money value comes by linking its value with some indicators, including stable currency and the linkage to gold or silverDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2561

  3. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Li, Haifeng; Waterman, Michael S; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2006-10-12

    Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS) by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS) imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  4. Exploring experiential value in online mobile gaming adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shintaro

    2008-10-01

    Despite the growing importance of the online mobile gaming industry, little research has been undertaken to explain why consumers engage in this ubiquitous entertainment. This study attempts to develop an instrument to measure experiential value in online mobile gaming adoption. The proposed scale consists of seven first-order factors of experiential value: intrinsic enjoyment, escapism, efficiency, economic value, visual appeal, perceived novelty, and perceived risklessness. The survey obtained 164 usable responses from Japanese college students. The empirical data fit our first-order model well, indicating a high level of reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The single second-order model also shows an acceptable model fit.

  5. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  6. The nature and impact of personal values and organizational values on customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    BLOEMER, Johanna; Breugelmans, E.; Lievens, Annouk

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study reports on the nature and impact of personal values, organizational values and value congruence on customer service satisfaction. Customers from a cleaning service organizaton rated 24 values with respect to how important these values were to the organization. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that organizational values have a predominant impact on customer service satisfaction. The congruence between personal and organizational values and th...

  7. Feeding Value of Low and High Protein Dried Distillers Grains and Corn Gluten Meal for Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tangendjaja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial has been conducted to compare feeding value of low and high protein dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, and corn gluten meal (CGM to brown layer in the tropics. Both types of DDGS was included at level 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% in the diet while CGM was included at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% in similar content of metabolizable energy (ME value (2650 kcal/kg and protein (17%. Each dietary treatment was fed to 4 birds in individual wire cage and replicated 5 times. The trial was performed for 10 weeks and egg production, egg weight, feed intake was measured. At the end of feeding period, manure was collected and analyzed for moisture content while samples of eggs were measured for yolk color and the yolk was analyzed for xanthophyll level. Result showed that feeding Lopro DDGS, Hipro DDGS, and CGM did not affect egg production (egg mass, egg number, and egg weight, however, feeding DDGS resulted in less feed intake (111 g/day compared to feeding CGM (114 g/day. Feeding DDGS up to 16% did not affect egg production and similar to feeding CGM up to 8%. Feeding high level of DDGS or CGM did not significantly affect the moisture content of excreta which were between 78.1%-81.9%. Increasing levels of DDGS or CGM increased yolk color score related to the higher level of xanthophylls content in egg yolk. The coloring ability of CGM to egg yolk was higher than that of DDGS. In conclusion, DDGS can be fed to layer up to 16% without affecting egg production while CGM can be fed up to 8% in the diet. DDGS can be used as source of yellow pigment for egg yolk as also found in CGM.

  8. Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing...... an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults...... with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can...

  9. Individualism-Collectivism And Organisational Value Types: A Case Of Malaysian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Noordin; Jamil Hamali

    2011-01-01

    The results showed that Malaysian managers have significantly high levels of horizontal and vertical collectivism. Vertical collectivism has significant positive relationships with collegial, meritocratic, and leadership organisational values.

  10. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  11. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  12. The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Fair market value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of fair market value concepts as they pertain to producing petroleum properties. conventional petroleum economic theories of fair market value are examined in light of recent work on the market value of long-life reserves. Their work is expanded to show that sellers rely on comparable sales data for estimating FMV. Both results are used to suggest that current practices over-emphasize the discounted cash flow approach to estimating fair market value

  14. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value <4.25 mg/L only 6.9% was dead whereas the survival within 90 days. p:0.000.In conclusion, there were differences in hs-CRP values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  15. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  16. INVESTIGATION OF b-VALUE VARIATIONS IN THE AFRICAN AND PARTS OF EURASIAN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoyemi, M. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous earthquakes have occurred along the collision zones of the African and parts of Eurasian plates. Some of these earthquakes along these zones have generated tsunamis. To mitigate this hazard, knowledge of b-values of the Gutenberg – Richter relation for tectonic earthquakes in the African and parts of Eurasian plates is essential. The temporal variations of b-values were evaluated using sliding time windows with each window containing a total of 100 events with a view to utilizing the results as a precursor for the earthquake occurrence. The spatial variation of b-values of the study area was also delineated by dividing it into grids and calculating the b-values for each grid using constant radius and constant number of events. Results obtained from the temporal variation of b-values showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred when the b-values were low while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred when the b-values were high throughout the study period. The results of the spatial distribution of b-values also showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred in areas of low b-values while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred in areas of high b-values. The study therefore concluded that the temporal and spatial variations of b-values might be considered as a precursor for earthquake prediction.

  17. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  18. Missing value imputation for epistatic MAPs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2010-04-20

    Abstract Background Epistatic miniarray profiling (E-MAPs) is a high-throughput approach capable of quantifying aggravating or alleviating genetic interactions between gene pairs. The datasets resulting from E-MAP experiments typically take the form of a symmetric pairwise matrix of interaction scores. These datasets have a significant number of missing values - up to 35% - that can reduce the effectiveness of some data analysis techniques and prevent the use of others. An effective method for imputing interactions would therefore increase the types of possible analysis, as well as increase the potential to identify novel functional interactions between gene pairs. Several methods have been developed to handle missing values in microarray data, but it is unclear how applicable these methods are to E-MAP data because of their pairwise nature and the significantly larger number of missing values. Here we evaluate four alternative imputation strategies, three local (Nearest neighbor-based) and one global (PCA-based), that have been modified to work with symmetric pairwise data. Results We identify different categories for the missing data based on their underlying cause, and show that values from the largest category can be imputed effectively. We compare local and global imputation approaches across a variety of distinct E-MAP datasets, showing that both are competitive and preferable to filling in with zeros. In addition we show that these methods are effective in an E-MAP from a different species, suggesting that pairwise imputation techniques will be increasingly useful as analogous epistasis mapping techniques are developed in different species. We show that strongly alleviating interactions are significantly more difficult to predict than strongly aggravating interactions. Finally we show that imputed interactions, generated using nearest neighbor methods, are enriched for annotations in the same manner as measured interactions. Therefore our method potentially

  19. Dyadic Power Profiles: Power-Contingent Strategies for Value Creation in Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Using a simulated employment negotiation, we tested the conditional relationships among dyadic power profiles (symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric), the choice and sequencing of strategies, and value creation. We showed that negotiators in symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric power dyads took distinctly different paths to value…

  20. ANALYZING SHORT (100 METERS AND MIDDLE DISTANCE (800 - 1200 METERS RUNNING AND COORDINATION VALUES ACCORDING TO SPORTS BRANCHES OF STUDENTS WHO TAKE ENTRANCE EXAMS TO SPORTS HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yılmaz ALBAYRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, t h e p u r p o s e was to determine the changes in accordance with running and coordination values of children who took the entrance examinations of sports high scholl in the 5 year period and assess them according to the branches as 100 and 800 meters running for female, 100 and 1200 meters running for men. In accordance with this aim, test values of total 1306 students (m = 1061, f = 245, average age = 14 who participated in entrance examinations in a 5 years duration including 2008, 2 009, 2010, 2011, 2012 years in the region of Antalya for sports high school were analyzed. As an statistical analyze, One way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (which are LSD, Least Significant Difference tests were used. As a result of statistical anal yses, although the candidates who took the tests in the region of Antalya, change along 5 years duration, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in the running values of male children (p0,05. Likewise, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in 100 meters running values of female children (p0,05. In addition there was no any statistically significant difference in 100, 800 meters running values and coordination values of female children according to branches (p>0,05. Consequently, it can be suggested that there were no changes in speed times of both male and female children in along 5 years duration in region of Antalya. It can be inferred that while there is a significant change in values of running and coordination of males, the reason why female children were not able to show c hanges in their values should be because they show less imrovement in sports branches. In addition, male students in track and field branch gained the highest degrees both in 100 m and coordination tracks. Thus, it can be said that someone having good spee d has good coordination too.

  1. Forecasting the value-at-risk of Chinese stock market using the HARQ model and extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangqiang; Wei, Yu; Chen, Yongfei; Yu, Jiang; Hu, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Using intraday data of the CSI300 index, this paper discusses value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting of the Chinese stock market from the perspective of high-frequency volatility models. First, we measure the realized volatility (RV) with 5-minute high-frequency returns of the CSI300 index and then model it with the newly introduced heterogeneous autoregressive quarticity (HARQ) model, which can handle the time-varying coefficients of the HAR model. Second, we forecast the out-of-sample VaR of the CSI300 index by combining the HARQ model and extreme value theory (EVT). Finally, using several popular backtesting methods, we compare the VaR forecasting accuracy of HARQ model with other traditional HAR-type models, such as HAR, HAR-J, CHAR, and SHAR. The empirical results show that the novel HARQ model can beat other HAR-type models in forecasting the VaR of the Chinese stock market at various risk levels.

  2. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  3. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xianghong

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. Results We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. Conclusion We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  4. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal-graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied.

  5. Increased signal intensity of prostate lesions on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a predictive sign of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, Michael; Schimmoeller, Lars; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of lesions detected in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with increased signal intensity (SI) on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a sign of malignancy. One hundred and three consecutive patients with prostate MRI examination and MRI-guided in-bore biopsy were retrospectively included in the study. MRI-guided in-bore biopsy histologically confirmed prostate cancer in 50 patients (n = 92 lesions). The other 53 patients (n = 122 lesions) had negative bioptical results. In patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 46 of the 92 lesions had visually increased SI on the high b-value images compared with the peripheral zone (SI = +27 ± 16%) or the central gland (SI = +37 ± 19%, P < 0.001 respectively). In patients with a negative biopsy, ten of the 122 lesions had visually increased SI (compared with the peripheral zone, SI = +29 ± 18%, and with the central gland, SI = +41 ± 15%, P < 0.001 respectively). Neither the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values nor the Gleason Score of lesions with increased SI were significantly different from lesions without increased SI. Visually increased SI on the high b-value images of diffusion-weighted imaging using standard b-values is a sign of malignancy but can occasionally also be a feature of benign lesions. However, it does not indicate more aggressive tumours. (orig.)

  6. Morality, values, traditional bullying, and cyberbullying in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390 adolescents aged 14-18, balanced for gender, attending different high schools. Traditional and cyberbullying were detected by means of two self-report measures, while the Portrait Values Questionnaire was used to assess 10 values in four dimensions according to the value system model by Schwartz (1992): self-trascendence, self-enhancement, openness to change, and conservation. Finally, immoral and disengaged behaviours were assessed by means of five items about behavioural and personal aspects salient for morality. Results showed that, irrespective of gender, self-enhancement and self-trascendence moderately predicted cyber and traditional bullying, respectively, while immoral and disengaged behaviours predicted both. Indirect effects showed that self-enhancement and openness to change predicted both forms of bullying through immoral behaviour. Results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between cyber and traditional bullying and with attention to the central role of morality in explaining bullying nature. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  8. Diagnostic value of ADC in patients with prostate cancer: influence of the choice of b values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoermer, Gregor; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Seiwerts, Matthias; Moche, Michael; Garnov, Nikita; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald; Franz, Toni; Do, Minh; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Horn, Lars-Christian

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the choice of b values on the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for detection and grading of prostate cancer (PCa). Forty-one patients with biopsy-proven PCa underwent endorectal 3-T MRI before prostatectomy. Different combinations of b values (0-800 s/mm 2 ) were used to calculate four representative ADC maps. Mean ADCs of tumours and non-malignant tissue were determined. Tumour appearance on different ADC maps was rated by three radiologists as good, fair or poor by assigning a visual score (VS) of 2, 1 or 0, respectively. Differences in the ADC values with the choice of b values were analysed using one-way ANOVA. Choice of b values had a highly (P < 0.001) significant influence on the absolute ADC in each tissue. Maps using b = [50, 800] and [0, 800] were rated best (VS = 1.6 ± 0.3) and second best (1.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), respectively. For low-grade carcinomas (Gleason score ≤ 6, 13/41 patients), only the former choice received scores better than fair (VS = 1.4 ± 0.3). Mean tumour ADCs showed significant negative correlation (Spearman's ρ -0.38 to -0.46, P < 0.05) with Gleason score. Absolute ADC values strongly depend on the choice of b values and therefore should be used with caution for diagnostic purposes. A minimum b value greater than zero is recommended for ADC calculation to improve the visual assessment of PCa in ADC maps. (orig.)

  9. Diagnostic value of ADC in patients with prostate cancer: influence of the choice of b values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoermer, Gregor; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Seiwerts, Matthias; Moche, Michael; Garnov, Nikita; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Franz, Toni; Do, Minh; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Urology, Leipzig (Germany); Horn, Lars-Christian [University of Leipzig, Institute of Pathology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate the influence of the choice of b values on the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for detection and grading of prostate cancer (PCa). Forty-one patients with biopsy-proven PCa underwent endorectal 3-T MRI before prostatectomy. Different combinations of b values (0-800 s/mm{sup 2}) were used to calculate four representative ADC maps. Mean ADCs of tumours and non-malignant tissue were determined. Tumour appearance on different ADC maps was rated by three radiologists as good, fair or poor by assigning a visual score (VS) of 2, 1 or 0, respectively. Differences in the ADC values with the choice of b values were analysed using one-way ANOVA. Choice of b values had a highly (P < 0.001) significant influence on the absolute ADC in each tissue. Maps using b = [50, 800] and [0, 800] were rated best (VS = 1.6 {+-} 0.3) and second best (1.1 {+-} 0.3, P < 0.001), respectively. For low-grade carcinomas (Gleason score {<=} 6, 13/41 patients), only the former choice received scores better than fair (VS = 1.4 {+-} 0.3). Mean tumour ADCs showed significant negative correlation (Spearman's {rho} -0.38 to -0.46, P < 0.05) with Gleason score. Absolute ADC values strongly depend on the choice of b values and therefore should be used with caution for diagnostic purposes. A minimum b value greater than zero is recommended for ADC calculation to improve the visual assessment of PCa in ADC maps. (orig.)

  10. New insights into the structure-property relationship of high-voltage electrolyte components for lithium-ion batteries using the pKa value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallus, Dennis Roman; Wagner, Ralf; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of higher energy density in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a most promising approach focuses on cathode materials that operate at higher potentials and exhibit even higher specific charges than present LIB cathodes charged up to only 3.8 to 4.3 V vs. Li/Li + . To enable a high-voltage (HV) application of the cathode, the “by-materials”, in particular the electrolyte components have to be either thermodynamically or kinetically stable. For this reason, the stability of the electrolyte components towards oxidation, in particular, depending on their HOMO energy levels, is crucial. The theoretical calculation of molecular orbital energies is a helpful and commonly used tool to predict electrochemical stability. Earlier studies demonstrated strong correlation between the HOMO energy and the pK a value, as both depend on electron affinity. Here we report on the first study referring to a pK a value based selection procedure on development of new electrolyte components for the application in lithium-ion batteries. The identified trimethylsilyl(TMS)-based additives, which are known to scavenge HF and show sufficient oxidation stability, enable the application of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NCM) at an increased upper cut-off potential of 4.6 V vs. Li/Li + without severe degradation, leading to a 50% higher energy density. The use of pK a values is a simple, but highly effective methodology to select appropriate electrolyte components and thus helps to identify functional electrolytes beyond the typical trial and error approach or time-consuming theoretical calculations.

  11. Incremental value of myocardial perfusion over coronary angiography by spectral computed tomography in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascosa, Patricia M., E-mail: investigacion@diagnosticomaipu.com.ar; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Capunay, Carlos; Campisi, Roxana; López Munain, Marina de; Vallejos, Javier; Tajer, Carlos; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston A.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We evaluated myocardial perfusion by dual energy computed tomography (DECT). •We included patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease. •Stress myocardial perfusion by DECT had a reliable accuracy for the detection of ischemia. •Stress myocardial perfusion with DECT showed an incremental value over anatomical evaluation. •DECT imaging was associated to a significant reduction in radiation dose compared to SPECT. -- Abstract: Purpose: We sought to explore the diagnostic performance of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: Consecutive patients with known or suspected CAD referred for myocardial perfusion imaging by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) constituted the study population and were scanned using a DECT scanner equipped with gemstone detectors for spectral imaging, and a SPECT. The same pharmacological stress was used for both scans. Results: Twenty-five patients were prospectively included in the study protocol. The mean age was 63.4 ± 10.6 years. The total mean effective radiation dose was 7.5 ± 1.2 mSv with DECT and 8.2 ± 1.7 mSv with SPECT (p = 0.007). A total of 425 left ventricular segments were evaluated by DECT, showing a reliable accuracy for the detection of reversible perfusion defects [area under ROC curve (AUC) 0.84 (0.80–0.87)]. Furthermore, adding stress myocardial perfusion provided a significant incremental value over anatomical evaluation alone by computed tomography coronary angiography [AUC 0.70 (0.65–0.74), p = 0.003]. Conclusions: In this pilot investigation, stress myocardial perfusion by DECT demonstrated a significant incremental value over anatomical evaluation alone by CTCA for the detection of reversible perfusion defects.

  12. Is public value pluralism paramount? The intrinsic hybridity and multiplicity of public values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; van Hout, E.Th.J.

    2009-01-01

    In current debates on public values too often the assumption is made that unitary conceptions exist of what "public values" are, and that one universal set of classical public core values guides administrative behaviour throughout the public sector. Studies show, however, that it is very hard to

  13. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  14. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  16. KARSTIC GEOMORPHOSITES WITH HIGH TOURISTIC VALUE IN MEHEDINȚI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ioana IAMANDEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Mehedinţi Plateau area, there is a great number of karsts complexes, also named geomorphosites, created by the action of water in the massive calcareous rocks. Some of these, such as Izverna and Topolnita karsts complexes, are suitable to speleological tourism, cave diving, tourist and scientific explorations, underground and underwater photography and filming. Tourists come here from all over the world and this is a place where special camps for cave diving the fans are organized. This study presents especially the types of geomorphosites generated by water, the touristic offer in this area and the analysis of indicators representing the global value of one of the main geomorphosites. This global value increased in particular due to their scientific, cultural and aesthetic values which makes them suitable to ecotourism. The economic value is also an important indicator for the touristic activities in Mehedinți Plateau.

  17. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  18. Ghrelin increases the rewarding value of high-fat diet in an orexin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Birnbaum, Shari; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A; Woloszyn, Jakub; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or ghrelin-signaling blockade on two classic behavioral tests of reward behavior: conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant conditioning. Using both CPP and operant conditioning, we found that ghrelin enhanced the rewarding value of high-fat diet (HFD) when administered to ad lib-fed mice. Conversely, wild-type mice treated with ghrelin receptor antagonist and ghrelin receptor-null mice both failed to show CPP to HFD normally observed under calorie restriction. Interestingly, neither pharmacologic nor genetic blockade of ghrelin signaling inhibited the body weight homeostasis-related, compensatory hyperphagia associated with chronic calorie restriction. Also, ghrelin's effects on HFD reward were blocked in orexin-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate an obligatory role for ghrelin in certain rewarding aspects of eating that is separate from eating associated with body weight homeostasis and that requires the presence of intact orexin signaling. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. V-I transition and n-value of multifilamentary LTS and HTS wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Arup K.

    2004-01-01

    For low T c multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by (ρ/ρ c )=(I/I c ) n . For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high J c wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5 T is ∼40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb 3 Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages ∼ a few μV prior to quenching. However, in 'well behaved' wires, n is ∼30-40 at 12 T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I c degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T c multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2 K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values ∼15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire

  20. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  1. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  2. [Establishment of Reference Value of Hs-cTnT in Sichuan Region and Its Diagnostic Value in Patients with Chest Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Du, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Hua-Lan; Wang, Wei-Qing; Nie, Xin; Li, Gui-Xing

    2017-11-01

    To establish the reference value of high sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and the efficiency of reference value in the diagnosis of chest pain. Volunteers from eight independent communities in Chengdu,Sichuan were selected with detailed records of physical examination,electrocardiogram,ultrasound examination. The level of hs-cTnT for healthy volunteers was tested to determine ninety-ninth percentile references according to sex and ages. 2 249 patients with chest pain in the emergency department of Western China Hospital from July 2009 to July 2014 were enrolled to measure the efficiency of reference value for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There were 1 305 volunteers included finally. Among them,the mean hs-cTnT level of male was 4.3 (3.2-5.9) ng/L,which was significantly higher than that of female 3.0 (3.0-3.1) ng/L ( P value was less than 0.01. The 99th percentile values of male were 10.8 ng/L,15.4 ng/L and 19.7 ng/L for values of female were 4.6 ng/L,8.9 ng/L,18.8 ng/L,respectively. There was no difference in sensitivity and specificity between the value we figured out and manufactures provided (14.0 ng/L) for thosevalue did not show diversity ( P >0.05) but the specificity and positive predictive value showed significant difference (male: 0.67 vs. 0.56 and 0.83 vs. 0.79, P value of patients<60 yr. should be 14.0 ng/L,while 20.0 ng/L for those patients≥60 yr.

  3. [Study the impacts of diagnosis on occupational noise-induced deafness after bring into the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Chen, H; Huang, W X; Guo, J J; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2017-11-20

    Objective: Study of the results and the degree on occupational noise-induced deafness in-to the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value, in order to provide theoretical basis for the re-vision of diagnostic criteria on occupational noise-induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was con-ducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. Based on the re-sults of the 3 hearing test for each test interval greater than 3 days in the hospital, the best threshold of each frequency was obtained, and based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2007 edition, Chi square test, t test and variance analysis were used to measure SPSS21.0 data, their differences are tested among the means of speech frequency and the high frequency weighted value into different age group, noise ex-posure group, and diagnostic classification between different dimensions. Results: 1. There were totally 168 cases in accordance with the study plan, male 154 cases, female 14 cases, the average age was 41.18 ±6.07 years old. 2. The diagnosis rate was increased into the weighted value of different high frequency than the mean value of pure speech frequency, the weighted 4 kHz frequency increased by 13.69% (χ(2)=9.880, P =0.002) , 6 kHz increased by 15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) and 4 kHz+6 kHz increased by15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) , the difference was statistically significant. The diagnostic rate of different high threshold had no obvious differ-ence between the genders. 3. The age groups were divided into less than or equal to 40years old group (A group) and 40-50 years old group (group B) , there were higher the diagnostic rate between high frequency weighted 4 kHz (A group χ(2)=3.380, P =0.050; B group χ(2)=4.054, P =0.032) , weighted 6 kHz (A group χ(2)=6.362, P =0.012; B group χ(2

  4. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  5. Expected Net Present Value, Expected Net Future Value, and the Ramsey Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Gollier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Weitzman (1998) showed that when future interest rates are uncertain, using the expected net present value implies a term structure of discount rates that is decreasing to the smallest possible interest rate. On the contrary, using the expected net future value criteria implies an increasing term structure of discount rates up to the largest possible interest rate. We reconcile the two approaches by introducing risk aversion and utility maximization. We show that if the aggregate consumption ...

  6. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  7. Value Similarities Among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.C.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be

  8. Focusing of high power ultrasound beams and limiting values of shock wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonova, O. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Bailey, M. R.; Canney, M. S.; Crum, L. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, the influence of nonlinear and diffraction effects on amplification factors of focused ultrasound systems is investigated. The limiting values of acoustic field parameters obtained by focusing of high power ultrasound are studied. The Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation was used for the numerical modeling. Solutions for the nonlinear acoustic field were obtained at output levels corresponding to both pre- and post-shock formation conditions in the focal area of the beam in a weakly dissipative medium. Numerical solutions were compared with experimental data as well as with known analytic predictions.

  9. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  10. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a

  11. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; van der Vaart, T.

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  12. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  13. Self-Perceived Mate Value, Facial Attractiveness, and Mate Preferences: Do Desirable Men Want It All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men's facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.

  14. The Influence of Islamic Moral Values on the Students' Behavior in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuriman; Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    This study shows the influence and relationship of Islamic moral values to the students' behavior in Aceh Province. Learning Objects are the moral values of Islam achieved in learning in high school and vocational institutions that are assumed to affect the students' behavior. The quantitative methods used in this study and was running by SPSS…

  15. [Value of desmopressin stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression testin the etiologic diagnosis of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yu, Yerong; Tan, Huiwen; Wang, Chun; Li, Jianwei; An, Zhenmei; Liu, Yuping

    2016-03-22

    To investigate the value of desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) in establishing the cause of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical data of patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome at West China Hospital from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2015 was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test, HDDST, and the diagnostic accordance rate when the two tests were combined, were evaluated based on the diagnostic gold standard. A total of 85 patients with Cushing's disease and 10 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were included. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test were 87% and 5/5, respectively, whereas those of HDDST were 79% and 8/10, respectively. The standard high dose dexamethasone suppression test showed a higher sensitivity than overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test. When the two tests had consistent results, the diagnostic accordance rate was 100%. DDAVP stimulation test and HDDST are both efficient modalities for the diagnosis of Cushing's Disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. The accuracy of diagnosis can be further improved by combining the two tests.

  16. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  17. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  18. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  19. Weak values as context-dependent values of observables and Born's rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Akio; Koga, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    We characterize a value of an observable by a 'sum rule' for generally non-commuting observables and a 'product rule' when restricted to a maximal commuting subalgebra of observables together with the requirement that the value is unity for the projection operator of the prepared state and the values are zero for the projection operators of the states which are orthogonal to the prepared state. The crucial requirement is that the expectation value and the variance of an observable should be independent of the way of measurement, i.e. the choice of the maximal commuting subalgebra of observables. We shall call the value a 'contextual value'. We show that the contextual value of an observable coincides with the weak value advocated by Aharonov and his colleagues by demanding the consistency of quantum mechanics with Kolmogorov's measure theory of probability. This also gives a derivation of Born's rule, which is one of the axioms of conventional quantum mechanics. (paper)

  20. Features of working in fields with high values of exposure dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Features of working in fields with the exposure dose rate (EDR) ∼ 1000-7000 R/h are described. Data on the performed operations concerning initial decontamination of the Chernobyl-3 reactor roof during 10.07.86-03.10.86 are presented. It is marked that the methodical recommendations on working in fields with high values of EDR are absent in our country and abroad and it is necessary to develop them on the basis of obtained experience. Moreover, there are no protective means (protective clotting). Main principles of its creation are the protection of critical organ groups and comfort in working. Personnel should be specially trained and get phychologically ready. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  2. Estimated burden of cardiovascular disease and value-based price range for evolocumab in a high-risk, secondary-prevention population in the US payer context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Danese, Mark; Villa, Guillermo; Qian, Yi; Beaubrun, Anne; Lira, Armando; Jansen, Jeroen P

    2017-06-01

    To estimate real-world cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and value-based price range of evolocumab for a US-context, high-risk, secondary-prevention population. Burden of CVD was assessed using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in order to capture complete CV burden including CV mortality. Patients on standard of care (SOC; high-intensity statins) in CPRD were selected based on eligibility criteria of FOURIER, a phase 3 CV outcomes trial of evolocumab, and categorized into four cohorts: high-risk prevalent atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) cohort (n = 1448), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 602), ischemic stroke (IS) (n = 151), and heart failure (HF) (n = 291) incident cohorts. The value-based price range for evolocumab was assessed using a previously published economic model. The model incorporated CPRD CV event rates and considered CV event reduction rate ratios per 1 mmol/L reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) from a meta-analysis of statin trials by the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists Collaboration (CTTC), i.e. CTTC relationship. Multiple-event rates of composite CV events (ACS, IS, or coronary revascularization) per 100 patient-years were 12.3 for the high-risk prevalent ASCVD cohort, and 25.7, 13.3, and 23.3, respectively, for incident ACS, IS, and HF cohorts. Approximately one-half (42%) of the high-risk ASCVD patients with a new CV event during follow-up had a subsequent CV event. Combining these real-world event rates and the CTTC relationship in the economic model, the value-based price range (credible interval) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000/quality-adjusted life-year gained for evolocumab was $11,990 ($9,341-$14,833) to $16,856 ($12,903-$20,678) in ASCVD patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≥70 mg/dL and ≥100 mg/dL, respectively. Real-world CVD burden is substantial. Using the observed CVD burden in CPRD and the CTTC relationship, the cost-effectiveness analysis showed

  3. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  4. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  5. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Value and power in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we rethink the field of value in economic theory. First, we prove that the transhistorical and nominalist approaches show different weaknesses and can not account for the constitutive dimensions of value. Within this context, we demonstrate why value emerged in the first place and what epistemological dimensions it provided and enabled for economic reflexivity. In addition, we demonstrate that it is impossible to understand inherent value as an immanent property of goods in economic transactions and we critique the approach that renders value to the theory of price. Economic relations reflect value-related aspects without which the relations could not be understood. We then analyze the interrelations between power and value, proving the constitutive dimension of power in understanding value, demonstrated in selected examples. We treat power as a constellation in which economic agents act on other subjects to provoke certain activity. Power may occur only where the behaviour of subjects is not entirely determined. Finally, one additional selected example shows the range of this theory of power in terms of positional goods.

  7. Using extreme value theory approaches to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangpeng Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza.The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB "VIEM" toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a "fat tail" distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively.Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course.

  8. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

  9. Nutrient value protein of mutant J3 of agaricus blazei by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Xiao Shuxia

    2003-01-01

    The studies of nutrient value protein of mutant J 3 of Agaricus blazei were carried out. The results showed that mutant J 3 had 9 kinds of essential amino acids, the compositions of essential amino acids is 46.0% of total amino acids. The amino acid score is 94.5, the essential amino acid index is 92.4, biological value is 89.0, the ratio coefficient of amino acids is 72.3, the nutrient value is 32.5. The chemical score is 74.18. These results proved that the protein of mutant J 3 had high nutrient value

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  11. Examining the reinforcing value of stimuli within social and non-social contexts in children with and without high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melissa C; Allman, Melissa J; Hagopian, Louis P; Triggs, Mandy M; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; DeLeon, Iser G

    2017-10-01

    One of the key diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder includes impairments in social interactions. This study compared the extent to which boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys "value" engaging in activities with a parent or alone. Two different assessments that can empirically determine the relative reinforcing value of social and non-social stimuli were employed: paired-choice preference assessments and progressive-ratio schedules. There were no significant differences between boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys on either measure. Moreover, there was a strong correspondence in performance across these two measures for participants in each group. These results suggest that the relative reinforcing value of engaging in activities with a primary caregiver is not diminished for children with autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Combined 18F-Fluciclovine PET/MRI Shows Potential for Detection and Characterization of High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschot, Mattijs; Selnæs, Kirsten M; Sandsmark, Elise; Krüger-Stokke, Brage; Størkersen, Øystein; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Tessem, May-Britt; Moestue, Siver A; Bertilsson, Helena; Bathen, Tone F

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether quantitative imaging features derived from combined 18 F-fluciclovine PET/multiparametric MRI show potential for detection and characterization of primary prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer underwent simultaneous 18 F-fluciclovine PET/MRI before radical prostatectomy. Volumes of interest (VOIs) for prostate tumors, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) nodules, prostatitis, and healthy tissue were delineated on T2-weighted images, using histology as a reference. Tumor VOIs were marked as high-grade (≥Gleason grade group 3) or not. MRI and PET features were extracted on the voxel and VOI levels. Partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with double leave-one-patient-out cross-validation was performed to distinguish tumors from benign tissue (BPH, prostatitis, or healthy tissue) and high-grade tumors from other tissue (low-grade tumors or benign tissue). The performance levels of PET, MRI, and combined PET/MRI features were compared using the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Voxel and VOI features were extracted from 40 tumor VOIs (26 high-grade), 36 BPH VOIs, 6 prostatitis VOIs, and 37 healthy-tissue VOIs. PET/MRI performed better than MRI and PET alone for distinguishing tumors from benign tissue (AUCs of 87%, 81%, and 83%, respectively, at the voxel level and 96%, 93%, and 93%, respectively, at the VOI level) and high-grade tumors from other tissue (AUCs of 85%, 79%, and 81%, respectively, at the voxel level and 93%, 93%, and 91%, respectively, at the VOI level). T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and PET features were the most important for classification. Conclusion: Combined 18 F-fluciclovine PET/multiparametric MRI shows potential for improving detection and characterization of high-risk prostate cancer, in comparison to MRI and PET alone. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular

  13. Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network Externalities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Claro Tomaselli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation.

  14. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  15. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  16. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  17. Suicide and changing values and beliefs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Brannick, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the generalized theories explaining rising suicide rates in Ireland. The conclusion here is that linking suicide patterns to changing beliefs and values is problematic. Church attendance as well as adherence to traditional values remain high in this country compared to European levels, and variations in beliefs and values, especially rural/urban differences, do not fit with general explanations. Moreover, attitudes to value areas fluctuate in that justification for suicide--which showed an upward trend in the 1980s--was reversed in the 1990s, and this may have resulted from increased public focus and debate. Generalized explanations are unlikely to decipher complex phenomena such as suicidal behavior. Religious belief, if protective in relation to suicide, is unlikely to act alone. Social transformations have a differential impact depending on one's socio-economic positioning, which translates ideas of a general male vulnerability to suicide into focused areas of male distress.

  18. A simple high-dose gentamicin regimen showed no side effects among neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Sofie; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Dalegaard, Mette Correll

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment of infections in neonates with gentamicin is a balance between optimising bactericidal effect and minimising adverse effects. Previously, at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Kolding Hospital, Denmark, neonates suspected of having infections were treated daily...... and 2012 and treated with gentamicin were included retrospectively in the study. Neonates with trough serum (S)-gentamicin level ≥ 2.0 mg/l before the third dose were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: In total, S-gentamicin level was measured in 253 treated neonates of whom 7% displayed elevated trough values....... Neonates elevated S...

  19. The Values in Four Selected American Novels and Suggested Uses of These Values in High School English Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Theodore Wallace

    The first purpose of this study was to discover and analyze the values in "The Red Badge of Courage,""Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""The Catcher in the Rye," and "To Kill a Mockingbird." The values--conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of characters' actions and judgments--were classified according to H. S. Broudy's "Building a…

  20. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood glucose measurement in patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison of Abbott MediSense PCx point-of-care meter values to reference laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Fidela S J; Miller, Moses; Nichols, James; Smithline, Howard; Crabb, Gillian; Pekow, Penelope

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare blood glucose levels measured by a point of care (POC) device to laboratory measurement using the same sample venous blood from patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A descriptive correlational design was used for this IRB-approved quality assurance project. The study site was the 50-bed BMC emergency department (ED) which has an annual census of over 100,000 patient visits. The convenience sample consisted of 54 blood samples from suspected DKA patients with orders for hourly blood draws for glucose measurement. Spearman correlations of the glucose POC values, reference lab values, and differences between the two, were evaluated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between the acidosis status and FDA acceptability of POC values. Patient age range was 10-86 years; 63% were females; 46% had a final diagnosis of DKA. POC values underestimated glucose levels 93% of the time. There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. A chi-square test showed no overall association between acidosis and FDA-acceptability. The POC values underestimated lab reported glucose levels in 50 of 54 cases even with the use of same venous sample sent to the lab, which make it highly unreliable for use in monitoring suspected DKA patients.

  3. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Gázquez, José J.; Sainz, Jorge; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Molero, María del M.; Soler, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N = 441) were boys and 50.2% (N = 444) were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and ...

  4. Economic value added or earnings: What explains market value in Indian firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufazil Altaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the claim made by Stern Stewart & Company that economic value added is a better metric that traditional earning based measures in explaining market value. For better exposition, a sample of 325 Indian firms has been divided into two parts- 170 firms belonging to Indian manufacturing companies and 155 companies belonging to the Indian service sector. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analyses, the results of the study reveal that the operating income has a strong linkage with market value added in both manufacturing and service sectors. For both the sectors, the economic value added shows weaker but positive relationship with the market value added.

  5. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography surveillance in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission has a low positive predictive value and high costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Mylam, Karen Juul; Brown, Peter; Specht, Lena; Christiansen, Ilse; Munksgaard, Lars; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Loft, Annika; Bukh, Anne; Iyer, Victor; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Hutchings, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The value of performing post-therapy routine surveillance imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is controversial. This study evaluates the utility of positron emission tomography/computed tomography using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for this purpose and in situations with suspected lymphoma relapse. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study. Patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma achieving at least a partial remission on first-line therapy were eligible if they received positron emission tomography/computed tomography surveillance during follow-up. Two types of imaging surveillance were analyzed: "routine" when patients showed no signs of relapse at referral to positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and "clinically indicated" when recurrence was suspected. A total of 211 routine and 88 clinically indicated positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies were performed in 161 patients. In ten of 22 patients with recurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma, routine imaging surveillance was the primary tool for the diagnosis of the relapse. Extranodal disease, interim positron emission tomography-positive lesions and positron emission tomography activity at response evaluation were all associated with a positron emission tomography/computed tomography-diagnosed preclinical relapse. The true positive rates of routine and clinically indicated imaging were 5% and 13%, respectively (P = 0.02). The overall positive predictive value and negative predictive value of positron emission tomography/computed tomography were 28% and 100%, respectively. The estimated cost per routine imaging diagnosed relapse was US$ 50,778. Negative positron emission tomography/computed tomography reliably rules out a relapse. The high false positive rate is, however, an important limitation and a confirmatory biopsy is mandatory for the diagnosis of a relapse. With no proven survival benefit for patients with a pre-clinically diagnosed relapse, the high costs and low

  6. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  7. The Value Chains of High-Technology Products as Factor of formation the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Safronova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the value chain of high-tech products in Asia and the role of this phenomenon in the further consolidation of trade blocs and alliances in the region. The presence of these chains and their gradual transition from a vertically integrated model to a system of horizontal linkages and interdependence leads to the formation of mechanisms of economic de-facto integration (so-called regionalization process. The East Asian region has demonstrated unprecedented high rates of economic growth in recent decades. The countries are actively developing mechanisms of multilateral cooperation, involving partners from across the Asia-Pacific region. Particular features of a new regional architecture of economic relations are becoming more tangible, and the essential element of this architecture is the intra-regional integration. The author presents an assessment of further developments of the Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP using the structural-functional approach and analytical instruments of the international political economy, The creation of this trade block will help less advanced countries of ASEAN to accelerate economic growth and improve the conditions for integration into global value chains. For advanced economies, participation in the RCEP seems controversial, because production chains have well-established formats within the framework of ASEAN +. The political standoff between Washington and Beijing has an impact on dynamics of regional integration. The split among the East Asian countries was galvanized by the Trans-Pacific Partnership Project (TTP, because TPP has objectives that are very similar to those of RCEP (trade liberalization and economic integration. The author concludes that the extension of this partnership in the ASEAN countries can seriously complicate the operation RVEP and enhance the impact of political factors on economic cooperation. In this case, the value of production and supply chains

  8. Accuracy Evaluation of the Unified P-Value from Combining Correlated P-Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis methods that combine -values into a single unified -value are frequently employed to improve confidence in hypothesis testing. An assumption made by most meta-analysis methods is that the -values to be combined are independent, which may not always be true. To investigate the accuracy of the unified -value from combining correlated -values, we have evaluated a family of statistical methods that combine: independent, weighted independent, correlated, and weighted correlated -values. Statistical accuracy evaluation by combining simulated correlated -values showed that correlation among -values can have a significant effect on the accuracy of the combined -value obtained. Among the statistical methods evaluated those that weight -values compute more accurate combined -values than those that do not. Also, statistical methods that utilize the correlation information have the best performance, producing significantly more accurate combined -values. In our study we have demonstrated that statistical methods that combine -values based on the assumption of independence can produce inaccurate -values when combining correlated -values, even when the -values are only weakly correlated. Therefore, to prevent from drawing false conclusions during hypothesis testing, our study advises caution be used when interpreting the -value obtained from combining -values of unknown correlation. However, when the correlation information is available, the weighting-capable statistical method, first introduced by Brown and recently modified by Hou, seems to perform the best amongst the methods investigated. PMID:24663491

  9. Modeling Patient No-Show History and Predicting Future Outpatient Appointment Behavior in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Rachel M; Harris, Shannon L; May, Jerrold H; Milicevic, Aleksandra S; Monte, Robert J; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Rodriguez, Keri L; Tjader, Youxu C; Vargas, Dominic L

    2017-05-01

    Missed appointments reduce the efficiency of the health care system and negatively impact access to care for all patients. Identifying patients at risk for missing an appointment could help health care systems and providers better target interventions to reduce patient no-shows. Our aim was to develop and test a predictive model that identifies patients that have a high probability of missing their outpatient appointments. Demographic information, appointment characteristics, and attendance history were drawn from the existing data sets from four Veterans Affairs health care facilities within six separate service areas. Past attendance behavior was modeled using an empirical Markov model based on up to 10 previous appointments. Using logistic regression, we developed 24 unique predictive models. We implemented the models and tested an intervention strategy using live reminder calls placed 24, 48, and 72 hours ahead of time. The pilot study targeted 1,754 high-risk patients, whose probability of missing an appointment was predicted to be at least 0.2. Our results indicate that three variables were consistently related to a patient's no-show probability in all 24 models: past attendance behavior, the age of the appointment, and having multiple appointments scheduled on that day. After the intervention was implemented, the no-show rate in the pilot group was reduced from the expected value of 35% to 12.16% (p value < 0.0001). The predictive model accurately identified patients who were more likely to miss their appointments. Applying the model in practice enables clinics to apply more intensive intervention measures to high-risk patients. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  11. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....

  12. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  13. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  14. Earnings Management, Value Relevance Of Earnings and Book Value of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Imam

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining relationship between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information show that earnings management decrease value relevance of accounting information. Generally, the studies apply accruals earnings management. In contrast, the present study applies integrated earnings management proxies i.e. real and accruals earnings manage-ment. Real earnings management proxies are measured by abnormal cash flow of operation, ab-normal production cost, and abnorm...

  15. [Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinto, Carlos; Queirós, Laurinda; Meister, Maria Cristina; Saraiva, Margarida; Bruno, Paula; Antunes, Delfina; Afonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

  16. Personal values and value systems of humanities students and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Křeménková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The aim of this paper is to analyze the value orientation of university students and workers in humanities and then determine possible differences between these groups in the context of branches of occupation, school results and gender. Methods: The sample consisted of 158 university students aged 19-24 years (mean age = 20.8 and 170 humanities workers aged 29-48 years (mean age=36.8. Respondents were divided into following groups: men (N = 72, women (N = 256, students’ school results A (N = 43, B (N = 47, C (N = 35, D (N = 29, E (N = 4 and worker´s branch of occupation: teachers in the kindergarten (N = 34, special education teachers (N = 32, high school teachers (N = 47, educational workers (N = 31 and civil servants (N = 26. We used a Rokeach Value Survey (RVS which is designed to measure two sets of values. One set is composed of 18 terminal values or desired end states of existence (e.g., an exciting life, national security, and the other set is composed of 18 instrumental values, or preferable modes of behavior (e.g., being ambitious, independent. Then, subjects are asked to rank order each value as to its importance as a guiding principle in their life. A 1 indicates the most important value and an 18 the least important. Scale responses are considered ordinal.Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: We analyzed the preference of values depending on the gender. Pearson’s ?2 analyses indicated that men are significantly more (often „Effective Crusaders“ than women and women are significantly more (often „Virtuous Advocates“ than men, ?2 (3 = 13.817, p= .003, ?c = .205. After that we analyzed the preference of values depending on depending on the type of employment. Pearson’s ?2analyses indicated that students are significantly more (often „Virtuous Advocates“ than workers and workers are significantly more (often „Effective Crusaders“ and „Independent Maximizers“ than students, ?2 (3 = 61.414, p= .000, ?c

  17. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being.

  18. Caudate Microstimulation Increases Value of Specific Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Samantha R; Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Joni D; Carmena, Jose M

    2017-11-06

    Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]. Here, we investigate striatal value representations by applying caudate electrical stimulation in macaque monkeys (n = 3) to bias decision-making in a task that divorces the value of a stimulus from motor action. Electrical microstimulation is known to induce neural plasticity [10, 11], and caudate microstimulation in primates has been shown to accelerate associative learning [12, 13]. Our results indicate that stimulation paired with a particular stimulus increases selection of that stimulus, and this effect was stimulus dependent and action independent. The modulation of choice behavior using microstimulation was best modeled as resulting from changes in stimulus value. Caudate neural recordings (n = 1) show that changes in value-coding neuron activity are stimulus value dependent. We argue that caudate microstimulation can differentially increase stimulus values independent of action, and unilateral manipulations of value are sufficient to mediate choice behavior. These results support potential future applications of microstimulation to correct maladaptive plasticity underlying dysfunctional decision-making related to neuropsychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

    2009-12-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils.

  20. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  1. The value of solar: Prices and output from distributed photovoltaic generation in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maine, Tony; Chapman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Australian government's Solar Cities Program sees great value in so-called 'cost-reflective pricing', code for valuing solar at pool prices. We test that proposition in South Australia where pool prices and insolation are often high and we show that there were few days in 2004 when the pool price gives better outcomes than if the solar is valued at the regulated and fixed, so-called standing contract price. We also find that the illustrative day used in the Solar Cities Program literature to promote the notion of cost-reflective pricing is highly atypical. Finally, we consider ways in which the incentive to install distributed photovoltaic generation might be improved

  2. Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Gokten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework The principal function of integrated reporting is the reporting of value and this phenomenon seems the most philosophical part of the International Framework. This paper discusses what the value concept refers to in the Framework: Value to investors, value to society or value to present and future generations? In this sense, we try to answer this question by highlighting the dynamics of capital formations according to interrelations between capitals and demonstrating the value creation process in the short, medium, and longer term. We show that (1 „profit” is the result of short term value creation, which indicates the „value to value chain stakeholders”, (2 „expected fair value of equity” represents the „value to investors” and (3 „longer term value” represents the „value to society” according to the International Framework. Additionally, we touch on the inadequacies of the current Framework and suggest future research opportunities within the scope of value creation reporting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a detailed framework on the dynamics of capitals usage and it attempts to show the intersection of accounting and finance in terms of value creation reporting.

  3. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show......Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...

  4. Sustainability values for business: A perspective of value alignment in a supplier-client relationship for case Aqualogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Hurtado Jaramillo

    2018-02-01

    Originality/value: The empirical study provides detailed insight into how the key decision-makers understand and perceive the sustainability value concept in the mainstream business. The alignment of their value perception shows to companies which sustainability values are expected in business, and how business strategy must use them as value creation drivers.

  5. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  6. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Shandong University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Huili [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lei, Zhenmin [Department of OB/GYN, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Li, Rongda [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Ling, E-mail: qzlinl@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  7. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuehai; Lu, Huixia; Huang, Ziyang; Lin, Huili; Lei, Zhenmin; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei; Li, Rongda; Lin, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE −/− and Fas −/− mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE −/− and Fas −/− mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE −/− and Fas −/− mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE −/− mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE −/− ) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE −/− mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE −/− mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE −/− , Fas −/− and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas −/− mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE −/− mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE −/− mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE −/− mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

  8. The Influence of Cultural Individualism-Collectivism, Self Construals, and Individual Values on Communication Styles across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudykunst, William B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Shows that independent self-construals and individualistic values of college students mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of low-context communication, and interdependent self-construals and collectivistic values mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of high-context…

  9. Negotiating interests or values and reaching integrative agreements: the importance of time pressure and temporary impasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Negotiation research and theory tends to focus on interests and ignores values. This experiment compared the influence of negotiations about interests with negotiations about values under low or high time pressure. Results showed that (1) individuals got locked into early impasses more often under

  10. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  11. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; De Dreu, CKW; Van der Vaart, T

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation-as a personality trait-increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combined

  12. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2001-01-01

    In a study in 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation – as a personality trait -increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  13. Fine-scale mapping of High Nature Value farmlands: novel approaches to improve the management of rural biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho-Santos, C.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) are defined as rural lands characterized by high levels of biodiversity and extensive farming practices. These farmlands are also known to provide important ecosystems services, such as food production, pollination, water purification and landscape recreation.

  14. Simultaneous Production of Triacylglycerol and High-Value Carotenoids by the Astaxanthin-Producing Oleaginous Green Microalga Chlorella zofingiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3 mg L-1 day-1, respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga.

  15. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The value of FDG-PET/CT in assessing single pulmonary nodules in patients at high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagna, Olga; Solomonov, Anna; Fruchter, Oren; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Israel, Ora; Yigla, Mordechai; Guralnik, Luda

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether PET/low-dose CT (ldCT) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) improves characterization of indeterminate single pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in patients at high risk of lung cancer. Retrospective analysis of 307 patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT for indeterminate SPNs identified 93 (70 men, age range 46-90 years) at high risk of lung cancer (age >40 years, minimum 10 pack-year smokers). SPNs were evaluated for the presence and intensity of FDG avidity and ldCT patterns. The performance of visual and semiquantitative FDG-PET/ldCT algorithms for characterization of SPNs was compared to that of ldCT. Incongruent FDG-PET and ldCT patterns were analyzed for significance in further patient management. Malignancy was diagnosed in 38% patients. FDG avidity defined 33 SPNs as true-positive (TP) and 2 as false-negative (FN) (malignant), and 41 as true-negative (TN) and 17 as false-positive (FP) (benign). For SUVmax of 2.2 (by ROC analysis) there were 27 TP, 8 FN, 48 TN and 10 FP SPNs. LdCT defined 34 TP, 1 FN, 28 TN and 30 FP lesions. Of the FP lesions on ldCT, 60% were FDG-negative. Visual PET/ldCT analysis had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 70%, an accuracy of 80%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 66%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95% as compared to 77%, 83%, 81%, 73%, 86% for semiquantitative PET/ldCT and 97%, 48%, 66%, 53%, 96% for ldCT, respectively. Both PET/ldCT algorithms had statistically significantly higher specificity and accuracy than ldCT. Semiquantitative analysis showed significantly higher PPV and lower sensitivity and NPV than found with ldCT. A single screening procedure encompassing FDG-PET and ldCT may improve screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients. The significantly improved specificity may potentially reduce FP ldCT results and further unnecessary invasive procedures. (orig.)

  17. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  18. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient value as a biomarker reflecting morphological and biological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.

  20. A Unique Blend of 2-Fluorenyl-2-anthracene and 2-Anthryl-2-anthracence Showing White Emission and High Charge Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengyun; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Lijia; Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Yanan; Murtaza, Imran; He, Gufeng; Meng, Hong; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-16

    White-light-emitting materials with high mobility are necessary for organic white-light-emitting transistors, which can be used for self-driven OLED displays or OLED lighting. In this study, we combined two materials with similar structures-2-fluorenyl-2-anthracene (FlAnt) with blue emission and 2-anthryl-2-anthracence (2A) with greenish-yellow emission-to fabricate OLED devices, which showed unusual solid-state white-light emission with the CIE coordinates (0.33, 0.34) at 10 V. The similar crystal structures ensured that the OTFTs based on mixed FlAnt and 2A showed high mobility of 1.56 cm 2  V -1  s -1 . This simple method provides new insight into the design of high-performance white-emitting transistor materials and structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Neural networks for predicting breeding values and genetic gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Nunes Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis using Artificial Neural Networks has been described as an approach in the decision-making process that, although incipient, has been reported as presenting high potential for use in animal and plant breeding. In this study, we introduce the procedure of using the expanded data set for training the network. Wealso proposed using statistical parameters to estimate the breeding value of genotypes in simulated scenarios, in addition to the mean phenotypic value in a feed-forward back propagation multilayer perceptron network. After evaluating artificial neural network configurations, our results showed its superiority to estimates based on linear models, as well as its applicability in the genetic value prediction process. The results further indicated the good generalization performance of the neural network model in several additional validation experiments.

  2. Predictability of bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites using cone-beam computed tomography intensity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Mustafa; Hudieb, Malik; Khader, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictability of bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) intensity values. CBCT cross-sectional images for 436 posterior mandibular implant sites were selected for the study. Using Invivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, California, USA), two observers classified the bone density into three categories: low, intermediate, and high, and CBCT intensity values were generated. Based on the consensus of the two observers, 15.6% of sites were of low bone density, 47.9% were of intermediate density, and 36.5% were of high density. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that CBCT intensity values had a high predictive power for predicting high density sites (area under the curve [AUC] =0.94, P < 0.005) and intermediate density sites (AUC = 0.81, P < 0.005). The best cut-off value for intensity to predict intermediate density sites was 218 (sensitivity = 0.77 and specificity = 0.76) and the best cut-off value for intensity to predict high density sites was 403 (sensitivity = 0.93 and specificity = 0.77). CBCT intensity values are considered useful for predicting bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites.

  3. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  4. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. Future value now. Cashing sustainability in area development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huismans, G.; De Vaan, M.

    2011-06-01

    Several actors have an interest in the added value of a high quality of area development - and they also want to invest. In more and more places new strategies are developed to realize sustainable areas. Inspiring examples show that even within the present context much is possible. In many places in the Netherlands, targets in terms of energy, water, waste and green are operationalized and embedded in the financial business cases for area developments. [nl

  6. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  7. Value drivers: an approach for estimating health and disease management program savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, V L; Becker, Edmund R; Howard, David H

    2013-12-01

    Health and disease management (HDM) programs have faced challenges in documenting savings related to their implementation. The objective of this eliminate study was to describe OptumHealth's (Optum) methods for estimating anticipated savings from HDM programs using Value Drivers. Optum's general methodology was reviewed, along with details of 5 high-use Value Drivers. The results showed that the Value Driver approach offers an innovative method for estimating savings associated with HDM programs. The authors demonstrated how real-time savings can be estimated for 5 Value Drivers commonly used in HDM programs: (1) use of beta-blockers in treatment of heart disease, (2) discharge planning for high-risk patients, (3) decision support related to chronic low back pain, (4) obesity management, and (5) securing transportation for primary care. The validity of savings estimates is dependent on the type of evidence used to gauge the intervention effect, generating changes in utilization and, ultimately, costs. The savings estimates derived from the Value Driver method are generally reasonable to conservative and provide a valuable framework for estimating financial impacts from evidence-based interventions.

  8. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation

  9. Signal intensity changes of normal brain at varying high b-value diffusion-weighted images using 3.0T MR scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Chul Ho; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    Using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), to evaluate the signal intensity characteristics of normal adult brain as diffusion gradient strength (b value) increases from 1,000 to 3,000 s/mm 2 . Twenty-one healthy volunteers with neither neurologic symptoms nor pathologic findings at axial and sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging were involved in this study. All images were obtained with a 3.0T MR scanner. Six sets of spin-echo echo-planar images were acquired in the axial plane using progressively increasing strengths of diffusion-sensitizing gradients (corresponding to b values of 0, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 s/mm 2 ). All imaging parameters other than TE remained constant. Changes in normal white-gray matter signal intensity observed at variable b-value DWI were qualitatively analysed, and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in six anatomic regions (frontal and parietal white matter, genu and splenium corporis callosi, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the thalamus) quantitatively, and the ratios were averaged and compared with the average SNR of 1,000 s/mm DWI. As gradient strength increased from 1,000 to 3,000 s/mm 2 , both gray-and white-matter structures diminished in signal intensity, and images obtained at a b value of 3,000 s/mm 2 appeared very noisy. White matter became progressively hyperintense to gray matter as the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased, especially at the centrum semiovale, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the splenium corporis callosi, but the genu corporis callosi; showed exceptional intermediate low signal intensity. At quantitative assessment, the signal-to-noise ratio decreased as the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased. Relative to the images obtained at a b value of 1,000 s/mm 2 , average SNRs were 0.71 (b=1,500 s/mm 2 ), 0.52 (b=2,000 s/mm 2 ), 0.41 (b=2,500 s/mm 2 ), 0.33 (b=3,000 s/mm 2 ). As the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased, the signal-to-noise ratio of brain structures

  10. Value-based management of design reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  11. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating high-grade gliomas from brain metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jiang

    Full Text Available Differentiation of high-grade gliomas and solitary brain metastases is an important clinical issue because the treatment strategies differ greatly. Our study aimed to investigate the potential value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in differentiating high-grade gliomas from brain metastases using a meta-analytic approach.We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published in English. Studies that both investigated high-grade gliomas and brain metastases using DTI were included. Random effect model was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values in the two tumor entities.Nine studies were included into the meta-analysis. In the peritumoral region, compared with brain metastases, high-grade gliomas had a significant increase of FA (SMD  = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.22-0.71; P<0.01 and a significant decrease of MD (SMD  = -1.49; 95% CI, -1.91 to -1.06; P<0.01. However, in the intratumoral area, no significant change in FA (SMD  = 0.16; 95% CI, -0.49 to 0.82; P = 0.73 or MD (SMD  = 0.34; 95% CI, -0.91 to 1.60; P = 0.59 was detected between gliomas and metastases.High-grade gliomas may be distinguished from brain metastases by comparing the peritumoral FA and MD values. DTI appears to be a promising tool in diagnosing solitary intracranial lesions.

  12. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100

  13. A method for valuing architecture-based business transformation and measuring the value of solutions architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise and Solution Architecture are key in today’s business environment. It is surprising that the foundation and business case for these activities are nonexistent; the financial value for the business of these activities is largely undetermined. To determine business value of enterprise and solution architecture, this thesis shows how to measure and quantify, in business terms, the value of enterprise architecture-based on business transformation and the value of solution architecture.

  14. Comparison of the values of measured hydratation of sporting youths with normative values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKROUND: When measuring body composition, we monitor the fractionalization of body weight and the share of the individual elements in its aggregate value. The total body water (TBW is a very important element in addition to the share of body fat (BF, muscle mass and bone minerals. Water is the largest element of the body weight and its sufficient amount (organism hydration is a condition for maintaining the physiological functions of the person and thus has an immediate effect on the health of the individual. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to check the standard values of the percentage share of the representation of the total body water in the total body weight in different age groups of sporting youths using the tetrapolar bio-impedance Tanita 418 MA scale. METHODS: The research group included a total of 532 individuals (332 men and 200 women at the age from 12 to 17 years. They were individuals with regular physical activity and without any health problems. The measurement was carried out using the tetrapolar bio-impedance TANITA 418 MA scale. The confidence interval at the reliability level of .99 was used to define the range of the standard values of the percentage share of the total body water representation. The normalization index Ni was used to compare the mean values of the total body water representation with the reference file. RESULTS: The mean values of the TBW representation in boys ranged from 61.75 to 64.34% and in girls from 55.51 to 58.69%, always in relation to the age. The value of the upper bound of (95% the confidence interval of the Tanita 418 MA device software did not exceed the lower bound of the standard (65% in any of the monitored files. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed significant gender differences in the total body water representation that, however, the standard of the used device does not respect. The standard values are set high which was also confirmed by the comparison of our results with other studies

  15. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Genomic breeding value estimation using nonparametric additive regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Trygve

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomic selection refers to the use of genomewide dense markers for breeding value estimation and subsequently for selection. The main challenge of genomic breeding value estimation is the estimation of many effects from a limited number of observations. Bayesian methods have been proposed to successfully cope with these challenges. As an alternative class of models, non- and semiparametric models were recently introduced. The present study investigated the ability of nonparametric additive regression models to predict genomic breeding values. The genotypes were modelled for each marker or pair of flanking markers (i.e. the predictors separately. The nonparametric functions for the predictors were estimated simultaneously using additive model theory, applying a binomial kernel. The optimal degree of smoothing was determined by bootstrapping. A mutation-drift-balance simulation was carried out. The breeding values of the last generation (genotyped was predicted using data from the next last generation (genotyped and phenotyped. The results show moderate to high accuracies of the predicted breeding values. A determination of predictor specific degree of smoothing increased the accuracy.

  17. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  18. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Qingyuan [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhong, Chongli [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: jrli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.

  19. Business Value in Public-Private Partnerships:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Lena

    2018-01-01

    Governments and businesses enter public-private partnerships (PPPs) to achieve better outcomes, but successful partnerships are not easily accomplished. Because businesses’ expectations about PPP outcomes affect how and whether they participate as partners, managing PPPs effectively requires...... knowing not just what governments loose or gain, but also the value businesses receive. The article demonstrates how structural, collaborative and participant factors associated with both public and private partners affect business value in PPPs. Based on a mixed methods approach, this study tests four...... hypotheses on how PPPs influence value creation for businesses. The findings show that PPP experience, trust and PPP size have significant effects on business value. However, they only increase certain types of value, depending on the presence and performance of other factors. Moreover, the results show...

  20. Health significance and statistical uncertainty. The value of P-value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2017-10-27

    The P-value is widely used as a summary statistics of scientific results. Unfortunately, there is a widespread tendency to dichotomize its value in "P0.05" ("statistically not significant"), with the former implying a "positive" result and the latter a "negative" one. To show the unsuitability of such an approach when evaluating the effects of environmental and occupational risk factors. We provide examples of distorted use of P-value and of the negative consequences for science and public health of such a black-and-white vision. The rigid interpretation of P-value as a dichotomy favors the confusion between health relevance and statistical significance, discourages thoughtful thinking, and distorts attention from what really matters, the health significance. A much better way to express and communicate scientific results involves reporting effect estimates (e.g., risks, risks ratios or risk differences) and their confidence intervals (CI), which summarize and convey both health significance and statistical uncertainty. Unfortunately, many researchers do not usually consider the whole interval of CI but only examine if it includes the null-value, therefore degrading this procedure to the same P-value dichotomy (statistical significance or not). In reporting statistical results of scientific research present effects estimates with their confidence intervals and do not qualify the P-value as "significant" or "not significant".

  1. Clinical value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in acute contusion of spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Huan Yi; Sun Lijun; Zhao Haitao; Ge Yali; Chang Yingjuan; Yang Chunmin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in acute contusion of spinal cord. Methods: Eighteen cases with acute contusion of spinal cord were examined with routine MRI and DWI, including single-shot DWI (ssh-DWI) in 2 cases and multi-shot DWI (msh-DWI) in 16 cases, on a 1.5-tesla MR system within 72 h post-trauma. Results: Two cases examined by ssh-DWI showed local lesions with significant high signals, but ssh-DWI images could not be used to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value due to its weak resolution. Other 16 cases examined by msh-DWI showed better images and were classified into three categories depending on different degrees of tissue injury and characteristics of DWI: (1) Edema-type: ten cases presented DWI high signals with different degree in local lesions. There were significant difference of ADC values between lesions and normal parts (t=7.515, P 2 WI heterogeneous high signals and T 1 WI low signals due to prominent hemorrhage. Conclusion: DWI of the spinal cord provided satisfactory images and was a useful method for visualizing the injury cord in the super-early stage, helping determine integrity and compression degree of spinal cord and detecting hemorrhage. (authors)

  2. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  3. Nursing values and a changing nurse workforce: values, age, and job stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese-Smith, Donna K; Crook, Mary

    2003-05-01

    To identify the extent values are associated with age group and job stage; job satisfaction, productivity, and organizational commitment; as well as education, generation, ethnicity, gender, and role. Values direct the priorities we live by and are related to employee loyalty and commitment. Lack of congruency between a nurse's personal values and those of the organization decrease satisfaction and effectiveness and may lead to burnout and turnover. Little research has been done on whether values differ by age, generations, or job stages. Nurses in all roles (N = 412) in three hospitals in Los Angeles County were randomly surveyed, using valid and reliable instruments to measure the variables of interest. Nurses in the top third for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and productivity showed higher scores for many values including their associates, creativity, esthetics, and management, while those in the bottom third scored higher in economic returns only. Nurses in different generations differed little; younger generations placed higher values on economic returns and variety. Management strategies to meet nurses' values and increase their satisfaction and retention are presented.

  4. Diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient value in prediction of grade for neuroepithelial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ADC value in grading of neuroepithelial tumors. Methods: The clinical data and images of 70 patients with neuroepithelial tumors pathologically proven were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were classified into low (WHO I or II) and high (WHO III or IV) grade groups which included 40 and 30 cases respectively according to the 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. All the patients underwent plain and contrast-enhanced MR scan and DWI before surgery. The minimum ADC (MinADC) value was measured postoperatively on ADC maps. The Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) of tumor tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. MinADC values for two groups were analyzed using student t test, while the age and Ki-67 LI for the two groups was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test (P -3 mm 2 /s] of the low grade group was significantly higher than that [(0.74±0.18) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s] of the high grade group (t=5.42, P -3 mm 2 /s for the differentiation between high and low grade neuroepithelial tumors provided the best combination of sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (77.5%) (receiver operating characteristic analysis). Conclusion: MinADC value is helpful for prediction of neuroepithelial tumor grade.. (authors)

  5. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  6. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Vinasse into High-Added Value Products and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse, a residue from bioethanol production containing high organic matter concentration, was used as substrate in submerged fermentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 for biosurfactant production. About 2.7 g/L of rhamnolipids was obtained, with surface tension of 29.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentration of 80.3 mg/L. After separation of rhamnolipid and biomass, residual fermentation media were submitted to anaerobic biodegradation in mesophilic conditions. The residual medium derived from fermentation with vinasse diluted to 1 : 1, without addition of nitrogen, C : N 21, and for 168 h, led to 63.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 97.6 mL CH4/g CODremoved. Compared to results obtained with fresh vinasse (73.7% COD removal and 112.4 mL CH4/g CODremoved), it could be concluded that both processes can be integrated in order to add value to the residue and obtain energy, reducing production costs and at the same time environmental impacts related to vinasse disposal. PMID:29250551

  7. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  8. RETHINKING VALUE: A VALUE-CENTRIC MODEL OF PRODUCT, SERVICE AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randmaa, Merili; Mougaard, Krestine; Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and information technologies have made the economical landscape more transparent and customers smarter, more demanding and networked. Companies can see these changes as a threat to their business or as an opportunity to differentiate in the market and be a Prime Mover, by re......-thinking customer value within the value system. This article shows how the term “value” is understood in different contexts and fields of economy, to see if these definitions can be merged, in order to understand the concept of value in broader way. The authors argue through literature review and example cases...

  9. Do We Value Caring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  10. The Effect of Personality Value Practice of Principals toward Attitude, Discipline, Qualities and Communications of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of personality value practice of principals toward work attitude, work discipline, work quality and work communication of teachers in senior high schools such as public senior high schools (SMA, vocational senior high schools (SMK, religion senior high schools (MAN in Makassar city, South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The sample consisted of 295 teachers. It used random sampling method. The study used a questionnaire to collect data. Data were analyzed by the statistical inference of linear regression to test the hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire is 0.879. The results showed a strong effect of personality values of principals toward work attitude, work quality and work communication of teachers at schools. While, personality value of principals have moderate influence on teachers’ work discipline.

  11. Valuing Manggarai Station – Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Rail Link Using Stated Preference Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Tamtomo Adi

    2015-06-01

    The segmented models results vary that the value of male is higher than female, the value of high income is higher than low income, the values of taxi user is higher than car user, the value of business traveler is higher than leisure and commuter traveler, the value of self-finance journey is lower than the journey paid by the company. With the standard level of service, the probability result of mode sharing shows that the majority of respondents will use the train service (40.99%, followed by the other modes: bus (30.90%, car (16.52%, and taxi (11.59%. Keywords: Jakarta, SHIA airport, access mode, value of in-vehicle time, value of waiting time, model segmentation, mode sharing.

  12. A Framework for Assessing the Value of Investments in Nonclinical Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, George; Roehrig, Charles; Russo, Pamela

    2015-12-10

    We present a high-level framework to show the process by which an investment in primary prevention produces value. We define primary prevention broadly to include investments in any of the determinants of health. Although it builds on previously developed frameworks, ours incorporates several additional features. It distinguishes direct and upstream determinants of health, a distinction that can help identify, describe, and track the impact of a policy or program on health and health care costs. It recognizes multiple dimensions of value, including the need to establish the nonhealth value of investments whose objectives are not limited to improvements in health (and whose costs should not be attributed solely to the health benefits). Finally, it emphasizes the need to describe value from the perspectives of the multiple stakeholders that can influence such investments.

  13. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  14. Hematoxylin and eosin stain shows a high sensitivity but sub-optimal specificity in demonstrating iron pigment in liver biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahaibi, Nasar Yousuf; Alkhatri, Azza Sarhan; Kumar, Johanes Selva

    2015-01-01

    Perls' stain is routinely used to demonstrate iron in liver biopsies. We tested the hypothesis that it may be unnecessary in cases, where no iron or another similar pigment was seen on the routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of H and E stain in demonstrating iron in liver biopsies as well as to determine the possibility of replacing Perls' stain with H and E stain. Two hundred pairs of slides of liver biopsies were taken from the archival files of the Department of Pathology from 2006 to 2011. Perls' and H and E slides were independently reviewed for the presence of iron. Hundred and one cases showed the presence of iron using H and E stain. 84 of 86 cases showed positive iron using both Perls' and H and E stains. Seventeen cases were positive using H and E stain but negative with Perls'. Only two cases did not show the presence of iron using H and E stain. Ninety-seven cases were negative using both Perls' and H and E stains. H and E stain showed a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive valve, and negative predictive value of 97.67%, 85.08%, 90.5%, 83.16%, and 97.98%, respectively. We demonstrate that the H and E stain is a sensitive method to detect iron pigment in liver biopsies, particularly when present in large quantities. A negative H and E stain might obviate the need for extra Perls' staining, thus saving costs and shortening report turn-around times.

  15. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  16. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  17. Approaching Chinese Freedom: A Study in Absolute and Relative Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of stability preservation to dominance in the political order coincided with a highly charged debate over “universal values” and a closely related discussion of a “China Model”. This paper analyses the critique of universal values as a “wedge issue” that is used to pre-empt criticism of the party-state by appealing to nationalism and cultural essentialism. Taking freedom as a case in point of a universal value, it shows that, while more developed in the West, freedom has an authentic Chinese history with key watersheds in the late Qing reception of popular sovereignty and the ending of the Maoist era. The work of Wang Ruoshui, Qin Hui and Xu Jilin display some of the resources liberals now bring to “de-wedging” universal values, not least freedom. They share a refusal to regard “Western” values as essentially hostile to Chinese.

  18. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  19. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.

  20. The High Value Healthcare Collaborative: Observational Analyses of Care Episodes for Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Schoellkopf, William J; Sorensen, Lyle S; Masica, Andrew L; Nesse, Robert E; Weinstein, James N

    2017-03-01

    Broader use of value-based reimbursement models will require providers to transparently demonstrate health care value. We sought to determine and report cost and quality data for episodes of hip and knee arthroplasty surgery among 13 members of the High Value Healthcare Collaborative (HVHC), a consortium of health care systems interested in improving health care value. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional observational cohort study of 30-day episodes of care for hip and knee arthroplasty in fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older who had hip or knee osteoarthritis and used 1 of 13 HVHC member systems for uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty (N = 8853) or knee arthroplasty (N = 16,434), respectively, in 2012 or 2013. At the system level, we calculated: per-capita utilization rates; postoperative complication rates; standardized total, acute, and postacute care Medicare expenditures for 30-day episodes of care; and the modeled impact of reducing episode expenditures or per-capita utilization rates. Adjusted per-capita utilization rates varied across HVHC systems and postacute care reimbursements varied more than 3-fold for both types of arthroplasty in both years. Regression analysis confirmed that total episode and postacute care reimbursements significantly differed across HVHC members after considering patient demographic differences. Potential Medicare cost savings were greatest for knee arthroplasty surgery and when lower total reimbursement targets were achieved. The substantial variation that we found offers opportunities for learning and collaboration to collectively improve outcomes, reduce costs, and enhance value. Ceteris paribus, reducing per-episode reimbursements would achieve greater Medicare cost savings than reducing per-capita rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of basic human values on host community acculturation orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Irene; Hichy, Zira; Guarnera, Maria; Nuovo, Santo Di

    2010-08-01

    Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation orientations towards immigrants (devised according the interactive acculturation model) in the public domain of employment and the private domain of endogamy/exogamy. Participants were 264 Italian University students, who completed a questionnaire containing the Portrait Values Questionnaire, a measure of personal values, and the Host Community Acculturation Scale, aimed at measuring Italian acculturation strategies towards three groups of immigrants: Immigrants (the general category), Chinese (the valued immigrant group), and Albanians (the devalued immigrant group). Results showed that personal values are related to the adoption of acculturation orientations: In particular, the values that mostly impacted on acculturation orientations were self-transcendence and conservation. Values concerning self-transcendence encourage the adoption of integrationism, integrationism-transformation, and individualism and reduce the adoption of assimilationism, segregationism, and exclusionism. Values concerning conservation encourage the adoption of assimilation, segregation and exclusion orientations and reduce the adoption of both types of integrationism and individualism. Minor effects were found regarding self-enhancement and openness to change.

  3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENTACCOUNTING BASED ON VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS: VALUE CHAINACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KIRLI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compete successfully in today’s highly competitive global environment,companies have made customer satisfaction an overriding priority. They have alsoadopted new management approaches, changed their manufacturing systems andinvested in new technologies. Strategic managementaccounting examines thedecision-making linked with the business operationsand strategic work offinancial administration as support for the same. Strategic managementaccounting is a theory and practice of accounting that looks at an organization'scost position, cost advantages and product differentiation in order to make marketdecisions. The value chain is a systematic approachto examining the developmentof competitive advantage. The chain consists of a series of activities that createand build value. Value chain analysis refers to a structured method of analyzingthe effects of all core activities on cost and/or differentiation of the valuechain.With the growing division of labour and the global dispersion of theproduction ofcomponents, systemic competitiveness and so value chain analysishave become increasingly important. Value chain accounting is the combinationof value chain analysis and accounting theory.Valuechain accounting is animportant part of value chain management and a further development of strategicmanagement accounting. Value chain accounting is anew approach onaccounting subject which is combined by the theories of value chain management,supply chain management, accounting management andinformation technology.From the analysis about value chain theory and strategic management accountingtheory,this paper proposes an accounting managementframework based on valuechain analysis called value chain accounting.

  4. Fisher information and Shannon entropy for on-line detection of transient signal high-values in laser Doppler flowmetry signals of healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Abraham, Pierre; Rousseau, David; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is an easy-to-use method for the assessment of microcirculatory blood flow in tissues. However, LDF recordings very often present TRAnsient Signal High-values (TRASH), generally of a few seconds. These TRASH can come from tissue motions, optical fibre movements, movements of the probe head relative to the tissue, etc. They often lead to difficulties in signal global interpretations. In order to test the possibility of detecting automatically these TRASH for their removal, we process noisy and noiseless LDF signals with two indices from information theory, namely Fisher information and Shannon entropy. For this purpose, LDF signals from 13 healthy subjects are recorded at rest, during vascular occlusion of 3 min, and during post-occlusive hyperaemia. Computation of Fisher information and Shannon entropy values shows that, when calibrated, these two indices can be complementary to detect TRASH and be insensitive to the rapid increases of blood flow induced by post-occlusive hyperaemia. Moreover, the real-time algorithm has the advantage of being easy to implement and does not require any frequency analysis. This study opens new fields of application for Fisher information and Shannon entropy: LDF 'denoising'

  5. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Gender and family influences on Spanish students' aspirations and values in stem fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, Milagros; Müller, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines gender and family influences on students' career aspirations and attached values. 796 secondary Spanish students (M age = 16 years old, S.D. = 0.81) participated. 53% were boys. The results show that boys and students with mothers who have completed intermediate level education were more interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) architecture and technology. Girls and students with highly educated mothers born in Spain were more likely to aspire to STEM health and experimental studies. Furthermore, boys and students planning to pursue STEM-technology studies attached higher extrinsic values to these studies. On the contrary, girls and participants with interest in experimental and health studies attached less extrinsic values to these studies. Moreover, students with highly educated mothers and interested in STEM architecture and technology reported higher extrinsic values. Understanding the interaction of gender and family factors shaping adolescents' career aspirations in STEM fields seems to be crucial to designing significant and effective school and family grounded interventions.

  7. Effect of storage conditions on the calorific value of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioka, Antony Mutua; Hwang, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Myung-Gyun; Yan, Cao Zheng; Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Young-Ju

    2017-08-01

    Storage conditions are considered to be an important factor as far as waste material characteristics are concerned. This experimental investigation was conducted using municipal solid waste (MSW) with a high moisture content and varying composition of organic waste. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of storage conditions and temperature on the moisture content and calorific value of the waste. Samples were subjected to two different storage conditions and investigated at specified temperatures. The composition of sample materials investigated was varied for each storage condition and temperature respectively. Gross calorific value was determined experimentally while net calorific value was calculated using empirical formulas proposed by other researchers. Results showed minimal changes in moisture content as well as in gross and net calorific values when the samples were subjected to sealed storage conditions. Moisture content reduced due to the ventilation process and the rate of moisture removal increased with a rise in storage temperature. As expected, rate of moisture removal had a positive effect on gross and net calorific values. Net calorific values also increased at varying rates with a simultaneous decrease in moisture content. Experimental investigation showed the effectiveness of ventilation in improving the combustion characteristics of the waste.

  8. The predictive value of endorectal 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somford, D M; Hamoen, E H; Fütterer, J J; van Basten, J P; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C A; Vreuls, W; van Oort, I M; Vergunst, H; Kiemeney, L A; Barentsz, J O; Witjes, J A

    2013-11-01

    We determined the positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy for different prostate cancer risk groups. We evaluated a cohort of 183 patients who underwent 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast enhanced sequences, with an endorectal coil before radical prostatectomy. Pathological stage at radical prostatectomy was used as standard reference for extraprostatic extension. The cohort was classified into low, intermediate and high risk groups according to the D'Amico criteria. We recorded prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy and determined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in each group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. The overall prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy was 49.7% ranging from 24.7% to 77.1% between low and high risk categories. Overall staging accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was 73.8%, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 58.2%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 68.3%, respectively. Positive predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was best in the high risk cohort with 88.8%. Negative predictive value was highest in the low risk cohort with 87.7%. With an odds ratio of 10.3 multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is by far the best preoperative predictor of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. For adequate patient counseling, knowledge of predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension is

  9. Rekindling Values in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant...... that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD—to return to one of the original tenets of PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD....

  10. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-10-25

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  11. An assessment on the incremental value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to identify culprit plaques in atherosclerotic disease of the middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Graves, Martin J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Peng, Wenjia; Zhan, Qian; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shiyue; Tian, Xia; Chen, Luguang; Lu, Jianping; Brown, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Although certain morphological features depicted by high resolution, multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI) have been shown to be different between culprit and non-culprit middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic lesions, the incremental value of hrMRI to define culprit lesions over stenosis has not been assessed. Patients suspected with MCA stenosis underwent hrMRI. Lumen and outer wall were segmented to calculate stenosis, plaque burden (PB), volume (PV), length (PL) and minimum luminal area (MLA). Data from 165 lesions (112 culprit and 53 non-culprit) in 139 individuals were included. Culprit lesions were larger and longer with a narrower lumen and increased PB compared with non-culprit lesions. More culprit lesions showed contrast enhancement. Both PB and MLA were better indicators than stenosis in differentiating lesion types (AUC were 0.649, 0.732 and 0.737 for stenosis, PB and MLA, respectively). Combinations of PB, MLA and stenosis could improve positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity significantly. An optimal combination of stenosis ≥ 50 %, PB ≥ 77 % and MLA ≤ 2.0 mm 2 produced a PPV = 85.7 %, negative predictive value = 54.1 %, sensitivity = 69.6 %, specificity = 75.5 %, and accuracy = 71.5 %. hrMRI plaque imaging provides incremental information to luminal stenosis in identifying culprit lesions. (orig.)

  12. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  13. Market segmentation in tourism: An application of the Schwartz's value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors. As nowdays tourism market is characterized by rapid changes and strong competition, the struggle for tourists represents everyday issue which tourist entities face with. In the past few decades, tourism demand has significantly been changed. From the unified and mass, it has become highly informed, personalized, with different individual requirements and preferences. Market segmentation occurs as an inevitable process in delivering appropriate value to tourists. To achieve better business outcomes, tourism businesses are looking for ways to make their offer suitable for tourists needs. The aim of this paper is to show if there is an impact of the value system on the consumer decision-making in choosing travel arrangements. The survey was conducted on a sample of 168 respondents, who were primarily selected from the population of students of the University of Belgrade. In order to answer the research questions, Schwartz's system of values model was used. Thus defined value system was used as the basis for segmentation of the tourist market. The survey showed that based on such segmentation, tourist can be divided into four clusters: 'individualists', 'modest traditionalists', 'hedonists' and 'social adventurers'.

  14. Value co-creation in high involvement services: the animal healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pyatt, A.Z.; Wright, G.; Walley, K.; Bleach, E.C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This paper investigates the significance of value c\\ud o-creation to the UK animal healthcare sector from \\ud the perspective of the key industry stakeholders: clients, veterinarians and paraprofessionals. \\ud Design \\ud Value co-creation constructs in the sector were identified and measured using a mixed methods approach comprised of qualitative NVivo thematic analysis of depth interviews (n=13) and quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis n=271). \\ud Findings \\ud Qualitative res...

  15. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAF V600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-24

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAF(V600E) mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAF(V600E) was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis.

  16. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  17. Earned Value Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, J

    2002-01-01

    Earned Value Management is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project and show its true cost situation. This tool was developed by the US Department of Defense in 1967 and later used successfully for monitoring DOE projects, in particular the US LHC accelerator project. A clear distinction must be made between an earned value management system and other tools under consideration or already existing at CERN which permit accurate predictions of the amount and date of future payments or a detailed follow up of contracts.

  18. Consumer Complaints and Company Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer complaints affect company market value and common sense suggests that a negative impact is expected. However, do complaints always negatively impact company market value? We hypothesize in this study that complaints may have a non-linear effect on market value. Positive (e.g. avoiding high costs to solve complaints and negative (e.g. speedy and intense diffusion tradeoffs may occur given the level of complaints. To test our non-linear hypothesis, a panel data was collected from cell phone service providers from 2005 to 2013. The results supported our tradeoff rationale. Low levels of complaints allow for companies to increase market value, while high levels of complaints cause increasing harm to market value. The sample, model and period considered in this study, indicates a level of 0.49 complaints per thousand consumers as the threshold for a shift in tradeoffs. The effects on market value become increasingly negative when trying to make reductions to move below this level, due to negative tradeoffs.

  19. A Taste of Inequality: Food’s Symbolic Value across the Socioeconomic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Fielding-Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars commonly account for dietary disparities across socioeconomic status (SES using structural explanations that highlight differences in individuals' wealth, income, or location. These explanations emphasize food’s material value. But food also carries symbolic value. This article shows how food's symbolic value helps drive dietary disparities. In-depth interviews with 160 parents and adolescents and 80 hours of observations with four families demonstrate how a family's socioeconomic position in part shapes the meanings that parents attach to food. These differing meanings contribute to distinct feeding strategies across the socioeconomic spectrum: whereas low-SES parents use food to buffer against deprivation, high-SES parents provision food to fulfill classed values around health and parenting. The findings suggest that an understanding of how families' material circumstances shape food's symbolic value is critical to fully account for dietary differences across SES.

  20. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    showed sensibility of 90%, specificity of 19.23%, positive predictive value of 41.67%, negative predictive value of 75%, and a kappa coefficient of 0.076. From the analyzed lesions, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions was more frequently observed in association to dense (68%, flat (61%, smooth (61%, non-papillary (83% and normal vascular pattern (70% acetowhite lesions, while low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions tended to be associated to dense (66%, flat-raised or raised (68%, granular (59%, non-papillary (62% and normal vascular pattern (53% acetowhite lesions. No statistical significance was observed as to the association of epidemiological characteristics and of most of the investigated anal cancer risk factors and presence of acetowhite lesions or anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. However, anal receptive sex and anal HPV infection were significantly associated to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.0493 and P = 0.006, respectively. CONCLUSION: High-resolution anoscopy demonstrated to be a sensitive, but not specific test for the detection of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. Risk factors anal receptive sex and anal HPV infection were significantly associated to the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. Based on high-resolution anoscopy image data, acetowhite lesions relief and surface pattern were prone to distinguish between low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

  1. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 1: Application of extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme value methods are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from extreme value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs and high (termed EHOs total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima, and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds. Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss, and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of extreme events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of extremes provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.

  2. Investigating the capability to resolve complex white matter structures with high b-value diffusion magnetic resonance imaging on the MGH-USC Connectom scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiuyun; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Tisdall, Dylan; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Buckner, Randy L; Wedeen, Van J; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    One of the major goals of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project was to map and quantify the white matter connections in the brain using diffusion tractography. Given the prevalence of complex white matter structures, the capability of resolving local white matter geometries with multiple crossings in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data is critical. Increasing b-value has been suggested for delineation of the finer details of the orientation distribution function (ODF). Although increased gradient strength and duration increase sensitivity to highly restricted intra-axonal water, gradient strength limitations require longer echo times (TE) to accommodate the increased diffusion encoding times needed to achieve a higher b-value, exponentially lowering the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquisition. To mitigate this effect, the MGH-USC Connectom scanner was built with 300 mT/m gradients, which can significantly reduce the TE of high b-value diffusion imaging. Here we report comparisons performed across b-values based on q-ball ODF metrics to investigate whether high b-value diffusion imaging on the Connectom scanner can improve resolving complex white matter structures. The q-ball ODF features became sharper as the b-value increased, with increased power fraction in higher order spherical harmonic series of the ODF and increased peak heights relative to the overall size of the ODF. Crossing structures were detected in an increasingly larger fraction of white matter voxels and the spatial distribution of two-way and three-way crossing structures was largely consistent with known anatomy. Results indicate that dMRI with high diffusion encoding on the Connectom system is a promising tool to better characterize, and ultimately understand, the underlying structural organization and motifs in the human brain.

  3. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  4. Cultural values and performance appraisal: assessing the effects of rater self-construal on performance ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vipanchi; Roch, Sylvia G

    2013-01-01

    Much of the prior research investigating the influence of cultural values on performance ratings has focused either on conducting cross-national comparisons among raters or using cultural level individualism/collectivism scales to measure the effects of cultural values on performance ratings. Recent research has shown that there is considerable within country variation in cultural values, i.e. people in one country can be more individualistic or collectivistic in nature. Taking the latter perspective, the present study used Markus and Kitayama's (1991) conceptualization of independent and interdependent self-construals as measures of individual variations in cultural values to investigate within culture variations in performance ratings. Results suggest that rater self-construal has a significant influence on overall performance evaluations; specifically, raters with a highly interdependent self-construal tend to show a preference for interdependent ratees, whereas raters high on independent self-construal do not show a preference for specific type of ratees when making overall performance evaluations. Although rater self-construal significantly influenced overall performance evaluations, no such effects were observed for specific dimension ratings. Implications of these results for performance appraisal research and practice are discussed.

  5. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  7. Education for values and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences.

  8. A look into the relationship between personality traits and basic values: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Roccas, Sonia; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2018-05-27

    The present study examines the longitudinal association between basic personal values and the Big Five personality traits. A sample of 546 young adults (57% females) with a mean age of 21.68 years (SD = 1.60) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Big Five Questionnaire at three-time points, each separated by an interval of four years. Cross-lagged models were used to investigate the possible reciprocal relations between traits and values, after the stability of the variables was taken into account. We found that values did not affect trait development. Traits, by contrast, have some effects on how values change. Specifically, high levels of agreeableness predict an increase over time in the importance assigned to benevolence values. Similarly, high levels of openness predict a later increase in the importance assigned to self-direction values. The same effect was not found for the other traits. Additionally, except for in the case of emotional stability, traits showed synchronous (i.e., within wave) correlations with values, suggesting that part of this relationship is due to common antecedents. Mechanisms underlying the associations between traits and values are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-precision measurement of phenylalanine δ15N values for environmental samples: a new approach coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography purification and elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broek, Taylor A B; Walker, Brett D; Andreasen, Dyke H; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-11-15

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) is a powerful new tool for tracing nitrogen (N) source and transformation in biogeochemical cycles. Specifically, the δ(15)N value of phenylalanine (δ(15)N(Phe)) represents an increasingly used proxy for source δ(15)N signatures, with particular promise for paleoceanographic applications. However, current derivatization/gas chromatography methods require expensive and relatively uncommon instrumentation, and have relatively low precision, making many potential applications impractical. A new offline approach has been developed for high-precision δ(15)N measurements of amino acids (δ(15)N(AA)), optimized for δ(15)N(Phe) values. Amino acids (AAs) are first purified via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a mixed-phase column and automated fraction collection. The δ(15)N values are determined via offline elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The combined HPLC/EA-IRMS method separated most protein AAs with sufficient resolution to obtain accurate δ(15)N values, despite significant intra-peak isotopic fractionation. For δ(15)N(Phe) values, the precision was ±0.16‰ for standards, 4× better than gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS; ±0.64‰). We also compared a δ(15)N(Phe) paleo-record from a deep-sea bamboo coral from Monterey Bay, CA, USA, using our method versus GC/C/IRMS. The two methods produced equivalent δ(15)N(Phe) values within error; however, the δ(15)N(Phe) values from HPLC/EA-IRMS had approximately twice the precision of GC/C/IRMS (average stdev of 0.27‰ ± 0.14‰ vs 0.60‰ ± 0.20‰, respectively). These results demonstrate that offline HPLC represents a viable alternative to traditional GC/C/IMRS for δ(15)N(AA) measurement. HPLC/EA-IRMS is more precise and widely available, and therefore useful in applications requiring increased precision for data interpretation (e.g. δ(15)N paleoproxies

  10. Gene design, cloning and protein-expression methods for high-value targets at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Amy; Haffner, Taryn; Ng, Nathan; Lorimer, Don; Staker, Bart; Stewart, Lance

    2011-01-01

    An overview of one salvage strategy for high-value SSGCID targets is given. Any structural genomics endeavor, particularly ambitious ones such as the NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) and Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Disease (CSGID), face technical challenges at all points of the production pipeline. One salvage strategy employed by SSGCID is combined gene engineering and structure-guided construct design to overcome challenges at the levels of protein expression and protein crystallization. Multiple constructs of each target are cloned in parallel using Polymerase Incomplete Primer Extension cloning and small-scale expressions of these are rapidly analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Using the methods reported here, which have proven particularly useful for high-value targets, otherwise intractable targets can be resolved

  11. When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M; Rothbard, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that both ambiguity and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that ambiguity constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees' values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided support for this contingency perspective. Ambiguity moderated the relationship between employees' security and prosocial values and supervisor ratings of proactivity. Under high ambiguity, security values predicted lower proactivity, whereas prosocial values predicted higher proactivity. Under low ambiguity, values were not associated with proactivity. We replicated these findings in a laboratory experiment with 232 participants in which we measured proactivity objectively as initiative taken to correct errors: Participants with strong security values were less proactive, and participants with strong prosocial values were more proactive, but only when performance expectations were ambiguous. We discuss theoretical implications for research on proactivity, values, and ambiguity and uncertainty. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Leveraging the real value of laboratory medicine with the value proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher P; John, Andrew St; Christenson, Robert; Scharnhorst, Volker; Oellerich, Michael; Jones, Patricia; Morris, Howard A

    2016-11-01

    Improving quality and patient safety, containing costs and delivering value-for-money are the key drivers of change in the delivery of healthcare and have stimulated a shift from an activity-based service to a service based on patient-outcomes. The delivery of an outcomes-based healthcare agenda requires that the real value of laboratory medicine to all stakeholders be understood, effectively defined and communicated. The value proposition of any product or service is the link between the provider and the needs of the customer describing the utility of the product or service in terms of benefit to the customer. The framework of a value proposition for laboratory medicine provides the core business case that drives key activities in the evolution and maintenance of high quality healthcare from research through to adoption and quality improvement in an established service. The framework of a value proposition for laboratory medicine is described. The content is endorsed by IFCC and WASPaLM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic value of fractional flow reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Nils P; Tóth, Gábor G; Lai, Dejian

    2014-01-01

    between its numeric value and prognosis, such that lower FFR values confer a higher risk and therefore receive larger absolute benefits from revascularization. METHODS: Meta-analysis of study- and patient-level data investigated prognosis after FFR measurement. An interaction term between FFR...... baseline FFR values. Outcomes-derived FFR thresholds generally occurred around the range 0.75 to 0.80, although limited due to confounding by indication. FFR measured immediately after stenting also showed an inverse relationship with prognosis (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 0.93; p...... versus revascularization. Lesions with lower FFR values receive larger absolute benefits from revascularization. Measurement of FFR immediately after stenting also shows an inverse gradient of risk, likely from residual diffuse disease. An FFR-guided revascularization strategy significantly reduces...

  14. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  15. DRD4 long allele carriers show heightened attention to high-priority items relative to low-priority items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Worthy, Darrell A; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a "risk" gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here, selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span (OSPAN) task, a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a "plasticity" gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context.

  16. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  17. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  18. High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebernick, Nicolai; Daly, Keith R; Keyes, Samuel D; George, Timothy S; Brown, Lawrie K; Raffan, Annette; Cooper, Laura J; Naveed, Muhammad; Bengough, Anthony G; Sinclair, Ian; Hallett, Paul D; Roose, Tiina

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1.2 g cm -3 dry bulk density. Root hairs were visualised within air-filled pore spaces, but not in the fine-textured soil regions. We found that the genotype with root hairs significantly altered the porosity and connectivity of the detectable pore space (> 5 μm) in the rhizosphere, as compared with the no-hair mutants. Both genotypes showed decreasing pore space between 0.8 and 0.1 mm from the root surface. Interestingly the root-hair-bearing genotype had a significantly greater soil pore volume-fraction at the root-soil interface. Effects of pore structure on diffusion and permeability were estimated to be functionally insignificant under saturated conditions when simulated using image-based modelling. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  20. Experimental validation of GASDECOM for High Heating Value Processed Gas mixtures (58 MJ/m3) by specialized shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, K.K.; Geerligs, J.; Carlson, L.; Reed, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of the design of pipelines is the control of propagating ductile fracture, in which the Battelle two-curve method still forms the basis of the analytical framework used throughout the industry. The GASDECOM (GAS DECOMpression) tool is typically used for calculating decompression wave speed, which is one of these two curves. It uses the BWRS (Benedict–Webb–Rubin–Starling) equation of state to idealize the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional. While this equation of state was developed and validated against a quite restricted range of gas compositions, GASDECOM continues to perform relatively well for compositions slightly outside the original range of BWRS. The present research was focused on examining the performance of GASDECOM for mixture compositions up to a High (gross) Heating Value (HHV) of 58 MJ/m 3 . Four tests were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock tube (42 m long, I.D. = 38.1 mm) to experimentally determine the decompression wave speeds and compare them to the predictions by GASDECOM. Two tests were conducted on a gas mixture of HHV = 52 MJ/m 3 and the other two on even richer gas mixture of HHV = 58 MJ/m 3 , all were from nominal initial pressures of 15 MPa and initial temperatures of 40 °C. The results from these tests show that decompression wave speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM for gases of HHV typical of the previously validated range of BWRS. Predictions of the saturation pressure represented by the plateau pressure in the decompression wave speed curve were also in good agreement with measurements despite the fact that they occurred close to the critical point of the respective mixture compositions. -- Highlights: • Performance of GASDECOM for mixture up to HHV of 58 MJ/m3 was examined. • Experiments were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock. • Results show that decompression speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM.

  1. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  2. Converting biowaste corncob residue into high value added porous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, An-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Li, Wen-Cui

    2015-08-01

    In this report, corncob residue, the main by-product in the furfural industry, is used as a precursor to prepare porous carbon by a simple and direct thermal treatment: one-step activation without pre-carbonization. As a consequence, the corncob residue derived porous carbon achieves a high surface area of 1210 m(2) g(-1) after ash-removal. The carbon material has the advantages of low cost and low environmental impact, with a superior electrochemical performance compared to those polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 314 F g(-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding sample also shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the combination of a high specific surface area with a fraction of mesopores and highly stable structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  4. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society.......The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  5. Improving Rural Women Income through Cocoyam Value Addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    empowered rural women to become entrepreneurs at various levels. ... have showed that value added agriculture can be one way to preserve small farmers .... The results in Table 2 show the level of utilization of cocoyam value addition.

  6. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  7. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  8. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  9. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  10. A Gompertz population model with Allee effect and fuzzy initial values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarti, Zenia; Nurkholipah, Nenden Siti; Anggriani, Nursanti; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2018-03-01

    Growth and population dynamics models are important tools used in preparing a good management for society to predict the future of population or species. This has been done by various known methods, one among them is by developing a mathematical model that describes population growth. Models are usually formed into differential equations or systems of differential equations, depending on the complexity of the underlying properties of the population. One example of biological complexity is Allee effect. It is a phenomenon showing a high correlation between very small population size and the mean individual fitness of the population. In this paper the population growth model used is the Gompertz equation model by considering the Allee effect on the population. We explore the properties of the solution to the model numerically using the Runge-Kutta method. Further exploration is done via fuzzy theoretical approach to accommodate uncertainty of the initial values of the model. It is known that an initial value greater than the Allee threshold will cause the solution rises towards carrying capacity asymptotically. However, an initial value smaller than the Allee threshold will cause the solution decreases towards zero asymptotically, which means the population is eventually extinct. Numerical solutions show that modeling uncertain initial value of the critical point A (the Allee threshold) with a crisp initial value could cause the extinction of population of a certain possibilistic degree, depending on the predetermined membership function of the initial value.

  11. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  12. Vocational Interests and Basic Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Lilach

    2002-01-01

    Study 1 (n=97) provided evidence of the correlation of Holland's model of vocational interests with Schwartz' theory of basic values. Realistic career interests did not correlate with values. Study 2 (n=545) replicated these findings, showing a better match for individuals who had reached a career decision in counseling than for the undecided.…

  13. Theoretical modeling of iodine value and saponification value of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, A.; Puhan, Sukumar; Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The properties of biodiesel depend on the type of vegetable oil used for the transesterification process. The objective of the present work is to theoretically predict the iodine value and the saponification value of different biodiesels from their fatty acid methyl ester composition. The fatty acid ester compositions and the above values of different biodiesels were taken from the available published data. A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict the iodine value and saponification value of different biodiesels. The predicted results showed that the prediction errors were less than 3.4% compared to the available published data. The predicted values were also verified by substituting in the available published model which was developed to predict the higher heating values of biodiesel fuels from their iodine value and the saponification value. The resulting heating values of biodiesels were then compared with the published heating values and reported. (author)

  14. Cutoff value of HbA1c for predicting diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruyi; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Jinhua; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Rui; Cai, Dehong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cutoff value of HbA1c for predicting diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45. A total of 619 people aged over 45 without diabetes were randomly recruited to complete Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire. 208 high-risk individuals (defined by Diabetes Risk Score >=9) had OGTT and HbA1c determined at the same time. In a Chinese population aged over 45, the best cutoff value of HbA1c for detecting diabetes and prediabetes was 5.8% and 5.4% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of HbA1c for detecting diabetes was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90) and prediabetes was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54-0.70). The combined use of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FPG) had larger AUROC than HbA1c alone (0.88, 95%CI: 0.83-0.92 in detecting diabetes vs 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.82 in prediabetes), and had a higher sensitivity in predicting diabetes and higher specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) in predicting prediabetes. However, the AUROC between HbA1c alone and combined use in predicting diabetes was not significantly different (p=0.173). FINDRISC is feasible tool to screen people who are at high risk of diabetes. The cutoff values of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45 were 5.8% and 5.4%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c for detecting diabetes and prediabetes was relatively low, so that the combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be more effective in prediction.

  15. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hromatko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

  16. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  17. Multi-Valued Associative Memory Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修春波; 刘向东; 张宇河

    2003-01-01

    A novel learning method for multi-valued associative memory network is introduced, which is based on Hebb rule, but utilizes more information. According to the current probe vector, the connection weights matrix could be chosen dynamically. Double-valued and multi-valued associative memory are all realized in our simulation experiment. The experimental results show that the method could enhance the associative success rate.

  18. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  19. Summarized Costs, Placement Of Quality Stars, And Other Online Displays Can Help Consumers Select High-Value Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2017, all state and federal health insurance exchanges will present quality data on health plans in addition to cost information. We analyzed variations in the current design of information on state exchanges to identify presentation approaches that encourage consumers to take quality as well as cost into account when selecting a health plan. Using an online sample of 1,025 adults, we randomly assigned participants to view the same comparative information on health plans, displayed in different ways. We found that consumers were much more likely to select a high-value plan when cost information was summarized instead of detailed, when quality stars were displayed adjacent to cost information, when consumers understood that quality stars signified the quality of medical care, and when high-value plans were highlighted with a check mark or blue ribbon. These approaches, which were equally effective for participants with higher and lower numeracy, can inform the development of future displays of plan information in the exchanges. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. The concept and structure of personal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vid Pogačnik

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The revised Personal Values Scale now consists of 24 values, representing 24 basic human motives. It was given to 595 students and adults. Relations among values were analysed by techniques of multivariate analysis. The results show that, despite of weak intercorrelations among personal values, the values space is structured by two bipolar values macrodimensions (dionisian–apolinian, existential–fulfillment and that also clusters of narrow range exist. The results were discussed and compared with Musek's structure model. A new model of personal values is presented.

  1. Towards an economic sustainable, high yielding and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values; Paa vaeg mot ett ekonomiskt haallbart, hoegproducerande och klimatsmart jordbruk med hoega landskapsvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, Karl-Ivar

    2013-07-15

    In 1995-97, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency carried out a futures study with the aim of identifying ways to achieve environmentally friendly, sustainable Swedish agriculture by 2021. The results indicated that major environmental improvements were possible, while also improving profitability and increasing production of food and bioenergy. At a time half way between 1995 and 2021, the trends predicted in that study were compared against actual developments in agriculture. The analysis showed that most objectives regarding environmental quality were on the way to being achieved relatively well. However, profitability continued to be weak, while food production had decreased and bioenergy production was far below the predicted level. The latter means that agriculture was far from achieving the target of compensating for its emissions of greenhouse gases through bioenergy production substituting for fossil energy. This analysis showed that weak profitability and insufficient production capacity at current prices are the greatest sustainability problems in Swedish agriculture. If profitability cannot be improved, agriculture will decline and its positive effects on the landscape will decrease. If production does not increase, there will have to be continued or increased food imports, which are often less favourable from an environmental perspective than food produced in Sweden. If bioenergy production in agriculture does not drastically increase, it will be difficult to realise the vision of a Sweden without net emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The present report updates the futures study. In the evaluation, great emphasis is placed on identifying paths to economically sustainable, high producing and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values. It is assumed that the current agricultural support system is replaced with environmental payment based on landscape and climate benefits. The views expressed in this report are those of its author and

  2. Motivational values and gendered research performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given theory offered by Kuhn and Lakatos that predicts academic research can be non-innovative, this research sought to test the extent to which the motivational values of highly productive researchers are innovative. Research purpose: The aim of the research was to test theory predicting the structure of motivational values of academics in the South African university context. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by a lack of knowledge about whether innovative and self-transcendence (the prioritisation of the needs of others values characterise highly productive researchers. Research design, approach and method: A large South African university was sampled. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling techniques were applied. Main findings: Findings indicate that non-innovative and gendered motivational values of security (sensitivity to uncertainty and safety issues are associated with higher productivity. However, hedonism (self-oriented and benevolence (self-transcendent values are both found to be negatively associated with research productivity. Practical/managerial implications: Supporting Kuhn’s perspective, innovative values such as self-direction are not found to be related to research productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study provides evidence in support of theory which predicts that academic research might not be motivated by innovative values.

  3. Value at Risk and Hedge Fund Return - Does High Risk Bring High Return?

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Tao; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the correlation between live hedge fund return and their value at risk (VaR), and is based on the historical data from May 2000 to April 2010. The authors adopt portfolio level analyses and fund level cross-sectional regression, and find that there is significant positive correlation, both statistically and economically, between the hedge fund return and VaRs (parametric, non-parametric and GARCH). Further research is conducted by sub-dividing the overall period i...

  4. Creation or destruction of the perspective of EVA® value in the Exame Magazine ranking of largest companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Florencio de Meneses

    2012-12-01

    association between the companies that create value (EVA® with the Brazilian regions and sectors. It was found that 217 companies have created value while 99 destroyed value. Test results showed that the Midwest and the wholesale and retail sectors are associated with a high value creation, not confirming the first and second research hypotheses. The results also indicated that only 5 companies remained in the same positions when comparing the ranking of the magazine Exame with that prepared by EVA® perspective, not confirming the third research hypothesis.

  5. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  6. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. (focus issue review)

  7. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. PMID:27877800

  8. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  9. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  10. Nutritional Value and Utilization of Yams (Dioscorea steriscus by Residents of Bindura Town High Density Suburbs, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Washaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess utilization levels, availability, nutritional value, and magnitude of sales by vendors of Dioscorea steriscus by residents of Bindura. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select respondents. Data were subjected to Chi-square, logistic regression, and correlation to determine the effects of demographic determinants on utilization of D. steriscus. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that education status and period of stay significantly affect the consumption of D. steriscus (P<0.05. It was also observed that consumption is frequent between lunch and supper (47% compared to breakfast. D. steriscus has high iron (6.8%, ash (2.06%, and CF (16.8% contents but it is low in protein (0.83%. Irrespective of gender of respondent, suburb of residence, size of family, period of stay, education level, employment status, and source of income, respondents will grow D. steriscus for use as food supplement (odds ratio = 0.475. The period of stay (r=0.08 and education level (r=0.08 positively affect the growing of D. steriscus. D. steriscus can be used as source of energy and can also be used possibly for medicinal purposes. Further study is required on possibility of phytochemicals and cytotoxic components to justify its use.

  11. Hybrid value foraging: How the value of targets shapes human foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Cain, Matthew S; Alaoui-Soce, Abla

    2018-04-01

    In hybrid foraging, observers search visual displays for multiple instances of multiple target types. In previous hybrid foraging experiments, although there were multiple types of target, all instances of all targets had the same value. Under such conditions, behavior was well described by the marginal value theorem (MVT). Foragers left the current "patch" for the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection dropped below their average rate of collection. An observer's specific target selections were shaped by previous target selections. Observers were biased toward picking another instance of the same target. In the present work, observers forage for instances of four target types whose value and prevalence can vary. If value is kept constant and prevalence manipulated, participants consistently show a preference for the most common targets. Patch-leaving behavior follows MVT. When value is manipulated, observers favor more valuable targets, though individual foraging strategies become more diverse, with some observers favoring the most valuable target types very strongly, sometimes moving to the next patch without collecting any of the less valuable targets.

  12. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Forth-Order Boundary Value Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, E.; Barari, Amin; Fouladi, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

  14. Numerical analysis of fourth-order boundary value problems in fluid mechanics and mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Barari, Amin; Fouladi, Fama

    2010-01-01

    In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

  15. Analysis of high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome after exposure to high altitudes: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binfeng; Wang, Jianchun; Qian, Guisheng; Hu, Mingdong; Qu, Xinming; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Chen, Huaping; Zhou, Qiquan; Wang, Guansong

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of high-altitude de-acclimatization commonly takes place after long-term exposure to high altitudes upon return to low altitudes. The syndrome severely affects the returnee's quality of life. However, little attention has been paid to careful characterization of the syndrome and their underlying mechanisms. Male subjects from Chongqing (n = 67, 180 m) and Kunming (n = 70, 1800 m) visited a high-altitude area (3650 m) about 6 months and then returned to low-altitude. After they came back, all subjects were evaluated for high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome on the 3(rd), 50(th), and 100(th). Symptom scores, routine blood and blood gas tests, and myocardial zymograms assay were used for observation their syndrome. The results showed that the incidence and severity of symptoms had decreased markedly on the 50(th) and 100(th) days, compared with the 3(rd) day. The symptom scores and incidence of different symptoms were lower among subjects returning to Kunming than among those returning to Chongqing. On the 3(rd) day, RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH values were significantly lower than values recorded at high altitudes, but they were higher than baseline values. On the 50(th) day, these values were not different from baseline values, but LDH levels did not return to baseline until the 100(th) day. These data show that, subjects who suffered high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome, the recovery fully processes takes a long time (≥ 100(th) days). The appearance of the syndrome is found to be related to the changes in RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH levels, which should be caused by reoxygenation after hypoxia.

  16. Medical students' personal values and their career choices a quarter-century later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, M; Brigham, T P; Gottheil, E; Xu, G; Glaser, K; Veloski, J J

    1998-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 391 physicians tested two hypotheses regarding personal values and career choices: that higher preference for social values would be associated with physicians' being more interested in "people-oriented" rather than "technology-oriented" specialties and that higher preference for economic values would be associated with expectations of high income. The physicians (344 men, 47 women) were graduates of Jefferson Medical College in 1974 and 1975 who completed the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values during medical school. Analysis showed that physicians currently in the "people-oriented" specialties scored significantly higher on the Social Value scale than their peers in "technology-oriented" specialties. A moderate but statistically significant correlation was found between scores on the Economic Value scale and expectations of higher income. The findings suggest that physicians' personal values are relevant to their career decisions such as specialty choice and expectations of income. The findings have implications with regard to two major issues in the evolving health care system, namely, the distribution of physicians by specialty and cost containment.

  17. Weak value amplification via second-order correlated technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ting; Huang Jing-Zheng; Zeng Gui-Hua; Liu Xiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework combining weak measurement and second-order correlated technique. The theoretical analysis shows that weak value amplification (WVA) experiment can also be implemented by a second-order correlated system. We then build two-dimensional second-order correlated function patterns for achieving higher amplification factor and discuss the signal-to-noise ratio influence. Several advantages can be obtained by our proposal. For instance, detectors with high resolution are not necessary. Moreover, detectors with low saturation intensity are available in WVA setup. Finally, type-one technical noise can be effectively suppressed. (paper)

  18. Multistability of delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yu-Jiao; Hu Hai-Gen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multistability issue is discussed for delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions. Based on a fixed theorem and stability definition, sufficient criteria are established for the existence and stability of multiple equilibria of complex-valued recurrent neural networks. The number of stable equilibria is larger than that of real-valued recurrent neural networks, which can be used to achieve high-capacity associative memories. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. (paper)

  19. Sulfonylurea herbicides – methodological challenges in setting aquatic limit values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Baun, Anders; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    according to the EU Water Framework Directive, the resulting Water Quality Standards (WQSs) are below the analytical quantification limit, making it difficult to verify compliance with the limit values. However, several methodological concerns may be raised in relation to the very low effect concentrations...... and rimsulfuron. The following parameters were varied during testing: pH, exposure duration, temperature and light/dark cycle. Preliminary results show that a decrease in pH causes an increase in toxicity for all compounds. Exposure to a high concentration for 24 hours caused a reduction in growth rate, from...... for setting limit values for SUs or if more detailed information should be gained by taking methodological considerations into account....

  20. Diagnostic Values of DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI for Differentiation Between High-grade and Low-grade Gliomas: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianye; Liu, Dexiang; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hanwei; Shi, Changzheng; Luo, Liangping

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to collect the studies on the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and evaluate the diagnostic performances of relevant quantitative parameters in glioma grading. We systematically searched studies on the diagnosis of gliomas with DCE-MRI or DSC-MRI in Medline, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Cochrane Library, and Embase published between January 2005 and December 2016. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for volume transfer coefficient (K trans ), volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (V e ), rate constant of backflux (K ep ), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Review Manager 5.2 software. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Begg test were calculated by Stata 12.0. Twenty-two studies with available outcome data were included in the analysis. The standardized mean difference of K trans values between high-grade glioma and low-grade glioma were 1.18 (0.91, 1.45); V e values were 1.43 (1.06, 1.80); K ep values were 0.65 (-0.05, 1.36); rCBV values were 1.44 (1.08, 1.81); and rCBF values were 1.17 (0.68, 1.67), respectively. The results were all significant statistically (P values (P = .07), and high-grade glioma had higher K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF values than low-grade glioma. AUC values of K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF were 0.90, 0.88, 0.93, and 0.73, respectively; rCBV had the largest AUC among the four parameters (P < .05). Both DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI are reliable techniques in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and rCBV was found to be the most sensitive one. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphasalen indium complexes showing high rates and isoselectivities in rac-lactide polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Dominic; White, Andrew J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Forsyth, Craig M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bown, Mark [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, Charlotte K. [Department of Chemistry, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    Polylactide (PLA) is the leading bioderived polymer produced commercially by the metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Control over tacticity to produce stereoblock PLA, from rac-lactide improves thermal properties but is an outstanding challenge. Here, phosphasalen indium catalysts feature high rates (30±3 m{sup -1} min{sup -1}, THF, 298 K), high control, low loadings (0.2 mol %), and isoselectivity (P{sub i}=0.92, THF, 258 K). Furthermore, the phosphasalen indium catalysts do not require any chiral additives. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Amide proton transfer imaging to discriminate between low- and high-grade gliomas: added value to apparent diffusion coefficient and relative cerebral blood volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the added value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) from perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for discriminating between high- and low-grade gliomas. Forty-six consecutive adult patients with diffuse gliomas who underwent preoperative APT imaging, DTI and perfusion MRI were enrolled. APT signals were compared according to the World Health Organization grade. The diagnostic ability and added value of the APT signal to the ADC and rCBV for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and integrated discrimination improvement. The APT signal increased as the glioma grade increased. The discrimination abilities of the APT, ADC and rCBV values were not significantly different. Using both the APT signal and ADC significantly improved discrimination vs. the ADC alone (area under the ROC curve [AUC], 0.888 vs. 0.910; P = 0.007), whereas using both the APT signal and rCBV did not improve discrimination vs. the rCBV alone (AUC, 0.927 vs. 0.923; P = 0.222). APT imaging may be a useful imaging biomarker that adds value to the ADC for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  3. A Categorization Model for Educational Values of the History of Mathematics. An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-qin; Qi, Chun-yan; Wang, Ke

    2017-11-01

    There is not a clear consensus on the categorization framework of the educational values of the history of mathematics. By analyzing 20 Chinese teaching cases on integrating the history of mathematics into mathematics teaching based on the relevant literature, this study examined a new categorization framework of the educational values of the history of mathematics by combining the objectives of high school mathematics curriculum in China. This framework includes six dimensions: the harmony of knowledge, the beauty of ideas or methods, the pleasure of inquiries, the improvement of capabilities, the charm of cultures, and the availability of moral education. The results show that this framework better explained the all-educational values of the history of mathematics that all teaching cases showed. Therefore, the framework can guide teachers to better integrate the history of mathematics into teaching.

  4. The Impact of Urban Transit Systems on Property Values: A Model and Some Evidences from the City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hedonic model for estimating the effects of transit systems on real estate values is specified and calibrated for the city of Naples. The model is used to estimate the external benefits concerning property values which may be attributed to the Naples metro at the present time and in two future scenarios. The results show that only high-frequency metro lines have appreciable effects on real estate values, while low-frequency metro lines and bus lines produce no significant impacts. Our results show that the impacts on real estate values of the metro system in Naples are significant, with corresponding external benefits estimated at about 7.2 billion euros or about 8.5% of the total value of real estate assets.

  5. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  6. Decreased value-sensitivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Cristina; Rigoli, Francesco; Dolan, Ray J; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2018-01-01

    Pathophysiology in schizophrenia has been linked to aberrant incentive salience, namely the dysfunctional processing of value linked to abnormal dopaminergic activity. In line with this, recent studies showed impaired learning of value in schizophrenia. However, how value is used to guide behaviour independently from learning, as in risky choice, has rarely been examined in this disorder. We studied value-guided choice under risk in patients with schizophrenia and in controls using a task requiring a choice between a certain monetary reward, varying trial-by-trial, and a gamble offering an equal probability of getting double this certain amount or nothing. We observed that patients compared to controls exhibited reduced sensitivity to values, implying that their choices failed to flexibly adapt to the specific values on offer. Moreover, the degree of this value sensitivity inversely correlated with aberrant salience experience, suggesting that the inability to tune choice to value may be a key element of aberrant salience in the illness. Our results help clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying improper attribution of value in schizophrenia and may thus inform cognitive interventions aimed at reinstating value sensitivity in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  8. Diversification: A Value-Creating or Value-Destroying Strategy? Evidence from the Eurozone Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvan Antonio; Pindado Julio; De La Torre Chabela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence on how diversification strategy impacts on excess value in a sample of Eurozone firms by using the data panel methodology. Specifically, we study the effect of the levels and types of the product diversification on the premium or discount that diversified firms trade at. Preliminary results are consistent with the value-destroying expectations and show that diversified companies trade at a discount in the Eurozone countries. However, a more accurate analysis...

  9. The relationship of live animal muscular and skeletal scores, ultrasound measurements and carcass classification scores with carcass composition and value in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, S B; Drennan, M J; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscular and skeletal scores and ultrasound measurements in the live animal, and carcass conformation and fat scores with carcass composition and value using 336 steers, slaughtered at 2 years of age. Live animal scores and measurements were recorded at 8 to 12 months of age and pre-slaughter. Following slaughter, each carcass was classified for conformation and fatness and the right side dissected into meat, fat and bone. Carcass conformation scores and fat scores were both measured on a continuous 15-point scale and ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 and from 2.8 to 13.3, respectively. Pre-slaughter muscular scores showed positive correlations (P carcass meat proportion, proportion of high-value cuts in the carcass, conformation score and carcass value, significant negative correlations with carcass fat (r = -0.13) and bone (r = -0.81) proportions, and generally low non-significant relationships with the proportion of high-value cuts in meat and carcass fat score. Pre-slaughter ultrasound muscle depth and carcass conformation score showed similar correlations with carcass traits to those using the pre-slaughter muscular scoring procedure. Pre-slaughter ultrasound fat depth showed positive correlations (P carcass fat proportion (r = 0.59) and fat score (r = 0.63), and significant negative correlations (-0.23 to -0.50) with carcass meat and bone proportions, high-value cuts in the carcass and in meat, and carcass value. Pre-slaughter skeletal scores generally showed poor correlations ranging from -0.38 to 0.52 with the various carcass traits. Corresponding correlations (-0.26 to 0.44) involving records collected at 8 to 12 months of age were lower than those using pre-slaughter records. A one-unit increase in carcass conformation score increased carcass meat proportion and value by 11.2 g/kg and 5.6 cents/kg, respectively. Corresponding values for fat score were -8.2 g/kg and -5.1 cents/kg. In conclusion, both pre-slaughter live animal

  10. Retrieval monitoring is influenced by information value: the interplay between importance and confidence on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    The perceived value of information can influence one's motivation to successfully remember that information. This study investigated how information value can affect memory search and evaluation processes (i.e., retrieval monitoring). In Experiment 1, participants studied unrelated words associated with low, medium, or high values. Subsequent memory tests required participants to selectively monitor retrieval for different values. False memory effects were smaller when searching memory for high-value than low-value words, suggesting that people more effectively monitored more important information. In Experiment 2, participants studied semantically-related words, and the need for retrieval monitoring was reduced at test by using inclusion instructions (i.e., endorsement of any word related to the studied words) compared with standard instructions. Inclusion instructions led to increases in false recognition for low-value, but not for high-value words, suggesting that under standard-instruction conditions retrieval monitoring was less likely to occur for important information. Experiment 3 showed that words retrieved with lower confidence were associated with more effective retrieval monitoring, suggesting that the quality of the retrieved memory influenced the degree and effectiveness of monitoring processes. Ironically, unless encouraged to do so, people were less likely to carefully monitor important information, even though people want to remember important memories most accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring values for cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical relevance of the recent critique that values surveys, as they are, suffer from the problem of measuring marginal preferences rather than values. By surveying items from cross-cultural surveys by Hofstede, Inglehart and GLOBE, we show that the marginal

  12. Revelation and Innovation of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    Kristin F. Saghaug’s Phd thesis investigates the interaction of revelatory theology, artistic creativity and small business owners in a business model innovation context. This project challenges mainstream business management’s concept of value and adds to the understanding of the innovation...... process through a pioneering conversation across different specialized domains. How can philosophical theology, namely, Paul Tillich’s theory of revelation, contribute to productive reflection on the innovation of value among small business owners in a business model innovation context? Empirical findings...... show that many of the business owners in this study try to balance between their personal values and economic values. A further investigation into this results in a model of innovation of value from a theological perspective in respect to business model innovation. It is the very understanding...

  13. Win, Place, Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetros, John G.

    1972-01-01

    Items considered to be a basic reference collection in the area of thoroughbred breeding and racing are given along with annotations which identify the content, usage and value of the particular item in the complete collection. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional Values Among Female Nursing Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.

  16. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussan Boukhris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41% represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%. Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Social Trust and Value Similarity: the Relationship between Social Trust and Human Values in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Beilmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to test whether value similarity may foster social trust in society and whether people have higher levels of social trust when they emphasise the same values that prevail in their country. The relationship between social trust and human values was examined in a sample of 51,308 people across 29 European countries using data from the European Social Survey round 6. Results suggest that value similarity is more important in generating individual level social trust in countries where the overall levels of social trust are higher. There is a stronger positive relationship between value similarity and social trust in Scandinavian countries, which have high social trust levels, while in countries with a low level of social trust, congruity of the personal value structure with the country level value structure tends to decrease the individuals trustfulness

  18. Choosing ICT Tools: Proposition of a Model to Deliver Value for Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Grise

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several tools of Information and Communication Technology (ICT are being used nowadays to support customer relationship processes. Literature review shows that, in the selection and deployment of these tools, internal goals of productivity and efficiency predominate. In just a few situations, the objective is offering higher value to the client. Therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a process of selection and deployment of ICT tools geared towards offering higher value, in the business to business market. Primary data were collected in depth interviews with high-level executives responsible for ICT areas. For the content analysis, the ATLAS-ti software was used, searching for recurrent themes. A value oriented process for choosing and implementing ICT tools was then proposed.

  19. Urban Transformation and Property Value Variation. The Role of HS Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2010-04-01

    operation, partly in operation or not yet in operation. Besides, the description of each case is divided into: summary description of the characteristics of the HS railway line; description of the main features of cities that represent the nodes of the selected routes; identify the characteristics of the surrounding context of the railway station; measurement of the change in property values in the surrounding context of the railway station due to HS link. The third part provides a comparative outline of the effects of High Speed stations on property values and the urban typologies and characteristics that influence this relation. The first result of this article is a comparative framework between all study cases. In conclusion, the comparative reading shows that the effect from opening of the High Speed railway stations on property values is valuable in cases where it contributes significantly to raising the socio-economic and the quality conditions of spaces.

  20. Evolution of Value Added Chains in Asia Pacific Region and Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alekseevich Makarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing patterns of transnational value chains in the Asia-Pacific region. The methodology is based on the analysis of data extracted from the OECD – WTO Trade in Value Added Database (2016. The study demonstrates that 1 Asia-Pacific countries show extremely high involvement in the global value chains; 2 intra-Asian value chains develop at a fast pace, reflecting the trend towards regiona-lization of economic ties in Asia-Pacific (caused by the processes of transformation within China, the growing income divergence in the region and the development of regional integration mechanisms; 3 the level of participation in global value chains differs across countries and is subject to constant changes. In particular, Chinese manufacturers are moving to the processes with higher value added, and the role of an ‘assembly shop’ in the region is shifting to the ASEAN countries. Russia’s participation in the value chains in the Asia-Pacific region is currently limited to its role as a supplier of raw materials. High tariffs make manufacturing oriented towards Asia less viable, especially considering that most of Asia-Pacific countries have free trade agreements with each other. However, favorable rules of origin in Asian RTAs as well as good political relations with leading Asian countries in conditions of tensions between them still create some opportunities for involving Russia in regional value chains at the more advanced stages

  1. Clinical value of serum bilirubin subfractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional methods in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Peters, W. H.; Janssens, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical value of serum bilirubin subfractionation, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was studied in 26 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) from whom 59 serum samples were obtained. Total bilirubin (TB) levels were determined by alkaline methanolysis and HPLC

  2. Investigations with FDG-PET Scanning in Prostate Cancer Show Limited Value for Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Eeva [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy; Hogg, Annette; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Vic (Australia). Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging; Frydenberg, Mark [Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate FDG-PET (fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Twenty-two patients were studied during different disease phases of prostate cancer, for staging or restaging to clarify specific clinical questions. FDG-PET was performed encompassing the thorax, abdomen and pelvis using the Penn PET 300H scanner. Scanning was begun 60 min after {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose marker. Patients were catheterized and administered diuretics to minimize urinary activity. Information obtained with FDG-PET was concordant with findings from other investigations in 7/22 (32%) patients, discordant in 15/22 (68%) patients and equivalent in one patient (4%). PET indicated progressive disease in five patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <4 ng/L. The impact on management of the patients was high in 46% of cases, low in 41% and for 14% there was no impact on management. The accuracy of FDG-PET was 72% (95% CI 50-89) as confirmed by invasive diagnostics/follow-up. FDG-PET can provide useful information and improve the clinician's decision on further management procedures in selected patients with low PSA and bone or lymph node changes. A negative PET scan in prostate cancer should be interpreted with caution.

  3. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  4. The value of personal health record (PHR) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelber, David; Pan, Eric C

    2008-11-06

    Personal health records (PHRs) are a rapidly growing area of health information technology despite a lack of significant value-based assessment.Here we present an assessment of the potential value of PHR systems, looking at both costs and benefits.We examine provider-tethered, payer-tethered, and third-party PHRs, as well as idealized interoperable PHRs. An analytical model was developed that considered eight PHR application and infrastructure functions. Our analysis projects the initial and annual costs and annual benefits of PHRs to the entire US over the next 10 years.This PHR analysis shows that all forms of PHRs have initial net negative value. However, at the end of 10 years, steady state annual net value ranging from$13 billion to -$29 billion. Interoperable PHRs provide the most value, followed by third-party PHRs and payer-tethered PHRs also showing positive net value. Provider-tethered PHRs constantly demonstrating negative net value.

  5. Therapist Multicultural Competence, Asian American Participants' Cultural Values, and Counseling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihwe; Kim, Bryan S K

    2010-10-01

    Asian Americans drop out of mental health treatment at a high rate. This problem could be addressed by enhancing therapists' multicultural competence and by examining clients' cultural attitudes that may affect the counseling process. In the present study, we used a video analogue design with a sample of 113 Asian American college students to examine these possibilities. The result from a t test showed that the session containing therapist multicultural competencies received higher ratings than the session without therapist multicultural competence. In addition, correlational analyses showed that participant values acculturation was positively associated with participant ratings of counseling process, while the value of emotional self-control was negatively correlated. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis did not support any interaction effects among the independent variables on counseling process. All of these findings could contribute to the field of multicultural competence research and have implications for therapist practices and training.

  6. No-shows, drop-outs and completers in psychotherapeutic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2011-01-01

    A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders.......A primary challenge in mental health services is a high rate of non-attendance (i.e. no-show and drop-out) for patients referred to treatment for psychiatric disorders....

  7. Emotions and Values: A Sentimentalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a qualified sentimentalist thesis is put forward to explain the relation between emotion and value, in special the acquisition of concepts and evaluative competences. This thesis advocates, on the one hand, that feelings are the essential elements for the characterization of emotions and, on the other hand, that values should be understood by reference to emotions. Two objections are considered: the circularity and the recalcitrance objections. To answer these, the idea that feelings can have intentional objects will be defended, along with the idea that evaluative concepts are higher-order concepts about adequacy conditions of evaluative emotional experiences. As for the recalcitrance objection specifically, we will argue that the sentimentalist thesis is in a better position than its main rival, the judgmentalist thesis. Lastly, we will show how the sentimentalist can explain levels of complexity among emotions and values. The final result is an attempt to show how a sentimentalist thesis may be coherent about the relation between emotion and value.

  8. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K.P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  9. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  10. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  11. Selective visual attention and motivation: the consequences of value learning in an attentional blink task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jane E; O'Brien, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Learning to associate the probability and value of behavioral outcomes with specific stimuli (value learning) is essential for rational decision making. However, in demanding cognitive conditions, access to learned values might be constrained by limited attentional capacity. We measured recognition of briefly presented faces seen previously in a value-learning task involving monetary wins and losses; the recognition task was performed both with and without constraints on available attention. Regardless of available attention, recognition was substantially enhanced for motivationally salient stimuli (i.e., stimuli highly predictive of outcomes), compared with equally familiar stimuli that had weak or no motivational salience, and this effect was found regardless of valence (win or loss). However, when attention was constrained (because stimuli were presented during an attentional blink, AB), valence determined recognition; win-associated faces showed no AB, but all other faces showed large ABs. Motivational salience acts independently of attention to modulate simple perceptual decisions, but when attention is limited, visual processing is biased in favor of reward-associated stimuli.

  12. VALUE ANALYSIS FROM A FINANCIAL STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKİ RIZA BALCI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually, every product has its own value stream during its manufacturing process. It begins with “designing a new product” and ends with “after-sale supports”. Encountering waste along value stream is not easy task. Overproduction, inventory, motion, waiting, transportations, over-processing and defects will affect the analysis about value along value streams. Important point is to determine waste systematic in order to get a perfect stable value which suits customer expectations. New manufacturing philosophies change the business nature and seek waste with bigger lens, because of that, Accounting shifted its paradigm and can help to determine waste in a value stream. This article compiles and analyzes the literature to show how accounting helps to find waste, which affects the entire value stream and analysis about it.

  13. Intrapersonal conflict in goals and values of patients with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Ukrow, Uwe; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Grabe, Martin; Lauterbach, Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Although increased conflicts between attitudes and beliefs about certain goals or values are often discussed as important factors in depression, there are only few empirical studies investigating these relations among patients with depressive disorders. In the present study, we used the Intrapersonal Conflict Test to assess cognitive inconsistencies in goals or values. A total of 53 inpatients with unipolar depression and 24 nondepressed controls (inpatients of an internal and a surgery ward) participated in the study. In addition to the Intrapersonal Conflict Test, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Compared with controls, patients with depressive disorders showed significantly higher scores for global inconsistencies, inconsistencies within different goals/values, as well as between goals/values and their perceived realization. Significant correlations were found between conflict measures and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Path analyses show that group differences in intrapersonal conflicts were partially mediated by interpersonal problems but not by depressive symptoms or cognitive vulnerability factors. Given the cross-sectional design of the study, the findings of this exploratory study do not allow for conclusions regarding the role of intrapersonal conflicts in the development and course of depression. Nevertheless, the high levels of intrapersonal conflicts observed in the study suggest that inconsistencies in goals or values should be considered in the psychological treatment of depression. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Free recall test experience potentiates strategy-driven effects of value on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity. We also hypothesized that providing interspersed tests during study is a key to encouraging selective engagement of strategies. To test these hypotheses, we presented participants with sets of words, and each word was associated with a high or low point value. In some experiments, free recall tests were given after each list. In all experiments, a recognition test was administered 5 minutes after the final word list. Process dissociation was accomplished via remember/know judgments at recognition, a recall test probing both item memory and memory for a contextual detail (word plurality), and a task dissociation combining a recognition test for plurality (intended to probe recollection) with a speeded item recognition test (to probe familiarity). When recall tests were administered after study lists, high value strengthened both recollection and familiarity. When memory was not tested after each study list, but rather only at the end, value increased recollection but not familiarity. These dual process dissociations suggest that interspersed recall tests guide learners' use of metacognitive control to selectively apply effective encoding strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Ecological Values of Mangrove Forest Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmana, Cecep

    1996-01-01

    Research on quantification of ecological values of mangrove forest ecosystem are urgently needed, due to its importance as the basics for utilization and management of resources. From the ecological point of vlew, the main prohlem of mangrove ecosystem is rarity and inconsistency of data and limited accurate methods inquantifying ecological values of that ecosystem. Results show that mangrove has the significant ecological values on coastal ecosystem. However, there must be further research t...

  16. Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

  17. Values and Teaching: A Study of Teacher Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreth, Larry Eldon

    Questionnaires and interviews on values and the teaching of values were completed with the entire faculty (76) of Longmont (Colorado) Senior High School. Over 60% believed that to value means to appraise; a similar proportion believed that to value means to cherish. 82% felt that values are relative rather than absolute. Almost all believed that…

  18. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  19. One-Step Dynamic Classifier Ensemble Model for Customer Value Segmentation with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific customer value segmentation (CVS is the base of efficient customer relationship management, and customer credit scoring, fraud detection, and churn prediction all belong to CVS. In real CVS, the customer data usually include lots of missing values, which may affect the performance of CVS model greatly. This study proposes a one-step dynamic classifier ensemble model for missing values (ODCEM model. On the one hand, ODCEM integrates the preprocess of missing values and the classification modeling into one step; on the other hand, it utilizes multiple classifiers ensemble technology in constructing the classification models. The empirical results in credit scoring dataset “German” from UCI and the real customer churn prediction dataset “China churn” show that the ODCEM outperforms four commonly used “two-step” models and the ensemble based model LMF and can provide better decision support for market managers.

  20. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  1. Expectancy-Value Models for the STEM Persistence Plans of Ninth-Grade, High-Ability Students: A Comparison between Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Ward, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Group differences in the effects of the expectancies and values that high-ability students have for science and mathematics on plans to persist in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) were investigated. A nationally representative sample of ninth-grade students, the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 2009; n =…

  2. Recent advances on conversion and co-production of acetone-butanol-ethanol into high value-added bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Jiang, Yujia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Min

    2018-06-01

    Butanol is an important bulk chemical and has been regarded as an advanced biofuel. Large-scale production of butanol has been applied for more than 100 years, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process by solventogenic Clostridium species is still not economically viable due to the low butanol titer and yield caused by the toxicity of butanol and a by-product, such as acetone. Renewed interest in biobutanol as a biofuel has spurred technological advances to strain modification and fermentation process design. Especially, with the development of interdisciplinary processes, the sole product or even the mixture of ABE produced through ABE fermentation process can be further used as platform chemicals for high value added product production through enzymatic or chemical catalysis. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the most recent advances on the conversion of acetone, butanol and ABE mixture into various products, such as isopropanol, butyl-butyrate and higher-molecular mass alkanes. Additionally, co-production of other value added products with ABE was also discussed.

  3. What is the value of Values Based Recruitment for nurse education programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuizen, Johanna E; Callwood, Alison; Gallagher, Ann

    2018-05-01

    A discussion of issues associated with Values Based Recruitment (VBR) for nurse education programmes. Values Based Recruitment is a mandatory element in selection processes of students for Higher Education healthcare courses in England, including all programmes across nursing. Students are selected on the basis that their individual values align with those presented in the Constitution of the National Health Service. However, there are issues associated with the use of values as selection criteria that have been insufficiently addressed. These are discussed. Discussion paper. This article is based on documents published on the website of the executive body responsible for the implementation of a policy regarding VBR in Higher Education Institutions up until June 2017 and our evaluation of the conceptualisation of VBR, underpinned by contemporary theory and literature. Values Based Recruitment influences who is accepted onto a nurse education programme, but there has been limited critical evaluation regarding the effectiveness of employing values as selection criteria. Values are subject to interpretation and evidence regarding whether or how VBR will improve practice and care is lacking. The issues discussed in this article show that Higher Educatio