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  1. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

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    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  2. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  3. Differential gene expression of two extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies showing varroa tolerance and susceptibility.

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    Jiang, S; Robertson, T; Mostajeran, M; Robertson, A J; Qiu, X

    2016-06-01

    Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees (Apis mellifera), is the most serious pest threatening the apiculture industry. In our honey bee breeding programme, two honey bee colonies showing extreme phenotypes for varroa tolerance/resistance (S88) and susceptibility (G4) were identified by natural selection from a large gene pool over a 6-year period. To investigate potential defence mechanisms for honey bee tolerance to varroa infestation, we employed DNA microarray and real time quantitative (PCR) analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in the tolerant and susceptible colonies at pupa and adult stages. Our results showed that more differentially expressed genes were identified in the tolerant bees than in bees from the susceptible colony, indicating that the tolerant colony showed an increased genetic capacity to respond to varroa mite infestation. In both colonies, there were more differentially expressed genes identified at the pupa stage than at the adult stage, indicating that pupa bees are more responsive to varroa infestation than adult bees. Genes showing differential expression in the colony phenotypes were categorized into several groups based on their molecular functions, such as olfactory signalling, detoxification processes, exoskeleton formation, protein degradation and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that these biological processes play roles in conferring varroa tolerance to naturally selected colonies. Identification of differentially expressed genes between the two colony phenotypes provides potential molecular markers for selecting and breeding varroa-tolerant honey bees. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

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    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  5. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

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    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  6. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

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    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (“looming”) or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  7. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

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    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  8. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min −1  can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant. (paper)

  9. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line.

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    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2012-04-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.

  10. Hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation and associated pagetoid cells.

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    Honda, Yumi; Tanigawa, Hiroki; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Tsuyoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Herein, we report a 63-year-old man presenting with hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation on his back. The tumor was dermal-based, solid and cystic. Tumor cells with squamous differentiation and with keratin pearl formation were identified predominantly in the superficial dermis, and mucinous cells were identified principally in the cystic lesion in the deep dermis. Interestingly, the additional feature of pagetoid cells was identified in the overlying epidermis. Both the mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma and pagetoid cells had intracytoplasmic mucin; however, they had different histopathologic findings and immunophenotypes. Mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma had small nuclei and abundant intracytoplasmic mucin presenting goblet cells with low rate of positive immunostaining for p53 and Ki67. In contrast, pagetoid cells had larger nuclei with less intracytoplasmic mucin. Both p53- and Ki67-positive cells were increased in pagetoid cells. Additionally, mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma were MUC1(+)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(+)/MUC6(+), but pagetoid cells were MUC1(+; focal)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(-)/MUC6(+; focal). The derivation of pagetoid cells is unclear; however, the localized small region of pagetoid cells over the hidradenocarcinoma in the present case may suggest a common histogenesis of these two malignant neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Antidepressants on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation.

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    Kruk, Jeffrey S; Bermeo, Sandra; Skarratt, Kristen K; Fuller, Stephen J; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Use of antidepressant medications has been linked to detrimental impacts on bone mineral density and osteoporosis; however, the cellular basis behind these observations remains poorly understood. The effect does not appear to be homogeneous across the whole class of drugs and may be linked to affinity for the serotonin transporter system. In this study, we hypothesized that antidepressants have a class- and dose-dependent effect on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, which may affect bone metabolism. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were committed to differentiate when either adipogenic or osteogenic media was added, supplemented with five increasing concentrations of amitriptyline (0.001-10 µM), venlafaxine (0.01-25 µM), or fluoxetine (0.001-10 µM). Alizarin red staining (mineralization), alkaline phosphatase (osteoblastogenesis), and oil red O (adipogenesis) assays were performed at timed intervals. In addition, cell viability was assessed using a MTT. We found that fluoxetine had a significant inhibitory effect on mineralization. Furthermore, adipogenic differentiation of hMSC was affected by the addition of amitriptyline, venlafaxine, and fluoxetine to the media. Finally, none of the tested medications significantly affected cell survival. This study showed a divergent effect of three antidepressants on hMSC differentiation, which appears to be independent of class and dose. As fluoxetine and amitriptyline, but not venlafaxine, affected both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, this inhibitory effect could be associated to the high affinity of fluoxetine to the serotonin transporter system.

  12. Effects of nano-emulsion preparations of tocopherols and tocotrienols on oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation

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    Song Liang-Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols and tocotrienols are two groups of compounds in the vitamin E family, of which the tocopherols are widely used as antioxidant dietary supplements. Recent studies have shown mixed observations for tocopherol functions in bone homeostasis. We have evaluated the potency of suspension- and nano-emulsion formulation-based delivery of different vitamin E family members in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation. Our results showed the both tocopherols and tocotrienols could reduce oxidative stress as evaluated by the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Their effects were enhanced when applied in the nano-emulsion mode of delivery due to increased bioavailability. In addition, our results showed that tocotrienols increased osteoblast differentiation, while tocopherols showed reduced osteoblast differentiation, which may be due to their differential effects on SMAD and p65 signaling. Together, these findings indicate that tocotrienols delivered through nano-emulsion exhibit superior antioxidant properties and osteoblast differentiation, and could serve as a better alternative to tocopherol-based vitamin E supplements.

  13. Effect of cell density on adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

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    Lu, Hongxu; Guo, Likun; Wozniak, Michal J.; Kawazoe, Naoki; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Zhang, Xingdong; Chen, Guoping

    2009-01-01

    The effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated by using a patterning technique to induce the formation of a cell density gradient on a micropatterned surface. The adipogenic differentiation of MSCs at a density gradient from 5 x 10 3 to 3 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 was examined. Lipid vacuoles were observed at all cell densities after 1-3 weeks of culture in adipogenic differentiation medium although the lipid vacuoles were scarce at the low cell density and abundant at the high cell density. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that adipogenesis marker genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) were detected in the MSCs cultured at all cell densities. The results suggest that there was no apparent effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

  14. Effect of resveratrol on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic cardiomyoblasts

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    Leong, C.-W.; Wong, C.H.; Lao, S.-C.; Leong, Emilia Conceicao; Lao, Iok Fong; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Fung, Kwok Pui; Tsang, Kam Sze; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Wang Yitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, has been used as a nutritional supplement or an investigational new drug for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports showed that resveratrol had a protective effect against oxidative agent-induced cell injury. Our studies indicate that resveratrol plays a role in the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. The cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was exposed to 30-120 μM resveratrol for up to 5 days. Resveratrol inhibits cardiomyoblast proliferation without causing cells injury. Moreover, resveratrol treatment modulated the differentiation of morphological characteristics including elongation and cell fusion in cardiomyoblasts. Proliferation and differentiation of H9c2 cells were further revealed by measurement of the mRNA expression of a cell cycle marker (CDK2), a differentiation marker (myogenin), and a contractile apparatus protein (MLC-2). Gene expression analysis revealed that resveratrol promoted entry into cell cycle arrest but extended the myogenic differentiation progress. These results have implications for the role of resveratrol in modulating cell cycle control and differentiation in cardiomyoblasts

  15. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

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    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  16. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  17. Thrombopoietin has a differentiative effect on late-stage human erythropoiesis.

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    Liu, W; Wang, M; Tang, D C; Ding, I; Rodgers, G P

    1999-05-01

    To further explore the mechanism of the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on erythropoiesis, we used a two-phase culture system to investigate the effect of TPO on late-stage human erythroid lineage differentiation. In serum-free suspension and semisolid cultures of human peripheral blood derived erythroid progenitors, TPO alone did not produce benzidine-positive cells. However, in serum-containing culture, TPO alone stimulated erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation, demonstrated by erythroid colony formation, production of benzidine-positive cells and haemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Monoclonal anti-human erythropoietin antibody and anti-human erythropoietin receptor antibody completely abrogated the erythroid differentiative ability of TPO in the serum-containing systems. This implied that binding of EPO and EPO-R was essential for erythropoiesis and the resultant signal transduction may be augmented by the signals emanating from TPO-c-Mpl interaction. Experiment of withdrawal of TPO further demonstrated the involvement of TPO in late-stage erythropoiesis. RT-PCR results showed that there was EPO-R but not c-Mpl expression on developing erythroblasts induced by TPO in serum-containing system. Our results establish that TPO affects not only the proliferation of erythroid progenitors but also the differentiation of erythroid progenitors to mature erythroid cells.

  18. Rethinking Differentiation--Using Teachers' Time Most Effectively

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    Marshall, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The goals of differentiation are laudable, but in recent years, many question whether it is really possible for a teacher to tailor instruction for 20 to 30 different students and whether it's desirable to differentiate by learning styles. Differentiation is just one factor in effective instruction. Supervisors who walk into a classroom looking…

  19. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

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    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  20. Fibroblasts maintained in 3 dimensions show a better differentiation state and higher sensitivity to estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, Claudia [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Steimberg, Nathalie; Boniotti, Jennifer [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Diafera, Giuseppe [Integrated Systems Engineering (ISE), Milan (Italy); Biunno, Ida [IRGB-CNR, Milan (Italy); IRCCS-Multimedica, Milan (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Mazzoleni, Giovanna [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Cell differentiation and response to hormonal signals were studied in a 3D environment on an in-house generated mouse fibroblast cell line expressing a reporter gene under the control of estrogen responsive sequences (EREs). 3D cell culture conditions were obtained in a Rotary Cell Culture System; (RCCS™), a microgravity based bioreactor that promotes the aggregation of cells into multicellular spheroids (MCS). In this bioreactor the cells maintained a better differentiated phenotype and more closely resembled in vivo tissue. The RCCS™ cultured fibroblasts showed higher expression of genes regulating cell assembly, differentiation and hormonal functions. Microarray analysis showed that genes related to cell cycle, proliferation, cytoskeleton, migration, adhesion and motility were all down-regulated in 3D as compared to 2D conditions, as well as oncogene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Controlled remodeling of ECM, which is an essential aspect of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue was affected by the culture method as assessed by immunolocalization of β-tubulin. Markers of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue repair, metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and its physiological inhibitor (TIMP4) changed expression in association with the relative formation of cell aggregates. The fibroblasts cultured in the RCCS™ maintain a better responsiveness to estrogens, measured as expression of ERα and regulation of an ERE-dependent reporter and of the endogenous target genes CBP, Rarb, MMP1 and Dbp. Our data highlight the interest of this 3D culture model for its potential application in the field of cell response to hormonal signals and the pharmaco-toxicological analyses of chemicals and natural molecules endowed of estrogenic potential. - Highlights: • We here characterized the first cell line derived from an estrogen reporter mouse. • In the RCCS cells express an immortalized behavior but not a transformed phenotype. • The RCCS provides a system for

  1. Differential Effects of Social Networks on Mammography Use by Poverty Status.

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    Yeo, Younsook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether social networks have differential effects on mammography use depending on poverty status. Data were analyzed on US women (40+), employing logistic regression and simple slope analyses for a post hoc probing of moderating effects. Among women not in poverty, living with a spouse/partner and attending church, regardless of frequency, were positively associated with mammography use; family size was negatively associated. Among women living in poverty, mammography showed a positive association only with weekly church attendance. Mammography was negatively associated with health-related social interactions occurring through the Internet. Post hoc probing showed significant moderating effects of poverty on the relationship between online health-related interactions and mammography use. To make the Internet a meaningful health empowerment tool for women in poverty, future research should identify how health-related interactions that occur online affect women in poverty's psychological and behavioral reactions that will contribute to our understanding of why they are discouraged from having mammograms. The mechanisms behind the differential effects of church attendance and poverty status on mammography also need further clarification.

  2. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; Briesen, Hagen von; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  3. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4-21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  4. effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    show that retention ability was significantly higher in the experimental group ... Differentiated instruction, Lecture , Cognitive Achievement ,Retention ability, Geometry. ... thinking. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an ...

  5. Temperature effects in differential mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2009-01-01

    Drift gas temperature and pressure influence differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) performance, changing DMS peak positions, heights and widths. This study characterizes the effect of temperature on DMS peak positions. Positive ions of methyl salicylate, DMMP, and toluene, and negative ions of methyl salicylate and the reactant ion peaks were observed in purified nitrogen in the Sionex microDMx planar DMS. Measurements were made at ambient pressure (1 atm) at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C in a planar sensor with height 0.5 mm. Peak value of the separation voltage asymmetric waveform was scanned from 500 V to 1500 V. Compensation voltage (DMS peak position) showed a strong variation with temperature for all investigated ions. By generalizing the concept of effective ion temperature to include the effects of inelastic ion-molecular collisions, we have been able to condense peak position dependence on separation field and temperature to dependence on a redefined effective temperature including a smoothly varying inelasticity correction. It allows prediction and correction of the gas temperature effect on DMS peak positions.

  6. Effects of ultrasound on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inubushi, T.; Tanaka, E.; Rego, E.B.; Kitagawa, M.; Kawazoe, A.; Ohta, A.; Okada, H.; Koolstra, J.H.; Miyauchi, M.; Takata, T.; Tanne, K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells. Methods: An immortalized human periodontal ligament cell line (HPL) showing immature cementoblastic

  7. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  8. The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Rashda [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Efferth, Thomas [Institute of Pharmacy und Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Kuhmann, Christine [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Opatz, Till [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hao, Xiaojiang [Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204 (China); Popanda, Odilia, E-mail: o.popanda@dkfz.de [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC{sub 50} values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC{sub 50} values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 μM, XPC: 0.18 μM, and normal cells: > 180 μM). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ► Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ► Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ► Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy

  9. The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Rashda; Efferth, Thomas; Kuhmann, Christine; Opatz, Till; Hao, Xiaojiang; Popanda, Odilia; Schmezer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC 50 values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC 50 values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 μM, XPC: 0.18 μM, and normal cells: > 180 μM). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ► Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ► Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ► Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy options in

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on the differentiation of neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Tu Yu

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on neural stem cells differentiation, we cultured neural stem cells of newborn rat in serum-free media containing EGF or bFGF. The neural stem cells were divided into 4 groups, which were irradiated by γ-rays with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 Gy. The irradiated cells were cultured under the same condition for 7 days, and the nestin content of neural stem cell was detected by immunofluorescence. The same method was carried out with irradiated cells in the culture medium after removing EGF, bFGF for 7 days, NSE and GFAP expression content and nestin were also detected by immunofluorescence. It has been found that the irradiated neural stem cells can express less nestin and differentiate more neurons compared to that of control group. Results show that ionizing radiation can induce the differentiation of the neural stem cells and make the neural stem cells differentiate more neuron. (authors)

  11. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  12. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  13. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ningbo, E-mail: curl-zhao@163.com; Wang, Xin, E-mail: 394041230@qq.com; Qin, Lei, E-mail: qinlei30@126.com; Guo, Zhengze, E-mail: zhzeguo@163.com; Li, Dehua, E-mail: lidehuafmmu@163.com

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  14. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sites with Weak Methylation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration crucial for regulating stress responses. Identifying large-scale DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution is made possible by whole genome bisulfite sequencing. An essential task following the generation of bisulfite sequencing data is to detect differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs among treatments. Most statistical methods for DMC detection do not consider the dependency of methylation patterns across the genome, thus possibly inflating type I error. Furthermore, small sample sizes and weak methylation effects among different phenotype categories make it difficult for these statistical methods to accurately detect DMCs. To address these issues, the wavelet-based functional mixed model (WFMM was introduced to detect DMCs. To further examine the performance of WFMM in detecting weak differential methylation events, we used both simulated and empirical data and compare WFMM performance to a popular DMC detection tool methylKit. Analyses of simulated data that replicated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana show that WFMM results in higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting DMCs compared to methylKit, especially when the methylation differences among phenotype groups are small. Moreover, the performance of WFMM is robust with respect to small sample sizes, making it particularly attractive considering the current high costs of bisulfite sequencing. Analysis of empirical Arabidopsis thaliana data under varying glyphosate dosages, and the analysis of monozygotic (MZ twins who have different pain sensitivities—both datasets have weak methylation effects of <1%—show that WFMM can identify more relevant DMCs related to the phenotype of interest than methylKit. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across biological samples. DMRs and DMCs are essentially the same

  15. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  16. Theory of insulated gate field effect transistor with negative differential electron mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, A.S.

    1995-09-01

    We study the consequences of negative differential electron mobility in FETs using the field model and the gradual channel approximation. We find that the FET may show convective or absolute instability. The fluctuations growths is governed by diffusion law with negative effective diffusion coefficient. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  17. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  18. Changes in the expression of collagen genes show two stages in chondrocyte differentiation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the quantitation of both mRNA and transcription activity of type I collagen gene and of three cartilage-specific collagens (types II, IX, and X) during in vitro differentiation of chick chondrocytes. Differentiation was obtained by transferal to suspension culture of dedifferentiated cells passaged for 3 wk as adherent cells. The type I collagen mRNA, highly represented in the dedifferentiated cells, rapidly decreased during chondrocyte differentiation. On the contrary,...

  19. Human colon cancer profiles show differential microRNA expression depending on mismatch repair status and are characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarver, Aaron L; Cunningham, Julie M; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Tom C; Rodrigues, Cecilia MP; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Steer, Clifford J; French, Amy J; Borralho, Pedro M; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Oberg, Ann L; Silverstein, Kevin AT; Morlan, Bruce W; Riska, Shaun M; Boardman, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Colon cancer arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal colonic tissue. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Differential miRNA expression in cancer versus normal tissue is a common event and may be pivotal for tumor onset and progression. To identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in tumors and tumor subtypes, we carried out highly sensitive expression profiling of 735 miRNAs on samples obtained from a statistically powerful set of tumors (n = 80) and normal colon tissue (n = 28) and validated a subset of this data by qRT-PCR. Tumor specimens showed highly significant and large fold change differential expression of the levels of 39 miRNAs including miR-135b, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-1, and miR-133a, relative to normal colon tissue. Significant differences were also seen in 6 miRNAs including miR-31 and miR-592, in the direct comparison of tumors that were deficient or proficient for mismatch repair. Examination of the genomic regions containing differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that they were also differentially methylated in colon cancer at a far greater rate than would be expected by chance. A network of interactions between these miRNAs and genes associated with colon cancer provided evidence for the role of these miRNAs as oncogenes by attenuation of tumor suppressor genes. Colon tumors show differential expression of miRNAs depending on mismatch repair status. miRNA expression in colon tumors has an epigenetic component and altered expression that may reflect a reversion to regulatory programs characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative developmental states

  20. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional...

  1. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  2. A Case of Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation with a Rapidly Lethal Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy for carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE. The patient was referred to our hospital after the tumor was found to have directly invaded the cervical esophagus and the entire circumference of the trachea. A total thyroidectomy was performed, followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea, suprahyoid release and dissection of bilateral pulmonary ligaments. No major complications, including anastomotic dehiscence or stenosis, were observed. The patient experienced some swallowing disturbances and hoarseness during the perioperative period but fully recovered. Radiotherapy to the neck was performed as an adjuvant therapy. Eleven months after surgery, lower back pain and right leg numbness developed and led to gait inability. Multiple lung and bone recurrences were observed, but no local recurrence. Palliative radiotherapy to the bone metastasis was performed. The patient died of pleural metastasis 14 months after the initial diagnosis of CASTLE.

  3. The Anti-Warburg Effect Elicited by the cAMP-PGC1α Pathway Drives Differentiation of Glioblastoma Cells into Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is among the most aggressive of human cancers. Although differentiation therapy has been proposed as a potential approach to treat GBM, the mechanisms of induced differentiation remain poorly defined. Here, we established an induced differentiation model of GBM using cAMP activators that specifically directed GBM differentiation into astroglia. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in induced differentiation of GBM. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP reverses the Warburg effect, as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption and reduced lactate production. Mitochondrial biogenesis induced by activation of the CREB-PGC1α pathway triggers metabolic shift and differentiation. Blocking mitochondrial biogenesis using mdivi1 or by silencing PGC1α abrogates differentiation; conversely, overexpression of PGC1α elicits differentiation. In GBM xenograft models and patient-derived GBM samples, cAMP activators also induce tumor growth inhibition and differentiation. Our data show that mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic switch to oxidative phosphorylation drive the differentiation of tumor cells. : Xing et al. show that the metabolic shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation drives differentiation of GBM cells into astrocytes by cAMP activation. Mechanistically, the cAMP-CREB-PGC1α signal mediates mitochondrial biogenesis, which leads to metabolic reprogramming, induced differentiation, and tumor growth inhibition. Keywords: glioblastoma, induced differentiation, Warburg effect, metabolic reprogramming, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP, PPARγ coactivator-1α, PGC1α

  4. Endometrial Cancer Side-Population Cells Show Prominent Migration and Have a Potential to Differentiate into the Mesenchymal Cell Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kiyoko; Takao, Tomoka; Kuboyama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ohgami, Tatsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shinichiro; Adachi, Sawako; Yoneda, Tomoko; Ueoka, Yousuke; Kato, Keiji; Hayashi, Shinichi; Asanoma, Kazuo; Wake, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cell subpopulations, referred to as “side-population” (SP) cells, have been identified in several tumors based on their ability to efflux the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Although SP cells have been identified in the normal human endometrium and endometrial cancer, little is known about their characteristics. In this study, we isolated and characterized the SP cells in human endometrial cancer cells and in rat endometrial cells expressing oncogenic human K-Ras protein. These SP cells showed i) reduction in the expression levels of differentiation markers; ii) long-term proliferative capacity of the cell cultures; iii) self-renewal capacity in vitro; iv) enhancement of migration, lamellipodia, and, uropodia formation; and v) enhanced tumorigenicity. In nude mice, SP cells formed large, invasive tumors, which were composed of both tumor cells and stromal-like cells with enriched extracellular matrix. The expression levels of vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen III were enhanced in SP tumors compared with the levels in non-SP tumors. In addition, analysis of microdissected samples and fluorescence in situ hybridization of Hec1-SP-tumors showed that the stromal-like cells with enriched extracellular matrix contained human DNA, confirming that the stromal-like cells were derived from the inoculated cells. Moreober, in a Matrigel assay, SP cells differentiated into α-smooth muscle actin-expressing cells. These findings demonstrate that SP cells have cancer stem-like cell features, including the potential to differentiate into the mesenchymal cell lineage. PMID:20008133

  5. Differentiated effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Sunde, Niels Aagaard; Johansen, Lars Gottfried; Beniczky, Sándor; Østergaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic medication effectively alleviate the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but their effects on the sensory symptoms of PD are still not well understood. To explore early somatosensory processing in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from thirteen DBS-treated PD patients and ten healthy controls during median nerve stimulation. PD patients were measured during DBS-treated, untreated and dopaminergic-medicated states. We focused on early cortical somatosensory processing as indexed by N20m, induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz and 55-100Hz) and induced beta suppression (13-30Hz). PD patients' motor symptoms were assessed by UPDRS-III. Using Bayesian statistics, we found positive evidence for differentiated effects of treatments on the induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz) with highest gamma in the dopaminergic-medicated state and lowest in the DBS-treated and untreated states. In contrast, UPDRS-III scores showed beneficial effects of both DBS and dopaminergic medication on the patients' motor symptoms. Furthermore, treatments did not affect the amplitude of N20m. Our results suggest differentiated effects of DBS and dopaminergic medication on cortical somatosensory processing in PD patients despite consistent ameliorating effects of both treatments on PD motor symptoms. The differentiated effect suggests differences in the effect mechanisms of the two treatments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Internet Sales Promotion on a Differential Advertising Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising and sales promotion are two important specific marketing communications tools. In this paper, Internet sales promotion is introduced into a differential advertising model and investigated quantitatively. The conditions for the existence and stability of periodic solutions are obtained. Flip bifurcation of periodic solution is investigated analytically. The results show that the sales promotion parameter can modify the stability of the differential advertising model and lead to chaos through flip bifurcation, the sales level will eventually be no less than a given value by adjusting the value of the sales promotion parameter, and the optimal sales promotion strategy can lead to maximum profit. Numerical results for periodic solutions, bifurcation diagrams, and the effects of sales promotion strategies, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. These results have certain significant theoretical and practical value in related markets.

  7. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Calcium imaging shows differential sensitivity to cooling and communication in luminous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A K; Trewavas, A J; Knight, M R

    1996-03-01

    Imaging of a recombinant bioluminescent Ca2+ indicator, aequorin, in an entire organism showed three novel features of Ca2+ signals in plants. First, cooling the plant from 25 degrees C to 2 degrees C demonstrated differential sensitivities between organs, the roots firing a Ca2+ signal at some 8-10 degrees C higher than the cotyledons. Secondly, prolonged cooling provoked Ca2+ oscillations, but only in the cotyledons. These oscillations occurred with a frequency of 100 s and damped down within 800 s. Thirdly, cooling the roots of mature plants triggered a Ca2+ signal in the leaves, as a result of organ-organ communication. However, warming and then recooling the roots did not generate a second Ca2+ signal in these leaves. This desensitisation was not due to down-regulation in the leaf since this was able to generate a Ca2+ signal of its own when cooled directly. Thus a combination of a recombinant bioluminescent indicator with photon counting imaging reveals startling new aspects of signalling in intact organs and whole organisms.

  9. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Younger, Jane L; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Handley, Jonathan; Miller, Gary D; Jouventin, Pierre; Nolan, Paul; Gharbi, Karim; Miller, Karen J; Hart, Tom

    2016-10-13

    Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion. We investigated the genetic population structure and patterns of colonisation of king penguins across their current range using a dataset of 5154 unlinked, high-coverage single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Despite breeding at a small number of discrete, geographically separate sites, we find only very slight genetic differentiation among colonies separated by thousands of kilometers of open-ocean, suggesting migration among islands and archipelagos may be common. Our results show that the South Georgia population is slightly differentiated from all other colonies and suggest that the recently founded Falkland Island colony is likely to have been established by migrants from the distant Crozet Islands rather than nearby colonies on South Georgia, possibly as a result of density-dependent processes. The observed subtle differentiation among king penguin colonies must be considered in future conservation planning and monitoring of the species, and demographic models that attempt to forecast extinction risk in response to large-scale climate change must take into account migration. It is possible that migration could buffer king penguins against some of the impacts of climate change where colonies appear panmictic, although it is unlikely to protect them completely given the widespread physical changes projected for their Southern Ocean foraging grounds

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells with NOTCH1 gene mutation show impaired differentiation into smooth muscle and endothelial cells: Implications for bicuspid aortic valve-related aortopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Tian, Weihua; Qiu, Ping; Norton, Elizabeth L; Wang, Michael M; Chen, Y Eugene; Yang, Bo

    2018-03-12

    The NOTCH1 gene mutation has been identified in bicuspid aortic valve patients. We developed an in vitro model with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to evaluate the role of NOTCH1 in smooth muscle and endothelial cell (EC) differentiation. The iPSCs were derived from a patient with a normal tricuspid aortic valve and aorta. The NOTCH1 gene was targeted in iPSCs with the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system. The NOTCH1 -/- (NOTCH1 homozygous knockout) and isogenic control iPSCs (wild type) were differentiated into neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and into cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs). The NCSCs were differentiated into smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The CVPCs were differentiated into ECs. The differentiations of SMCs and ECs were compared between NOTCH1 -/- and wild type cells. The expression of NCSC markers (SRY-related HMG-box 10 and transcription factor AP-2 alpha) was significantly lower in NOTCH1 -/- NCSCs than in wild type NCSCs. The SMCs derived from NOTCH1 -/- NCSCs showed immature morphology with smaller size and decreased expression of all SMC-specific contractile proteins. In NOTCH1 -/- CVPCs, the expression of ISL1, NKX2.5, and MYOCD was significantly lower than that in isogenic control CVPCs, indicating impaired differentiation from iPSCs to CVPCs. The NOTCH1 -/- ECs derived from CVPCs showed significantly lower expression of cluster of differentiation 105 and cluster of differentiation 31 mRNA and protein, indicating a defective differentiation process. NOTCH1 is critical in SMC and EC differentiation of iPSCs through NCSCs and CVPCs, respectively. NOTCH1 gene mutations might potentially contribute to the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms by affecting SMC differentiation in some patients with bicuspid aortic valve. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  12. Effects of Co-Culture Media on Hepatic Differentiation of hiPSC with or without HUVEC Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Greuel, Selina; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2017-08-07

    The derivation of hepatocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) is of great interest for applications in pharmacological research. However, full maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes has not yet been achieved in vitro. To improve hepatic differentiation, co-cultivation of hiPSC with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) during hepatic differentiation was investigated in this study. In the first step, different culture media variations based on hepatocyte culture medium (HCM) were tested in HUVEC mono-cultures to establish a suitable culture medium for co-culture experiments. Based on the results, two media variants were selected to differentiate hiPSC-derived definitive endodermal (DE) cells into mature hepatocytes with or without HUVEC addition. DE cells differentiated in mono-cultures in the presence of those media variants showed a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in secretion of α-fetoprotein and in activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 as compared with cells differentiated in unmodified HCM used as control. Co-cultivation with HUVEC did not further improve the differentiation outcome. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of the used medium outweighed the effect of HUVEC co-culture, emphasizing the importance of the culture medium composition for hiPSC differentiation.

  13. The larvae of congeneric gastropods showed differential responses to the combined effects of ocean acidification, temperature and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyu; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-02-15

    The tolerance and physiological responses of the larvae of two congeneric gastropods, the intertidal Nassarius festivus and subtidal Nassarius conoidalis, to the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 at 380, 950, 1250 ppm), temperature (15, 30°C) and salinity (10, 30 psu) were compared. Results of three-way ANOVA on cumulative mortality after 72-h exposure showed significant interactive effects in which mortality increased with pCO2 and temperature, but reduced at higher salinity for both species, with higher mortality being obtained for N. conoidalis. Similarly, respiration rate of the larvae increased with temperature and pCO2 level for both species, with a larger percentage increase for N. conoidalis. Larval swimming speed increased with temperature and salinity for both species whereas higher pCO2 reduced swimming speed in N. conoidalis but not N. festivus. The present findings indicated that subtidal congeneric species are more sensitive than their intertidal counterparts to the combined effects of these stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  15. Different types of exercise induce differential effects on neuronal adaptations and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Shean-Jen; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jen, Chauying J

    2012-01-01

    Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) on the Pavlovian fear conditioning task that assesses learning and memory performance associated with the amygdala (cued conditioning) and both the amygdala and hippocampus (contextual conditioning). The skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic capacity, was elevated in rats received 4 w of TR, but not WR. While both TR and WR elevated the contextual conditional response, only TR facilitated the cued conditional response. Using a single-neuron labeling technique, we found that while both TR and MR enlarged the dendritic field and increased the spine density in hippocampal CA3 neurons, only TR showed these effects in basolateral amygdalar neurons. Moreover, both types of exercise upregulated synaptic proteins (i.e., TrkB and SNAP-25) in the hippocampus; however only TR showed similar effects in the amygdala. Injection of K252a, a TrkB kinase inhibitor, in the dorsal hippocampus or basolateral amygdala abolished the exercise-facilitated contextual or cued fear learning and memory performance, respectively, regardless of the types of exercise. In summary, our results supported that different types of exercise affect the performance of learning and memory via BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in specific brain regions. The brain region-specific neuronal adaptations are possibly induced by various levels of intensity/stress elicited by different types of exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of ethanol on human osteosarcoma cell proliferatation, differentiation and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignesh, R.C.; Sitta Djody, S.; Jayasudha, E.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ilangovan, R.; Balaganesh, M.; Veni, S.; Sridhar, M.; Srinivasan, N.

    2006-01-01

    The habitual consumption of even moderate quantities of alcoholic beverages is clearly associated with reduced bone mass, increased prevalence of skeletal fracture and also it is the major risk factor for the development of secondary osteoporosis. The present in vitro study was designed to determine the dose response effects of ethanol on osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma cells (SaOS-2) proliferation, differentiation, mineralization and cyto-toxicity. SaOS-2 cells were plated in 48 and 6 well culture plates and exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (1, 10, 100, 200 and 300 mM) for 24, 48 and 72 h. At the end of incubation, proliferation of cells was studied using crystal violet Bioassay. The cell lysate was utilized to determine ALP activity and conditioned media were used to measure LDH activity. Histochemical localization of ALP and mineralized nodules were studied from cells treated with ethanol (10 and 100 mM) for 21 days. At higher doses, there was a significant reduction in cell number, whereas at lower doses there were variable effects. In 24 h treatment, the higher doses showed a significant increase in ALP activity, whereas 48 and 72 h treatments showed an opposite trend. Ethanol treatment caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in LDH activity. Ethanol treatment altered the quality of mineralization at 10 mM dose whereas completely inhibited mineralization at 100 mM dose, despite the presence of serum. In conclusion, the toxic effect of ethanol is reflected on cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization even at low doses and at extended treatment duration

  17. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  18. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  19. Combined Effects of Surface Morphology and Mechanical Straining Magnitudes on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells without Using Biochemical Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Jang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies examining the control of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation into desired cell types have used a variety of biochemical reagents such as growth factors despite possible side effects. Recently, the roles of biomimetic microphysical environments have drawn much attention in this field. We studied MSC differentiation and changes in gene expression in relation to osteoblast-like cell and smooth muscle-like cell type resulting from various microphysical environments, including differing magnitudes of tensile strain and substrate geometries for 8 days. In addition, we also investigated the residual effects of those selected microphysical environment factors on the differentiation by ceasing those factors for 3 days. The results of this study showed the effects of the strain magnitudes and surface geometries. However, the genes which are related to the same cell type showed different responses depending on the changes in strain magnitude and surface geometry. Also, different responses were observed three days after the straining was stopped. These data confirm that controlling microenvironments so that they mimic those in vivo contributes to the differentiation of MSCs into specific cell types. And duration of straining engagement was also found to play important roles along with surface geometry.

  20. Stimulatory effect of undecylenic acid on mouse osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hee; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Natural compounds with bone-forming (or anabolic) activity have been recently focused on in bone research. The present study investigated the effect of undecylenic acid (UA) on osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and primary mouse calvarial cells. Low concentrations of UA (up to 5 microM) exhibited no cytotoxicity and significantly increased the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (early differentiation marker of osteoblast) and calcium deposition with the induction of expression of the osteocalcin gene in both cells. Interestingly, at low concentration of UA, the induction of NF-kappaB p65 translocation into nucleus and the up-regulation of AP-1 and NFATc1 transcript levels were also observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of UA on osteoblast differentiation could be mediated through the activation of transcription factors. Additionally, although the patterns of UA-induced activation of MAP kinases (JNK and p38) were not completely consistent with the increase of both ALP activity and calcium deposition by UA, MAP kinases might be partially involved in the biological function of UA during the early and late stages of osteoblast differentiation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 antagonist SR141716A on human adipocyte inflammatory profile and differentiation

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    Murumalla Ravi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is characterized by inflammation, caused by increase in proinflammatory cytokines, a key factor for the development of insulin resistance. SR141716A, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 antagonist, shows significant improvement in clinical status of obese/diabetic patients. Therefore, we studied the effect of SR141716A on human adipocyte inflammatory profile and differentiation. Methods Adipocytes were obtained from liposuction. Stromal vascular cells were extracted and differentiated into adipocytes. Media and cells were collected for secretory (ELISA and expression analysis (qPCR. Triglyceride accumulation was observed using oil red-O staining. Cholesterol was assayed by a fluorometric method. 2-AG and anandamide were quantified using isotope dilution LC-MS. TLR-binding experiments have been conducted in HEK-Blue cells. Results In LPS-treated mature adipocytes, SR141716A was able to decrease the expression and secretion of TNF-a. This molecule has the same effect in LPS-induced IL-6 secretion, while IL-6 expression is not changed. Concerning MCP-1, the basal level is down-regulated by SR141716A, but not the LPS-induced level. This effect is not caused by a binding of the molecule to TLR4 (LPS receptor. Moreover, SR141716A restored adiponectin secretion to normal levels after LPS treatment. Lastly, no effect of SR141716A was detected on human pre-adipocyte differentiation, although the compound enhanced adiponectin gene expression, but not secretion, in differentiated pre-adipocytes. Conclusion We show for the first time that some clinical effects of SR141716A are probably directly related to its anti-inflammatory effect on mature adipocytes. This fact reinforces that adipose tissue is an important target in the development of tools to treat the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  3. Different Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 on Myogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Doaa Aboalola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are critical components of the stem cell niche, as they regulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells into different lineages, including skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6, which has high affinity for IGF-2, alters the differentiation process of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs into skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined the roles of IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their interactions with IGFBP-6. We showed that IGF-1 increased IGFBP-6 levels within 24 hours but decreased after 3 days, while IGF-2 maintained higher levels of IGFBP-6 throughout myogenesis. IGF-1 increased IGFBP-6 in the early phase as a requirement for muscle commitment. In contrast, IGF-2 enhanced muscle differentiation as shown by the expression of muscle differentiation markers MyoD, MyoG, and MHC. IGF-1 and IGF-2 had different effects on muscle differentiation with IGF-1 promoting early commitment to muscle and IGF-2 promoting complete muscle differentiation. We also showed that PMSCs acquired increasing capacity to synthesize IGF-2 during muscle differentiation, and the capacity increased as the differentiation progressed suggesting an autocrine and/or paracrine effect. Additionally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-6 could enhance the muscle differentiation process in the absence of IGF-2.

  4. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between 19 and 65 years ( M age = 41, SD = 14) indicated their job attraction for each of 40 hypothetical job descriptions in which the four job characteristics were systematically manipulated (in total, participants provided 3,280 ratings). Results of multilevel analyses showed that the positive effects of task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job were stronger for younger compared to older employees, whereas we did not find significant age-differential effects of job autonomy on job attraction. These findings are only partially consistent with propositions of Truxillo et al.'s (2012) lifespan perspective on job design.

  5. [Inhibitory effect of murine cytomegalovirus infection on neural stem cells' differentiation and its mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-feng; Fang, Feng; Dong, Yong-sui; Zhou, Hua; Zhen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Li, Ge

    2006-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading infectious cause of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system caused by intrauterine infection. However, the exact pathogenesis of these brain abnormalities has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that periependymitis, periventricular necrosis and calcification are the most frequent findings in the brains of congenital CMV infection. Because a number of multipotential neural stem cells (NSCs) have been identified from ventricular zone, it is possible that NSCs in this area are primary targets for viral infection, which seems to be primarily responsible for the generation of the brain abnormalities. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection on neural stem cells' differentiation in vitro and its role in the mechanisms of brain abnormalities caused by congenital cytomegalovirus infection. NSCs were prepared from fetal BALB/c mouse and were infected with recombinant MCMV RM461 inserted with a report gene LacZ at 1 multiplicity of infection (MOI = 1). The effect of MCMV infection on neural stem cells' differentiation was observed by detecting the ratio of nestin, GFAP and NSE positive cells with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry on day 2 postinfection. The effects of MCMV infection on gene expression of Wnt-1 and neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) related to neural differentiation were detected by RT-PCR. NSCs isolated from embryonic mouse brains strongly expressed nestin, a specific marker of NSCs and had the capacity to differentiate into NF-200 and NSE positive neurons or GFAP positive astrocytes. At MOI = 1, the results of flow cytometry assay showed that nestin positive cells' proportion in the infection group [(62.2 +/- 1.8)%] was higher than that in the normal group [(37.2 +/- 2.4)%] (t = 4.62, P differentiation, which may be primary causes of disorders of brain development in congenital CMV infection. The decreased

  6. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  7. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  8. Effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjuan ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP on the adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. DOP was extracted fresh Dendrobium officinale. Rat BMSCs were prepared, and then were treated with 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/mL DOP, respectively. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The adipogenic differentiation was quantitatively analyzed by oil red O staining assay. The mRNA expressions of adipogenic differentiation related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 were detected by RT-PCR. Results showed that, DOP with 0-800 μg/mL concentration had no significant toxicity to BMSCs. 200-800 μg/mL DOP could obviously inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Compared with control group, the expression levels of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 mRNA 200, 400 and 800 μg/mL DOP groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. DOP can inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which may be related with its down-regulation of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 expressions in BMSCs.

  9. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  10. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

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    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Subpopulations of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Differential Effects in Delaying Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Tian, H; Li, Z; Wang, L; Gao, F; Ou, Q; Lian, C; Li, W; Jin, C; Zhang, J; Xu, J-Y; Wang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, F; Lu, L; Xu, G-T

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have a therapeutic role in retinal degeneration (RD). However, heterogeneity of BMSCs may be associated with differential therapeutic effects in RD. In order to confirm this hypothesis, two subsets of rat BMSCs, termed rBMSC1 and rBMSC2, were obtained, characterized and functionally evaluated in the treatment of RD of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Both subpopulations expressed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) markers CD29 and CD90, but were negative for hemacyte antigen CD11b and CD45 expression. In comparison with rBMSC2, rBMSC1 showed higher rate of proliferation, stronger colony formation, and increased adipogenic potential, whereas rBMSC2 exhibited higher osteogenic potential. Microarray analysis showed differential gene expression patterns between rBMSC1 and rBMSC2, including functions related to proliferation, differentiation, immunoregulation, stem cell maintenance and division, survival and antiapoptosis. After subretinal transplantation in RCS rats, rBMSC1 showed stronger rescue effect than rBMSC2, including increased b-wave amplitude, restored retinal nuclear layer thickness, and decreased number of apoptotic photoreceptors, whereas the rescue function of rBMSC2 was essentially not better than the control. Histological analysis also demonstrated that rBMSC1 possessed a higher survival rate than rBMSC2 in subretinal space. In addition, treatment of basic fibroblast growth factor, an accompanying event in subretinal injection, triggered more robust increase in secretion of growth factors by rBMSC1 as compared to rBMSC2. Taken together, these results have suggested that the different therapeutic functions of BMSC subpopulations are attributed to their distinct survival capabilities and paracrine functions. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the different functions of BMSC subpopulation may lead to a new strategy for the treatment of RD.

  12. Effects of the imposed pressure differential conditions on duoplasmatron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztarhan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The duoplasmatron plasma source (D.P.T.) was modified to allow access to the arc discharge (to measure the discharge properties) and to vary independently the pressures in different volumes of the arc with the aim of seeing if this freedom would help in optimising the output. The duoplasmatron plasma source was operated under normal running condition (N.R.C.), positive imposed pressure differential condition (P.I.P.D.C.) and negative imposed pressure differential condition (N.I.P.D.C.) and the corresponding properties of the plasma output were measured. Running the duoplasmatron under P.I.P.D. condition did not seem to improve the output as compared to that under N.R.C. However, running the duoplasmatron under N.I.P.D. condition seemed to be advantageous as the output increased by about 30%. It was observed that the back pressure was critical in maintaining the arc and the gap pressure could be lowered much below the normal minimum (while the arc was on) if back pressure was kept above a critical value. The results showed that the effects of varying the dimensions of the intermediate electrode nozzle on the output could be understood in terms of the effect of changes in these dimensions on the relative pressures. An empirical expression for the effect of the pressure ratio was developed from the observations and compared with the experimental results. The reasons for various results can be related to the plasma emission mechanism. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  13. Differential effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on arm position sense in right- vs. left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lena; Artinger, Frank; Stumpf, Oliver; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The human brain is organized asymmetrically in two hemispheres with different functional specializations. Left- and right-handers differ in many functional capacities and their anatomical representations. Right-handers often show a stronger functional lateralization than left-handers, the latter showing a more bilateral, symmetrical brain organization. Recent functional imaging evidence shows a different lateralization of the cortical vestibular system towards the side of the preferred hand in left- vs. right-handers as well. Since the vestibular system is involved in somatosensory processing and the coding of body position, vestibular stimulation should affect such capacities differentially in left- vs. right-handers. In the present, sham-stimulation-controlled study we explored this hypothesis by studying the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on proprioception in both forearms in left- and right-handers. Horizontal arm position sense (APS) was measured with an opto-electronic device. Second, the polarity-specific online- and after-effects of subsensory, bipolar GVS on APS were investigated in different sessions separately for both forearms. At baseline, both groups did not differ in their unsigned errors for both arms. However, right-handers showed significant directional errors in APS of both arms towards their own body. Right-cathodal/left-anodal GVS, resulting in right vestibular cortex activation, significantly deteriorated left APS in right-handers, but had no detectable effect on APS in left-handers in either arm. These findings are compatible with a right-hemisphere dominance for vestibular functions in right-handers and a differential vestibular organization in left-handers that compensates for the disturbing effects of GVS on APS. Moreover, our results show superior arm proprioception in left-handers in both forearms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Robust photonic differentiator employing slow light effect in photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated.......A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated....

  15. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  16. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  17. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  18. Beam geometry, alignment, and wavefront aberration effects on interferometric differential wavefront sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiangzhi; Gillmer, S R; Ellis, J D

    2015-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometry is a widely accepted methodology with high resolution in many metrology applications. As a functionality enhancement, differential wavefront sensing (DWS) enables simultaneous measurement of displacement, pitch, and yaw using a displacement interferometry system and a single beam incident on a plane mirror target. The angular change is measured using a weighted phase average between symmetrically adjacent quadrant photodiode pairs. In this paper, we present an analytical model to predict the scaling of differential phase signals based on fundamental Gaussian beams. Several numerical models are presented to discuss the effects of physical beam parameters, detector size, system alignment errors, and beam wavefront aberrations on the DWS technique. The results of our modeling predict rotational scaling factors and a usable linear range. Furthermore, experimental results show the analytically predicted scaling factor is in good agreement with empirical calibration. Our three degree-of-freedom interferometer can achieve a resolution of 0.4 nm in displacement and 0.2 μrad in pitch and yaw simultaneously. (paper)

  19. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  20. Real parameter optimization by an effective differential evolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Effective Differential Evolution (EDE algorithm for solving real parameter optimization problems over continuous domain. The proposed algorithm proposes a new mutation rule based on the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy through a linear decreasing probability rule. The proposed mutation rule is shown to promote local search capability of the basic DE and to make it faster. Furthermore, a random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme are merged to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, the scaling factor and crossover of DE are introduced as uniform random numbers to enrich the search behavior and to enhance the diversity of the population. The effectiveness and benefits of the proposed modifications used in EDE has been experimentally investigated. Numerical experiments on a set of bound-constrained problems have shown that the new approach is efficient, effective and robust. The comparison results between the EDE and several classical differential evolution methods and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants indicate that the proposed EDE algorithm is competitive with , and in some cases superior to, other algorithms in terms of final solution quality, efficiency, convergence rate, and robustness.

  1. Effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention in geometry in senior secondary schools was examined. The study employed experimental research design of pretest, posttest control group. The area of this study is Abuja Municipal Area Council, the Federal Capital Territory. The target population ...

  2. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Thomas M; Schildberg, Frank A; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Matthias D; Haddouti, El-Mustapha; Gravius, Sascha; Ito, Keita; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on towards terminal

  3. Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Newman, Daniel A; Fraley, R Chris; Haltigan, John D; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the state of the art in distinguishing data generated by differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models. We discuss several limitations of existing practices for probing interaction effects and offer solutions that are designed to better differentiate differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models and quantify their corresponding implications. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of these methods by revisiting published evidence suggesting that temperamental difficulty serves as a marker of enhanced susceptibility to early maternal caregiving across a range of outcome domains in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We find that, with the exception of mother reports of psychopathology, there is consistent evidence in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development that the predictive significance of early sensitivity is moderated by difficult temperament over time. However, differential susceptibility effects emerged primarily for teacher reports of academic skills, social competence, and symptomatology. In contrast, effects more consistent with the diathesis-stress model were obtained for mother reports of social skills and objective tests of academic skills. We conclude by discussing the value of the application of this work to the next wave of Gene × Environment studies focused on early caregiving experiences.

  4. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices. PMID:28713615

  5. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies.

  6. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Chambers, Earle C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. PMID:12911254

  7. Moyal star product of μ-holomorphic j-differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, K.

    2007-08-01

    It was shown only for scalar conformal fields, that the Moyal-Weyl star product can introduce the quantum effect as the phase factor to the ordinary product. In this paper we show that, even on the same complex structure, the Moyal-Weyl star product of two j-differentials (conformal fields of weights (j, 0)) does not vanish but it generates the quantum effect at the first order of its perturbative series. More generally, we get the explicit expression of the Moyal-Weyl star product of j-differentials defined on any complex structure of a bi-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. We show that the star product of two j-differentials is not a j-differential and does not preserve the conformal covariance character. This can shed some light on the Moyal-Weyl deformation quantization procedure connection's with the deformation of complex structures on a Riemann surface. Hence, the situation might relate the star products to the Moduli and Teichmuller spaces of Riemann surfaces. (author)

  8. Modelling ventricular fibrillation coarseness during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by mixed effects stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kenneth; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2015-10-15

    For patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and being in a shockable rhythm, the coarseness of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an indicator of the state of the patient. In the current work, we show how mixed effects stochastic differential equations (SDE) models, commonly used in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, can be used to model the relationship between CPR quality measurements and ECG coarseness. This is a novel application of mixed effects SDE models to a setting quite different from previous applications of such models and where using such models nicely solves many of the challenges involved in analysing the available data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hes1-deficient mice show precocious differentiation of Paneth cells in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsumasa; Fukui, Hirokazu; Kayahara, Takahisa; Sawada, Mitsutaka; Seno, Hiroshi; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that Hes1 is expressed both in putative epithelial stem cells just above Paneth cells and in the crypt base columnar cells between Paneth cells, while Hes1 is completely absent in Paneth cells. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of Hes1 in Paneth cell differentiation, using Hes1-knockout (KO) newborn (P0) mice. Electron microscopy revealed premature appearance of distinct cells containing cytoplasmic granules in the intervillous region in Hes1-KO P0 mice, whereas those cells were absent in wild-type (WT) P0 mice. In Hes1-KO P0 mice, the gene expressions of cryptdins, exclusively present in Paneth cells, were all enhanced compared with WT P0 mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased number of both lysozyme-positive and cryptdin-4-positive cells in the small intestinal epithelium of Hes1-KO P0 mice as compared to WT P0 mice. Thus, Hes1 appears to have an inhibitory role in Paneth cell differentiation in the small intestine

  10. Inhibitory effects of coumarins from the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunjin; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    In the course of screening anti-adipogenic activity of natural products employing the preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1 as an in vitro assay system, the EtOAc fraction of the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla DENCE (Oleaceae) showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six coumarins such as esculetin (1), scopoletin (2), fraxetin (3), fraxidin (4) esculin (5) and fraxin (6). Among the six coumarins isolated, esculetin (1) showed the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation, followed by fraxetin (3). Further studies with interval treatment demonstrated that esculetin (1) exerted inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation when treated within 2 d (days 0-2) after differentiation induction. We further investigated the effect of esculetin (1) on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), one of the early adipogenic transcription factors. Esculetin (1) significantly blocked the induction of PPARgamma protein expression and inhibited adipocyte differentiation induced by troglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist. Taken together, these results suggest that esculetin (1), an active compound from F. rhynchophylla, inhibited early stage of adipogenic differentiation, in part, via inhibition of PPARgamma-dependent pathway.

  11. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  12. Effects of Na/K-ATPase and its ligands on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Sayed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous ligands of Na/K-ATPase have been demonstrated to increase in kidney dysfunction and heart failure. It is also reported that Na/K-ATPase signaling function effects stem cell differentiation. This study evaluated whether Na/K-ATPase activation through its ligands and associated signaling functions affect bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation capacity. BMSCs were isolated from male Sprague–Dawley rats and cultured in minimal essential medium alpha (MEM-α supplemented with 15% Fetal Bovine serum (FBS. The results showed that marinobufagenin (MBG, a specific Na/K-ATPase ligand, potentiated rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in these BMSCs. Meanwhile, it attenuated BMSC osteogenesis. Mechanistically, MBG increased CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα protein expression through activation of an extracellular regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway, which leads to enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. Inhibition of ERK activation by U0126 blocks the effect of MBG on C/EBPα expression and on rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. Reciprocally, MBG reduced runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2 expression, which resulted in the inhibition of osteogenesis induced by β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid. MBG also potentiated rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and in mouse BMSCs. These results suggest that Na/K-ATPase and its signaling functions are involved in the regulation of BMSCs differentiation.

  13. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  15. Synergistic effect of defined artificial extracellular matrices and pulsed electric fields on osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ricarda; Jaeschke, Anna; Neubert, Holger; Hintze, Vera; Moeller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Hart, David A; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In vivo, bone formation is a complex, tightly regulated process, influenced by multiple biochemical and physical factors. To develop a vital bone tissue engineering construct, all of these individual components have to be considered and integrated to gain an in vivo-like stimulation of target cells. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the synergistic role of defined biochemical and physical microenvironments with respect to osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Biochemical microenvironments have been designed using artificial extracellular matrices (aECMs), containing collagen I (coll) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like chondroitin sulfate (CS), or a high-sulfated hyaluronan derivative (sHya), formulated as coatings on three-dimensional poly(caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCL) scaffolds. As part of the physical microenvironment, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields via transformer-like coupling (TC). Results showed that aECM containing sHya enhanced osteogenic differentiation represented by increases in ALP activity and gene-expression (RT-qPCR) of several bone-related proteins (RUNX-2, ALP, OPN). Electric field stimulation alone did not influence cell proliferation, but osteogenic differentiation was enhanced if osteogenic supplements were provided, showing synergistic effects by the combination of sHya and electric fields. These results will improve the understanding of bone regeneration processes and support the development of effective tissue engineered bone constructs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of lactoferrin on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Peng, Lei; Zi Xu, Hua; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Many in vitro studies of the analysis of the lactoferrin (LF) effect on cells have been reported. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. The hADSCs were cultured in an osteogenic medium with 0, 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml LF, respectively. hADSC proliferation was analysed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, von Kossa staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was significantly increased by LF in a dose-dependent manner from days 4 to 14. Cells cultured with 100 μg/ml LF presented a higher activity compared with the control. The deposition of calcium was increased after the addition of LF. The mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL-I), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and RUNX2 increased markedly as a result of LF treatment. We have shown for the first time that LF could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, which could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The sex hormones are known to affect innate immunity in humans. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of testosterone in a model system comprising of all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, and confirmed the results in human granulocytes and monocytes. Results showed...... that testosterone at pharmacological doses reduced the production of interleukin-8 and reactive oxygen species from differentiated HL-60 cells in a concentration dependent manner without affecting phagocytosis. The cells were stimulated with zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, or Bacillus subtilis. At the highest...... concentration of testosterone (120 µM), interleukin-8 secretion was reduced 42-80%, and production of reactive oxygen species was reduced 32-46%. Flutamide, an antagonist of the classical intracellular androgen receptor, was unable to antagonize the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone. We further...

  18. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  19. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  20. Differential effects of platelet rich plasma and washed platelets on the proliferation of mouse MSC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianmin; Kuang, Wei; Tan, Jiali; Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Yi; Hirotaka, Kikuchi; Tadashi, Katayama

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies are being tested clinically for a variety of disorders. However, despite the remarkable clinical advancements in this field, most applications still use traditional culture media containing fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) appears as a novel application for tissue engineering and its effect on bone healing is thought to be mainly dependent on the proliferation promoting function, with the molecular mechanisms largely unknown. In this study, mouse osteogenic progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in PRP or washed platelet (WPLT)-treated wells or in untreated wells, and analyzed on cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) expression (qRT-PCR), cell growth (MTT assay) and cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity). The results showed that PRP and WPLT stimulated cell growth similarly in the first 6 days, together with the steady induction of COX2 and PGE2. 10 μmol/l celecoxib (an inhibitor of COX2) significantly inhibited the pro-proliferation effects. Interestingly, WPLT had stronger effects than PRP in proliferation at the later time points (6-9 days). ALP activity assay and collagen 1a expression revealed PRP had a mild but statistically significant pro-differentiation effect, while no obvious effects observed in WLPT group. In summary, PRP stimulates initial growth of MSCs in a COX2 partially dependent manner and the less obvious osteogenic differentiation promoting effects of WPLT strongly indicates WPLT rather than the PRP should be the optional choice for expanding MSCs in vitro for clinical use.

  1. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  2. Effect of Co-Culturing of Mice Liver Cells and Embryonic Carcinomatous Stem Cells on the Rate of Differentiation to Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Pourfatollah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of co-culture in differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of co-culturing fetal liver stroma cells with P19 cells on the line of differentiation. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, P19 cells were cultured directly in semisolid medium. These cells proliferated and primarily differentiated to colonies know as embryoid bodies (EBs after 8-12 days. The Ebs cells were trypsinized and dissociated to single or double cells. Then these cells were co-cultured on the mouse fetal liver feeder layer in the absence of exogenous factors. After 14-18 days, the colonies were studied morphologically by benzidine and giemsa staining and also counted under invert microscope. Results: The percentages of benzidine positive (or erythroid and negative colonies were 94% and 6% respectively and also the cells of colonies were studied by Giemsa staining. Results showed that they were myeloid or lymphoid type cells. Thus, the results show that in the presence of mouse fetal liver feeder layer, the number of erythroid colonies was increased. Conclusions: Therefore, this technique may be effective for differentiation of stem cells from different sources into hematopoietic cells and can be used in future for human cell therapy.

  3. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Y; Maillard, J-M

    2017-01-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi–Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings. (paper)

  4. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Y.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi-Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings.

  5. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  6. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  7. Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). METHODS: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a ...

  8. Differential effects of Rhodiola rosea on regulatory T cell differentiation and interferon‑γ production in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi; Li, Pingping; Zhang, Peng; Chu, Ming; Liu, Hongju; Chen, Xiaoping; Ge, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a type of adaptogen, has been previously reported to exhibit immunostimulating activity in rodents and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. To examine the effect of R. rosea on T cells under simulated microgravity, spaceflight analogs of human head‑down bed rest (HDBR) at ‑6˚ and murine hind limb unloading (HU) were used. A decrease in the levels of interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ) and interleukin‑17 (IL‑17) and an increase in regulatory T (Treg) cells were observed in the placebo group following HDBR. The R. rosea treated HBDR group demonstrated further decreased IFN‑γ production, however, R. rosea exhibited no effect on the ratio of circulating Tregs or Treg cell differentiation. By contrast, the treatment of R. rosea on human T cells in vitro did not alter IFN‑γ secretion, however, Treg differentiation was significantly reduced. An R. rosea‑induced upregulation of hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) contributed to the suppression of Treg differentiation in vitro. Differences in the effect of R. rosea in vitro and in vivo were also observed using a mouse model of microgravity. The results of the current study suggest that R. rosea has differential modulatory effects on T cells in vivo and in vitro and care should be taken when evaluating the effects of R. rosea on the immune system.

  9. A New Comparison Principle for Impulsive Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a new comparison principle for impulsive differential systems with time delay. Then, using this comparison principle, we obtain some sufficient conditions for several stabilities of impulsive delay differential equations. Finally, we present an example to show the effectiveness of our results.

  10. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C.; Sullivan, Aideen M.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on ne...

  11. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  12. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory) for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours) after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  13. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke T R van Kesteren

    Full Text Available Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  14. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-07-09

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  15. Multiscale Analysis of Effects of Additive and Multiplicative Noise on Delay Differential Equations near a Bifurcation Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klosek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations. (author)

  16. The Effects of High Glucose on Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Gestational Tissue-Derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Hankamolsiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most type 2 diabetic patients are obese who have increased number of visceral adipocytes. Those visceral adipocytes release several factors that enhance insulin resistance making diabetic treatment ineffective. It is known that significant percentages of visceral adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and high glucose enhances adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. However, the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow and gestational tissue-derived MSCs is still poorly characterized. This study aims to investigate the effects of high glucose on proliferation as well as adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow and several gestational tissues including chorion, placenta, and umbilical cord. We found that high glucose reduced proliferation but enhanced adipogenic differentiation of all MSCs examined. The expression levels of some adipogenic genes were also upregulated when MSCs were cultured in high glucose. Although high glucose transiently downregulated the expression levels of some osteogenic genes examined, its effect on the osteogenic differentiation levels of the MSCs is not clearly demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this study will increase our understanding about the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and might lead to an improvement in the diabetic treatment in the future.

  17. Effects of Angular Variation on Split D Differential Eddy Current Probe Response (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0327 EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT) Ryan D...March 2014 – 22 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT... Current Probe Response Ryan D. Mooers1, a) and John C. Aldrin2 1United States Air Force Research Labs, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Structural

  18. [Effects of nicotine on bone marrow stromal cells proliferation and differentiation of chondrocyte in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiao-zhou; Peng, Lei; Cheng, Shao-wen; Chen, Qing-yu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-quan; Shen, Yue

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of various concentration of nicotine on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) proliferation and differentiation of cartilaginous in vitro. BMSCs was obtained from femoral bone and tibia of New-Zealand albino rabbit. The cells of the 3rd generation were used in study. Different concentration of nicotine (0, 1 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6), 1 x 10(-5) M) were added into BMSCs. BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay at the 1, 4, 7, 14 days. The expression of collagen type II and aggrecan as the marker genes of cartilaginous differentiation from BMSCs were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microscope showed that BMSCs transformed from round to fusiform shape. The concentration of nicotine in 1 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6) M had a significant positive effect on cell proliferation and the expression of type II collagen in a time-dependent manner when supplemented in commonly used induction media (P<0.05). Concentrations of nicotine in 1 x 10(-7) can promote the expression of aggrecan at the 7th day after induction,and in 1 x 10(-5) M may inhibit the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. It was implied that local application of nicotine at an appropriate concentration may be a promising approach for enhancing cartilaginous differentiation capacity of BMSCs in cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. Differentiation of initial skills in 1st grade and the relative age effect in 3rd grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KONARZEWSKI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to verify two hypotheses. The first states that the differentiation of initial 1st grade pupil skills is negatively correlated with age at entry to school. This was tested according to findings from the ERI study Six and seven year olds at the start of school. The variation of reading and writing scores of 1164 pupils aged 5.9–7.9 years who were beginning 1st grade decreased in subsequent age quartiles. The second hypothesis – that classroom differentiation of pupils’ initial skills in 1st grade is positively correlated with the birthdate effect in 3rd grade – was tested on data of 4838 pupils from 254 classrooms drawn from the 2011 PIRLS and TIMSS studies in Poland. Skills were evaluated on the basis of parental reports. Hierarchical linear analysis (gender, SES and school location controlled showed that the greater the differentiation of language skills in 1st grade, the greater the birthdate effect in mathematics in 3rd grade. This result suggests that school entry age is of lesser importance than the methods used to reduce differences in children’s school readiness at the onset of education.

  20. Differential Effects of Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barbosa Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ, a cationic nonselective bipyridyl herbicide, has been used as neurotoxicant to modulate Parkinson’s disease in laboratory settings. Other compounds like rotenone (ROT, a pesticide, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ have been widely used as neurotoxicants. We compared the toxicity of these three neurotoxicants using differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human cells, aiming to elucidate their differential effects. PQ-induced neurotoxicity was shown to be concentration and time dependent, being mitochondrial dysfunction followed by neuronal death. On the other hand, cells exposure to MPP+ induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but not cellular lyses. Meanwhile, ROT promoted both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death, revealing a biphasic pattern. To further elucidate PQ neurotoxic mechanism, several protective agents were used. SH-SY5Y cells pretreatment with tiron (TIR and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid sodium salt (NaSAL, both antioxidants, and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. Additionally, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenylmethoxy]ethyl-4-(3-phenyl-propylpiperazine (GBR 12909, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, and cycloheximide (CHX, a protein synthesis inhibitor, also partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PQ, MPP+, and ROT exerted differential toxic effects on dopaminergic cells. PQ neurotoxicity occurred through exacerbated oxidative stress, with involvement of uptake through the dopamine transporter and protein synthesis.

  1. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua; Li, Zubing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. ► Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. ► Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. ► Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular asymmetry.

  2. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  3. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  4. PPARγ isoforms differentially regulate metabolic networks to mediate mouse prostatic epithelial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, D W; Jiang, M; Murphy, T A; Yi, Y; Konvinse, K C; Franco, O E; Wang, Y; Young, J D; Hayward, S W

    2012-08-09

    Recent observations indicate prostatic diseases are comorbidities of systemic metabolic dysfunction. These discoveries revealed fundamental questions regarding the nature of prostate metabolism. We previously showed that prostate-specific ablation of PPARγ in mice resulted in tumorigenesis and active autophagy. Here, we demonstrate control of overlapping and distinct aspects of prostate epithelial metabolism by ectopic expression of individual PPARγ isoforms in PPARγ knockout prostate epithelial cells. Expression and activation of either PPARγ 1 or 2 reduced de novo lipogenesis and oxidative stress and mediated a switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation through regulation of genes including Pdk4, Fabp4, Lpl, Acot1 and Cd36. Differential effects of PPARγ isoforms included decreased basal cell differentiation, Scd1 expression and triglyceride fatty acid desaturation and increased tumorigenicity by PPARγ1. In contrast, PPARγ2 expression significantly increased basal cell differentiation, Scd1 expression and AR expression and responsiveness. Finally, in confirmation of in vitro data, a PPARγ agonist versus high-fat diet (HFD) regimen in vivo confirmed that PPARγ agonization increased prostatic differentiation markers, whereas HFD downregulated PPARγ-regulated genes and decreased prostate differentiation. These data provide a rationale for pursuing a fundamental metabolic understanding of changes to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in benign and malignant prostatic diseases associated with systemic metabolic stress.

  5. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR, also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  6. Effective quadrature formula in solving linear integro-differential equations of order two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkuvatov, Z. K.; Kammuji, M.; Long, N. M. A. Nik; Yunus, Arif A. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this note, we solve general form of Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations (IDEs) of order 2 with boundary condition approximately and show that proposed method is effective and reliable. Initially, IDEs is reduced into integral equation of the third kind by using standard integration techniques and identity between multiple and single integrals then truncated Legendre series are used to estimate the unknown function. For the kernel integrals, we have applied Gauss-Legendre quadrature formula and collocation points are chosen as the roots of the Legendre polynomials. Finally, reduce the integral equations of the third kind into the system of algebraic equations and Gaussian elimination method is applied to get approximate solutions. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods reveal that the proposed method is very effective and dominated others in many cases. General theory of existence of the solution is also discussed.

  7. Effect of human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on differentiation and apoptosis of the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Postiglione

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of human granulocyte macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF on the relation between differentiation and apoptosis in SaOS-2 cells, an osteoblast-like cell line. To determine the relationship between these cellular processes, SaOS-2 cells were treated in vitro for 1, 7 and 14 days with 200 ng/mL GM-CSF and compared with untreated cells. Five nM insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and 30 nM okadaic acid were used as negative and positive controls of apoptosis, respectively. Effects on cell differentiation were determined by ECM (extracellular matrix mineralization, morphology of some typical mature osteoblast differentiation markers, such as osteopontin and sialoprotein II (BSP-II, and production of bone ECM components such as collagen I. The results showed that treatment with GM-CSF caused cell differentiation accompanied by increased production of osteopontin and BSP-II, together with increased ECM deposition and mineralization. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V and propidium iodide incorporation showed that GM-CSF up-regulated apoptotic cell death of SaOS-2 cells after 14 days of culture in contrast to okadaic acid, which stimulated SaOS-2 apoptosis only during the early period of culture. Endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, detected by “laddering analysis”, confirmed these data. The results suggest that GM-CSF induces osteoblastic differentiation and long-term apoptotic cell death of the SaOS-2 human osteosarcoma cell line, which in turn suggests a possible in vivo physiological role for GM-CSF on human osteoblast cells.

  8. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  9. Differential effects of ADORA2A gene variations in pre-attentive visual sensory memory subprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Ness, Vanessa; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

    2012-08-01

    The ADORA2A gene encodes the adenosine A(2A) receptor that is highly expressed in the striatum where it plays a role in modulating glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. Glutamatergic signaling has been suggested to play a pivotal role in cognitive functions related to the pre-attentive processing of external stimuli. Yet, the precise molecular mechanism of these processes is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether ADORA2A gene variation has modulating effects on visual pre-attentive sensory memory processing. Studying two polymorphisms, rs5751876 and rs2298383, in 199 healthy control subjects who performed a partial-report paradigm, we find that ADORA2A variation is associated with differences in the efficiency of pre-attentive sensory memory sub-processes. We show that especially the initial visual availability of stimulus information is rendered more efficiently in the homozygous rare genotype groups. Processes related to the transfer of information into working memory and the duration of visual sensory (iconic) memory are compromised in the homozygous rare genotype groups. Our results show a differential genotype-dependent modulation of pre-attentive sensory memory sub-processes. Hence, we assume that this modulation may be due to differential effects of increased adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling on glutamatergic transmission and striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromatin degradation under the effect of differentiation inductors and γ-radiation on thymus lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Sorokina, N.I.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical inductors of differentiation were shown to cause chromatin degradation in thymus lymphocytes. This process was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitors. The fragments formed after the effect of chemical differentiation inductors on thymocytes were fully identical to chromatin internucleosome degradation products formed in the exposed cells. Chromatin degradation under the effect of chemical differentiation inductors was most pronounced in a more radiosensitive thymocyte fraction

  11. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 μM). Factorial ...

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the diagnostic strategies for differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Chong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Namwon Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Namwon-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sangjin; Ahn, Jeonghoon [National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Division of Healthcare Technology Assessment Research, Department of Economic Evaluation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Junhee [Utrecht University, Collaborating Center for Pharmaceutical Policy and Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) strategy compared with conventional MRI strategy and biopsy to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). A decision tree model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of EOB-MRI, conventional MRI with extracellular contrast agents, and biopsy as the initial diagnostic modality in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions suspected of being FNH or HCA. We analysed the cost and effectiveness, i.e. probability of successful diagnosis of each strategy. Costs were based on utilisation rates and Medicare reimbursements in the USA and South Korea. In the base case analysis of our decision tree model, the effectiveness of the three strategies was similar. The cost of the EOB-MRI strategy ($1283 in USA, $813 in South Korea) was lowest compared with the biopsy strategy ($1725 in USA, $847 in South Korea) and the conventional MRI strategy ($1750 in USA, $962 in South Korea). One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed unchanged results over an acceptable range. EOB-MRI strategy is the most cost-effective strategy for differentiating FNH from HCA in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions in a non-cirrhotic liver. (orig.)

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the diagnostic strategies for differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Sangjin; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Pyo, Junhee; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) strategy compared with conventional MRI strategy and biopsy to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). A decision tree model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of EOB-MRI, conventional MRI with extracellular contrast agents, and biopsy as the initial diagnostic modality in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions suspected of being FNH or HCA. We analysed the cost and effectiveness, i.e. probability of successful diagnosis of each strategy. Costs were based on utilisation rates and Medicare reimbursements in the USA and South Korea. In the base case analysis of our decision tree model, the effectiveness of the three strategies was similar. The cost of the EOB-MRI strategy ($1283 in USA, $813 in South Korea) was lowest compared with the biopsy strategy ($1725 in USA, $847 in South Korea) and the conventional MRI strategy ($1750 in USA, $962 in South Korea). One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed unchanged results over an acceptable range. EOB-MRI strategy is the most cost-effective strategy for differentiating FNH from HCA in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions in a non-cirrhotic liver. (orig.)

  14. Generalized differential transform method to differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Li; Wang Zhen; Zong Zhi

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we generalize the differential transform method to solve differential-difference equation for the first time. Two simple but typical examples are applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized differential transform method in solving differential-difference equation. A Pade technique is also introduced and combined with GDTM in aim of extending the convergence area of presented series solutions. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. Then we apply the differential transform method to the discrete KdV equation and the discrete mKdV equation, and successfully obtain solitary wave solutions. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. We should point out that generalized differential transform method is also easy to be applied to other nonlinear differential-difference equation.

  15. Assessing neurodevelopmental effects of arsenolipids in pre-differentiated human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Barbara; Ebert, Franziska; Meyer, Sören; Francesconi, Kevin A; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    In the general population exposure to arsenic occurs mainly via diet. Highest arsenic concentrations are found in seafood, where arsenic is present predominantly in its organic forms including arsenolipids. Since recent studies have provided evidence that arsenolipids could reach the brain of an organism and exert toxicity in fully differentiated human neurons, this work aims to assess the neurodevelopmental toxicity of arsenolipids. Neurodevelopmental effects of three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC), two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA), arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) were characterized in pre-differentiated human neurons. AsHCs and arsenite caused substantial cytotoxicity in a similar, low concentration range, whereas AsFAs and DMA V were less toxic. AsHCs were highly accessible for cells and exerted pronounced neurodevelopmental effects, with neurite outgrowth and the mitochondrial membrane potential being sensitive endpoints; arsenite did not substantially decrease those two endpoints. In fully differentiated neurons, arsenite and AsHCs caused neurite toxicity. These results indicate for a neurodevelopmental potential of AsHCs. Taken into account the possibility that AsHCs might easily reach the developing brain when exposed during early life, neurotoxicity and neurodevelopmental toxicity cannot be excluded. Further studies are needed in order to progress the urgently needed risk assessment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  17. Feline bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show similar phenotype and functions with regards to neuronal differentiation as human MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jessian L; Greco, Steven J; Patel, Shyam A; Sherman, Lauren S; Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha S; Shrensel, Jeffrey A; Guan, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Guiqin; Ye, Jiang-Hong; Rameshwar, Pranela; Siegel, Allan

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise for treatment of a variety of neurological and other disorders. Cat has a high degree of linkage with the human genome and has been used as a model for analysis of neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and motor disorders. The present study was designed to characterize bone marrow-derived MSCs from cats and to investigate the capacity to generate functional peptidergic neurons. MSCs were expanded with cells from the femurs of cats and then characterized by phenotype and function. Phenotypically, feline and human MSCs shared surface markers, and lacked hematopoietic markers, with similar morphology. As compared to a subset of human MSCs, feline MSCs showed no evidence of the major histocompatibility class II. Since the literature suggested Stro-1 as an indicator of pluripotency, we compared early and late passages feline MSCs and found its expression in >90% of the cells. However, the early passage cells showed two distinct populations of Stro-1-expressing cells. At passage 5, the MSCs were more homogeneous with regards to Stro-1 expression. The passage 5 MSCs differentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells, and generated neurons with electrophysiological properties. This correlated with the expression of mature neuronal markers with concomitant decrease in stem cell-associated genes. At day 12 induction, the cells were positive for MAP2, Neuronal Nuclei, tubulin βIII, Tau and synaptophysin. This correlated with electrophysiological maturity as presented by excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The findings indicate that the cat may constitute a promising biomedical model for evaluation of novel therapies such as stem cell therapy in such neurological disorders as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Copyright © 2012 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zubing, E-mail: lizubing0827@163.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular

  19. Flexibility in a Stackelberg leadership with differentiated goods

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio; Ferreira, Miguel; Pinto, Alberto A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of product differentiation in a Stackelberg model with demand uncertainty for the first mover. We do an ex-ante and ex-post analysis of the profits of the leader and of the follower firms in terms of product differentiation and of the demand uncertainty. We show that even with small uncertainty about the demand, the follower firm can achieve greater profits than the leader, if their products are sufficiently differentiated. We also compute the probability of the sec...

  20. Profound Effect of Profiling Platform and Normalization Strategy on Detection of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Kaiser, Sebastian; Wagner, Carola; Thirion, Christian; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate normalization minimizes the effects of systematic technical variations and is a prerequisite for getting meaningful biological changes. However, there is inconsistency about miRNA normalization performances and recommendations. Thus, we investigated the impact of seven different normalization methods (reference gene index, global geometric mean, quantile, invariant selection, loess, loessM, and generalized procrustes analysis) on intra- and inter-platform performance of two distinct and commonly used miRNA profiling platforms. Methodology/Principal Findings We included data from miRNA profiling analyses derived from a hybridization-based platform (Agilent Technologies) and an RT-qPCR platform (Applied Biosystems). Furthermore, we validated a subset of miRNAs by individual RT-qPCR assays. Our analyses incorporated data from the effect of differentiation and tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment on primary human skeletal muscle cells and a murine skeletal muscle cell line. Distinct normalization methods differed in their impact on (i) standard deviations, (ii) the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, (iii) the similarity of differential expression. Loess, loessM, and quantile analysis were most effective in minimizing standard deviations on the Agilent and TLDA platform. Moreover, loess, loessM, invariant selection and generalized procrustes analysis increased the area under the ROC curve, a measure for the statistical performance of a test. The Jaccard index revealed that inter-platform concordance of differential expression tended to be increased by loess, loessM, quantile, and GPA normalization of AGL and TLDA data as well as RGI normalization of TLDA data. Conclusions/Significance We recommend the application of loess, or loessM, and GPA normalization for miRNA Agilent arrays and qPCR cards as these normalization approaches showed to (i) effectively reduce standard deviations, (ii) increase sensitivity and accuracy of

  1. Tridax procumbens flavonoids promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tridaxprocumbens flavonoids (TPFs are well known for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides traditionally used for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, gout, asthma, ulcer, piles, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric problems, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. TPFs have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Our previous study showed that TPFs were significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. However, the effects of TPFs to promote osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation remain unclear. TPFs were isolated from Tridax procumbens and investigated for their effects on osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation by using primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts RESULTS: TPFs promoted osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner demonstrated by up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. TPFs also upregulated osteoblast differentiation related genes, including osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 in primary osteoblasts. TPFs treated primary osteoblast cells showed significant upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs including Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7. Addition of noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited TPFs induced upregulation of the osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 CONCLUSION: Our findings point towards the induction of osteoblast differentiation by TPFs and suggested that TPFs could be a potential anabolic agent to treat patients with bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis

  2. Disability differentials in educational attainment in England: primary and secondary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-04-17

    Childhood disability has been largely overlooked in social stratification and life course research. As a result, we know remarkably little about mechanisms behind well-documented disability differentials in educational outcomes. This study investigates educational transitions of disabled youth using data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We draw on social stratification literature on primary and secondary effects as well as that on stigma and labelling in order to explain disabled young people's educational outcomes. We find that disability differentials in transition rates to full-time academic upper secondary education and to university are largely the result of primary effects, reflected in differences in school performance between disabled and non-disabled young people. However, we also find evidence for secondary effects, with similarly achieving disabled young people less likely to pursue full-time academic upper secondary education compared to their non-disabled peers. We examine the extent to which these effects can be explained by disabled youth's suppressed educational expectations as well as their experiences of being bullied at school, which we link to the stigma experienced by disabled young people and their families. We find that educational expectations play an important role at crucial transitions in the English school system, while the effect of bullying is considerably smaller. By drawing attention to different social processes contributing to disability differentials in attainment, our study moves beyond medical models that implicitly assume a naturalized association of disability with poor educational outcomes, and demonstrates the parallels of disability with other ascriptive inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  3. The effect of electrospun poly(lactic acid and nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers’ diameter on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Electrospun nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid (PLA and nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA were prepared and proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on the prepared nanofibers were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: PLA/nano-HA nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The effects of process parameters, such as nano-HA concentration, distance, applied voltage, and flow rate on the mean diameter of electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to determine the mean fiber diameter of produced nanofibers. Mechanical propertes of nanofibrous mats were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Response surface methodology was used to model the fiber diameter of electrospun PLA/nano-HA nanofibers. Results: The average fiber diameter for optimized nanofibers was 125 ± 11 nm. MTT and ALP results showed that optimization of fiber diameter increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Conclusion: It could be concluded that optimization of fiber diameter has beneficial effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Optimized nanofibers of PLA/nano-HA could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  5. Ultrasound speckle reduction based on fractional order differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dangguo; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Fan; Yi, Sanli; Xiang, Yan; Ma, Lei; Xiong, Xin; He, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound images show a granular pattern of noise known as speckle that diminishes their quality and results in difficulties in diagnosis. To preserve edges and features, this paper proposes a fractional differentiation-based image operator to reduce speckle in ultrasound. An image de-noising model based on fractional partial differential equations with balance relation between k (gradient modulus threshold that controls the conduction) and v (the order of fractional differentiation) was constructed by the effective combination of fractional calculus theory and a partial differential equation, and the numerical algorithm of it was achieved using a fractional differential mask operator. The proposed algorithm has better speckle reduction and structure preservation than the three existing methods [P-M model, the speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) technique, and the detail preserving anisotropic diffusion (DPAD) technique]. And it is significantly faster than bilateral filtering (BF) in producing virtually the same experimental results. Ultrasound phantom testing and in vivo imaging show that the proposed method can improve the quality of an ultrasound image in terms of tissue SNR, CNR, and FOM values.

  6. Schwinger effect and negative differential conductivity in holographic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankhadeep Chakrabortty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of the Schwinger effect for conductivity are computed for strong coupling systems using holography. The one-loop diagram on the flavor brane introduces an O(λNc imaginary part in the effective action for a Maxwell flavor gauge field. This in turn introduces a real conductivity in an otherwise insulating phase of the boundary theory. Moreover, in certain regions of parameter space the differential conductivity is negative. This is computed in the context of the Sakai–Sugimoto model.

  7. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  8. An Effective Model of the Retinoic Acid Induced HL-60 Differentiation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasseff, Ryan; Jensen, Holly A; Congleton, Johanna; Dai, David; Rogers, Katharine V; Sagar, Adithya; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew; Varner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we present an effective model All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. The model describes reinforcing feedback between an ATRA-inducible signalsome complex involving many proteins including Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. We decomposed the effective model into three modules; a signal initiation module that sensed and transformed an ATRA signal into program activation signals; a signal integration module that controlled the expression of upstream transcription factors; and a phenotype module which encoded the expression of functional differentiation markers from the ATRA-inducible transcription factors. We identified an ensemble of effective model parameters using measurements taken from ATRA-induced HL-60 cells. Using these parameters, model analysis predicted that MAPK activation was bistable as a function of ATRA exposure. Conformational experiments supported ATRA-induced bistability. Additionally, the model captured intermediate and phenotypic gene expression data. Knockout analysis suggested Gfi-1 and PPARg were critical to the ATRAinduced differentiation program. These findings, combined with other literature evidence, suggested that reinforcing feedback is central to hyperactive signaling in a diversity of cell fate programs.

  9. A Comparison of Two-Stage Approaches for Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Mixed Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Bendezú, Jason J; Cole, Pamela M; Ram, Nilam

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches exist for estimating the derivatives of observed data for model exploration purposes, including functional data analysis (FDA; Ramsay & Silverman, 2005 ), generalized local linear approximation (GLLA; Boker, Deboeck, Edler, & Peel, 2010 ), and generalized orthogonal local derivative approximation (GOLD; Deboeck, 2010 ). These derivative estimation procedures can be used in a two-stage process to fit mixed effects ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. While the performance and utility of these routines for estimating linear ODEs have been established, they have not yet been evaluated in the context of nonlinear ODEs with mixed effects. We compared properties of the GLLA and GOLD to an FDA-based two-stage approach denoted herein as functional ordinary differential equation with mixed effects (FODEmixed) in a Monte Carlo (MC) study using a nonlinear coupled oscillators model with mixed effects. Simulation results showed that overall, the FODEmixed outperformed both the GLLA and GOLD across all the embedding dimensions considered, but a novel use of a fourth-order GLLA approach combined with very high embedding dimensions yielded estimation results that almost paralleled those from the FODEmixed. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach and demonstrate how output from each stage of FODEmixed may be used to inform empirical modeling of young children's self-regulation.

  10. Dendrogenin A arises from cholesterol and histamine metabolism and shows cell differentiation and anti-tumour properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, Philippe; Paillasse, Michael R; Segala, Gregory; Voisin, Maud; Mhamdi, Loubna; Dalenc, Florence; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Filleron, Thomas; Pont, Frederic; Saati, Talal Al; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We previously synthesized dendrogenin A and hypothesized that it could be a natural metabolite occurring in mammals. Here we explore this hypothesis and report the discovery of dendrogenin A in mammalian tissues and normal cells as an enzymatic product of the conjugation of 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol and histamine. Dendrogenin A was not detected in cancer cell lines and was fivefold lower in human breast tumours compared with normal tissues, suggesting a deregulation of dendrogenin A metabolism during carcinogenesis. We established that dendrogenin A is a selective inhibitor of cholesterol epoxide hydrolase and it triggered tumour re-differentiation and growth control in mice and improved animal survival. The properties of dendrogenin A and its decreased level in tumours suggest a physiological function in maintaining cell integrity and differentiation. The discovery of dendrogenin A reveals a new metabolic pathway at the crossroads of cholesterol and histamine metabolism and the existence of steroidal alkaloids in mammals.

  11. Differentiation of Rat bone marrow Mesenchymal stem cells into Adipocytes and Cardiomyocytes after treatment with platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni Moghadam, Farshad; Tayebi, Tahereh; Barzegar, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential cells and their therapeutic potency is under intense investigation. Studying the effect of different induction factors on MSCs could increase our knowledge about the differentiation potency of these cells. One of the most important sources of these factors in mammalian body is platelet. Platelet lysate (PL) contains many growth factors and therefore, it can be used as a differentiation inducer. In the present study, the effect of PL on differentiation of rat bone marrow MSCs into cardiomyocytes was studied. To study the differentiation-inducing effect of PL, MSCs were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10% PL. Early results of this study showed that PL in high concentrations (10%) induces adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, to evaluate differentiation to cardiomyocytes, MSCs were cultured in media containing lower levels of PL (2.5% and 5%) and then cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced by treatment with 5-azacytidine. Differentiation of MSCs was evaluated using direct observation of beating cells, immunostaining and real-time PCR techniques. The results of qPCR showed that treatment with PL alone increased the expression of cardiac alpha actinin (CAA) being predictable by earlier observation of beating cells in PL-treated groups. The results of staining assays against cardiac alpha actinin also showed that there were stained cells in PL-treated groups. The results of the present study showed that PL is a powerful induction factor for differentiation of MSCs into different cell lines such as cardiomyocytes and adipocytes.

  12. The inhibitory effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (Ferucarbotran) on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Chun; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Liu, Hon-Man; Lai, I-Yin; Yao, Ming; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Chen, Yao-Chang; Yang, Chung-Shi; Huang, Dong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are very useful for monitoring cell trafficking in vivo and distinguish whether cellular regeneration originated from an exogenous cell source, which is a key issue for developing successful stem cell therapies. However, the impact of SPIO labeling on stem cell behavior remains uncertain. Here, we show the inhibitory effect of Ferucarbotran, an ionic SPIO, on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells. Ferucarbotran caused a dose-dependent inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, abolished the differentiation at high concentration, promoted cell migration, and activated the signaling molecules, β-catenin, a cancer/testis antigen, SSX, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). An iron chelator, desferrioxamine, suppressed all the above Ferucarbotran-induced actions, demonstrating an important role of free iron in the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation that is mediated by the promotion of cell mobilization, involving the activation of a specific signaling pathway.

  13. Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Qianqian [Cancer Research Institute, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Yang, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, 421 Hospital of PLA, Guangzhou 510318 (China); Dong, Weiqiang [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital to Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Wang, Shengnan; Cheng, Yirong; Al-Qwbani, Mohammed [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: 1780468505@qq.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province (Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University), Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225001 (China); Yu, Bin, E-mail: carryzhang1985@live.com [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated transcription factor. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of main tendon associated collagen. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated molecules. - Abstract: NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aims to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p > 0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation.

  14. Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Jun; Dong, Weiqiang; Wang, Shengnan; Cheng, Yirong; Al-Qwbani, Mohammed; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated transcription factor. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of main tendon associated collagen. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated molecules. - Abstract: NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aims to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p > 0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation

  15. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  16. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

  17. Leader-member exchange (LMX) and innovation climate: the role of LMX differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordera, Núria; González-Romá, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Leader-member Exchange (LMX) theory has been shown to be one of the most compelling theories for understanding the effects of leadership on organizational behavior. This theory proposes that leaders establish differentiated relationships with each of their subordinates according to the exchanges produced between them. Recently, the concept of LMX differentiation has been introduced into the theory to extend research from the dyadic to the group level. The present paper uses a longitudinal design to analyze the moderator role of LMX differentiation in the relationship between mean LMX and innovation climate in a sample of 24 healthcare teams. The results showed no direct effects of mean LMX on changes in innovation climate over time. However, they provide support for the moderator effect of LMX differentiation in this relationship, as it was stronger when LMX differentiation was low than when it was high.

  18. Troglitazone induces differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denninger, Viola; Figarella, Katherine; Schoenfeld, Caroline; Brems, Stefanie; Busold, Christian; Lang, Florian; Hoheisel, Joerg; Duszenko, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite causing sleeping sickness, is transmitted by the tsetse fly and undergoes a complex lifecycle including several defined stages within the insect vector and its mammalian host. In the latter, differentiation from the long slender to the short stumpy form is induced by a yet unknown factor of trypanosomal origin. Here we describe that some thiazolidinediones are also able to induce differentiation. In higher eukaryotes, thiazolidinediones are involved in metabolism and differentiation processes mainly by binding to the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ. Our studies focus on the effects of troglitazone on bloodstream form trypanosomes. Differentiation was monitored using mitochondrial markers (membrane potential, succinate dehydrogenase activity, inhibition of oxygen uptake by KCN, amount of cytochrome transcripts), morphological changes (Transmission EM and light microscopy), and transformation experiments (loss of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein coat and increase of dihydroliponamide dehydrogenase activity). To further investigate the mechanisms responsible for these changes, microarray analyses were performed, showing an upregulation of expression site associated gene 8 (ESAG8), a potential differentiation regulator

  19. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  20. The effect of insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of preadipocytes isolated from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea R.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Huang, Ming; Wang, Yizhen

    2012-01-01

    Fish final product can be affected by excessive lipid accumulation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to control obesity in cultivated fish to strengthen the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. As in mammals, the development of adiposity in fish depends on hormonal, cytokine and dietary factors. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes isolated from the large yellow croaker and examined the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, after which their proliferation was evaluated. The differentiation process was optimized by assaying glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy were performed to visualize the accumulated triacylglycerol. Gene transcript levels were measured using SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin promoted preadipocytes proliferation, stimulated cell differentiation and decreased lipolysis of mature adipocytes. TNFα and DHA inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation. While TNFα stimulated mature adipocyte lipolysis, DHA showed no lipolytic effect on adipocytes. The expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, γ (PPARα, PPARγ) were quantified during preadipocytes differentiation and adipocytes lipolysis to partly explain the regulation mechanisms. In summary, the results of this study indicated that although preadipocytes proliferation and the differentiation process in large yellow croaker are similar to these processes in mammals, the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on fish adipocytes development are not exactly the same. Our findings fill in the gaps in the basic data regarding the effects of critical factors on adiposity development in fish

  1. Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Higuchi, Sayaka; Kawauchi, Keiko; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Change in the epigenetic landscape during myogenesis was optically investigated. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins was used to state the epigenetic status of the cell. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins decreased as myogenesis progressed in C2C12. ► Differentiation state diagram was developed using parameters obtained. -- Abstract: Skeletal muscle undergoes complicated differentiation steps that include cell-cycle arrest, cell fusion, and maturation, which are controlled through sequential expression of transcription factors. During muscle differentiation, remodeling of the epigenetic landscape is also known to take place on a large scale, determining cell fate. In an attempt to determine the extent of epigenetic remodeling during muscle differentiation, we characterized the plasticity of the chromatin structure using C2C12 myoblasts. Differentiation of C2C12 cells was induced by lowering the serum concentration after they had reached full confluence, resulting in the formation of multi-nucleated myotubes. Upon induction of differentiation, the nucleus size decreased whereas the aspect ratio increased, indicating the presence of force on the nucleus during differentiation. Movement of the nucleus was also suppressed when differentiation was induced, indicating that the plasticity of chromatin changed upon differentiation. To evaluate the histone dynamics during differentiation, FRAP experiment was performed, which showed an increase in the immobile fraction of histone proteins when differentiation was induced. To further evaluate the change in the histone dynamics during differentiation, FCS was performed, which showed a decrease in histone mobility on differentiation. We here show that the plasticity of chromatin decreases upon differentiation, which takes place in a stepwise manner, and that it can be used as an index for the differentiation stage during myogenesis using the state diagram developed with the parameters obtained in this study.

  2. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia: Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Kouwenhoven

    Full Text Available We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.

  3. Differential carrier lifetime and transport effects in electrically injected III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, A.; Nami, M.; Monavarian, M.; Aragon, A.; DaVico, K.; Ayoub, F.; Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, S.; Rishinaramangalam, A.; Feezell, D.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes a small-signal microwave method for determining the differential carrier lifetime and transport effects in electrically injected InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By considering the carrier diffusion, capture, thermionic escape, and recombination, the rate equations are used to derive an equivalent small-signal electrical circuit for the LEDs, from which expressions for the input impedance and modulation response are obtained. The expressions are simultaneously fit to the experimental data for the input impedance and modulation response for nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LEDs on free-standing GaN substrates. The fittings are used to extract the transport related circuit parameters and differential carrier lifetimes. The dependence of the parameters on the device diameter and current density is reported. We also derive approximations for the modulation response under low and high injection levels and show that the transport of carriers affects the modulation response of the device, especially at low injection levels. The methods presented are relevant to the design of high-speed LEDs for visible-light communication.

  4. Evaluation of radiation therapy for advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuno, Ikuo; Tada, Akira; Choto, Shuichi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-two patients with advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma were treated. Sixty-six patients survived for more than 10 years and 10-year-survival rate was 80.5 %. Multidisciplinary treatment, consisting of surgery, radioiodine, external irradiation and TSH suppression was studied. We emphasized that radioiodine treatment after thyroid-ectomy was unique and an ideal therapeutic model for locally advanced, distant metastatic and recurrent cases as far as radioiodine was accumulated on thyroid cancer tissue. External irradiation was sometimes effective for the remnant thyroid carcinoma and metastases. Occassionally, well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma showed good response to TSH suppression therapy using thyroid hormone. The significance of conversion of well-differentiated carcinoma of thyroid to anaplastic carcinoma was noticed. We recognized that radiation therapy was effective for advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in multidisciplinary treatment. (author)

  5. Evaluation of radiation therapy for advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Ikuo; Tada, Akira; Choto, Shuichi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi

    1987-02-01

    Eighty-two patients with advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma were treated. Sixty-six patients survived for more than 10 years and 10-year-survival rate was 80.5 %. Multidisciplinary treatment, consisting of surgery, radioiodine, external irradiation and TSH suppression was studied. We emphasized that radioiodine treatment after thyroid-ectomy was unique and an ideal therapeutic model for locally advanced, distant metastatic and recurrent cases as far as radioiodine was accumulated on thyroid cancer tissue. External irradiation was sometimes effective for the remnant thyroid carcinoma and metastases. Occassionally, well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma showed good response to TSH suppression therapy using thyroid hormone. The significance of conversion of well-differentiated carcinoma of thyroid to anaplastic carcinoma was noticed. We recognized that radiation therapy was effective for advanced well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in multidisciplinary treatment.

  6. Effect Of Superfluidity And Differential Rotation Of Quark Matter On Magetic Field Evolution in Neutron Star And Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurongzeb, Deeder

    2010-11-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters reveal that existence of very strong magnetic field(> 10e15G) from neutron stars. It has been estimated that at the core the magnitude can be even higher at the center. Apart from dynamo mechanism it has been shown that color locked ferromagnetic phase [ Phys. Rev. D. 72,114003(2005)] can be a possible origin of magnetic field. In this study, we explore electric charge of strange quark matter and its effect on forming chirality in the quark-gluon plasma. We show that electromagnetic current induced by chiral magnetic effect [(Phys. Rev. D. 78.07033(2008)] can induce differential rotation in super fluid quark-gluon plasma giving additional boost to the magnetic field. The internal phase and current has no effect from external magnetic field originating from active galactic nuclei due to superconducting phase formation which screens the fields due to Meissner effect. We show that differential motion can create high radial electric field at the surface making all radiation highly polarized and directional including thermal radiation. As the electric field strength can be even stronger for a collapsing neutron star, the implication of this study to detect radiation from black holes will also be discussed. The work was partly completed at the University of Texas at austin

  7. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Graphene nanomesh-based devices exhibiting a strong negative differential conductance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Nguyen, V; Mazzamuto, F; Saint-Martin, J; Bournel, A; Dollfus, P

    2012-01-01

    Using atomistic quantum simulation based on a tight binding model, we have investigated the transport characteristics of graphene nanomesh-based devices and evaluated the possibilities of observing negative differential conductance. It is shown that by taking advantage of bandgap opening in the graphene nanomesh lattice, a strong negative differential conductance effect can be achieved at room temperature in pn junctions and n-doped structures. Remarkably, the effect is improved very significantly (with a peak-to-valley current ratio of a few hundred) and appears to be weakly sensitive to the transition length in graphene nanomesh pn hetero-junctions when inserting a pristine (gapless) graphene section in the transition region between n and p zones. The study therefore suggests new design strategies for graphene electronic devices which may offer strong advantages in terms of performance and processing over the devices studied previously. (paper)

  9. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Suh, Sang Won

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30  μ M and 100  μ M of ZnCl 2 . Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cells were observed, implying that AD-MSCs had differentiated into early neuron or neuron-like cells. Neurite outgrowth was increased in the zinc-treated group, while the CaEDTA-treated group showed diminished, shrunken neurites. Furthermore, we showed that zinc promoted neurite outgrowth via the inactivation of RhoA and led to the induction of neuronal gene expression (MAP2 and nestin) in differentiated stem cells. Taken together, zinc promoted AD-MSC proliferation and affected neuronal differentiation, mainly by increasing neurite outgrowth.

  10. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30 μM and 100 μM of ZnCl2. Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cells were observed, implying that AD-MSCs had differentiated into early neuron or neuron-like cells. Neurite outgrowth was increased in the zinc-treated group, while the CaEDTA-treated group showed diminished, shrunken neurites. Furthermore, we showed that zinc promoted neurite outgrowth via the inactivation of RhoA and led to the induction of neuronal gene expression (MAP2 and nestin in differentiated stem cells. Taken together, zinc promoted AD-MSC proliferation and affected neuronal differentiation, mainly by increasing neurite outgrowth.

  11. Simple algorithm to estimate mean-field effects from minor differential permeability curves based on the Preisach model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2003-01-01

    The classical Preisach model (PM) of magnetic hysteresis requires that any minor differential permeability curve lies under minor curves with larger field amplitude. Measurements of ferromagnetic materials show that very often this is not true. By applying the classical PM formalism to measured minor curves one can discover that it leads to an oval-shaped region on each half of the Preisach plane where the calculations produce negative values in the Preisach function. Introducing an effective field, which differs from the applied one by a mean-field term proportional to the magnetization, usually solves this problem. Complex techniques exist to estimate the minimum necessary proportionality constant (the moving parameter). In this paper we propose a simpler way to estimate the mean-field effects for use in nondestructive testing, which is based on experience from the measurements of industrial steels. A new parameter (parameter of shift) is introduced, which monitors the mean-field effects. The relation between the shift parameter and the moving one was studied for a number of steels. From preliminary experiments no correlation was found between the shift parameter and the classical magnetic ones such as the coercive field, maximum differential permeability and remanent magnetization

  12. Differential turbidity measurements at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Bates, J.A.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Schrotke, P.M.; Thorp, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment to exmine differential turbidity effects on measured insolation between the Rattlesnake Observatory and the Hanford Meteorological Station was conducted during summer 1977. Several types of solar radiation instruments were used, including pyranometers, multiwavelength sunphotometers, and an active cavity radiometer. Preliminary results show dramatic temporal variability of aerosol loading at HMS and significant insolation and turbidity differences between the Observatory and HMS

  13. The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of the numerical solution accuracy on the digital implementation of differential chaos generators. Four systems are built on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA using Euler, mid-point, and Runge-Kutta fourth order techniques

  14. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  15. Effect Size Measures for Differential Item Functioning in a Multidimensional IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngsuk

    2016-01-01

    This study adapted an effect size measure used for studying differential item functioning (DIF) in unidimensional tests and extended the measure to multidimensional tests. Two effect size measures were considered in a multidimensional item response theory model: signed weighted P-difference and unsigned weighted P-difference. The performance of…

  16. Effective Differentiation: A Guide for Teachers and Leaders. Q&A for Carol A. Tomlinson, Ed.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, Dr. Carol Tomlinson of the University of Virginia presented the research base supporting the practice of differentiation and described the characteristics of effective differentiation. She led a discussion of how quality preparation can build and strengthen teachers' knowledge and skills in implementing differentiated instruction…

  17. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  18. Effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli; Jin Changqing; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pulmonary metastases were studied utilizing chest X-ray, pulmonary function test and 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance examination. Results: The data of pulmonary function test were of no difference between groups of various radiation doses cumulation (P > 0.05). The differences of vital capacity (VC), fast vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were not remarkable between the two groups of male or female patients (P > 0.05), but the difference of maximal volume ventilation (MVV) was P 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance rates between various groups were of no difference (P > 0.05). Only for one female, 43 years old who had received an accumulative dose of 51.8 GBq radioiodine over an 8-yr period, her pulmonary function test showed evidence of restrictive lung disease, chest X-ray showed haziness and DTPA half-time clearance was 26.4 min, which is suggestive of interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion: The cumulative dose of radioiodine and gender of the patients had not statistically significant effects on the pulmonary function. Interstitial fibrosis must be carefully watched when the cumulative radioiodine dose is over 37 GBq

  19. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskela, Antti; Viluksela, Matti; Keinänen, Meeri; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6 J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1–10 nM TBT, 0.01–1 nM TCDD or 10 nM TBT + 1 nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. -- Highlights: ► Combined exposure to TCDD and TBT evoked a unique gene expression profile. ► Osteoblast differentiation was synergistically disturbed after combined exposure. ► Bone resorbing activity was additively decreased after combined exposure.

  20. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Antti, E-mail: antti.koskela@oulu.fi [University of Oulu, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oulu (Finland); Viluksela, Matti [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, Kuopio (Finland); Keinänen, Meeri; Tuukkanen, Juha [University of Oulu, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6 J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1–10 nM TBT, 0.01–1 nM TCDD or 10 nM TBT + 1 nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. -- Highlights: ► Combined exposure to TCDD and TBT evoked a unique gene expression profile. ► Osteoblast differentiation was synergistically disturbed after combined exposure. ► Bone resorbing activity was additively decreased after combined exposure.

  1. Effect of irradiation on differential thermal properties and crystallization behavior of some lithium borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Alaily, N.A.; Mohamed, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Differential thermal properties and the crystallization behavior of binary system Li 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses were investigated. The effects of the presence of oxides of aluminum, lead or one of the transition metals TiO 2 or V 2 O 5 or Fe 2 O 3 in the parent glass were also studied. The effects of three different heat treatments on the crystalline structure of all the studied glasses were also investigated. The results showed that all glass samples were amorphous before the heat treatment, with the most common formed phase being tetraborate Li 2 B 8 O 13 (Li 2 O-4B 2 O 3 ). The exposure of the glass samples to either gamma rays or fast neutrons resulted in considerable changes in their thermal behavior. The results also showed that T g increases for all studied glasses when subjected to irradiation either by fast neutron or gamma rays, while T c decreased only at higher doses

  2. Expression Profiling of Differentiating Emerin-Null Myogenic Progenitor Identifies Molecular Pathways Implicated in Their Impaired Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Iyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD, a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells. One thousand and forty-seven transcripts showed differential expression during the transition from day 1 to day 2. Four hundred and thirty-one transcripts showed altered expression in both wildtype and emerin-null cells. Two hundred and ninety-five transcripts were differentially expressed only in emerin-null cells and 321 transcripts were differentially expressed only in wildtype cells. DAVID, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified pathways implicated in impaired emerin-null differentiation, including cell signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, integrin signaling, YAP/TAZ signaling, stem cell differentiation, and multiple muscle development and myogenic differentiation pathways. Functional enrichment analysis showed biological functions associated with the growth of muscle tissue and myogenesis of skeletal muscle were inhibited. The large number of differentially expressed transcripts upon differentiation induction suggests emerin functions during transcriptional reprograming of progenitors to committed myoblasts.

  3. The Effect of Amplifier Bias Drift on Differential Magnitude Estimation in Multiple-Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, David W.; Muralimanohar, Hariharan; Borelli, Kathy J.

    2007-02-01

    We show how the temporal drift of CCD amplifier bias can cause significant relative magnitude estimation error in speckle interferometric observations of multiple-star systems. When amplifier bias varies over time, the estimation error arises if the time between acquisition of dark-frame calibration data and science data is long relative to the timescale over which the bias changes. Using analysis, we show that while detector-temperature drift over time causes a variation in accumulated dark current and a residual bias in calibrated imagery, only amplifier bias variations cause a residual bias in the estimated energy spectrum. We then use telescope data taken specifically to investigate this phenomenon to show that for the detector used, temporal bias drift can cause residual energy spectrum bias as large or larger than the mean value of the noise energy spectrum. Finally, we use a computer simulation to demonstrate the effect of residual bias on differential magnitude estimation. A supplemental calibration technique is described in the appendices.

  4. LIE GROUPS AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: INVARIANT DISCRETIZATION VERSUS DIFFERENTIAL APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Levi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review two different methods of applying Lie group theory in the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. On specific examples we show how the symmetry preserving discretization provides difference schemes for which the “first differential approximation” is invariant under the same Lie group as the original ordinary differential equation.

  5. Multimedia applications in differential services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfooz, S.; Merabti, M.; Pereira, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a mechanism to provide Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees to different multimedia applications that share link bandwidth in IP-based differential services domain. In this mechanism weights are associated with each and to individual users according to their priorities. In order to evaluate the performance of our scheme we conducted simulations. The test data used portray different multimedia applications i.e. MPEG-2, IP telephony. The simulation results obtained show the effectiveness of our scheme for multimedia applications by allocating link share to each multimedia application and minimising end-to-end transmission delay 9Y bringing them in line with the recommended standard acceptable transmission delay for multimedia applications. This paper also presents extension to our proposed Relative Bandwidth Sharing (RES) scheme for differential services. We have identified and highlighted the role of border routers and core routers in differential services domain. Exploring features of Internet Protocol IPv6 in our architecture. (author)

  6. The Effectiveness of “Bowen’s Family System Therapy” on Differentiation and the Functions of Families with Addicted Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghaffari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bowen’s Family System therapy on increasing of differentiation and improving of family function in families with addicted children. Method: The research design of this research was semi experimental design namely: pre test-post test with witness group. The sample was selected voluntarily among referred bachelor addicts and their family members in 4 therapeutic centers, and divided to experimental (5families with 4 members, and witness groups (5families with 4 members, randomly. The experimental group was under training on the basis of Bowen’s family system therapy in 8 sessions. Each session was done for 2 hours. The witness group was under standard treatment of national protocols of Ministry and Health and Social Welfare Organization. The differentiation questionnaire and family function assessment were administered among two groups. Results: The result showed that Bowen’s Family System therapy increased differentiation and improved the function of addicted persons and their families. Conclusion: The addicted persons and their families have low differentiation that can be caused to family dysfunction. Bowen’s Family System therapy can be useful in this purpose.

  7. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  8. Isospin effects on pt-differential flow in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rubina; Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the role of isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions through the transverse momentum (p t ), neutron to proton ratio and system mass dependence of p t -differential transverse flow. Our study shows that (p t )-differential transverse flow dependence can act as sensitive probe to study symmetry energy and its density dependence compared to the energy of vanishing flow. Symmetry energy and its density dependence play a dominant role over the isospin-dependence of nucleon–nucleon cross-section at Fermi energy. (author)

  9. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Retinoic acid receptor signalling directly regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.C. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Kocovski, P.; Jovic, T.; Walia, M.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Chandraratna, R.A.S. [IO Therapeutics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States); Martin, T.J.; Baker, E.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Purton, L.E., E-mail: lpurton@svi.edu.au [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors. These effects predominantly occurred via RARγ and were further enhanced by an RARα agonist or antagonist, respectively. RAR agonists similarly impaired adipogenesis in osteogenic cultures. RAR agonist treatment resulted in significant upregulation of the Wnt antagonist, Sfrp4. This accompanied reduced nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin protein and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2, suggesting impaired Wnt/β-catenin signalling. To determine the effect of RAR inhibition in post-natal mice, IRX4310 was administered to male mice for 10 days and bones were assessed by µCT. No change to trabecular bone volume was observed, however, radial bone growth was impaired. These studies show RARs directly influence osteoblast and adipocyte formation from mesenchymal cells, and inhibition of RAR signalling in vivo impairs radial bone growth in post-natal mice. - Graphical abstract: Schematic shows RAR ligand regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. RARγ antagonists±RARα antagonists promote osteoblast differentiation. RARγ and RARα agonists alone or in combination block osteoblast differentiation, which correlates with upregulation of Sfrp4, and downregulation of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2. Red arrows indicate effects of RAR agonists on mediators of Wnt signalling.

  11. Effect of F-spondin on cementoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masae; Kudo, Yasusei; Iizuka, Shinji; Ogawa, Ikuko; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cementum is a mineralized tissue produced by cementoblasts covering the roots of teeth that provides for the attachment of periodontal ligament to roots and surrounding alveolar bone. To study the mechanism of proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts is important for understanding periodontal physiology and pathology including periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the detailed mechanism of the proliferation and differentiation of human cementoblasts is still unclear. We previously established human cementoblast-like (HCEM) cell lines. We thought that comparing the transcriptional profiles of HCEM cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells derived from the same teeth could be a good approach to identify genes that influence the nature of cementoblasts. We identified F-spondin as the gene demonstrating the high fold change expression in HCEM cells. Interestingly, F-spondin highly expressing HPL cells showed similar phenotype of cementoblasts, such as up-regulation of mineralized-related genes. Overall, we identified F-spondin as a promoting factor for cementoblastic differentiation

  12. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2017-06-01

    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  13. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  14. Biglycan deficiency increases osteoclast differentiation and activity due to defective osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Yanming; Nielsen, Karina L; Kilts, Tina M

    2006-01-01

    to be independent of the differential production of soluble RANKL and OPG and, instead, due to a decrease in osteoblast maturation accompanied by increase in osteoblastic proliferation. In addition to the imbalance between differentiation and proliferation, there was a differential decrease in secretory leukocyte......Bone mass is maintained by a fine balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Although osteoblasts and osteoclasts have different developmental origins, it is generally believed that the differentiation, function, and survival of osteoclasts are regulated...... by osteogenic cells. We have previously shown that the extracellular matrix protein, biglycan (Bgn), plays an important role in the differentiation of osteoblast precursors. In this paper, we showed that Bgn is involved in regulating osteoclast differentiation through its effect on osteoblasts...

  15. Differentiation of human lymphocytes into nuclear vlimata by meiosis. The cytotoxic effect of calcium-activated neutral proteinase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes differentiated into nuclear vlimata (NVs) in vitro. Lymphocyte attachment was followed by formation and extrusion of cytoplasmic vesicles. nuclear elongation and fragmentation into NVs. NVs and cytoplasmic vesicles were detached and organized into large cell nodules in suspension. Immunocytochemistry showed that T-lymphocytes differentiated mainly to NVs while B-lymphocytes to buds. During differentiation ther...

  16. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  17. The effects of diazinon and cypermethrin on the differentiation of neuronal and glial cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaskos, J.; Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Munoz, D.; Tack, J.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Diazinon and cypermethrin are pesticides extensively used in sheep dipping. Diazinon is a known anti-cholinesterase, but there is limited information regarding its molecular mechanism of action. This paper describes the effects of diazinon and cypermethrin at a morphological and molecular level on differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma and rat C6 glioma cell lines. Concentrations up to 10 μM of both compounds and their mixture had no effect on the viability of either cell line, as determined by methyl blue tetrazolium reduction and total protein assays. Microscopic analysis revealed that 1 μM and 10 μM diazinon but not cypermethrin inhibited the outgrowth of axon-like processes in N2a cells after a 24-h exposure but neither compound affected process outgrowth by differentiating C6 cells at these concentrations. Under these conditions, 10 μM diazinon inhibited AChE slightly compared to the control after a 4-h exposure but not after 24 h. Western blotting analysis showed that morphological changes were associated with reduced cross-reactivity with antibodies that recognize the neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), microtubule associated protein MAP 1B and HSP-70 compared to control cell extracts, whereas reactivity with anti-α-tubulin antibodies was unchanged. Aggregation of NFH was observed in cell bodies of diazinon-treated N2a cells, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining. These data demonstrate that diazinon specifically targets neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells and that this effect is associated with disruption of axonal cytoskeleton proteins, whereas cypermethrin has no effect on the same parameters

  18. Differential Effects of HRAS Mutation on LTP-Like Activity Induced by Different Protocols of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileone, Michele; Ranieri, Federico; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante; Musumeci, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disorder due to a G12S amino acid substitution in HRAS protoncogene. Previous studies have shown that Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS), a repetitive brain stimulation protocol inducing motor cortex plasticity by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with brain stimulation, leads to an extremely pronounced motor cortex excitability increase in CS patients. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) represents a protocol able to induce motor cortex plasticity by trains of stimuli at 50 Hz. In healthy subjects PAS and iTBS produce similar after-effects in motor cortex excitability. Experimental models showed that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways differently affect LTP induced by different patterns of repetitive synaptic stimulation. We aimed to compare iTBS-induced after-effects on motor cortex excitability with those produced by PAS in CS patients and to observe whether HRAS mutation differentially affects two different forms of neuromodulation protocols. We evaluated in vivo after-effects induced by PAS and iTBS applied over the right motor cortex in 4 CS patients and in 21 healthy age-matched controls. Our findings confirmed HRAS-dependent extremely pronounced PAS-induced after-effects and showed for the first time that iTBS induces no change in MEP amplitude in CS patients whereas both protocols lead to an increase of about 50% in controls. CS patients are characterized by an impairment of iTBS-related LTP-like phenomena besides enhanced PAS-induced after-effects, suggesting that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways have a differential influence on PAS- and iTBS-induced plasticity in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Chironomidae showed differential activity towards metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Isaac K W; Ho, Wing S

    2013-09-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is known to interact with different biomolecules and was implicated in many novel cellular activities including programmed cell death, nuclear RNA transport unrelated to the commonly known carbohydrate metabolism. We reported here the purification of GAPDH from Chironomidae larvae (Insecta, Diptera) that showed different biologic activity towards heavy metals. It was inhibited by copper, cobalt nickel, iron and lead but was activated by zinc. The GAPDH was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and Chelating Sepharose CL-6B chromatography followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. The 150-kDa tetrameric GAPDH showed optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 37°C. The multiple alignment of sequence of the Chironomidae GAPDH with other known species showed 78 - 88% identity to the conserved regions of the GADPH. Bioinformatic analysis unveils substantial N-terminal sequence similarity of GAPDH of Chironomidae larvae to mammalian GADPHs. However, the GADPH of Chironomidae larvae showed different biologic activities and cytotoxicity towards heavy metals. The GAPDH enzyme would undergo adaptive molecular changes through binding at the active site leading to higher tolerance to heavy metals.

  20. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  1. Non-differential underestimation may cause a threshold effect of exposure to appear as a dose-response relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P. H.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally believed that non-differential misclassification will lead to a bias toward the null-value. However, using one graphical and one numerical example, we show that in situations where underestimation more than overestimation is the problem, non-differential misclassification may lead to

  2. The effect of alcohol on the differential expression of cluster of differentiation 14 gene, associated pathways, and genetic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana X Zhou

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption affects human health in part by compromising the immune system. In this study, we examined the expression of the Cd14 (cluster of differentiation 14 gene, which is involved in the immune system through a proinflammatory cascade. Expression was evaluated in BXD mice treated with saline or acute 1.8 g/kg i.p. ethanol (12.5% v/v. Hippocampal gene expression data were generated to examine differential expression and to perform systems genetics analyses. The Cd14 gene expression showed significant changes among the BXD strains after ethanol treatment, and eQTL mapping revealed that Cd14 is a cis-regulated gene. We also identified eighteen ethanol-related phenotypes correlated with Cd14 expression related to either ethanol responses or ethanol consumption. Pathway analysis was performed to identify possible biological pathways involved in the response to ethanol and Cd14. We also constructed a genetic network for Cd14 using the top 20 correlated genes and present several genes possibly involved in Cd14 and ethanol responses based on differential gene expression. In conclusion, we found Cd14, along with several other genes and pathways, to be involved in ethanol responses in the hippocampus, such as increased susceptibility to lipopolysaccharides and neuroinflammation.

  3. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells show increased resistance to hyperthermic stress after differentiation, associated with elevated levels of Hsp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lesley; Smith, Danielle J; Anderson, Robin L; Nagley, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Terminally differentiated neurones in the central nervous system need to be protected from stress. We ask here whether differentiation of progenitor cells to neurones is accompanied by up-regulation of Hsp72, with acquisition of enhanced thermotolerance. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were propagated in an undifferentiated form and subsequently differentiated into neurone-like cells. Thermotolerance tests were carried out by exposure of cells to various temperatures, monitoring nuclear morphology as index of cell death. Abundance of Hsp72 was measured in cell lysates by western immunoblotting. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was accompanied by increased expression of Hsp72. Further, in both cell states, exposure to mild hyperthermic stress (43°C for 30 min) increased Hsp72 expression. After differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells were more resistant to hyperthermic stress compared to their undifferentiated state, correlating with levels of Hsp72. Stable exogenous expression of Hsp72 in SH-SY5Y cells (transfected line 5YHSP72.1, containing mildly elevated levels of Hsp72), led to enhanced resistance to hyperthermic stress. Hsp72 was found to be inducible in undifferentiated 5YHSP72.1 cells; such heat-treated cells displayed enhanced thermotolerance. Treatment of cells with KNK437, a suppressor of Hsp72 induction, resulted in acute thermosensitisation of all cell types tested here. Hsp72 has a major role in the enhanced hyperthermic resistance acquired during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These findings model the requirement in intact organisms for highly differentiated neurones to be specially protected against thermal stress.

  4. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing 'Tipping Points' of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Emil Nicolae; Wu, Helen Zhao

    2018-02-20

    Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E) groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis) differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx) in a sample of white and Black (African American) young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the "tipping points," where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women's anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  5. Effect of coumarins on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-eight coumarins, including 7 furocoumarins, were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase and phagocytic activities. Esculetin, nordalbergin, 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and imperatorin had strong activity among the coumarins examined. HL-60 cells treated with these coumarins differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role in the induction of differentiation of HL-60.

  6. Analyses of glass transition phenomena by solving differential equation with delay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Inoue, A.

    2007-01-01

    A linear differential equation for the analyses of glass transition phenomena has been proposed by taking into account the delay effect due to the change in transportation of atoms near the glass transition temperature (T g ). Under the condition maintaining the order of the differential equation as the second, the non-linear differential equation proposed by Van Den Beukel and Sietsma is modified to obtain the analytic solution for a linear equation by introducing the following points: the delay effect which is described with a term of Mackey-Glass model, a concept of effective free volume (x fe eff ) and its concentration expression (C fe eff ) which correspond to the equilibrium, and an additional term associated with C fe eff . In analyzing the linear equation, Doyle's p-function was used for the integral of reaction rate with respect to temperature (T). It is found that the linear equation proposed in the present study can describe the changes in free volume (x) with increasing temperature in the dx/dT-T chart, the sharp increase in free volume at T g , and over shooting phenomena of free volume slightly above the T g , as experimentally in thermal analyses for metallic glasses. The linear solution obtained in the present study is of great importance for the analyses of the glass transition because the change in free volume with increasing temperature on heating is described with fundamental functions

  7. Dynamic Pricing Competition with Strategic Customers Under Vertical Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Dan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We consider dynamic pricing competition between two firms offering vertically differentiated products to strategic customers who are intertemporal utility maximizers. We show that price skimming arises as the unique pure-strategy Markov perfect equilibrium in the game under a simple condition. Our results highlight the asymmetric effect of strategic customer behavior on quality-differentiated firms. Even though the profit of either firm decreases as customers become more strategic, the low-qu...

  8. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  9. The effect of interferon-β on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Marek; Knight, Julia; Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-β (IFN-β) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-β on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-β has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-β and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFNα/β receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-β treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-β treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-β treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-β can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  10. The effect of interferon-{beta} on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Marek [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Knight, Julia [Neuroscience Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Mao-Draayer, Yang, E-mail: yang.mao-draayer@vtmednet.org [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2009-10-16

    Interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-{beta} on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-{beta} has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-{beta} and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFN{alpha}/{beta} receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-{beta} treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-{beta} treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-{beta} treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-{beta} can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  11. Existence and stability of periodic solutions of an impulsive differential equation and application to CD8 T-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girel, Simon; Crauste, Fabien

    2018-06-01

    Unequal partitioning of the molecular content at cell division has been shown to be a source of heterogeneity in a cell population. We propose to model this phenomenon with the help of a scalar, nonlinear impulsive differential equation (IDE). To study the effect of molecular partitioning at cell division on the effector/memory cell-fate decision in a CD8 T-cell lineage, we study an IDE describing the concentration of the protein Tbet in a CD8 T-cell, where impulses are associated to cell division. We discuss how the degree of asymmetry of molecular partitioning can affect the process of cell differentiation and the phenotypical heterogeneity of a cell population. We show that a moderate degree of asymmetry is necessary and sufficient to observe irreversible differentiation. We consider, in a second part, a general autonomous IDE with fixed times of impulse and a specific form of impulse function. We establish properties of the solutions of that equation, most of them obtained under the hypothesis that impulses occur periodically. In particular, we show how to investigate the existence of periodic solutions and their stability by studying the flow of an autonomous differential equation. Then we apply those properties to prove the results presented in the first part.

  12. The effect of differentiated margin on futures market investors' behavior and structure An experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-hui Luo; Di-fang Wan; Yang Yang; Guang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the role of differentiated margin system in leading investors' investing behavior and then optimize investor structure in futures markets.Design/methodology/approach-Using economic experimental research method,this paper designs and conducts a futures market experiment according to experimental research's basic norms,thus acquiring needed and credible empirical data.Findings-By analyzing the experimental data,it is found that compared with situations in futures markets that implement uniform margin system,investors' (especially speculators') futures open position and the ratio of their open position and futures turnover are both significantly higher,in futures markets that implement differentiated margin system.On the other hand,differentiated margin system has no effects on hedgers' futures turnover,but significantly reduces speculators' futures turnover.Research limitations/implications-The findings suggest that compared with uniform margin system,differentiated margin system is beneficial to effectively restrict both speculators' and hedgers' speculating behavior and lead hedgers' market participation.Practical implications-In order to resolve the problem of unreasonable investor structure in China's futures market,i.e.lack of hedgers and over-speculating China's futures market's regulators should reform the margin system and adopt differentiated margin system to lead investors' rational behavior and optimize investor structure.Originality/value-This paper empirically analyzes and verifies,for the first time,the roles of differentiated margin system in affecting investors' investing behavior.The futures market experiment designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment.

  13. Differential effects of malignant mesothelioma cells on THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Valerio; Chiurchiù, Valerio; D'Aquilio, Fabiola; Palumbo, Camilla; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Baldini, Patrizia M

    2009-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly fatal tumor arising from inner body membranes, whose extensive growth is facilitated by its week immunogenicity and by its ability to blunt the immune response which should arise from the huge mass of leukocytes typically infiltrating this tumor. It has been reported that the inflammatory infiltrate found in MM tissues is characterized by a high prevalence of macrophages. Thus, in this work we evaluated the ability of human MM cells to modulate the inflammatory phenotype of human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, a widely used in vitro model of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the exposure to MM cells could alter the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes favoring the development of alternatively activated, tumor-supporting macrophages. Our data prove for the first time that MM cells can polarize monocytes towards an altered inflammatory phenotype and macrophages towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that monocytes cocultivated with MM cells 'keep a memory' of their encounter with the tumor which influences their differentiation to macrophages. On the whole, we provide evidence that MM cells exert distinct, cell-specific effects on monocytes and macrophages. The thorough characterization of such effects may be of a crucial importance for the rational design of new immunotherapeutic protocols.

  14. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Effect of Pericellular Oxygen Levels on Proteomic Profile and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Preadipocytes Cultured on Gas-Permeable Cultureware.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weiszenstein

    Full Text Available Pericellular oxygen concentration represents an important factor in the regulation of cell functions, including cell differentiation, growth and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Hypoxia in adipose tissue has been associated with altered adipokine secretion profile and suggested as a possible factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments provide an indispensable tool in metabolic research, however, physical laws of gas diffusion make prolonged exposure of adherent cells to desired pericellular O2 concentrations questionable. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of various O2 levels (1%, 4% and 20% O2 on the proteomic profile and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 differentiated preadipocytes using gas-permeable cultureware. Following differentiation of cells under desired pericellular O2 concentrations, cell lysates were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein visualization using Coomassie blue staining. Spots showing differential expression under hypoxia were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were subjected to pathway analysis. We observed that protein expression of 26 spots was reproducibly affected by 4% and 1% O2 (17 upregulated and 9 downregulated. Pathway analysis showed that mitochondrial energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis were significantly upregulated by hypoxia. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the direct effects of pericellular O2 levels on adipocyte energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis, probably mediated through the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle flux.

  16. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  17. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  18. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  19. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  20. ent-Jungermannenone C Triggers Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Cell Differentiation in Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Xiao, Xinhua; Wu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Weilong; Liu, Yaxi; Li, Houhua; Chen, Guoqiang; Wu, Yingli; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2018-02-23

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that is characterized by clonal proliferation of myeloid blasts. Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of various malignant hematopoietic diseases, the effective treatment of AML remains very challenging. Differentiation therapy has emerged as a promising approach for leukemia treatment, and new and effective chemical agents to trigger the differentiation of AML cells, especially drug-resistant cells, are urgently required. Herein, the natural product jungermannenone C, a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from liverworts, is reported to induce cell differentiation in AML cells. Interestingly, the unnatural enantiomer of jungermannenone C (1) was found to be more potent than jungermannenone C in inducing cell differentiation. Furthermore, compound 1 targets peroxiredoxins I and II by selectively binding to the conserved cysteine residues and leads to cellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. Accordingly, ent-jungermannenone C (1) shows potential for further investigation as an effective differentiation therapy against AML.

  1. Anti-stress and neuronal cell differentiation induction effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Ikeya, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Arfa, Abdelkarim Ben; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-12-22

    Mood disorder accounts for 13 % of global disease burden. And while therapeutic agents are available, usually orally administered, most have unwanted side effects, and thus making the inhalation of essential oils (EOs) an attractive alternative therapy. Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), Mediterranean ROEO reported to improve cognition, mood, and memory, the effect on stress of which has not yet been determined. Here, the anti-stress effect of ROEO on stress was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Six-week-old male ICR mice were made to inhale ROEO and subjected to tail suspension test (TST). To determine the neuronal differentiation effect of ROEO in vitro, induction of ROEO-treated PC12 cells differentiation was observed. Intracellular acetylcholine and choline, as well as the Gap43 gene expression levels were also determined. Inhalation of ROEO significantly decreased the immobility time of ICR mice and serum corticosterone level, accompanied by increased brain dopamine level. Determination of the underlying mechanism in vitro revealed a PC12 differentiation-induction effect through the modulation of intracellular acetylcholine, choline, and Gap43 gene expression levels. ROEO activates the stress response system through the NGF pathway and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting dopamine production and secretion. The effect of ROEO may be attributed to its bioactive components, specifically to α-pinene, one of its major compounds that has anxiolytic property. The results of this study suggest that ROEO inhalation has therapeutic potential against stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  2. Creating Tic Suppression: Comparing the Effects of Verbal Instruction to Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Himle, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two methods designed to produce tic reduction in 4 children with Tourette's syndrome. Specifically, a verbal instruction not to engage in tics was compared to a verbal instruction plus differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO). Results showed that the DRO-enhanced procedure yielded greater…

  3. Application of Monte Carlo method to solving boundary value problem of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yinghong; Wang Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the foundation of the Monte Carlo method and the way how to generate the random numbers. Based on the basic thought of the Monte Carlo method and finite differential method, the stochastic model for solving the boundary value problem of differential equations is built. To investigate the application of the Monte Carlo method to solving the boundary value problem of differential equations, the model is used to solve Laplace's equations with the first boundary condition and the unsteady heat transfer equation with initial values and boundary conditions. The results show that the boundary value problem of differential equations can be effectively solved with the Monte Carlo method, and the differential equations with initial condition can also be calculated by using a stochastic probability model which is based on the time-domain finite differential equations. Both the simulation results and theoretical analyses show that the errors of numerical results are lowered as the number of simulation particles is increased. (authors)

  4. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  5. Planar Cell Polarity Controls Pancreatic Beta Cell Differentiation and Glucose Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortijo, Cedric; Gouzi, Mathieu; Tissir, Fadel

    2012-01-01

    glucose clearance. Loss of Celsr2 and 3 leads to a reduction of Jun phosphorylation in progenitors, which, in turn, reduces beta cell differentiation from endocrine progenitors. These results highlight the importance of the PCP pathway in cell differentiation in vertebrates. In addition, they reveal.......5 synchronously to apicobasal polarization of pancreas progenitors. Loss of function of the two PCP core components Celsr2 and Celsr3 shows that they control the differentiation of endocrine cells from polarized progenitors, with a prevalent effect on insulin-producing beta cells. This results in a decreased...

  6. Differential equations for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  7. Exponential p-stability of impulsive stochastic differential equations with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiguo; Xu Daoyi; Xiang Li

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we establish a method to study the exponential p-stability of the zero solution of impulsive stochastic differential equations with delays. By establishing an L-operator inequality and using the properties of M-cone and stochastic analysis technique, we obtain some new conditions ensuring the exponential p-stability of the zero solution of impulsive stochastic differential equations with delays. Two illustrative examples have been provided to show the effectiveness of our results

  8. Effects of methyl testosterone exposure on sexual differentiation in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize effects of a known androgen on sexual differentiation and development of medaka, Oryzias latipes (d-rR strain), at two life stages. Embryos were injected with graded doses of methyl testosterone (MT) prior to epiboly. The occurrence of sex-reversal, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were evaluated in adults. Primary germ cells were counted and gonad volumes calculated for larvae to determine if sex-reversal could be detected at an early life stage. Sex-reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males was observed at both life stages. The GSI for phenotypic females was greater than for phenotypic males, while the GSI in XX males was similar to XY males. MT appeared to reduce the GSI of XX females exposed to MT but not sex-reversed. Our results indicate that embryonic exposure to androgens influences sexual development in medaka. Utilizing the d-rR strain of medaka allows detection of an effect as early as 2 weeks after chemical exposure making this a useful tool to screen chemicals for effects on sexual differentiation. Copyright (C) 2000.

  9. Effects of matrix elasticity and cell density on human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruyue; Li, Julie Yi-Shuan; Yeh, Yiting; Yang, Li; Chien, Shu

    2013-09-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. The matrix elasticity and cell seeding density are important factors in hMSCs differentiation. We cultured hMSCs at different seeding densities on polyacrylamide hydrogels with different stiffness corresponding to Young's moduli of 1.6 ± 0.3 and 40 ± 3.6 kPa. The promotion of osteogenic marker expression by hard gel is overridden by a high seeding density. Cell seeding density, however, did not influence the chondrogenic marker expressions induced by soft gel. These findings suggest that interplays between cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions contribute to hMSCs differentiation. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation on hard matrix was shown to be mediated through the Ras pathway. Inhibition of Ras (RasN17) significantly decreased ERK, Smad1/5/8 and AKT activation, and osteogenic markers expression. However, constitutively active Ras (RasV12) had little effect on osteogenic marker expression, suggesting that the Ras pathways are necessary but not sufficient for osteogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that matrix elasticity and cell density are important microenvironmental cues driving hMSCs proliferation and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  11. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  12. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. Differential susceptibility effects: the interaction of negative emotionality and sibling relationship quality on childhood internalizing problems and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Olino, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory.

  14. Interpreting infant emotional expressions: Parenthood has differential effects on men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-03-01

    Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants than do men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative. Results suggested complex interaction effects between parental status, sex, and the facial expression being rated. Mothers provided more positive ratings of the happy expressions and more extreme ratings of the intense emotion expressions than fathers, but non-mothers and non-fathers did not. Low-level depressive symptoms were also found to correlate with more negative ratings of negative infant facial expressions across the entire sample. Overall, these results suggest that parental status might have differential effects on men and women's appraisal of infant cues. Differences between fathers' and mothers' perceptions of infant emotion might be of interest in understanding variance in interaction styles, such as proportion of time spent in play.

  15. Analysis of backward differentiation formula for nonlinear differential-algebraic equations with 2 delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leping

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the backward differential formula or BDF methods for a class of nonlinear 2-delay differential algebraic equations. We obtain two sufficient conditions under which the methods are stable and asymptotically stable. At last, examples show that our methods are true.

  16. γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hwa Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz, a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα. Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1. The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1.

  17. γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Lee, Da-Hye; Ahn, Jiyun; Lee, Hyunjung; Choi, Won Hee; Jang, Young Jin; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2015-06-15

    Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz), a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1.

  18. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing ‘Tipping Points’ of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Nicolae Coman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx in a sample of white and Black (African American young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the “tipping points,” where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women’s anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  19. Gold Nanoparticles Promote Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells and Have Limited Effects on Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs had been widely applied in the practice and advancement of chemistry, biology, and medicine due to facility of synthesis and versatility in surface functionalization. Recent studies had shown that AuNPs can be applied to cells, affecting cellular physiological processes such as proliferation and differentiation. In this study, four diameters of AuNPs (20, 40, 60, and 80 nm were cocultured with human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs at six different concentrations. The optimal size and concentration of AuNPs were selected to treat human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs to evaluate proliferation. Moreover, the influence of AuNPs on multiple differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs was clarified. The results revealed that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs in vitro, slightly enhance osteoblastic differentiation, and have no effect on adipogenic differentiation. In addition, the expression of COL-1, Runx2, BSP, and OCN was upregulated in the presence of AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM. These results indicated that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs and have no significant effect on the differentiation of hPDLSCs. These results provide an insight on the advantage of implementing of AuNPs on hPDLSCs culture and expose the influence of these materials on periodontal tissue engineering.

  20. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  2. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF NATIONAL VS. REGIONAL CELEBRITIES ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha JAIN; Subhadip ROY; Abhishek KUMAR; Anusha KABRA

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the differential effects of having a National/Regional celebrity in an advertisement/ endorsement. More specifically the study intends to find out whether a National celebrity would have a more favorable impact on consumer attitudes than a Regional celebrity when endorsing the same product. Experimental design was used as the research methodology. A 3 (National Celebrity/Regional Celebrity/No Celebrity) X 2 (High/Low Involvement Product) design was conducted on stud...

  4. Alternative fabrication scheme to study effects of rework of nonconforming products and delayed differentiation on a multiproduct supply-chain system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses an alternative fabrication scheme to study the effect of rework of nonconforming items and delayed differentiation on a multiproduct supply-chain system. Traditional economic production quantity model focuses on a single-product inventory system where all products made are assumed to be perfect quality and finished products are issued continuously. To increase machine utilization, lower quality costs in production, and reflect the real-world vendor-buyer integrated systems Chiu et al. (2016a [Chiu, Y-S.P., Kuo, J-S., Chiu, S. W., Hsieh, Y-T. (2016a. Effect of delayed differentiation on a multiproduct vendor–buyer integrated inventory system with rework. Advances in Production Engineering & Management, 11(4, 333-344.] employed a single-machine two-stage production scheme to study the effects of rework and delayed differentiation on a multi-product supply-chain system. With the intention of further reducing fabrication cycle time, this study considers an alternative two-machine two-stage fabrication scheme to re-explore the problem in Chiu et al. (2016a. Machine one solely produces all common parts for multiple end products. Then, machine two fabricates the customized multiproduct using a common cycle time strategy. Through the use of mathematical modeling and analyses, the optimal production cycle length and distribution policy are derived. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate practical usage of the research results, and show its significant benefit in reducing fabrication cycle time compared to that obtained from prior studies that used different schemes.

  5. Differential cytotoxic effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on blastomere-derived embryonic stem cells and differentiating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Kyu; Kim, Suel-Kee; Ko, Duck Sung; Cho, Jea Won; Jun, Jin Hyun; An, Su-Yeon; Han, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Potential applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells are not limited to regenerative medicine but can also include in vitro screening of various toxicants. In this study, we established mouse ES cell lines from isolated blastomeres of two-cell stage embryos and examined their potential use as an in vitro system for the study of developmental toxicity. Two ES cell lines were established from 69 blastomere-derived blastocysts (2.9%). The blastomere-derived ES (bm-ES) cells were treated with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in an undifferentiated state or after directed differentiation into early neural cell types. We observed significantly decreased cell viability when undifferentiated bm-ES cells were exposed to a high dose of MEHP (1000 μM). The cytotoxic effects of MEHP were accompanied by increased DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and activation of Caspase-3, which are biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. Compared to undifferentiated bm-ES cells, considerably lower doses of MEHP (50 and 100 μM) were sufficient to induce cell death in early neurons differentiated from bm-ES cells. At the lower doses, the number of neural cells positive for the active form of Caspase-3 was greater than that for undifferentiated bm-ES cells. Thus, our data indicate that differentiating neurons are more sensitive to MEHP than undifferentiated ES cells, and that undifferentiated ES cells may have more efficient defense systems against cytotoxic stresses. These findings might contribute to the development of a new predictive screening method for assessment of hazards for developmental toxicity.

  6. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relative fitness decreased with increasing differentiation probability both during the stationary phase and during outgrowth. When exposed to antibiotics inhibiting cell wall synthesis, transcription, and translation, cells that differentiated into the K-state showed a selective advantage compared to differentiation-deficient bacteria; this benefit did not require transformation. Although beneficial, the K-state was not induced by sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics. Increasing the differentiation probability beyond the wt level did not significantly affect the competition dynamics with transient antibiotic exposure. We conclude that the competition dynamics are very sensitive to the fraction of competent cells under benign conditions but less sensitive during antibiotic exposure, supporting the picture of stochastic differentiation as a fitness trade-off.

  7. Differential effects of doxorubicin on atrial natriuretic peptide expression in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIM RAHMAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (Dox is a potent anti-cancer agent with cardiotoxic side-effects but the mechanism of its cardiotoxicity and its effect on expression of the vasoactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, an important marker for cardiac hypertrophy, are little understood. The present study examined Dox-induced changes in vivo in hearts of 6 mongrel dogs and 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro in cardiac cultures of neonatal rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis using g32-p labeled primers for ß-actin, phospholamban (PLB and ANP showed a selective 5-fold increase of ANP mRNA in Dox-treated dog hearts in comparison to controls. Similarly, northern analysis of GAPD, ß-actin, cardiac a-actin and ANP gave a selective 4.5-fold increase in ANP transcripts in Dox-treated rat hearts. On the other hand, there was a selective decrease (approximately 39% of ANP transcripts in Dox-treated cardiac cultures relative to controls. Immunohistochemistry localized the ANP changes both in tissue sections and in cultures to the cardiomyocytes. The data clearly showed that Dox selectively increases ANP expression in dog and rat hearts in absence of cardiocyte hypertrophy but selectively decreases it in cardiac cultures. This differential effect of Dox on cardiocytes in vivo and in vitro should be a useful parameter for studies of transcriptional control of ANP expression.

  8. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  9. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  10. The competition between thermal contraction and differentiation in the stress history of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Stevenson, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The stress history of the moon is discussed, taking into consideration the effects of thermal contraction and differentiation. The amount of expansion caused by extracting basalt from undifferentiated lunar material is estimated taking account of the uncertainty in the knowledge of the appropriate compositions, and the resulting estimate of the expansion is used to compare the relative importance of the thermal and differentiation effects in the moon's volumetric history. The results of calculations show that differentiation is likely to be of major importance and, thus, thermal expansion is not the sole possible contributor to evolutionary changes in the lunar radius.

  11. The cysteine-rich core domain of REIC/Dkk-3 is critical for its effect on monocyte differentiation and tumor regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Rie; Watanabe, Masami; Huang, Peng; Li, Shun-Ai; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kumon, Hiromi; Futami, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3 is a tumor-suppressor gene and has been studied as a promising therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) elicits cancer cell-specific apoptosis and anticancer immune responses. The cytokine-like effect of secretory REIC/Dkk-3 on the induction of dendritic cell (DC)-like cell differentiation from monocytes plays a role in systemic anticancer immunity. In the present study, we generated recombinant full-length and N-terminally truncated REIC/Dkk-3 to characterize the biological activity of the protein. During the purification procedure, we identified a 17 kDa cysteine-rich stable product (C17-REIC) showing limited degradation. Further analysis showed that the C17-REIC domain was sufficient for the induction of DC-like cell differentiation from monocytes. Concomitant with the differentiation of DCs, the REIC/Dkk-3 protein induced the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) at a level comparable to that of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In a mouse model of subcutaneous renal adenocarcinoma, intraperitoneal injection of full-length and C17-REIC proteins exerted anticancer effects in parallel with the activation of immunocompetent cells such as DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Taken together, our results indicate that the stable cysteine-rich core region of REIC/Dkk-3 is responsible for the induction of anticancer immune responses. Because REIC/Dkk-3 is a naturally circulating serum protein, the upregulation REIC/Dkk-3 protein expression could be a promising option for cancer therapy.

  12. Cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of low-concentration triclosan on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li-Wu [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wu, Qiangen [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Green, Bridgett; Nolen, Greg [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Shi, Leming [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); LoSurdo, Jessica [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Deng, Helen [Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Bauer, Steven [Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fang, Jia-Long, E-mail: jia-long.fang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ning, Baitang, E-mail: baitang.ning@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Humans at all ages are continually exposed to triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial agent that can be found in many daily hygiene products, such as toothpastes and shampoos; however, the toxicological and biological effects of TCS in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are far from being well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCS on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by measuring the cytotoxicity, morphological changes, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation biomarkers during 21-day adipogenesis. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in un-induced hMSCs treated with high-concentration TCS (≥ 5.0 μM TCS), but not with low-concentration treatments (≤ 2.5 μM TCS). TCS inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner in the 0.156 to 2.5 μM range as indicated by morphological changes with Oil Red O staining, which is an index of lipid accumulation. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by a decrease in gene expression of specific adipocyte differentiation biomarkers including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that TCS inhibits adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs under concentrations that are not cytotoxic and in the range observed in human blood. -- Highlights: ► TCS is cytotoxic to un-induced hMSCs at concentrations ≥ 5.0 μM. ► TCS at concentrations ≤ 2.5 μM is not cytotoxic to induced hMSCs. ► TCS at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits lipid formation in induced hMSCs. ► TCS decreases the expression of specific biomarkers of adipocyte differentiation. ► TCS at concentrations observed in human blood inhibits adipogenesis of hMSCs.

  13. Cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of low-concentration triclosan on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li-Wu; Wu, Qiangen; Green, Bridgett; Nolen, Greg; Shi, Leming; LoSurdo, Jessica; Deng, Helen; Bauer, Steven; Fang, Jia-Long; Ning, Baitang

    2012-01-01

    Humans at all ages are continually exposed to triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial agent that can be found in many daily hygiene products, such as toothpastes and shampoos; however, the toxicological and biological effects of TCS in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are far from being well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCS on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by measuring the cytotoxicity, morphological changes, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation biomarkers during 21-day adipogenesis. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in un-induced hMSCs treated with high-concentration TCS (≥ 5.0 μM TCS), but not with low-concentration treatments (≤ 2.5 μM TCS). TCS inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner in the 0.156 to 2.5 μM range as indicated by morphological changes with Oil Red O staining, which is an index of lipid accumulation. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by a decrease in gene expression of specific adipocyte differentiation biomarkers including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that TCS inhibits adipocyte differentiation of hMSCs under concentrations that are not cytotoxic and in the range observed in human blood. -- Highlights: ► TCS is cytotoxic to un-induced hMSCs at concentrations ≥ 5.0 μM. ► TCS at concentrations ≤ 2.5 μM is not cytotoxic to induced hMSCs. ► TCS at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits lipid formation in induced hMSCs. ► TCS decreases the expression of specific biomarkers of adipocyte differentiation. ► TCS at concentrations observed in human blood inhibits adipogenesis of hMSCs.

  14. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  15. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  16. Differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells into neuronal by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been proposed as a promising source of stem cells in nerve regeneration due to their close embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic and possesses many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory activity and protection against atherosclerosis and neuroprotective activities. There is increasing evidence showing that RSV plays a pivotal role in neuron protection and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we isolated DPSCs from impacted third molars and investigated whether RSV induces neuronal differentiation of DPSCs. To avoid loss of DPSCs multipotency, all the experiments were conducted on cells at early passages. RT-PCR results showed that RSV-treated DPSCs (RSV-DPSCs) significantly increased the expression of the neuroprogenitor marker Nestin. When RSV-DPSCs were differentiated with neuronal induction media (RSV-dDPSCs), they showed a cell morphology similar to neurons. The expression of neuronal-specific marker genes Nestin, Musashi, and NF-M in RSV-dDPSCs was significantly increased. Immunocytochemical staining and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of neuronal marker proteins, Nestin, and NF-M, was significantly increased in RSV-dDPSCs. Therefore, we have shown that RSV treatment, along with the use of neuronal induction media, effectively promotes neuronal cell differentiation of DPSCs. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Differential effects of chronic ingestion of tritiated water on prenatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1990-01-01

    Female rats were given tritiated drinking water (3 microCi/ml) from 30 days before mating up to and throughout pregnancy. At this low dose, the course and the outcome of pregnancy were normal. The differences between newborn body and cerebral weights of the treated rats and those of control animals were on the borderline of significance. In contrast, cerebral DNA and cerebral protein were highly significantly lower. In 30-35% of the treated population the DNA and protein values were more than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean values for the control population. Thus the number of the progeny of the mothers exposed to tritiated water that were considered to have outstandingly low levels of DNA and protein was 14-17 times greater than in the control group. The irradiated population also had 3-5% of severely affected individuals with cerebral DNA and protein values more than 2 SD below the mean of the experimental population. However, even in this irradiated population, a certain number of individuals did not show the effects of radiation as indicated by DNA and protein values that were not lower than the mean values of the control population. These animals may represent those individuals in which normal (control) populations would have cerebral DNA and protein levels well above the average (by 1 to 2 SD), but here, because of prenatal irradiation, were about average. If so, this lack of effect of irradiation cannot be caused by protection against radiation. However, at present, a differential repair mechanism of protection in those animals (or their mothers) that showed little or no effect of irradiation cannot be excluded

  18. Bioenergetic Changes during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells along the Hepatic Lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden M; Madsen, Claus Desler; Kalisz, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated to result in premature aging due to its effects on stem cells. Nevertheless, a full understanding of the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics through differentiation is still lacking. Here we show the bioenergetics profile of human stem cells...... of embryonic origin differentiating along the hepatic lineage. Our study reveals especially the transition between hepatic specification and hepatic maturation as dependent on mitochondrial respiration and demonstrates that even though differentiating cells are primarily dependent on glycolysis until induction...

  19. Differential effects of genetic - and diet - induced obesity on fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvari Deshpande

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health issue affecting millions of people of different age groups. The incidence of male obesity induced infertility is rising in couples undergoing ARTs suggesting that obesity is an established risk factor for male infertility. Recent studies demonstrate that paternal diet induced obesity could induce epigenetic disturbances in offspring. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with predominantly genetic or environmental causes. No studies have compared the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on male reproduction. The present study aims to delineate effects of obesity on male fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome using two rat models: genetically induced obese (GIO – WNIN/OB and diet induced obese (DIO – High fat diet. Body weights were similar in both groups, but, differential effects on hormonal profiles were observed. Fertility assessment showed decreased litter size mainly due to increased pre- and post-implantation loss in DIO group. However, GIO group were infertile due to decrease in libido. We observed a decrease in sperm counts in GIO group but not in DIO group despite the body weights being similar in both the groups. Flow cytometry and cell type specific marker expression studies in testis revealed that both DIO and GIO affect mitosis and differentiation process by increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In DIO group, no effect was observed on meiosis whereas in GIO group, we observed an effect on meiosis. Spermiogenesis process was affected in both the groups. In order to study the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on different aspects of spermatogenesis, we performed qRT-PCR to study expression of genes involved in spermatocyte progression, spermiogenesis process, reproductive hormone receptors and leptin signaling in testis. Since epigenetic mechanisms are susceptible to environmental and genetic changes, we analyzed the methylation status of Igf2-H19 DMR in spermatozoa of both the

  20. Complementarity of integral and differential experiments for reactor physics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry.

    1981-04-01

    In this paper, the following topics are studied: uranium 238 effective integral; thermal range uranium 238 capture cross section; Americium 242 m capture cross section. The mentioned examples show that differential and integral experiments are both useful to the reactor physicists

  1. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Towards Understanding the Insulin-like Properties of Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed O Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1 and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2. Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  2. Retinoblastoma pathway defects show differential ability to activate the constitutive DNA damage response in human tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tort, F.; Bartkova, J.; Sehested, M.

    2006-01-01

    culture models with differential defects of retinoblastoma pathway components, as overexpression of cyclin D1 or lack of p16(Ink4a), either alone or combined, did not elicit detectable DDR. In contrast, inactivation of pRb, the key component of the pathway, activated the DDR in cultured human or mouse...... with their hierarchical positions along the retinoblastoma pathway. Our data provide new insights into oncogene-evoked DDR in human tumorigenesis, with potential implications for individualized management of tumors with elevated cyclin D1 versus cyclin E, due to their distinct clinical variables and biological behavior....

  3. [Comprehensive regulation effect of traditional Chinese medicine on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Jin; Li, Jing-Jing; Ke, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Since the discovery of neural stem cells(NSCs) in embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous systems, new approaches for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs have been put forward. One of the approaches to promote the clinical application of NSCs is to search effective methods to regulate the proliferation and differentiation. This problem is urgently to be solved in the medical field. Previous studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by regulating the relevant signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Domestic and foreign literatures for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in recent 10 years and the reports for their target and signaling pathways were analyzed in this paper. Traditional Chinese medicine could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through signaling pathways of Notch, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin and GFs. However, studies about NSCs and traditional Chinese medicine should be further deepened; the mechanism of multiple targets and the comprehensive regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine should be clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. EFFECT OF CSR ON PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION IN THE PRESENCE OF COST ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K. Mukhopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR, once thought of only a philanthropic activity of a firm, is now treated as a serious business strategy that can contribute to a firm’s profitability. The seemingly altruistic activity helps build the firm’s image with all the stakeholders including its customers so that it has the potential to increase the firm’s profit. This fact is now well established in research literature. Product differentiation is another corporate strategy that is pursued by some companies in order to offer a distinctive product in the market to avoid competition, charge premium price, and increase profit. What is not known is that when two firms compete in a Hotelling type product differentiation line, how much this product differentiation is affected by the extent of the CSR activity of a firm. Our study is conducted in a game-theoretic setting where the CSR firm is competing with a non-CSR firm. The CSR firm maximizes a convex combination of its own profit and a form of social utility function, while the non-CSR firm maximizes its own profit only. The CSR firm is also assumed to have a technological advantage that reduces its production cost. The interaction of the effects of both the extent of CSR and the extent of this production cost advantage is also considered. We also study a scenario of asymmetric information. Our main results include that the degree of product differentiation is reduced when CSR is practiced. On the other hand, product differentiation increases with the production cost advantage. The interaction between the two factors – CSR activity and cost advantage – is also studied.

  5. Effect of growth factors (BMP-4/7 & bFGF on proliferation & osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: BMP (bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor significantly promote the osteogenic activity and the proliferation of rabbit BMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells, respectively. However, their synergistic effects on the proliferation and the differentiation of BMSCs remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of bFGF and BMP-4/7 were investigated on the proliferation and the differentiation of rat BMSCs in vitro. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and cultured to the third passage. The samples were divided into five groups according to the material implanted: (A 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7; (B 80 ng/ml bFGF; (C 30 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 30 ng/ml bFGF; (D 50 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 50 ng/ml bFGF; and (E 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 80 ng/ml bFGF. Cell proliferation was analyzed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin (OC dynamics were also measured. Results: BMP-4/7 alone significantly (P<0.05 promoted the proliferation of BMSCs. At the same time, it also promoted or inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The synergistic effects of BMP-4/7 and bFGF significantly promoted both the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The treatment of the synergistic effects was dose and time dependent. Interpretation & conclusions: A rational combination of BMP-4/7 and bFGF can promote the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In addition, the synergistic functions are effective.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CULTIVAR AND BEARING TREE ON BUD DIFFERENTIATION, FROST DAMAGE AND FRUIT SET IN APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pavičić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After severe winter frost, an examination was initiated of frost damage suffered by Idared and Golden Delicious clone B. The cultivars differed significantly in the differentiation intensity, the hare of damaged differentiated buds, but not in share of damaged undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars the bud damage was more intensive on long bearing wood than on spur, regardless differentiation grade. The interaction between the cultivar and the bearing wood was insignificant. The flower bud differentiation was better in Idared, but it also suffered more frost damage than the Golden Delicious clone B with differentiated buds, but not than that with undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars frost damage increases with increase of differentiated flower buds (R2=0.759; P≤0.001. The fruit set was within the limits of expectation only on the spurs of the Golden Delicious clone B, which showed strong tendency towards fruit set on long bearing shoots. In 2000, the yield of the cultivars was almost equal, as the result of thinning due to the frost damage on Idared.

  7. Effects of GSK3 inhibitors on in vitro expansion and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraldi Pascal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Results Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. Conclusion These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.

  8. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. The different effect of consumer learning on incentives to differentiate in Cournot and Bertrand competition

    OpenAIRE

    Conze, Maximilian; Kramm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We combine two extensions of the differentiated duopoly model of Dixit (1979), namely Caminal and Vives (1996) and Brander and Spencer (2015a,b), to analyze the effect of consumer learning on firms' incentives to differentiate their products in models of Cournot and Bertrand competition. Products are of different quality, consumers buy sequentially and are imperfectly informed about the quality of the goods. Before simultaneously competing in quantities, firms simultaneously choose their inve...

  10. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  11. Primary Well Differentiated Breast Liposarcoma with Divergent Cartilagenous Differentiation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Cherkess Al-Rikabi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary liposarcomas of the female and male breasts are very rare. Heterologous differentiation in adipocytic tumors is also an exceedingly rare phenomenon, which is occasionally reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 22 year-old female who presented with a relatively large left breast mass which was clinically diagnosed as a case of giant fibroadenoma, but histologically showed a well differentiated liposarcoma with evidence of extensive chondroid differentiation. The mammographic and radiological features are presented and correlated with the histopathological appearances together with literature review and comparison with similar reported cases.

  12. The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the inhibitory effects of GH on adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, H E; Albrektsen, T; Billestrup, Nils

    2003-01-01

    GH inhibits primary rat preadipocyte differentiation and expression of late genes required for terminal differentiation. Here we show that GH-mediated inhibition of fatty acid-binding protein aP2 gene expression correlates with the activation of the Janus kinase-2/signal transducer and activator ...

  13. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); O’Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric, E-mail: e.farrell@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-02

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10{sup 5} cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  14. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; O’Brien, Fergal J.; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10 5 cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Pang, Mao; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Bin; Rong, Limin

    2016-06-03

    Melatonin, a lipophilic molecule mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, has properties of antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiapoptosis to improve neuroprotective functions. Here, we investigate effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs were induced into neural stem cells (NSCs), then further differentiated into neurons in medium with or without melatonin, melatonin receptor antagonist (Luzindole) or Phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002). Melatonin significantly promoted the number of neurospheres and cell viability. In addition, Melatonin markedly up-regulated gene and protein expression of Nestin and MAP2. However, Luzindole or LY294002 attenuated these increase. The expression of pAKT/AKT were increased by Melatonin, while Luzindole or LY294002 declined these melatonin-induced increase. These results suggest that melatonin significantly increased neural differentiation of iPSCs via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway through melatonin receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions.

  17. Effect of acetaminophen on osteoblastic differentiation and migration of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Fumio; Higashi, Sen; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Shiiba, Shunji; Watanabe, Seiji; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP, acetaminophen, paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic with weak inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanism of action of APAP is mediated by its metabolite that activates transient receptor potential channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) or the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). However, the exact molecular mechanism and target underlying the cellular actions of APAP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration, with a particular focus on TRP channels and CB1. Effects of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration of MC3T3-E1, a mouse pre-osteoblast cell line, were assessed by the increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and both wound-healing and transwell-migration assays, respectively. APAP dose-dependently inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, which was well correlated with the effects on COX activity compared with other NSAIDs. In contrast, cell migration was promoted by APAP, and this effect was not correlated with COX inhibition. None of the agonists or antagonists of TRP channels and the CB receptor affected the APAP-induced cell migration, while the effect of APAP on cell migration was abolished by down-regulating TRPV4 gene expression. APAP inhibited osteoblastic differentiation via COX inactivation while it promoted cell migration independently of previously known targets such as COX, TRPV1, TRPA1 channels, and CB receptors, but through the mechanism involving TRPV4. APAP may have still unidentified molecular targets that modify cellular functions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on pluripotency and differentiation factors in mouse embryoid bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Yao, Mengmeng; Han, Xiumei; Chen, Minjian; Tang, Wei; Xia, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) poses potential risks to early development, but the molecular mechanisms how PFOS affects embryonic development are still unclear. Mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) provide ideal models for testing safety or toxicity of chemicals in vitro. In this study, mEBs were exposed to PFOS up to 6 days and then their pluripotency and differentiation markers were evaluated. Our data showed that the mRNA and protein levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) in mEBs were significantly increased following exposure to PFOS. Meanwhile, the expressions of miR-134, miR-145, miR-490-3p were decreased accordingly. PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of endodermal markers (Sox17, FOXA2), mesodermal markers (SMA, Brachyury) and ectodermal markers (Nestin, Fgf5) in mEBs. Meanwhile, PFOS increased the mRNA and protein levels of polycomb group (PcG) family members (Cbx4, Cbx7, Ezh2). Overall, our results showed that PFOS could increase the expression levels of pluripotency factors and decrease the differentiation markers

  19. Differential effect of EGFR inhibitors on tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Oh, Soo Jin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2015-09-01

    Although tamoxifen is the most common and effective therapy for treatment of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) breast cancer patients, resistance of endocrine therapy occurs, either de novo or acquired during therapy. Here, we investigated the clinical value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) patients and the differential effect of EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, on TamR breast cancer cell model. The morphology of TamR MCF7 cells showed mesenchymal phenotypes and did not induce cell death by tamoxifen treatment compared with tamoxifen‑sensitive (TamS) MCF7 cells. In addition, mesenchymal marker proteins, including N-cadherin (N-cad), fibronectin (FN), and Slug, significantly increased in TamR cells. In contrast, ER-α and E-cadherin (E-cad) were greatly decreased. We also found that the levels of EGFR and HER2 expression were increased in TamR cells. Furthermore, we observed that EGFR expression was directly involved with poor prognosis of tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients using the GSE1378 date set. Thus, we treated TamR and TamS cells with EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, respectively. Interestingly, neratinib induced apoptotic cell death of TamR but not gefitinib. Cleaved PARP-1 expression was also increased by neratinib treatment in TamR cells. Therefore, we suggest that neratinib may be a potential therapeutic drug for treating TamR breast cancer.

  20. On weakly D-differentiable operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa......, such that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, but the function eitDae−itDeitDae−itD is not uniformly differentiable. We show that weak  DD-differentiability   may be characterized by several other properties, some of which are related to the commutator (Da−aD)...

  1. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; Stålman, Anders; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-09-02

    Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically.

  2. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Antti; Viluksela, Matti; Keinänen, Meeri; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1-10nM TBT, 0.01-1nM TCDD or 10nM TBT+ 1nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of low dose radiation on differentiation, activation and apoptosis of thymocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xu; Zhang Yingchun; Wan Hong; Liu Shuzheng

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the possible mechanism of immunoenhancement after low dose radiation (LDR), the differentiation, activation and apoptosis of thymocytes following low dose irradiation were studied. Method: Kunming mice were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with low dose X-rays. The expressions of CD4, CD8, TCR, CD3, IL-2R, (Ca 2+ ) i , Bcl-2 Bax and apoptosis of thymocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: It was found that the ratio of T H /T S showed no significant changes after LDR. Thymocyte apoptosis was not increased after LDR. The increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio after LDR might be one of its mechanisms. LDR could expedites the process of differentiation of, and facilitate the signal transduction in, thymocytes. Conclusion: The results indicate that the mechanism of immunoenhancement might be related to the expedition of the maturation, differentiation and activation of thymocytes, thus up-regulating the capability of supplying more mature T lymphocytes to the periphery by the thymus after LDR

  4. Differential effects of NAA and 2,4-D in reducing floret abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers are associated with their differential activation of Aux/IAA homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebie, Bekele; Lers, Amnon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Goren, Raphael; Riov, Joseph; Meir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    A previous study showed that the relative effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) compared with that of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in reducing floret bud abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers was due to its acropetal transport. The aim of the present study was to examine if the differential effect of these auxins on floret abscission is reflected in the expression of Aux/IAA genes in the floret abscission zone (AZ). cDNAs were isolated by PCR-based cloning from the floret AZ of auxin-treated cut flowers. The expression patterns of the cDNAs in various tissues and the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), applied with or without cycloheximide, on their expression in the floret AZ were examined by northern blot analysis. The regulation of transcript accumulation in the floret AZ in response to NAA or 2,4-D was measured by real-time PCR during auxin pulsing of cut flowers and vase life, concomitantly with floret abscission. Six isolated cDNAs were identified to represent Aux/IAA homologous genes, designated as Cestrum elegans (Ce)-IAA1 to Ce-IAA6. Four Ce-IAA genes were characterized as early auxin-responsive genes (ARGs), and two (Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5) as late ARGs. Only Ce-IAA5 was AZ-specific in floret buds. A temporal regulation of Ce-IAA transcript levels in the floret AZ was found, with 2,4-D inducing higher expression levels than NAA in floret buds. These Ce-IAA expression levels were negatively correlated with floret abscission. The differential transport characteristics of NAA and 2,4-D in cestrum cut flowers were reflected in differential activation of the Ce-IAA genes identified in the floret AZ. Therefore, Aux/IAA genes can be used as molecular markers to measure auxin activity, which reflects free auxin level in the AZ. Two of the identified genes, Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5, may also have a regulatory role in abscission.

  5. Synergetic effect of topological cue and periodic mechanical tension-stress on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Yang, Guang; Ji, Huanzhong; Xiang, Tao; Luo, En; Zhou, Shaobing

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesenchymal origin, making them to be significant for cell-based therapies, such as metabolic bone diseases and bone repair. Regulating the differentiation of MSCs is significant for bone regeneration. Electrospun fibers mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM), is an effective artificial ECM to regulate the behaviors and fates of MSCs. The aligned electrospun fibers can modulate polar cell pattern of bone mesenchymal stem cells, which leads to more obvious osteogenic differentiation. Apart from the topographic effect of electrospun fibers, mechanical cues can also intervene the cell behaviors. In this study, the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated, which were cultured on aligned/random electrospun fiber mats materials under mechanical tension intervention. Scanning electron microscope and immune-fluorescent staining were used to directly observe the polarity changing of cellular morphology and cytoskeleton. The results proved that aligned electrospun fibers could be more conducive to promote osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells and this promotion of osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by tension intervention. These results were correlated to the quantitative real-time PCR assay. In general, culturing rat bone mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun fibers under the intervention of mechanical tension is an effective way to mimic a more real cellular microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  7. The effect of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro: implication for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yukan; Lu Qiaozhi; Ji Huijiao; Zhao Xiaoli; Zhang Ming [College of Life Science, ZheJiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Pei Rui [XiJing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi An 710032 (China); Zhou Guoshun [Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province 313000 (China); Tang, Rui Kang, E-mail: Lyk_cn@yahoo.com.c [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, ZheJiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of extracellular calcium ion (Ca{sup 2+}) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations on the growth and differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which is essential to understand the interaction between calcium phosphate ceramic (CPC) scaffolds and seeded cells during the construction of tissue-engineered bones. MSCs were separated from rabbits and cultured in media with different concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and Pi supplements. Their proliferation, apoptosis, mineralization and osteogenic differentiation were determined by the MTT assay, TUNEL assay, Vonkossa stain and RT-PCR examination. A two-way ANOVA calculation with comparisons of estimated marginal means by LSD was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that the optimal extracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Pi concentrations for the cells to proliferate and differentiate were 1.8 mM and 0.09 mM, respectively, which are the concentrations supplied in many commonly used culture media such as DMEM and alpha-MEM. Cell proliferation and differentiation decreased significantly with greater or lower concentrations of the Pi supplement. Greater Pi concentrations also led to significant cell apoptosis. Greater Ca{sup 2+} concentrations did not change cell proliferation but significantly inhibited cell differentiation. In addition, greater Ca{sup 2+} concentrations could significantly enhance cell mineralization. In conclusion, extracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Pi significantly influence the growth and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is important to take the cellular effect of Ca{sup 2+} and Pi into consideration when designing or constructing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with CPC.

  8. Effects of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical DDT on Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L.; Shi, Zhenzhen; Strong, Michael J.; Miller, David F.B.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Buechlein, Aaron M.; Flemington, Erik K.; McLachlan, John A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the global use of the endocrine-disrupting chemical DDT has decreased, its persistence in the environment has resulted in continued human exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that DDT exposure has long-term adverse effects on development, yet the impact on growth and differentiation of adult stem cells remains unclear. Objectives: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to DDT were used to evaluate the impact on stem cell biology. Methods: We assessed DDT-treated MSCs for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential. Whole genome RNA sequencing was performed to assess gene expression in DDT-treated MSCs. Results: MSCs exposed to DDT formed fewer colonies, suggesting a reduction in self-renewal potential. DDT enhanced both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, which was confirmed by increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), lipoprotein lipase (LpL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin, osteonectin, core binding factor 1 (CBFA1), and FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-Fos). Expression of factors in DDT-treated cells was similar to that in estrogen-treated MSCs, suggesting that DDT may function via the estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathway. The coadministration of ICI 182,780 blocked the effects of DDT. RNA sequencing revealed 121 genes and noncoding RNAs to be differentially expressed in DDT-treated MSCs compared with controls cells. Conclusion: Human MSCs provide a powerful biological system to investigate and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of environmental agents on stem cells and human health. MSCs exposed to DDT demonstrated profound alterations in self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression, which may partially explain the homeostatic imbalance and increased cancer incidence among those exposed to long-term EDCs. Citation: Strong AL, Shi Z, Strong MJ, Miller DF, Rusch DB, Buechlein AM, Flemington EK

  9. Kaempferol impedes IL-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-08-25

    Kaempferol possesses a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The present study sought to evaluate the effects and possible pharmacological mechanisms of kaempferol on interleukin (IL)-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In this study, we performed flow cytometry assay, immunocytochemical staining, quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting to observe the effects and underlying mechanisms of kaempferol using the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The flow cytometry, immunocytochemical staining, and real-time PCR results show that kaempferol attenuated IL-32-induced monocyte differentiation to product macrophage-like cells. Kaempferol decreased the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in this case thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-8. Furthermore, kaempferol inhibited the IL-32-induced activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Kaempferol also ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators TSLP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and nitric oxide of macrophage-like cells differentiated by IL-32. In brief, our findings may provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of citrus flavonoids on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase, and phagocytic activities. 10 flavonoids were judged to be active (percentage of NBT reducing cells was more than 40% at a concentration of 40 microM), and the rank order of potency was natsudaidain, luteolin, tangeretin, quercetin, apigenin, 3, 3, '4, '5, 6, 7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, acacetin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin. These flavonoids exerted their activity in a dose-dependent manner. HL-60 cells treated with these flavonoids differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison between flavones and flavanones revealed that ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and C2-C3 double bond had an important role for induction of differentiation of HL-60. In polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxyl group at C3 and methoxyl group at C8 enhanced the differentiation-inducing activity.

  11. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liwei; Zhou Jiaxi; Peng Sha; Li Juxue; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells maintain development and homeostasis of mammalian epidermis throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human fetal epidermal stem cells. We found both Wnt3a and active β-catenin, two key members of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, were expressed in human fetal epidermis and epidermal stem cells. In addition, Wnt3a protein can promote proliferation and inhibit differentiation of epidermal stem cells in vitro culture. Our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in human fetal skin development and homeostasis, which also provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in human epidermis

  13. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 +/- 476 nm and 438 +/- 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite

  14. Toward Analytic Solution of Nonlinear Differential Difference Equations via Extended Sensitivity Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmani, G.; Setayeshi, S.; Ramezanpour, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an efficient computational method based on extending the sensitivity approach (SA) is proposed to find an analytic exact solution of nonlinear differential difference equations. In this manner we avoid solving the nonlinear problem directly. By extension of sensitivity approach for differential difference equations (DDEs), the nonlinear original problem is transformed into infinite linear differential difference equations, which should be solved in a recursive manner. Then the exact solution is determined in the form of infinite terms series and by intercepting series an approximate solution is obtained. Numerical examples are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (general)

  15. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  16. Differential effects of oxytocin on social sensitivity in two distinct breeds of dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Kis, Anna; Pogány, Ákos; Koller, Dóra; Topál, József

    2016-12-01

    Dogs have been proven to show several human-analogue social behaviors, and recent research raises the possibility that the oxytocin system is related to these. However, despite dogs' general tendency to excel in the domain of social cognition, there is increasing evidence that dogs' ability to utilize human signals may vary with breed. Moreover, breeds may show differences not only in their 'inborn' communicative abilities, but also in their learning skills related to these. The aim of the present study was to explore breed differences and breed-specific effects of oxytocin administration on different aspects of social responsiveness. Dogs from two markedly different breeds, Border Collies (cooperative workers) and Siberian Huskies (independent workers) were tested. After having received intranasal administration of oxytocin or placebo, subjects participated in three behavioral tests measuring social responsiveness. Our results show that there are several behavioral differences between the two breeds and also that there are differential effects of the oxytocin treatment. Border Collies were in general more susceptible to the 'social' effects of oxytocin compared to Siberian Huskies: after oxytocin administration they (1) looked more at the experimenter in the 'Unreachable food' situation, (2) looked more at the owner and shifted their gaze more between the sound source and the owner in a potentially dangerous situation, and (3) looked longer at the experimenter's eyes in the 'Tolerance of prolonged eye contact' test. These findings suggest that selection for enhanced cooperative abilities, possibly complemented by the effect of different social environments the two breeds experience, affects dogs' performance in several behavioral tests and that the neurohormonal background differently modulates social behavior in different working breeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  18. TET2 deficiency inhibits mesoderm and hematopoietic differentiation in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langlois, Thierry; da Costa Reis Monte Mor, Barbara; Lenglet, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we show that TET2 expression is low in human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and increases during hematopoietic differentiation. ShRNA-mediated TET2 knockdown had no effect on the pluripotency of various ES cells. However, it skewed their differentiation into neuroectoderm at the expense...... profile, including abnormal expression of neuronal genes. Intriguingly, when TET2 was knockdown in hematopoietic cells, it increased hematopoietic development. In conclusion, our work suggests that TET2 is involved in different stages of human embryonic development, including induction of the mesoderm...... and hematopoietic differentiation. Stem Cells 2014....

  19. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

  20. Inhibitory effect of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced differentiation of primary adipocytes prepared from TallyHO/Jng mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Joo Young; Sung, Yoon-Young; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee-Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sang Dal, E-mail: sdrhee@krict.re.kr [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on adipocyte differentiation prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHo mice. {yields} Leptin inhibited the adipocytes differentiation at physiological concentration via inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression. {yields} Inhibitors of ERK and STAT1 restored the leptin's inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: The effects of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation were investigated in the primary adipocytes prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHO/Jng (TallyHO) mouse, a recently developed model animal for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment of leptin inhibited the rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation with a decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) a key adipogenic transcription factor, both in mRNA and protein levels. Leptin (10 nM) was sufficient to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which seemed to come from increased expression of leptin receptor genes in the fat of TallyHO mice. The inhibition of adipogenesis by leptin was restored by the treatment of inhibitors for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (PD98059) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) (fludarabine). Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal administration of PD98059 and fludarabine increased the PPAR{gamma} expression in the subcutaneous fat of TallyHO mice. These data suggest that leptin could inhibit the PPAR{gamma} expression and adipocyte differentiation in its physiological concentration in TallyHO mice.

  1. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  2. Differential effects of two virtual reality interventions: distraction versus pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto-Quijada, Desirée; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Nieto, Rubén; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Ferrer-García, Marta; Saldaña, Carmina; Fusté-Escolano, Adela; Liutsko, Liudmila

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that virtual reality (VR) pain distraction is effective at improving pain-related outcomes. However, more research is needed to investigate VR environments with other pain-related goals. The main aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of two VR environments on a set of pain-related and cognitive variables during a cold pressor experiment. One of these environments aimed to distract attention away from pain (VRD), whereas the other was designed to enhance pain control (VRC). Participants were 77 psychology students, who were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions during the cold pressor experiment: (a) VRD, (b) VRC, or (c) Non-VR (control condition). Data were collected regarding both pain-related variables (intensity, tolerance, threshold, time perception, and pain sensitivity range) and cognitive variables (self-efficacy and catastrophizing). Results showed that in comparison with the control condition, the VRC intervention significantly increased pain tolerance, the pain sensitivity range, and the degree of time underestimation. It also increased self-efficacy in tolerating pain and led to a reduction in reported helplessness. The VRD intervention significantly increased the pain threshold and pain tolerance in comparison with the control condition, but it did not affect any of the cognitive variables. Overall, the intervention designed to enhance control seems to have a greater effect on the cognitive variables assessed. Although these results need to be replicated in further studies, the findings suggest that the VRC intervention has considerable potential in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying the negative thoughts that commonly accompany pain problems.

  3. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  4. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: lvh@tum.de; Leibold, Christian [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level.

  5. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van; Leibold, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level

  6. Smooth functors vs. differential forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, U.; Waldorf, K.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a relation between smooth 2-functors defined on the path 2-groupoid of a smooth manifold and differential forms on this manifold. This relation can be understood as a part of a dictionary between fundamental notions from category theory and differential geometry. We show that smooth

  7. Effect of daily low dose gamma irradiation on growth and differentiation of human myeloid leukaemic bone marrow in diffusion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S [Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation and Sidney Farber Cancer Institute; Chang, J M; King, V; Fulmer, S; Balzuno, S; Moloney, W C [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow from each of 8 untreated patients with myeloproliferative disorders was grown in diffusion chambers in 760 rad total body irradiated rats. Rats were exposed to 11.5, 57.5, or 108.5 rad daily for 14-21 and cell growth compared to that detected in unirradiated chambers. Cells from acute myelogenous leukaemia patients exposed to 11.5 rad per d grew for 11-21 d and there was no consistent stimulation of differentiation of immature granulocytic cells to mature granulocytes that was attributable to irradiation. Cells from a chronic myeloid leukaemia patient in chronic phase or blast crisis, and a polycythaemia vera patient with myeloid metaplasia showed signigicant morphologic differentiation from immature to mature granulocytes in control chambers with no additional effect of daily irradiation. Marrow specimens from 2 AML patients exposed to each of 3 daily dose fractions over 14 d revealed a dose-dependent decrease in immature granulocytes with no persistent increase in mature granulocytes. In both irradiated and control chambers, macrophages increased over 21 d. Thus, cells from patients with myeloprofilerative disorders may not necessarily differentiate to mature granulocytes following in vivo exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  8. Effect of activated autologous platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Tian; Li, Hong-Mian; Yin, Qing-Shui; Liang, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Min-Hong; Chi, Guang-Yi; Huang, Lu; Liu, Da-Lie; Nan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. hASCs were isolated from lipo-aspirates, and characterized by specific cell markers and multilineage differentiation capacity after culturing to the 3rd passage. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood of the same patient. Cultured hASCs were treated with normal osteogenic inductive media alone (group A, control) or osteogenic inductive media plus 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%PRP (group B, C, D, E, respectively). Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay. mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and core binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa1) were determined by Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis (qPCR). Data revealed that different concentrations of activated autologous PRP significantly promoted hASCs growth in the proliferation phase compared to the without PRP group and resulted in a dose-response relationship. At 7-d and 14-d time point of the osteogenic induced stage, ALP activity in PRP groups gradually increased with the increasing of concentrations of PRP and showed that dose-response relationship. At 21-d time point of the osteogenic induced stage, PRP groups make much more mineralization and mRNA relative expression of ALP, OPN, OCN and Cbfa1 than that without PRP groups and show that dose-response relationship. This study indicated that different concentrations of activated autologous PRP can promote cell proliferation at earlier stage and promote osteogenic differentiation at later stage of hASCs in vitro. Moreover, it displayed a dose-dependent effect of activated autologous PRP on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs in vitro. PMID:25901195

  9. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  10. Effects of IGFBP-2 on proliferation and differentiation in neural stem cell line C17.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yujia Deng,1 Lei Wang,1,2 Lite Ge,1,3 Da Duan,1 Yi Zhuo,1 Ting Yuan,1 Weiping Yan,1 Peiqi Huang,1 Xiaohua Teng,1 Ming Lu1,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University (163 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army, Changsha, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Xiangya School of Central South University, Haikou, 3Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Objective: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2, a member of a highly conserved family of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs, can regulate several cellular processes through IGF-dependent or IGF-independent pathway. Recent studies have provided solid evidence for the importance to delineate that olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC-conditioned medium (OCM can not only facilitate the differentiation of neural stem cell line (C17.2 into neurons, but also promote the survival and proliferation. We have previously reported that IGFBP-2 was detected in OCM. This study is designed to investigate the roles of IGFBP-2 for the regulation of C17.2 differentiation and proliferation.Methods and results: IGFBP-2 was identified and upregulated in OCM to compare with astrocytes-conditioned medium by shotgun proteomics and semiquantitative proteomic analysis. In order to investigate whether exogenous IGFBP-2 could stimulate proliferation in C17.2 cells and differentiate it into glia or neuron, we used various concentrations of IGFBP-2 to induce C17.2 cells which were cultured in DMEM/F12. The results showed that exogenous IGFBP-2 can promote proliferation in C17.2 cells, but had little effect on differentiation. Interestingly, we also found that IGFBP-2 could induce C17.2 cells to differentiate into astrocytes, while inhibiting their differentiation into neurons in a dose

  11. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)-An R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode

    2009-01-01

    are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE1 approximation......The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model...... development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(l)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornoe, R.V Overgaard, H. Agerso, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8...

  12. Lifting the differentiation embargo

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers.

  13. Effects of let-7b and TLX on the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Zhang, Dandan; Xie, Qing; Chen, Junzhao; Wang, Zi; Deng, Yuan; Wen, Xuyang; Zhu, Mengyu; Ji, Jing; Fan, Xianqun; Luo, Min; Gu, Ping

    2014-10-20

    MicroRNAs manifest significant functions in brain neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. Let-7b is expressed in the mammalian brain and regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal. Whether let-7b and TLX act as important regulators in retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. Here, our data show that let-7b and TLX play important roles in controlling RPC fate determination in vitro. Let-7b suppresses TLX expression to negatively regulate RPC proliferation and accelerate the neuronal and glial differentiation of RPCs. The overexpression of let-7b downregulates TLX levels in RPCs, leading to reduced RPC proliferation and increased neuronal and glial differentiation, whereas antisense knockdown of let-7b produces robust TLX expression,enhanced RPC proliferation and decreased differentiation. Moreover, the inhibition of endogenous TLX by small interfering RNA suppresses RPC proliferation and promotes RPC differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX rescues let-7b-induced proliferation deficiency and weakens the RPC differentiation enhancement caused by let-7b alone. These results suggest that let-7b, by forming a negative feedback loop with TLX, provides a novel model to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitors in vitro.

  14. Differential effects of garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modifications in tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Hilary M; Kundu, Tapas K; Heery, David M; Abdelghany, Magdy K; Messmer, Marie; Yue, Baigong; Deeves, Sian E; Kindle, Karin B; Mantelingu, Kempegowda; Aslam, Akhmed; Winkler, G Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones and other proteins are perturbed in tumours. For example, reduced levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 are associated with high tumour grade and poor survival in breast cancer. Drug-like molecules that can reprogram selected histone PTMs in tumour cells are therefore of interest as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study we assessed the effects of the phytocompounds garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modification in cancer cells, focussing on the breast tumour cell line MCF7. Cell viability/proliferation assays, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, immunodetection of specific histone and p53 acetylation marks, western blotting, siRNA and RT-qPCR. Although treatment with curcumin, garcinol or the garcinol derivative LTK-14 hampered MCF7 cell proliferation, differential effects of these compounds on histone modifications were observed. Garcinol treatment resulted in a strong reduction in H3K18 acetylation, which is required for S phase progression. Similar effects of garcinol on H3K18 acetylation were observed in the osteosarcoma cells lines U2OS and SaOS2. In contrast, global levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 in MCF7 cells were elevated after garcinol treatment. This was accompanied by upregulation of DNA damage signalling markers such as γH2A.X, H3K56Ac, p53 and TIP60. In contrast, exposure of MCF7 cells to curcumin resulted in increased global levels of acetylated H3K18 and H4K16, and was less effective in inducing DNA damage markers. In addition to its effects on histone modifications, garcinol was found to block CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of the C-terminal activation domain of p53, but resulted in enhanced acetylation of p53K120, and accumulation of p53 in the cytoplasmic compartment. Finally, we show that the elevation of H4K20Me3 levels by garcinol correlated with increased expression of SUV420H2, and was prevented by siRNA targeting of SUV420H2. In

  15. Differential effects of garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modifications in tumour cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Hilary M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modifications (PTMs of histones and other proteins are perturbed in tumours. For example, reduced levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 are associated with high tumour grade and poor survival in breast cancer. Drug-like molecules that can reprogram selected histone PTMs in tumour cells are therefore of interest as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study we assessed the effects of the phytocompounds garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modification in cancer cells, focussing on the breast tumour cell line MCF7. Methods Cell viability/proliferation assays, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, immunodetection of specific histone and p53 acetylation marks, western blotting, siRNA and RT-qPCR. Results Although treatment with curcumin, garcinol or the garcinol derivative LTK-14 hampered MCF7 cell proliferation, differential effects of these compounds on histone modifications were observed. Garcinol treatment resulted in a strong reduction in H3K18 acetylation, which is required for S phase progression. Similar effects of garcinol on H3K18 acetylation were observed in the osteosarcoma cells lines U2OS and SaOS2. In contrast, global levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 in MCF7 cells were elevated after garcinol treatment. This was accompanied by upregulation of DNA damage signalling markers such as γH2A.X, H3K56Ac, p53 and TIP60. In contrast, exposure of MCF7 cells to curcumin resulted in increased global levels of acetylated H3K18 and H4K16, and was less effective in inducing DNA damage markers. In addition to its effects on histone modifications, garcinol was found to block CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of the C-terminal activation domain of p53, but resulted in enhanced acetylation of p53K120, and accumulation of p53 in the cytoplasmic compartment. Finally, we show that the elevation of H4K20Me3 levels by garcinol correlated with increased expression of SUV420H2

  16. Knock-in strategy at 3'-end of Crx gene by CRISPR/Cas9 system shows the gene expression profiles during human photoreceptor differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Kohei; Usui, Sumiko; Kaneda, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent reporter gene knock-in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines have been used to evaluate the efficiency of differentiation into specific cell lineages. Here, we report a knock-in strategy for the generation of human iPSC reporter lines in which a 2A peptide sequence and a red fluorescent protein (E2-Crimson) gene were inserted at the termination codon of the cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene, a photoreceptor-specific transcriptional factor gene. The knock-in iPSC lines were differentiated into fluorescence-expressing cells in 3D retinal differentiation culture, and the fluorescent cells also expressed Crx specifically in the nucleus. We found that the fluorescence intensity was positively correlated with the expression levels of Crx mRNA and that fluorescent cells expressed rod photoreceptor-specific genes in the later stage of differentiation. Finally, we treated the fluorescent cells with DAPT, a Notch inhibitor, and found that DAPT-enhanced retinal differentiation was associated with up-regulation of Crx, Otx2 and NeuroD1, and down-regulation of Hes5 and Ngn2. These suggest that this knock-in strategy at the 3'-end of the target gene, combined with the 2A peptide linked to fluorescent proteins, offers a useful tool for labeling specific cell lineages or monitoring expression of any marker genes without affecting the function of the target gene. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li, Song; Wang, Daojing

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and (56)Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. X-rays and (56)Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and (56)Fe ions, with more significant effects from (56)Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy (56)Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. (56)Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation.

  18. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  19. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  20. Hypoxia modulates the differentiation potential of stem cells of the apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Julie; Viswanath, Aiswarya; De Berdt, Pauline; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Bouzin, Caroline; Feron, Olivier; Diogenes, Anibal; Leprince, Julian G; des Rieux, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) are a population of mesenchymal stem cells likely involved in regenerative endodontic procedures and have potential use as therapeutic agents in other tissues. In these situations, SCAP are exposed to hypoxic conditions either within a root canal devoid of an adequate blood supply or in a scaffold material immediately after implantation. However, the effect of hypoxia on SCAP proliferation and differentiation is largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on the fate of SCAP. SCAP were cultured under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (1% O2) in basal or differentiation media. Cellular proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, and protein secretion were analyzed by live imaging, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, cellular staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Hypoxia had no effect on SCAP proliferation, but it evoked the up-regulation of genes specific for osteogenic differentiation (runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase, and transforming growth factor-β1), neuronal differentiation ( 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, SNAIL, neuronspecific enolase, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A and B). Hypoxia also increased the sustained production of VEGFa by SCAP. Moreover, hypoxia augmented the neuronal differentiation of SCAP in the presence of differentiation exogenous factors as detected by the up-regulation of NSE, VEGFB, and GDNF and the expression of neuronal markers (PanF and NeuN). This study shows that hypoxia induces spontaneous differentiation of SCAP into osteogenic and neurogenic lineages while maintaining the release of the proangiogenic factor VEGFa. This highlights the potential of SCAP to promote pulp-dentin regeneration. Moreover, SCAP may represent potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative

  1. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies-The example of viral load informed differentiated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Paul; Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter's value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest gains in population health. The findings have

  2. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies—The example of viral load informed differentiated care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Background The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. Key issues for economic evaluation The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter’s value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest

  3. Populations of Phytophthora rubi Show Little Differentiation and High Rates of Migration Among States in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Coffey, Michael D; Zazada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2018-04-11

    Population genetics is a powerful tool to understand patterns and evolutionary processes that are involved in plant-pathogen emergence and adaptation to agricultural ecosystems. We are interested in studying the population dynamics of Phytophthora rubi, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. P. rubi is found in the western United States, where most of the fresh and processed raspberries are produced. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize genetic diversity in populations of P. rubi sampled in the United States and other countries. Our results confirm that P. rubi is a monophyletic species with complete lineage sorting from its sister taxon P. fragariae. Overall, populations of P. rubi show low genetic diversity across the western United States. Demographic analyses suggest that populations of P. rubi from the western United States are the source of pathogen migration to Europe. We found no evidence for population differentiation at a global or regional (western United States) level. Finally, our results provide evidence of migration from California and Oregon into Washington. This report provides new insights into the evolution and structure of global and western United States populations of the raspberry pathogen P. rubi, indicating that human activity might be involved in moving the pathogen among regions and fields.

  4. Chinese Traditionality Matters: Effects of Differentiated Empowering Leadership on Followers’ Trust in Leaders and Work Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S-L; Huo, Y; Long, L-R

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers’ trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers’ trust in leaders became salient when followers’ Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers’ trus...

  5. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  6. New numerical approximation for solving fractional delay differential equations of variable order using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Aguilar, C. J.; Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Martínez, V. M.; Romero-Ugalde, H. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we approximate the solution of fractional differential equations with delay using a new approach based on artificial neural networks. We consider fractional differential equations of variable order with the Mittag-Leffler kernel in the Liouville-Caputo sense. With this new neural network approach, an approximate solution of the fractional delay differential equation is obtained. Synaptic weights are optimized using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The neural network effectiveness and applicability were validated by solving different types of fractional delay differential equations, linear systems with delay, nonlinear systems with delay and a system of differential equations, for instance, the Newton-Leipnik oscillator. The solution of the neural network was compared with the analytical solutions and the numerical simulations obtained through the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method. To show the effectiveness of the proposed neural network, different performance indices were calculated.

  7. Lipid remodeling and an altered membrane-associated proteome may drive the differential effects of EPA and DHA treatment on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and protein accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromson, Stewart; Mackenzie, Ivor; Doherty, Mary K; Whitfield, Phillip D; Bell, Gordon; Dick, James; Shaw, Andy; Rao, Francesco V; Ashcroft, Stephen P; Philp, Andrew; Galloway, Stuart D R; Gallagher, Iain; Hamilton, D Lee

    2018-06-01

    In striated muscle, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C 2 C 12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA and DHA may be due to divergent shifts in lipidomic profiles leading to altered proteomic profiles. We therefore carried out an assessment of the impact of treating CM with EPA and DHA on lipidomic and proteomic profiles. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis revealed that both EPA and DHA led to similar but substantials changes in fatty acid profiles with the exception of arachidonic acid, which was decreased only by DHA, and docosapentanoic acid (DPA), which was increased only by EPA treatment. Global lipidomic analysis showed that EPA and DHA induced large alterations in the cellular lipid profiles and in particular, the phospholipid classes. Subsequent targeted analysis confirmed that the most differentially regulated species were phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines containing long-chain fatty acids with five (EPA treatment) or six (DHA treatment) double bonds. As these are typically membrane-associated lipid species we hypothesized that these treatments differentially altered the membrane-associated proteome. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics of the membrane fraction revealed significant divergence in the effects of EPA and DHA on the membrane-associated proteome. We conclude that the EPA-specific increase in polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction is associated with an altered membrane-associated proteome and these may be critical events in the metabolic remodeling induced by EPA treatment.

  8. Oligopolistic differentiation of the Colombian green bean coffee in the US market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julián Rendón Cardona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO literature notes that imperfect foreign competition among commodities may be characterized by prices, quantities and product differentiation. This paper shows that the effectiveness of the differentiation strategy of Colombian green bean coffee in the US market has caused Colombia to compete in terms of quantities with its major opponent, Brazil. In order to show it, this paper brings a set of models which allow us to identify the competitive structure followed by Brazil and Colombia in the United States market of green bean coffee imports. These models are evaluated through a likelihood ratio test to determine which of them best explains the data. Stackelberg is the best model showing Brazil’s leadership in terms of quantities.

  9. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for Muscle Regeneration and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Kang, Sung Un; Kim, Yang Eun; Park, Ju Kyeong; Yang, Sang Sik; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yun Sang; Lee, Yuijina; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can repair muscle tissue damage, but significant loss of muscle tissue or its long-lasting chronic degeneration makes injured skeletal muscle tissue difficult to restore. It has been demonstrated that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) can be used in many biological areas including regenerative medicine. Therefore, we determined whether NTP, as a non-contact biological external stimulator that generates biological catalyzers, can induce regeneration of injured muscle without biomaterials. Treatment with NTP in the defected muscle of a Sprague Dawley (SD) rat increased the number of proliferating muscle cells 7 days after plasma treatment (dapt) and rapidly induced formation of muscle tissue and muscle cell differentiation at 14 dapt. In addition, in vitro experiments also showed that NTP could induce muscle cell proliferation and differentiation of human muscle cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NTP promotes restoration of muscle defects through control of cell proliferation and differentiation without biological or structural supporters, suggesting that NTP has the potential for use in muscle tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. PMID:27349181

  10. Planar Cell Polarity Controls Pancreatic Beta Cell Differentiation and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Cortijo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP refers to the collective orientation of cells within the epithelial plane. We show that progenitor cells forming the ducts of the embryonic pancreas express PCP proteins and exhibit an active PCP pathway. Planar polarity proteins are acquired at embryonic day 11.5 synchronously to apicobasal polarization of pancreas progenitors. Loss of function of the two PCP core components Celsr2 and Celsr3 shows that they control the differentiation of endocrine cells from polarized progenitors, with a prevalent effect on insulin-producing beta cells. This results in a decreased glucose clearance. Loss of Celsr2 and 3 leads to a reduction of Jun phosphorylation in progenitors, which, in turn, reduces beta cell differentiation from endocrine progenitors. These results highlight the importance of the PCP pathway in cell differentiation in vertebrates. In addition, they reveal that tridimensional organization and collective communication of cells are needed in the pancreatic epithelium in order to generate appropriate numbers of endocrine cells.

  11. Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engineered to Express Neurotrophic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotential cells with capability to form colonies in vitro and differentiate into distinctive end-stage cell types. Although MSCs secrete many cytokines, the efficacy can be improved through combination with neurotrophic factors (NTFs. Moreover, MSCs are excellent opportunities for local delivery of NTFs into injured tissues. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effects of overexpressing NTFs on proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs had no effect on cell proliferation. Overexpressing NT-3, BDNF, and NGF also had no significant effect on the differentiation of HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs all promoted the neurite outgrowth of embryonic chick E9 dorsal root ganglion (DRG. The gene expression profiles of the control and NT-3- and BDNF-modified HUMSCs were compared using RNA sequencing and biological processes and activities were revealed. This study provides novel information about the effects of overexpressing NTFs on HUMSCs and insight into the choice of optimal NTFs for combined cell and gene therapy.

  12. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  13. Effects of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride upon Drosophila melanogaster. I. Differential genotyptic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, R A; Smith, J D; Applegate, H G

    1971-01-01

    Four inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were exposed to various concentrations of gaseous hydrogen fluoride for a period of six weeks. The effects upon the viability of these populations were predominantly linear with respect to fluoride concentration over the range tested. Differential responses of the inbred lines were interpreted to mean that tolerance to fluoride contamination is influenced by genotype. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Perception through a Perspective-Taking Lens: Differential Effects on Judgment and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ku , Gillian; Wang , Cynthia S.; Galinsky , Adam D.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In contrast to the view that social perception has symmetric effects on judgments and behavior, the current research explored whether perspective-taking leads stereotypes to differentially affect judgments and behavior. Across three studies, perspective-takers consistently used stereotypes more in their own behavior while simultaneously using them less in their judgments of others. After writing about an African American, perspective-taking tendencies were positively c...

  15. Effects of Culture Substrate Made of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid Microgels on Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Dai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM-based polymers and gels are widely known and studied for their thermoresponsive property. In the biomaterials category, they are regarded as a potential cell culture substrate, not only because of their biocompatibility, but also their special character of allowing controlled detachment of cells via temperature stimulus. Previous research about PNIPAM-based substrates mostly concentrated on their effects in cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, however, we investigate the influence of the PNIPAM-based substrate on the differentiation capacity of stem cells. Especially, we choose P(NIPAM-AA microgels as a culture dish coating and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are cultured on top of the microgels. Interestingly, we find that the morphology of MSCs changes remarkably on a microgel-coated surface, from the original spindle form to a more stretched and elongated cell shape. Accompanied by the alternation in morphology, the expression of several osteogenesis-related genes is elevated even without inducing factors. In the presence of full osteogenic medium, MSCs on a microgel substrate show an enhancement in the expression level of osteopontin and alizarin red staining signals, indicating the physical property of substrate has a direct effect on MSCs differentiation.

  16. Lifting the Differentiation Embargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa L

    2016-09-22

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Platelet-Poor and Platelet-Rich Plasma Stimulate Bone Lineage Differentiation in Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Constanza E; González, Sergio A; Palma, Verónica; Smith, Patricio C

    2016-02-01

    Plasma-derived fractions have been used as an autologous source of growth factors; however, limited knowledge concerning their biologic effects has hampered their clinical application. In this study, the authors analyze the content and specific effect of both platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on osteoblastic differentiation using primary cultures of human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPLSCs). The authors evaluated the growth factor content of PRP and PPP using a proteome profiler array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HPLSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiation assays. The effect of PRP and PPP on HPLSC bone differentiation was analyzed by quantifying calcium deposition after 14 and 21 days of treatment. Albeit at different concentrations, the two fractions had similar profiles of growth factors, the most representative being platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms (PDGF-AA, -BB, and -AB), insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2, and IGFBP-6. Both formulations exerted a comparable stimulus on osteoblastic differentiation even at low doses (2.5%), increasing calcium deposits in HPLSCs. PRP and PPP showed a similar protein profile and exerted comparable effects on bone differentiation. Further studies are needed to characterize and compare the effects of PPP and PRP on bone healing in vivo.

  18. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  19. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-01

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  20. Effects of microenvironment on growth and differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datko, Laura Christine

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have recently been described as a potential stem cell source for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. They appear to be multipotent, however more characterization is necessary to determine the true potential of these cells. An important aspect of using DPSCs, or any stem cell type, tissue engineering application is the microenvironment within the construct. The microenvironment could include construct mechanical properties, construct composition, and 3D dynamic conditions in vivo. This work aims to study those specific microenvironment effects on DPSCs. To determine the effects of mechanical properties of the substrate on DPSCs, they were seeded on polyacrylamide (PA) gels of different elastic moduli. These gels ranged from 3 kPa to 75 kPa and a glass coverslip was used as a control. They were also exposed to either standard stem cell media or an osteogenic differentiation media, to determine the potential of the DPSCs for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for morphological changes, osteopontin production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, and mineralization. The results showed that the DPSCs adhered well to the PA gels for the first few days in culture, but by day 7, they were starting to detach from the PA gels and only remain viable in gel defects or along the edges. This selective growth was also reflected in the mineralization, which only occurred in areas of confluence for the cells on the PA gels. Interestingly, all cultures produced osteopontin and ALP, however by the end of the experiment, the cells cultured on glass had the highest ALP production. It appeared that without the addition of growth factors to induce other cell lineages, DPSCs defaulted to an osteogenic/odontogenic lineage. To determine the effect of mineral composition, preliminary studies were done on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 7F2 osteoblasts. These two cell types were exposed to

  1. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  2. The Bessel polynomials and their differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango Otieno, V.P.

    1987-10-01

    Differential operators associated with the ordinary and the generalized Bessel polynomials are defined. In each case the commutator bracket is constructed and shows that the differential operators associated with the Bessel polynomials and their generalized form are not commutative. Some applications of these operators to linear differential equations are also discussed. (author). 4 refs

  3. Differential Effects of X-Rays and High-Energy 56Fe Ions on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li Song; Wang Daojing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods and Materials: A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and 56 Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. Results: X-rays and 56 Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and 56 Fe ions, with more significant effects from 56 Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy 56 Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. Conclusions: 56 Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation

  4. Differential Effects of Motor Efference Copies and Proprioceptive Information on Response Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian

    2013-01-01

    It is well-kown that sensory information influences the way we execute motor responses. However, less is known about if and how sensory and motor information are integrated in the subsequent process of response evaluation. We used a modified Simon Task to investigate how these streams of information are integrated in response evaluation processes, applying an in-depth neurophysiological analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs), time-frequency decomposition and sLORETA. The results show that response evaluation processes are differentially modulated by afferent proprioceptive information and efference copies. While the influence of proprioceptive information is mediated via oscillations in different frequency bands, efference copy based information about the motor execution is specifically mediated via oscillations in the theta frequency band. Stages of visual perception and attention were not modulated by the interaction of proprioception and motor efference copies. Brain areas modulated by the interactive effects of proprioceptive and efference copy based information included the middle frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area (SMA), suggesting that these areas integrate sensory information for the purpose of response evaluation. The results show how motor response evaluation processes are modulated by information about both the execution and the location of a response. PMID:23658624

  5. CT on diagnosis and differential diagnosis of adrenal neuroblastoma from nephroblastoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingtian; Shen Guoqiang; Yang Huayuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of CT on diagnosis and differential diagnosis of children's adrenal neuroblastoma from nephroblastoma. Materials and Method: To analyse the CT manifestations on 36 cases of adrenal neuroblastoma and 32 cases of nephroblastoma both confirmed by postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Results: The adrenal neuroblastoma is a kind of extrarenal tumor, so the kidney kept its original form and showed some compressive features. The incidence of tumor calcification appeared mostly in rough and speckle-piece form was high. While the nephroblastoma is a renal tumor. The surrounding renal parenchyma showed a specific 'new-moon shape' intensification. Conclusion: CT is one of the most valuable and effective means of examination to diagnose adrenal neuroblastoma and differentiate it from nephroblastoma. It can provide important information for making correct diagnosis, planning proper therapy and assessing prognosis

  6. Response spectra for differential motion of structures supports during earthquakes in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I.S. Elmasry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential motions of ground supports of stiff structures with large plan dimensions and separate foundations under earthquakes were studied by researchers during the last few decades. Such a type of structural response was previously underestimated. The importance of studying such a response comes up from the fact that usually the structures affected are of strategic importance such as bridges. During their expected life, structures may experience vibrations excited by ground waves of short wavelengths during near-source earthquakes, or during amplified earthquake signals, during explosions, or during vibrations induced from nearby strong vibration sources. This is the case when the differential motion of supports becomes considerable. This paper aims to review the effects of seismic signal variations along the structures dimensions with emphasis on Egypt as a case study. The paper shows some patterns of the damage imposed by such differential motion. A replication of the differential motion in the longitudinal direction is applied on a frame bridge model. The resulting straining actions show the necessity for considering the differential motion of supports in the design of special structures in Egypt. Finally, response spectra for the differential motion of supports, based on the available data from previous earthquakes in Egypt, is derived and proposed for designers to include in the design procedure when accounting for such type of structural response, and especially in long-span bridges.

  7. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  8. Early development of executive functions: a differential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sastre-Riba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of executive functions is essential in explaining differential and normative developmental trends. Executive functions must be studied from an early age given their consequential effects on mental flexibility, monitoring information, planning, and cognitive control. We propose a differential study in alternative developmental courses through observing typical babies, Down syndrome babies, and babies with risk-factors at birth (due to low weight or to congenital hypothyroidism. Applymg Systematic Observational Methodology, spontaneous babies' activity was registered. The results indicated that: a Typical babies showed better shifting and action flexibility in order to obtain a goal, thus better results; b Among the higher risk-babies, the lower efficacy in executive functioning was observed in underweight babies. Those with hypothyroidism were more in line with the typical babies; c Underweight babies showed a good level of combining actions but they obtained inferior results; d Down syndrome babies displayed more executive functioning difficulty, lower flexibility, high perseveration and less error detection.

  9. Preliminary experimental insights into differential heat impact among lithic artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bustos-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thermally altered and broken flint artifacts is common at archaeological sites. Most studies focus their attention on the effects of heat treatment on flint to improve knapping qualities, disregarding the effects of fire over flint under uncontrolled conditions. This paper aims to show how under uncontrolled heating processes flint artifacts develop different heat alterations (such as levels of breakage, presence of scales, etc. as a result of vertical distribution, volume or raw material and to establish a gradient of rock changes and behavior. Artifacts where macroscopically analyzed and a series of uncontrolled heating experiments through the distribution of flint blanks under two hearths were carried out, allowing a comparison of the before and after of the blanks. Preliminary results show how levels of breakage, surface alteration or development of heat alteration features can be differentiated according to artifact volume, vertical distribution and level of surface alteration. Results also show how two different raw materials react differently to similar thermal impact, and how surface alteration reacts at different rhythm in the case of recycled artifacts. We conclude that levels of thermal alteration can be differentiated through macroscopic analysis of flint surface.

  10. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  11. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hiromichi; Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh; Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide; Satoh, Noriko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kita, Toru; Shimatsu, Akira; Hasegawa, Koji

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 μM of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-α-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 μM), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs

  12. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Hiromichi [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Satoh, Noriko [Division of Metabolic Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto (Japan); Fujita, Masatoshi [Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kita, Toru [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shimatsu, Akira [Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, Koji [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan)

    2008-10-03

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 {mu}M of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-{alpha}-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs.

  13. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  14. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  15. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadera, Hidekuni; Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-α did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  16. Cytopathogenic effects in enterocytelike Caco-2 cells differentiate virulent from avirulent Listeria strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, L; Kathariou, S; Quinn, F; George, V; Wenger, J D; Weaver, R E

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a simple test that differentiates between virulent and avirulent Listeria species as defined by the mouse 50% lethal doses (LD50S). The assay is based on trypan blue-revealed cytopathogenic effects that are produced during the infection of the human enterocytelike cell line Caco-2. These effects were elicited only by Listeria strains that had an intraperitoneal mouse LD50 less than 10(8) and were not produced by nonhemolytic, avirulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes gener...

  17. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqin; Xie Ming; Jiang Guihua; Sun Congbo; Huang Pule; Wu Yanjun; Wu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60 Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  18. Adult medulloblastoma with myogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-ling ZHANG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinicopathological features of adult medulloblastoma with myogenic differentiation and to discuss clinicopathological differentiations from relevant tumors, so as to improve the ability of diagnosing and differentiating this kind of tumor. Methods The clinical manifestations, imaging, pathological features and immunohistochemical features of one case of adult medulloblastoma with myogenic differentiation were analyzed, and related literatures were reviewed. Results A 32-year-old female patient presented with repeated distortion of mouth and facial numbness for over 6 years. T1WI showed a mixed-signal lesion in the cerebellar vermis and dorsal part of brainstem, and protruded toward the fourth ventricle. Enhanced T1WI showed a round strengthened nodule in the lesion. During operation, it was seen that the tumor arised in cerebellar vermis, projected into the fourth ventricle and invaded brainstem. On microscopy examination, it was found that oval nuclei tumor cells were distributed in sheet or scattered patterns, and neuroblastic rosettes were observed. Abundant and eosinophilic cytoplasm, eccentrically placed and atypical nuclei containing hyperchromatic chromatin or prominent nucleoli in the tumor could be displayed. Mitoses were frequently seen. The tumor also presented with fresh and old hemorrhage in some place. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were diffusely positive for integrase interactor 1 (INI1, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, human internexin neuronal intermediate filament protein α (INα, neurofilament protein (NF, Nestin (Nes, β-catenin and P53, and partly positive for desmin (Des, neuronal nuclei (NeuN and S-100 protein (S-100, but negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, oligodendrocyte transcription factor-2 (Olig-2, CD99, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, MyoD1, myogenin, muscle-specific actin (MSA and smooth muscle actin (SMA. Ki-67

  19. The Distinct Effects of Estrogen and Hydrostatic Pressure on Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation: Involvement of Estrogen Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yi, Fei-Zhou; Zhao, Yin-Hua; Chen, Yong-Jin; Ma, Heng; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the differential and synergistic effects of mechanical stimulation and estrogen on the proliferation and osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and the roles of estrogen receptor (ER) in them. BMSCs were isolated and cultured using the whole bone marrow adherence method, and flow cytometry was used to identify the surface marker molecules of BMSCs. Cells were pre-treated with 1 nM 17β-estradiol or 1 nM of the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Then, the cells were stimulated with hydrostatic pressure. Assessment included flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle; immunofluorescent staining for F-actin; protein quantification for MAPK protein; and mRNA analysis for Col I, OCN, OPN and BSP after osteogenic induction and Sox-9, Aggrecan and Col-II after chondrogenic induction. Hydrostatic pressure (90 kPa/1 h) and 1 nM 17β-estradiol enhanced the cellular proliferation ability and the cytoskeleton activity but without synergistic biological effects. Estrogen activated ERKs and JNKs simultaneously and promoted the osteogenic differentiation, whereas the pressure just caused JNK-1/2 activation and promoted the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Estrogen had antagonism effect on chondrogenic promotion of hydrostatic pressure. Mechanobiological effects of hydrostatic pressure are closely associated with ERα activity. MAPK molecules and F-actin were likely to be important mediator molecules in the ER-mediated mechanotransduction of BMSCs.

  20. Differential Effect of Electroacupuncture on Inflammatory Adipokines in Two Rat Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline J.T. Liaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats. In the two rat models of obesity, on Day 12 of treatment, repeated applications of EA were seen to have had a significant differential effect for serum tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, the adiponectin:leptin ratio, and blood glucose. For the adipose tissue, there was a differential effect for adiponectin that was on the borderline of significance. To explore these changes further and how they might affect insulin resistance would require a modification to the research design to use larger group sizes for the two models or to give a greater number of EA treatments.

  1. Proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs on cellulose-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Maria Grazia; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the proliferation and differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) onto a cellulose-based hydrogel for bone tissue engineering. Modified-cellulose hydrogel was prepared via double esterification crosslinking using citric acid. The response of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation into osteoblastic phenotype was evaluated by using Alamar blue assay and Alkaline phosphatase activity. The results showed that CMCNa and CMCNa_CA have no negative effect on hMSC, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the increase of the ALP expression for CMCNa_CA confirms the ability of the hydrogels to support the osteoblastic differentiation. The cellulose-based hydrogels have a potential application as filler in bone tissue regeneration.

  2. Short-term Probabilistic Forecasting of Wind Speed Using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2016-01-01

    and uncertain nature. In this paper, we propose a modeling framework for wind speed that is based on stochastic differential equations. We show that stochastic differential equations allow us to naturally capture the time dependence structure of wind speed prediction errors (from 1 up to 24 hours ahead) and......It is widely accepted today that probabilistic forecasts of wind power production constitute valuable information for both wind power producers and power system operators to economically exploit this form of renewable energy, while mitigating the potential adverse effects related to its variable......, most importantly, to derive point and quantile forecasts, predictive distributions, and time-path trajectories (also referred to as scenarios or ensemble forecasts), all by one single stochastic differential equation model characterized by a few parameters....

  3. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Ma

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  4. Technology diffusion, product differentiation and environmental subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinty, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Vries, F.P. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Law and Economics

    2007-07-01

    Technological change is often seen as the promising device that will mitigate or solve environmental problems. Policy intervention that spurs the development, adoption and diffusion of new, environmentally benign technologies therefore holds great appear for environmental authorities. Policymakers have various instruments at their disposal to affect technological diffusion, ranging from direct regulation (command-and-control strategies) to market-based instruments, such as taxes, subsidies and tradable pollution permits. This paper examines environmental subsidies as a technology diffusion policy. The authors apply evolutionary game theory to explore the relationship between subsidies for clean technology, the diffusion of that technology and the degree of product differentiation in an imperfectly competitive market. They show that the subsidy succeeds in reducing environmental damage only when the substitution effect (the reduction in pollution associated with the clean technology) exceeds the output effect (the extent that the subsidy increases output). When the substitution effect does dominate, environmental damage decreases monotonically during the diffusion process. The extent of diffusion (the degree to which clean technolgy replaces dirty) and the likelihood that the substitution effect will dominate both decrease with the extent of product differentiation. Finally, the subsidy for clean technology will spill over to the remaining dirty producers increasing their profit as well.

  5. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  6. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanabdali R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramin Khanabdali,1 Anbarieh Saadat,1 Maizatul Fazilah,1 Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul Bazli,1 Rida-e-Maria Qazi,2 Ramla Sana Khalid,2 Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli,1 Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi,1 Nadia Naeem,2 Irfan Khan,2 Asmat Salim,2 ShamsulAzlin Ahmad Shamsuddin,1 Gokula Mohan1 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dr Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 µM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the

  7. Direct effects of casein phosphopeptides on growth and differentiation of in vitro cultured osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipano, Giovanni; Bulgari, Omar; Chessa, Stefania; Nardone, Alessandro; Cocchi, Daniela; Caroli, Anna

    2010-02-25

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro of caseins, have been shown to enhance calcium solubility and to increase the calcification of embryonic rat bones in their diaphyseal area. Little is known about the direct effects of CPPs on cultured osteoblastic cells. Calcium in the microenvironment surrounding bone cells is not only important for the mineralization of the extracellular matrix, but it is believed to provide preosteblasts with a signal that modulates their proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of four selected casein phosphopeptides on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1 cells) viability and differentiation. The selected peptides have been obtained by chemical synthesis and differed in the number of phosphorylated sites and in the amino acid spacing out two phosphorylated sites, in order to further characterize the relationship between structure and function. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that CPPs may directly affect osteoblast-like cell growth, calcium uptake and ultimately calcium deposition in the extracellular matrix. The effects exerted by distinct CPPs on osteogenesis in vitro can be either stimulatory or inhibitory. Differential short amino acid sequences in their molecules, like the -SpEE- and the -SpTSpEE-motifs, are likely the molecular determinants for their biological activities on osteoblastic cells. Moreover, two genetic variants of CPPs showing one amino acid change in their sequence may profoundly differ in their biological activities. Finally, our data may also suggest important clues about the role of intrinsic phosphorylated peptides derived from endogenous phosphorylated proteins in bone metabolism, apart from extrinsic CPPs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Melatonin enhances neural stem cell differentiation and engraftment by increasing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Perez, Miguel; Soto-Mercado, Viviana; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Fernandez-Gil, Beatriz I; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Tejada, Miguel A; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Rusanova, Iryna; Garcia-Verdugo, José M; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Ferrer, José M; Escames, Germaine

    2017-09-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established. We therefore tested the impact of melatonin on NSC proliferation and differentiation in an attempt to determine whether these actions depend on modulating mitochondrial activity. We measured proliferation and differentiation markers, mitochondrial structural and functional parameters as well as oxidative stress indicators and also evaluated cell transplant engraftment. This enabled us to show that melatonin (25 μM) induces NSC differentiation into oligodendrocytes and neurons. These effects depend on increased mitochondrial mass/DNA/complexes, mitochondrial respiration, and membrane potential as well as ATP synthesis in NSCs. It is also interesting to note that melatonin prevented oxidative stress caused by high levels of mitochondrial activity. Finally, we found that melatonin enriches NSC engraftment in the ND mouse model following transplantation. We concluded that a combined therapy involving transplantation of NSCs pretreated with pharmacological doses of melatonin could efficiently restore neuronal cell populations in PD and AD mouse models depending on mitochondrial activity promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhong Zha

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for treatment of neuroblastoma. It has been reported that RA induces the expression of several HOXD genes in human neuroblastoma cell lines, but their roles in RA action are largely unknown. The HOXD cluster contains nine genes (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, and HOXD8-13 that are positioned sequentially from 3' to 5', with HOXD1 at the 3' end and HOXD13 the 5' end. Here we show that all HOXD genes are induced by RA in the human neuroblastoma BE(2-C cells, with the genes located at the 3' end being activated generally earlier than those positioned more 5' within the cluster. Individual induction of HOXD8, HOXD9, HOXD10 or HOXD12 is sufficient to induce both growth arrest and neuronal differentiation, which is associated with downregulation of cell cycle-promoting genes and upregulation of neuronal differentiation genes. However, induction of other HOXD genes either has no effect (HOXD1 or has partial effects (HOXD3, HOXD4, HOXD11 and HOXD13 on BE(2-C cell proliferation or differentiation. We further show that knockdown of HOXD8 expression, but not that of HOXD9 expression, significantly inhibits the differentiation-inducing activity of RA. HOXD8 directly activates the transcription of HOXC9, a key effector of RA action in neuroblastoma cells. These findings highlight the distinct functions of HOXD genes in RA induction of neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

  10. Different level of population differentiation among human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-14

    During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  11. Early differential processing of material images: Evidence from ERP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-06-24

    Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. © 2014 ARVO.

  12. Formulation and application of optimal homotopty asymptotic method to coupled differential-difference equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hakeem; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Fiza, Mehreen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we applied a new analytic approximate technique Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) for treatment of coupled differential-difference equations (DDEs). To see the efficiency and reliability of the method, we consider Relativistic Toda coupled nonlinear differential-difference equation. It provides us a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions when it is compared with other methods of solution found in the literature. The obtained solutions show that OHAM is effective, simpler, easier and explicit.

  13. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Farlow, Stanley J

    1993-01-01

    Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

  14. The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we study the effect of the numerical solution accuracy on the digital implementation of differential chaos generators. Four systems are built on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA using Euler, mid-point, and Runge-Kutta fourth order techniques. The twelve implementations are compared based on the FPGA used area, maximum throughput, maximum Lyapunov exponent, and autocorrelation confidence region. Based on circuit performance and the chaotic response of the different implementations, it was found that less complicated numerical solution has better chaotic response and higher throughput.

  15. Do Holocaust survivors show increased vulnerability or resilience to post-Holocaust cumulative adversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-06-01

    Prior trauma can hinder coping with additional adversity or inoculate against the effect of recurrent adversity. The present study further addressed this issue by examining whether a subsample of Holocaust survivors and comparison groups, drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, were differentially affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity. Post-Holocaust cumulative adversity had a stronger effect on the lifetime depression of Holocaust survivors than on that of comparisons. However, comparisons were more negatively affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity when examining markers of physical and cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that previous trauma can both sensitize and immunize, as Holocaust survivors show general resilience intertwined with specific vulnerability when confronted with additional cumulative adversity.

  16. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells(BTSCs in vitro. Methods Limiting dilution and clonogenic assay were used to isolate and screen BTSCs from the fresh specimen of human brain glioblastoma. The obtained BTSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, were classified into four groups in accordance with the composition of the different treatments. The proliferation of the BTSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The BTSCs were induced to differentiate in serum-containing medium, and classified into the ATRA group and control group. On the 10th day of induction, the expressions of CD133 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the differentiated BTSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The differentiated BTSCs were cultured in serum-free medium, the percentage and the time required for formation of brain tumor spheres (BTS were observed. Results BTSCs obtained by limiting dilution were all identified as CD133-positive by immunofluorescence. In serum-free medium, the proliferation of BTSCs in the ATRA group was observed significantly faster than that in the control group, but slower than that in the growth factor group and ATRA/growth factor group, and the size of the BTS in the ATRA group was smaller than that in the latter two groups(P P P P Conclusion ATRA can promote the proliferation and induce the differentiation of BTSCs, but the differentiation is incomplete, terminal differentiation cannot be achieved and BTSs can be formed again.

  17. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  19. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  20. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Stasuk, Alexander; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  1. Acellular dermal matrix loading with bFGF achieves similar acceleration of bone regeneration to BMP-2 via differential effects on recruitment, proliferation and sustained osteodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Mi; Zhu, Ting; Duan, Xiaoqi; Ge, Shaohua; Li, Ning; Sun, Qinfeng; Yang, Pishan

    2017-01-01

    New generation of barrier membranes has been developed, which not only act as barriers but also as delivery devices to release specific growth factors. This study observed biological behaviors of bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) pretreated by bFGF or BMP-2 in vitro and evaluated differential bone regeneration process induced by bFGF and BMP-2 loaded acellular dermal matrix (ADM) membrane using critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The results showed that the proliferation capability of BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF was stronger than that by BMP-2, while there was temporally differential effect of bFGF and BMP-2 pretreatment on MSC osteogenic differentiation potentials. During healing process of rat calvarial defects, 2-fold more CD34 −/CD90 + MSCs in group of bFGF-ADM was observed than in any other treatment group at 2 weeks. However, there were similar amount of new bone formation and expression of osteopotin in newly-formed bone tissue in groups of bFGF- and BMP-2-ADM at 8 weeks, which were more than those in ADM alone and blank control. Taken together, bFGF-ADM guided similar bone regeneration to BMP-2 through more efficient recruitment of MSCs, and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed stronger proliferation at 1–5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days compared with BMP-2 pretreatment. - Highlights: • An improved barrier membrane used in the field of bone tissue engineering was proposed, which is acellular dermal matrix (ADM) loaded with growth factors. • It is generally agreed that BMP-2 and -7 provide the greatest bone regeneration potentials, however, we found that ADM loading with bFGF could guide similar bone regeneration to BMP-2. • Compared with BMP-2, bFGF could more effectively recruit MSCs and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed out stronger proliferation at 1-5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days.

  2. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sachiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ikehata, Masateru; Ishii, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Wada, Keiji; Wake, Kanako; Nakasono, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji

    2016-01-01

    The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST). The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF-MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days) or the cell differentiation process (10 days) during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF-MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF-MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2 , and an early developmental gene, Hba-x , in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH) cooktop, etc . in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF-MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect.

  3. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, V.; Howland, M.; Chen, J.; Kutzner, B.; Wilkins, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α) particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to a-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of a-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ∼1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-a and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells

  4. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and quercetin on the expression of osteonectin and osteopontin during the differentiation of irradiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Su Kyung; Koh, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyoung A

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and quercetin (QCT) on gene expression of osteonectin (ON) and osteopontin (OP) in irradiated MC3T3-E1 cells. When MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells had reached 70-80% confluence, cultures were transferred to a differentiating medium supplemented with 5 mM 2-DG or 10 μM QCT and then irradiated with 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy. At various times after irradiation, the cells were analyzed for the expression of bone mineralization genes such as ON and OP. The mRNA expression of both ON and OP was increased according to the culture time in the differentiation medium, and the increase of the genes peaked at 14 days after the differentiation induction. In the case of OP, the increase of mRNA expression was maintained to 28 days after the differentiation, while the mRNA level of ON was reduced to the basal level at the same time. Irradiation adding 2-DG showed a significant peak value in the expression pattern of ON at 4 Gy 7 days after irradiation. Irradiation adding QCT increased the mRNA expression of ON and OP in a dose-dependant manner, but irradiation adding 2-DG did not show any differences between the control and experiments 14 days after irradiation. Irradiation adding QCT increased significantly the expression patterns of ON 21 days after irradiation. The results showed that QCT acted as a radiosensitizer in the gene expression of ON and OP during differentiation of the late stage of irradiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells in vitro.

  5. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  6. An Enhanced Differential Evolution with Elite Chaotic Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for real-world engineering problems. However, its search ability should be further enhanced to obtain better solutions when DE is applied to solve complex optimization problems. This paper presents an enhanced differential evolution with elite chaotic local search (DEECL. In DEECL, it utilizes a chaotic search strategy based on the heuristic information from the elite individuals to promote the exploitation power. Moreover, DEECL employs a simple and effective parameter adaptation mechanism to enhance the robustness. Experiments are conducted on a set of classical test functions. The experimental results show that DEECL is very competitive on the majority of the test functions.

  7. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  8. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type IIβ regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Cho-Chung, Y.S.

    1990-01-01

    The type II β regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII β ) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but direct proof of this function has been lacking. To address this tissue, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were exposed to RII β antisense synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, and the effects on cAMP-induced growth regulation were examined. Exposure of these cells to RII β antisense oligodeoxynucleotide resulted in a decrease in cAMP analog-induced growth inhibition and differentiation without apparent effect on differentiation induced by phorbol esters. This loss in cAMP growth regulatory function correlated with a decrease in basal and induced levels of RII β protein. Exposure to RII β sense, RI α and RII α antisense, or irrelevant oligodeoxynucleotides had no such effect. These results show that the RII β regulatory subunit of protein kinase plays a critical role in the cAMP-induced growth regulation of HL-60 leukemia cells

  9. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  10. Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Kumar Rawat; Abhirup Lahiri; Ashish Gupta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parame...

  11. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed....

  12. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast-feeding...

  13. Bilobalide induces neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao; Liao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Bilobalide, a natural product extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaf, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological activities. So far, whether it could affect embryonic stem cell differentiation is still unknown. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bilobalide on P19 embryonic carcinoma cells differentiation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that bilobalide induced P19 cells differentiation into neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also found that bilobalide promoted neuronal differentiation through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Exposure to bilobalide increased inactive GSK-3β phosphorylation, further induced the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and also up-regulated the expression of Wnt ligands Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Neuronal differentiation induced by bilobalide was totally abolished by XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results revealed a novel role of bilobalide in neuronal differentiation from P19 embryonic cells acting through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which would provide a better insight into the beneficial effects of bilobalide in brain diseases.

  14. Negative differential resistance in BN co-doped coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khurshed A.; Parvaiz, M. Shunaid

    2016-12-01

    The CNTFETs are the most promising advanced alternatives to the conventional FETs due to their outstanding structure and electrical properties. In this paper, we report the I-V characteristics of zig-zag (4, 0) semiconducting coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The CNTFET is co-doped with two, four and six boron-nitrogen (BN) atoms separately near the electrodes using the substitutional doping method and the I-V characteristics were calculated for each model using Atomistic Tool Kit software (version 13.8.1) and its virtual interface. The results reveal that all models show negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with the maximum peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) of 3.2 at 300 K for the four atom doped model. The NDR behavior is due to the band to band tunneling (BTBT) in semiconducting CNTFET and decreases as the doping in the channel increases. The results are beneficial for next generation designing of nano devices and their potential applications in electronic industry.

  15. Non-Faradaic electrical impedimetric investigation of the interfacial effects of neuronal cell growth and differentiation on silicon nanowire transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Vinzons, Lester U; Kang, Yu-Shan; Lai, Tung-Yen

    2015-05-13

    Silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) devices have been interfaced with cells; however, their application for noninvasive, real-time monitoring of interfacial effects during cell growth and differentiation on SiNW has not been fully explored. Here, we cultured rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a type of neural progenitor cell, directly on SiNW FET devices to monitor cell adhesion during growth and morphological changes during neuronal differentiation for a period of 5-7 d. Monitoring was performed by measuring the non-Faradaic electrical impedance of the cell-SiNW FET system using a precision LCR meter. Our SiNW FET devices exhibited changes in impedance parameters during cell growth and differentiation because of the negatively charged cell membrane, seal resistance, and membrane capacitance at the cell/SiNW interface. It was observed that during both PC12 cell growth and neuronal differentiation, the impedance magnitude increased and the phase shifted to more negative values. However, impedance changes during cell growth already plateaued 3 d after seeding, while impedance changes continued until the last observation day during differentiation. Our results also indicate that the frequency shift to above 40 kHz after growth factor induction resulted from a larger coverage of cell membrane on the SiNWs due to distinctive morphological changes according to vinculin staining. Encapsulation of PC12 cells in a hydrogel scaffold resulted in a lack of trend in impedance parameters and confirmed that impedance changes were due to the cells. Moreover, cytolysis of the differentiated PC12 cells led to significant changes in impedance parameters. Equivalent electrical circuits were used to analyze the changes in impedance values during cell growth and differentiation. The technique employed in this study can provide a platform for performing investigations of growth-factor-induced progenitor cell differentiation.

  16. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  17. Semiparametric mixed-effects analysis of PK/PD models using differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Eskridge, Kent M; Zhang, Shunpu

    2008-08-01

    Motivated by the use of semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects modeling on longitudinal data, we develop a new semiparametric modeling approach to address potential structural model misspecification for population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. Specifically, we use a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with form dx/dt = A(t)x + B(t) where B(t) is a nonparametric function that is estimated using penalized splines. The inclusion of a nonparametric function in the ODEs makes identification of structural model misspecification feasible by quantifying the model uncertainty and provides flexibility for accommodating possible structural model deficiencies. The resulting model will be implemented in a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling setup for population analysis. We illustrate the method with an application to cefamandole data and evaluate its performance through simulations.

  18. CNF1 improves astrocytic ability to support neuronal growth and differentiation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi

    Full Text Available Modulation of cerebral Rho GTPases activity in mice brain by intracerebral administration of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 leads to enhanced neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity and improves learning and memory. To gain more insight into the interactions between CNF1 and neuronal cells, we used primary neuronal and astrocytic cultures from rat embryonic brain to study CNF1 effects on neuronal differentiation, focusing on dendritic tree growth and synapse formation, which are strictly modulated by Rho GTPases. CNF1 profoundly remodeled the cytoskeleton of hippocampal and cortical neurons, which showed philopodia-like, actin-positive projections, thickened and poorly branched dendrites, and a decrease in synapse number. CNF1 removal, however, restored dendritic tree development and synapse formation, suggesting that the toxin can reversibly block neuronal differentiation. On differentiated neurons, CNF1 had a similar effacing effect on synapses. Therefore, a direct interaction with CNF1 is apparently deleterious for neurons. Since astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic regulation, we wondered if the beneficial in vivo effect could be mediated by astrocytes. Primary astrocytes from embryonic cortex were treated with CNF1 for 48 hours and used as a substrate for growing hippocampal neurons. Such neurons showed an increased development of neurites, in respect to age-matched controls, with a wider dendritic tree and a richer content in synapses. In CNF1-exposed astrocytes, the production of interleukin 1β, known to reduce dendrite development and complexity in neuronal cultures, was decreased. These results demonstrate that astrocytes, under the influence of CNF1, increase their supporting activity on neuronal growth and differentiation, possibly related to the diminished levels of interleukin 1β. These observations suggest that the enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved learning and memory described

  19. CNF1 Improves Astrocytic Ability to Support Neuronal Growth and Differentiation In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Paradisi, Silvia; Di Nottia, Michela; Simone, Daiana; Travaglione, Sara; Falzano, Loredana; Guidotti, Marco; Frank, Claudio; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Fabbri, Alessia; Fiorentini, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of cerebral Rho GTPases activity in mice brain by intracerebral administration of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) leads to enhanced neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity and improves learning and memory. To gain more insight into the interactions between CNF1 and neuronal cells, we used primary neuronal and astrocytic cultures from rat embryonic brain to study CNF1 effects on neuronal differentiation, focusing on dendritic tree growth and synapse formation, which are strictly modulated by Rho GTPases. CNF1 profoundly remodeled the cytoskeleton of hippocampal and cortical neurons, which showed philopodia-like, actin-positive projections, thickened and poorly branched dendrites, and a decrease in synapse number. CNF1 removal, however, restored dendritic tree development and synapse formation, suggesting that the toxin can reversibly block neuronal differentiation. On differentiated neurons, CNF1 had a similar effacing effect on synapses. Therefore, a direct interaction with CNF1 is apparently deleterious for neurons. Since astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic regulation, we wondered if the beneficial in vivo effect could be mediated by astrocytes. Primary astrocytes from embryonic cortex were treated with CNF1 for 48 hours and used as a substrate for growing hippocampal neurons. Such neurons showed an increased development of neurites, in respect to age-matched controls, with a wider dendritic tree and a richer content in synapses. In CNF1-exposed astrocytes, the production of interleukin 1β, known to reduce dendrite development and complexity in neuronal cultures, was decreased. These results demonstrate that astrocytes, under the influence of CNF1, increase their supporting activity on neuronal growth and differentiation, possibly related to the diminished levels of interleukin 1β. These observations suggest that the enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved learning and memory described in CNF1-injected

  20. A cellular modelsystem of differentiated human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Kristensen, S R; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select an effective and stable protocol for the differentiation of human satellite cells (Sc) and to identify the optimal time period for the experimental use of differentiated human Sc-cultures. In order to identify the differentiation conditions which give a good su...

  1. Modulation of neuronal differentiation by CD40 isoforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huayu; Obregon, Demian; Lou, Deyan; Ehrhart, Jared; Fernandez, Frank; Silver, Archie; Tan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Neuron differentiation is a complex process involving various cell-cell interactions, and multiple signaling pathways. We showed previously that CD40 is expressed and functional on mouse and human neurons. In neurons, ligation of CD40 protects against serum withdrawal-induced injury and plays a role in survival and differentiation. CD40 deficient mice display neuron dysfunction, aberrant neuron morphologic changes, and associated gross brain abnormalities. Previous studies by Tone and colleagues suggested that five isoforms of CD40 exist with two predominant isoforms expressed in humans: signal-transducible CD40 type I and a C-terminal truncated, non-signal-transducible CD40 type II. We hypothesized that differential expression of CD40 isoform type I and type II in neurons may modulate neuron differentiation. Results show that adult wild-type, and CD40 -/- deficient mice predominantly express CD40 type I and II isoforms. Whereas adult wild-type mice express mostly CD40 type I in cerebral tissues at relatively high levels, in age and gender-matched CD40 -/- mice CD40 type I expression was almost completely absent; suggesting a predominance of the non-signal-transducible CD40 type II isoform. Younger, 1 day old wild-type mice displayed less CD40 type I, and more CD40 type II, as well as, greater expression of soluble CD40 (CD40L/CD40 signal inhibitor), compared with 1 month old mice. Neuron-like N2a cells express CD40 type I and type II isoforms while in an undifferentiated state, however once induced to differentiate, CD40 type I predominates. Further, differentiated N2a cells treated with CD40 ligand express high levels of neuron specific nuclear protein (NeuN); an effect reduced by anti-CD40 type I siRNA, but not by control (non-targeting) siRNA. Altogether these data suggest that CD40 isoforms may act in a temporal fashion to modulate neuron differentiation during brain development. Thus, modulation of neuronal CD40 isoforms and CD40 signaling may represent

  2. Coherent population trapping magnetometer by differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Tian Yuan; Zhang Yi; Gu Si-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A pocket coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic magnetometer scheme that uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser as a light source is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect, a CPT spectrum with the background canceled and a high signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The experimental results reveal that the sensitivity of the proposed scheme can be improved by half an order, and the ability to detect weak magnetic fields is extended one-fold. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suited to realize a pocket-size CPT magnetometer. (paper)

  3. Polycomb Cbx family members mediate the balance between haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauke, Karin; Radulović, Višnja; Broekhuis, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells is essential for tissue homeostasis. Here we show that in the haematopoietic system this process is governed by polycomb chromobox (Cbx) proteins. Cbx7 is specifically expressed in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its...... overexpression enhances self-renewal and induces leukaemia. This effect is dependent on integration into polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and requires H3K27me3 binding. In contrast, overexpression of Cbx2, Cbx4 or Cbx8 results in differentiation and exhaustion of HSCs. ChIP-sequencing analysis shows that Cbx......7 and Cbx8 share most of their targets; we identified approximately 200 differential targets. Whereas genes targeted by Cbx8 are highly expressed in HSCs and become repressed in progenitors, Cbx7 targets show the opposite expression pattern. Thus, Cbx7 preserves HSC self-renewal by repressing...

  4. Negative Differential Transconductance in a MoS2 /WSe2 Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Dresselhaus, Mildred; de Gendt, Stefan; Palacios, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the negative transconductance in heterojunction transistors made of two-dimensional materials for the first time. Negative transconductance plays a key role in multi-valued logic/memory and frequency multiplication circuits. The simpler fabrication method of stacked van der Waals heterostructures compared to the conventional bulk semiconductors and large area CVD growth of the layered 2D materials systems makes it a prime candidate for scalable novel applications of their heterostructures. Vertically stacked MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation and an in-house dry transfer process. A two-step process of e-beam lithography and metal deposition (Au on MoS2, and Pd on WSe2) were performed to fabricate n-type MoS2 and ambipolar WSe2 FET. The transfer characteristics on the non-overlapping regions shows the expected characteristics of the n-type, MoS2 FET and ambipolar WSe2 FET. At the same time, the transfer characteristics of the overlapping region between MoS2 and WSe2 show negative differential transconductance. With proper scaling and careful optimization this negative differential transconductance will lead to novel applications.

  5. Effects of light emitting diode irradiation on neural differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani-Soltani, Samereh; Shojaee, Mohammad; Jalalkamali, Mahshid; Babaee, Abdolreza; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2017-08-30

    Recently, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been introduced as a potential physical factor for proliferation and differentiation of various stem cells. Among the mesenchymal stem cells human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cells are easily propagated in the laboratory and their low immunogenicity make them more appropriate for regenerative medicine procedures. We aimed at this study to evaluate the effect of red and green light emitted from LED on the neural lineage differentiation of hUCM cells in the presence or absence of retinoic acid (RA). Harvested hUCM cells exhibited mesenchymal and stemness properties. Irradiation of these cells by green and red LED with or without RA pre-treatment successfully differentiated them into neural lineage when the morphology of the induced cells, gene expression pattern (nestin, β-tubulin III and Olig2) and protein synthesis (anti-nestin, anti-β-tubulin III, anti-GFAP and anti-O4 antibodies) was evaluated. These data point for the first time to the fact that LED irradiation and optogenetic technology may be applied for neural differentiation and neuronal repair in regenerative medicine.

  6. The effects of 6-gingerol on proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.Z.; Yang, X.; Bi, Z.G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medicine University, Harbin (China)

    2015-04-28

    We investigated whether 6-gingerol affects the maturation and proliferation of osteoblast-like MG63 cells in vitro. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were treated with 6-gingerol under control conditions, and experimental inflammation was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Expression of different osteogenic markers and cytokines was analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity and biomineralization as markers for differentiation were measured. Treatment with 6-gingerol resulted in insignificant effects on the proliferation rate. 6-Gingerol induced the differentiation of osteoblast-like cells with increased transcription levels of osteogenic markers, upregulated ALP enzyme activity, and enhanced mineralized nodule formation. Stimulation with TNF-α led to enhanced interleukin-6 and nuclear factor-κB expression and downregulated markers of osteoblastic differentiation. 6-Gingerol reduced the degree of inflammation in TNF-α-treated MG-63 cells. In conclusion, 6-gingerol stimulated osteoblast differentiation in normal physiological and inflammatory settings, and therefore, 6-gingerol represents a promising agent for treating osteoporosis or bone inflammation.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro via TLR4 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Fiedler, Tomas [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are capable of multi-lineage differentiation and support regenerative processes. In bacterial infections, resident MSC can come intocontact with and need to react to bacterial components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical structure of Gram-negative bacteria, increases the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSC. LPS is usually recognized by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and induces pro-inflammatory reactions in numerous cell types. In this study, we quantified the protein expression of TLR4 and CD14 on adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in osteogenic differentiation and investigated the effect of TLR4 activation by LPS on NF-κB activation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. We found that TLR4 is expressed on adMSC whereas CD14 is not, and that osteogenic differentiation induced an increase of the amount of TLR4 protein whereas LPS stimulation did not. Moreover, we could show that NF-κB activation via TLR4 occurs upon LPS treatment. Furthermore, we were able to show that competitive inhibition of TLR4 completely abolished the stimulatory effect of LPS on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. In addition, the inhibition of TLR4 leads to the complete absence of osteogenic differentiation of adMSC, even when osteogenically stimulated. Thus, we conclude that LPS induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC in vitro through the activation of TLR4 and that the TLR4 receptor seems to play a role during osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  8. Formulation and Application of Optimal Homotopty Asymptotic Method to Coupled Differential - Difference Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hakeem; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Fiza, Mehreen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we applied a new analytic approximate technique Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) for treatment of coupled differential- difference equations (DDEs). To see the efficiency and reliability of the method, we consider Relativistic Toda coupled nonlinear differential-difference equation. It provides us a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions when it is compared with other methods of solution found in the literature. The obtained solutions show that OHAM is effective, simpler, easier and explicit. PMID:25874457

  9. On the influence of dissipative effects on instabilities of differentially-rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of differentially-rotating cylindrical plasmas in the axial homogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation of small-scale axisymmetric perturbations, taking into account the effects of the plasma thermal stratification, its resistivity and its viscosity, is derived. In the limiting cases of negligible resistivity and of negligible viscosity, the criteria of plasma stability are obtained. It is shown that in the case of small viscosity, the azimuthal flow of resistive plasma in the axial magnetic field is unstable due to the buoyancy effect if both the plasma pressure and its entropy either increase or decrease in the radial direction.

  10. Activation of the Ca2+/calcineurin/NFAT2 pathway controls smooth muscle cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrieu, Daniel; Thiebaud, Pierre; Duplaa, Cecile; Sibon, Igor; Theze, Nadine; Lamaziere, Jean-Marie Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms controlling smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypic modulation are largely unknown. Intracellular Ca 2+ movements are essential to ensure SMC functions; one of the roles of Ca 2+ is to regulate calcineurin, which in turn induces nuclear localization of the nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT). In order to investigate, during phenotypic differentiation of SMCs, the effect of calcineurin inhibition on NFAT 2 nuclear translocation, we used a culture model of SMC differentiation in serum-free conditions. We show that the treatment of cultured SMC with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A induced their dedifferentiation while preventing their differentiation. These findings suggest that nuclear translocation of NFAT 2 is dependent of calcineurin activity during the in vitro SMC differentiation kinetic and that the nuclear presence of NFAT 2 is critical in the acquisition and maintenance of SMC differentiation

  11. Cervi cornus Colla (deer antler glue) induce epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H-R; Nam, K-M; Kim, D-S; Huh, C-H; Na, J-I; Park, K-C

    2013-06-01

    In the reconstruction of skin equivalents (SEs), keratinocyte differentiation is important because epidermal differentiation is closely related with barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cervi cornus Colla (CCC) on the stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of skin equivalent. Four different models were constructed according to different composition of dermal substitute. Results showed similar morphologic findings when hyaluronic acid (HA) and/or CCC was added. But, immunohistochemical staining showed that p63 was significantly increased by addition of HA and/or CCC. Increased staining of integrin α6 and β1 was variably observed when HA and/or CCC was added to make dermal substitute. These finding showed that addition of HA and/or CCC may affect the stem cell activity in the reconstruction of skin. Furthermore, filaggrin expression was much increased when CCC was added. It showed that epidermal differentiation was significantly improved by addition of CCC. In conclusion, simultaneous presence of HA and CCC contributed to the stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of SE. Legislation in the EU prohibits marketing cosmetics and personal care products that contain constituents that have been examined through animal experiments. To avoid these limitations, SEs can be used for testing the safety or the efficacy of cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, our results showed that combined use of HA and CCC can be helpful for the reconstruction of SE with good stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  13. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  14. Self-mixing differential vibrometer based on electronic channel subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Silvano; Norgia, Michele; Giuliani, Guido

    2006-01-01

    An instrument for noncontact measurement of differential vibrations is developed, based on the self-mixing interferometer. As no reference arm is available in the self-mixing configuration, the differential mode is obtained by electronic subtraction of signals from two (nominally equal) vibrometer channels, taking advantage that channels are servo stabilized and thus insensitive to speckle and other sources of amplitude fluctuation. We show that electronic subtraction is nearly as effective as field superposition. Common-mode suppression is 25-30 dB, the dynamic range (amplitude) is in excess of 100 μm, and the minimum measurable (differential) amplitude is 20 nm on aB=10 kHz bandwidth. The instrument has been used to measure vibrations of two metal samples kept in contact, revealing the hysteresis cycle in the microslip and gross-slip regimes, which are of interest in the study of friction induced vibration damping of gas turbine blades for aircraft applications

  15. Design of Novel FBG-Based Sensor of Differential Pressure with Magnetic Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a differential pressure sensor with magnetic transfer is proposed, in which the non-electric measurement based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG with the position limiting mechanism is implemented without the direct contact of the sensing unit with the measuring fluid. The test shows that the designed sensor is effective for measuring differential pressure in the range of 0~10 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nm/kPa, which can be used in environments with high temperature, strong corrosion and high overload measurements.

  16. Design of Novel FBG-Based Sensor of Differential Pressure with Magnetic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Guohui; Che, Guohang; Li, Junqing; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Keda; Han, Yueqiang; Gao, Laixu

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, a differential pressure sensor with magnetic transfer is proposed, in which the non-electric measurement based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the position limiting mechanism is implemented without the direct contact of the sensing unit with the measuring fluid. The test shows that the designed sensor is effective for measuring differential pressure in the range of 0~10 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nm/kPa, which can be used in environments with high temperature, strong corrosion and high overload measurements.

  17. Differentiating Major and Incremental New Product Development: The Effects of Functional and Numerical Workforce Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.A.W.; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the differential effects of workforce flexibility on incremental and major new product development (NPD). Drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, human resource management research, and innovation management literature, the authors distinguish two types of

  18. A gradual update method for simulating the steady-state solution of stiff differential equations in metabolic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Emi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2009-02-01

    Numerical simulation of differential equation systems plays a major role in the understanding of how metabolic network models generate particular cellular functions. On the other hand, the classical and technical problems for stiff differential equations still remain to be solved, while many elegant algorithms have been presented. To relax the stiffness problem, we propose new practical methods: the gradual update of differential-algebraic equations based on gradual application of the steady-state approximation to stiff differential equations, and the gradual update of the initial values in differential-algebraic equations. These empirical methods show a high efficiency for simulating the steady-state solutions for the stiff differential equations that existing solvers alone cannot solve. They are effective in extending the applicability of dynamic simulation to biochemical network models.

  19. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ayachi Ikbale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown. Keywords: Stem cells, Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Immortalized, hTERT, DPSC

  20. Differential effects of the ascorbyl and tocopheryl derivative on the methamphetamine-induced toxic behavior and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinobu; Mori, Tomohisa; Kanazawa, Hideko; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2007-01-01

    A previous study showed that high doses of methamphetamine induce self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. Furthermore, the combination of methamphetamine and morphine increased lethality in mice. We recently surmised that the rise in SIB and mortality induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine may be related to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine whether an antioxidant could inhibit SIB or mortality directly induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine. The SIB induced by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine was abolished by the administration of Na L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS: 300 mg/kg), but not Na DL-α-tocopheryl phosphate (TPNa: 200 mg/kg). In contrast, APS (300 mg/kg) and TPNa (200 mg/kg) each significantly attenuated the lethality induced by methamphetamine and morphine. The present study showed that the signal intensity of superoxide adduct was increased by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine in the heart and lungs, and methamphetamine plus morphine tended to increase superoxide adduct in all of the tissues measured by ESR spin trap methods. Adduct signal induced in brain by methamphetamine administration increased in significance, but in mouse administrated methamphetamine plus morphine. There are differential effects of administration of methamphetamine and coadministration of methamphetamine plus morphine on adduct signal. These results suggest that APS and TPNa are effective for reducing methamphetamine-induced toxicity and/or toxicological behavior. While APS and TPNa each affected methamphetamine- and/or morphine-induced toxicology and/or toxicological behavior, indicating that both drugs have antioxidative effects, their effects differed

  1. Hydroxyframoside B, a secoiridoid of Fraxinus rhynchophylla, inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Shin, Eunjin; Liu, Qing; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2011-07-01

    Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining. Further fractionation led to the isolation of two secoiridoids, oleuropein and hydroxyframoside B. Hydroxyframoside B significantly reduced fat accumulation and triglyceride content in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability, whereas oleuropein showed little effect. Further studies with interval treatment demonstrated that hydroxyframoside B exerted inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation when treated within 2 days (days 0-2) after differentiation induction. In addition, hydroxyframoside B significantly blocked the induction of adipogenic transcription factors such as C/EBP α, C/EBP β, and PPAR γ. Taken together, these results suggest that hydroxyframoside B inhibited early/middle stage of adipogenic differentiation, in part, via inhibition of C/EBP α, C/EBP β, and PPAR γ-dependent pathways. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Alicia Herweg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (experiment 1-3. In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (experiment 4. In a modified Posner task (experiment 5, the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  3. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Nora A; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (Experiments 1-3). In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (Experiment 4). In a modified Posner task (Experiment 5), the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  4. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong-Il; Ko, Hee-Chul; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Lee, Nam-Ho; Kim, Se-Jae

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fucoxanthin enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at an early stage. → Fucoxanthin inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at intermediate and late stages. → Fucoxanthin attenuates glucose uptake by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRS in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. → Fucoxanthin exerts its anti-obesity effect by inhibiting the differentiation of adipocytes at both intermediate and late stages, as well as glucose uptake in mature adipocytes. -- Abstract: Progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation is divided into early (days 0-2, D0-D2), intermediate (days 2-4, D2-D4), and late stages (day 4 onwards, D4-). In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoxanthin, isolated from the edible brown seaweed Petalonia binghamiae, on adipogenesis during the three differentiation stages of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When fucoxanthin was applied during the early stage of differentiation (D0-D2), it promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation. At the molecular level, fucoxanthin increased protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and aP2, and adiponectin mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it reduced the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1c during the intermediate (D2-D4) and late stages (D4-D7) of differentiation. It also inhibited the uptake of glucose in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). These results suggest that fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells of different differentiation stages and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes.

  5. Differential Expression of Adhesion-Related Proteins and MAPK Pathways Lead to Suitable Osteoblast Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; López-Díaz, Annia; Barrera, Lourdes; Camacho-Morales, Alberto; Hernandez-Aguilar, Felipe; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Calderón-Pérez, Jaime; García-Álvarez, Jorge; Orozco-Hoyuela, Gabriel; Piña-Barba, Cristina; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Romero-Díaz, Víktor; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Rivera-Bolaños, Nancy; López-Camarillo, César; Moncada-Saucedo, Nidia; Galván-De los Santos, Alejandra; Meza-Urzúa, Fátima; Villarreal-Gómez, Luis; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth

    2015-11-01

    Cellular adhesion enables communication between cells and their environment. Adhesion can be achieved throughout focal adhesions and its components influence osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Because cell adhesion and osteoblast differentiation are closely related, this article aimed to analyze the expression profiles of adhesion-related proteins during osteoblastic differentiation of two hMSCs subpopulations (CD105(+) and CD105(-)) and propose a strategy for assembling bone grafts based on its adhesion ability. In vitro experiments of osteogenic differentiation in CD105(-) cells showed superior adhesion efficiency and 2-fold increase of α-actinin expression compared with CD105(+) cells at the maturation stage. Interestingly, levels of activated β1-integrin increased in CD105(-) cells during the process. Additionally, the CD105(-) subpopulation showed 3-fold increase of phosphorylated FAK(Y397) compared to CD105(+) cells. Results also indicate that ERK1/2 was activated during CD105(-) bone differentiation and participation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 in CD105(+) differentiation through a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-independent pathway. In vivo trial demonstrated that grafts containing CD105(-) showed osteocytes embedded in a mineralized matrix, promoted adequate graft integration, increased host vascular infiltration, and efficient intramembranous repairing. In contrast, grafts containing CD105(+) showed deficient endochondral ossification and fibrocartilaginous tissue. Based on the expression of α-actinin, FAKy,(397) and ERK1/2 activation, we define maturation stage as critical for bone graft assembling. By in vitro assays, CD105(-) subpopulation showed superior adhesion efficiency compared to CD105(+) cells. Considering in vitro and in vivo assays, this study suggests that integration of a scaffold with CD105(-) subpopulation at the maturation stage represents an attractive strategy for clinical use in

  6. Differentiation-promoting activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, Satoru; Lansky, Ephraim P

    2004-01-01

    Differentiation refers to the ability of cancer cells to revert to their normal counterparts, and its induction represents an important noncytotoxic therapy for leukemia, and also breast, prostate, and other solid malignancies. Flavonoids are a group of differentiation-inducing chemicals with a potentially lower toxicology profile than retinoids. Flavonoid-rich polyphenol fractions from the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit exert anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-eicosanoid, and pro-apoptotic actions in breast and prostate cancer cells and anti-angiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. Here we tested flavonoid-rich fractions from fresh (J) and fermented (W) pomegranate juice and from an aqueous extraction of pomegranate pericarps (P) as potential differentiation-promoting agents of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Four assays were used to assess differentiation: nitro blue tetrazolium reducing activity, nonspecific esterase activity, specific esterase activity, and phagocytic activity. In addition, the effect of these extracts on HL-60 proliferation was evaluated. Extracts W and P were strong promoters of differentiation in all settings, with extract J showing only a relatively mild differentiation-promoting effect. The extracts had proportional inhibitory effects on HL-60 cell proliferation. The results highlight an important, previously unknown, mechanism of the cancer preventive and suppressive potential of pomegranate fermented juice and pericarp extracts.

  7. A metabolomics study of the inhibitory effect of 17-beta-estradiol on osteoclast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Mengchun; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Xiao, Hongbin

    2015-02-01

    Estradiol is a major drug used clinically to alleviate osteoporosis, partly through inhibition of the activity of osteoclasts, which play a crucial role in bone resorption. So far, little is known about the effects of estradiol on osteoclast metabolism. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS)-based metabolomics strategy was used to investigate the metabolite response to 17β-estradiol in mouse osteoclast RAW264.7, a commonly used cell model for studying osteoporosis. Our results showed that the application of estradiol altered the levels of 27 intracellular metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), other lipids and amino acid derivants. The changes of all the 27 metabolites were observed in the study of estradiol induced osteoclast proliferation inhibition (1 μM estradiol applied), while the changes of only 18 metabolites were observed in the study of differentiation inhibition (0.1 μM estradiol applied). Further pathway impact analysis determined glycerophospholipid metabolism as the main potential target pathway of estradiol, which was further confirmed by LCAT (phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase) activity changes and lipid peroxidative product (MDA, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde) changes caused by estradiol. Additionally, we found that estradiol significantly decreased intracellular oxidative stress during cell proliferation but not during cell differentiation. Our study suggested that estradiol generated a highly condition-dependent influence on osteoclast metabolism.

  8. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  9. ON PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH SYMMETRIES DEPENDING ON ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gubbiotti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note we present some ideas on when Lie symmetries, both point and generalized, can depend on arbitrary functions. We show a few examples, both in partial differential and partial difference equations where this happens. Moreover we show that the infinitesimal generators of generalized symmetries depending on arbitrary functions, both for continuous and discrete equations, effectively play the role of master symmetries.

  10. Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...

  11. Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on miRNA expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkowska, Karolina A; Ciecierska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to initiate processes of proliferation, differentiation, and hypertrophy in order to regenerate muscle fibers. The number of microRNAs and their target genes are engaged in satellite cell activation. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on miRNA and relevant target gene expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that HMB may regulate satellite cell activity, proliferation, and differentiation, hence attenuate the pathological processes induced during an in vitro model of H 2 O 2 -related injury by changing the expression of miRNAs. Equine satellite cells (ESC) were isolated from the samples of skeletal muscle collected from young horses. ESC were treated with HMB (24 h) and then exposed to H 2 O 2 (1 h). For the microRNA and gene expression assessment microarrays, technique was used. Identified miRNAs and genes were validated using real-time qPCR. Cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell damage were measured using colorimetric method and flow cytometry. Analysis of miRNA and gene profile in differentiating ESC pre-incubated with HMB and then exposed to H 2 O 2 revealed difference in the expression of 27 miRNAs and 4740 genes, of which 344 were potential target genes for identified miRNAs. Special attention was focused on differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes involved in processes related to skeletal muscle injury. Western blot analysis showed protein protection in HMB-pre-treated group compared to control. The viability test confirmed that HMB enhanced cell survival after the hydrogen peroxide exposition. Our results suggest that ESC pre-incubated with HMB and exposed to H 2 O 2 could affect expression on miRNA levels responsible for skeletal muscle development, cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of tissue repair after

  12. A case showing effective radiotherapy for a radiation-induced glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Kimiko; Inamura, Takanori; Nakamizo, Akira; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Inoha, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Matsuzaki, Akinobu; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2001-07-01

    Radiation-induced glioblastoma is usually resistant to all treatments. We report a case with radiation-induced glioblastoma, in which radiotherapy was remarkably effective. A 14-year-old female with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the age of 7, underwent 15 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain. She was admitted to our department due to the development of headache and nausea. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an irregularly enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. Partial removal of the mass was performed and histological examination showed it to be glioblastoma with a high MIB-1 index. The patient underwent 40 Gy of local radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ACNU and Interferon-{beta} for 2 years. The residual tumor disappeared after the radiotherapy, and her status is still ''complete remission'', 29 months after the onset. (author)

  13. Induction of early differentiation as a means of cell sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.-H. v.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations in plants suggest that cytoplasmic growth during mitotic delay induces an early attainment of terminal differentiation and cessation of mitotic activity. In mammals a direct demonstration of these processes is difficult. Plants and mammals show, however, a common phenomenon: Polyploidy does not usually reduce radiosensitivity as drastically as predicted by genetical considerations and certain experimental results. In root meristems of barley it is shown that cytoplasmic growth during mitotic delay increases the amount of cytoplasma per nuclear genome to approximately the same levels in tetraploid as in diploid cells. This results in the same loss, for both ploidy levels, of meristematic cells due to early differentiation. Apparently, under usual conditions, polyploidy is unable to significantly reduce radiosensitivity because the induction of differentiation processes is more important to radiation damage than the direct effect of genetic damage. Since the same basic principles also occur in mammals, it is suggested that early differentiation, and thereby cell sterilization, are induced in mammalian cells by the same mechanism as in plants. (Auth.)

  14. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation o...... enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells....... of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than......, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH...

  15. Mirna biogenesis pathway is differentially regulated during adipose derived stromal/stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C; Qureshi, A T; Llamas, C B; Burow, M E; King, A G; Lee, O C; Dasa, V; Freitas, M A; Forsberg, J A; Elster, E A; Davis, T A; Gimble, J M

    2018-02-07

    Stromal/stem cell differentiation is controlled by a vast array of regulatory mechanisms. Included within these are methods of mRNA gene regulation that occur at the level of epigenetic, transcriptional, and/or posttranscriptional modifications. Current studies that evaluate the posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA demonstrate microRNAs (miRNAs) as key mediators of stem cell differentiation through the inhibition of mRNA translation. miRNA expression is enhanced during both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation; however, the mechanism by which miRNA expression is altered during stem cell differentiation is less understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) induced to an adipogenic or osteogenic lineage have differences in strand preference (-3p and -5p) for miRNAs originating from the same primary transcript. Furthermore, evaluation of miRNA expression in ASCs demonstrates alterations in both miRNA strand preference and 5'seed site heterogeneity. Additionally, we show that during stem cell differentiation there are alterations in expression of genes associated with the miRNA biogenesis pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated changes in the Argonautes (AGO1-4), Drosha, and Dicer at intervals of ASC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation compared to untreated ASCs. Specifically, we demonstrated altered expression of the AGOs occurring during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, with osteogenesis increasing AGO1-4 expression and adipogenesis decreasing AGO1 gene and protein expression. These data demonstrate changes to components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway during stromal/stem cell differentiation. Identifying regulatory mechanisms for miRNA processing during ASC differentiation may lead to novel mechanisms for the manipulation of lineage differentiation of the ASC through the global regulation of miRNA as opposed to singular regulatory mechanisms.

  16. Effect of restriction vegan diet's on muscle mass, oxidative status, and myocytes differentiation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Daniela; Messina, Giovanni; Lama, Stefania; Bitti, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Pasqualina; Tenore, Giancarlo; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Zappavigna, Silvia; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Novellino, Ettore; Monda, Marcellino; Stiuso, Paola

    2018-01-10

    This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters, and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI, and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H 2 O 2 to induce oxidative damage). We demonstrated that vegan sera treatment of both H9c2 and H-H9c2 cells induced an increase of TBARS values and cell death and a decrease of free NO 2- compared to vegetarian and omnivorous sera. Afterwards, we investigated the protective effects of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore sera on the morphological changes induced by H 2 O 2 in H9c2 cell line. We showed that the omnivorous sera had major antioxidant and differentiation properties compared to vegetarian and vegan sera. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the three different groups of sera on MAPKs pathway and our data suggested that ERK expression increased in H-H9c2 cells treated with vegetarian and vegan sera and could promote cell death. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that restrictive vegan diet could not prevent the onset of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases nor protect by oxidative damage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Achim; van Vlierberghe, Sandra; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Baudisch, Frank; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Benecke, Verena; Alberti, Kristin; Neumann, Hans-Georg; Rychly, Joachim; Martins, José C.; Dubruel, Peter; Peters, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies. PMID:28788517

  18. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  19. Treatment with at Homeopathic Complex Medication Modulates Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A homeopathic complex medication (HCM, with immunomodulatory properties, is recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the medication induces an increase in leukocyte number. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, an extracellular matrix and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. Mice were our biological model used in this research. We now report in vivo immunophenotyping of total bone marrow cells and ex vivo effects of the medication on mononuclear cell differentiation at different times. Cells were examined by light microscopy and cytokine levels were measured in vitro. After in vivo treatment with HCM, a pool of cells from the new marrow microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry to detect any trend in cell alteration. The results showed decreases, mainly, in CD11b and TER-119 markers compared with controls. Mononuclear cells were used to analyze the effects of ex vivo HCM treatment and the number of cells showing ring nuclei, niche cells and activated macrophages increased in culture, even in the absence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokines favoring stromal cell survival and differentiation in culture were induced in vitro. Thus, we observe that HCM is immunomodulatory, either alone or in association with other products.

  20. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouji, Yukiteru; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle

  1. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  2. A single-to-differential low-noise amplifier with low differential output imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lian; Ma Chengyan; He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Huang Wei; Jin Yuhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a single-ended input differential output low-noise amplifier intended for GPS applications. We propose a method to reduce the gain/amplitude and phase imbalance of a differential output exploiting the inductive coupling of a transformer or center-tapped differential inductor. A detailed analysis of the theory of imbalance reduction, as well as a discussion on the principle of choosing the dimensions of a transformer, are given. An LNA has been implemented using TSMC 0.18 μm technology with ESD-protected. Measurement on board shows a voltage gain of 24.6 dB at 1.575 GHz and a noise figure of 3.2 dB. The gain imbalance is below 0.2 dB and phase imbalance is less than 2 degrees. The LNA consumes 5.2 mA from a 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stinus; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high...

  4. Integrin-linked kinase is involved in matrix-induced hepatocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Bowen, William C.; Yang, Yu; Wu, Chuanyue; Michalopoulos, George K.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocytes have restricted proliferative capacity in culture and when cultured without matrix, lose the hepatocyte-specific gene expression and characteristic cellular micro-architecture. Overlay of matrix-preparations on de-differentiated hepatocytes restores differentiation. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a cell-matrix-adhesion protein crucial in fundamental processes such as differentiation and survival. In this study, we investigated the role of ILK, and its binding partners PINCH, α-parvin, and Mig-2 in matrix-induced hepatocyte differentiation. We report here that ILK is present in the liver and localizes at cell-matrix adhesions of cultured hepatocytes. We also show that ILK, PINCH, α-parvin, and Mig-2 expression level is dramatically reduced in the re-differentiated hepatocytes. Interestingly, hepatocytes lacking ILK undergo matrix-induced differentiation but their differentiation is incomplete, as judged by monitoring cell morphology and production of albumin. Our results show that ILK and cell-matrix adhesion proteins play an important role in the process of matrix-induced hepatocyte differentiation

  5. Molecular characterization of EG-VEGF-mediated angiogenesis: differential effects on microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Benharouga, Mohamed; Salomon, Aude; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2010-08-15

    Endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) also called prokineticin (PK1), has been identified and linked to several biological processes including angiogenesis. EG-VEGF is abundantly expressed in the highest vascularized organ, the human placenta. Here we characterized its angiogenic effect using different experimental procedures. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize EG-VEGF receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) in placental and umbilical cord tissue. Primary microvascular placental endothelial cell (HPEC) and umbilical vein-derived macrovascular EC (HUVEC) were used to assess its effects on proliferation, migration, cell survival, pseudovascular organization, spheroid sprouting, permeability and paracellular transport. siRNA and neutralizing antibody strategies were used to differentiate PROKR1- from PROKR2-mediated effects. Our results show that 1) HPEC and HUVEC express both types of receptors 2) EG-VEGF stimulates HPEC's proliferation, migration and survival, but increases only survival in HUVECs. and 3) EG-VEGF was more potent than VEGF in stimulating HPEC sprout formation, pseudovascular organization, and it significantly increases HPEC permeability and paracellular transport. More importantly, we demonstrated that PROKR1 mediates EG-VEGF angiogenic effects, whereas PROKR2 mediates cellular permeability. Altogether, these data characterized angiogenic processes mediated by EG-VEGF, depicted a new angiogenic factor in the placenta, and suggest a novel view of the regulation of angiogenesis in placental pathologies.

  6. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Takamura, Naoki; Kato, Akiko; Takebayashi, Minoru; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis

  7. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boku, Shuken, E-mail: shuboku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nakagawa, Shin [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takamura, Naoki [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Akiko [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takebayashi, Minoru [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan); Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  8. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  9. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Natural Sciences, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan ... the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association ... ate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University.

  11. The relative contribution of paracine effect versus direct differentiation on adipose-derived stem cell transplantation mediated cardiac repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC can improve cardiac function in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the paracrine effect of transplanted ADSC and investigated its relative importance versus direct differentiation in ADSC transplantation mediated cardiac repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MI was experimentally induced in mice by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Either human ADSC, conditioned medium (CM collected from the same amount of ADSC or control medium was injected into the peri-infarct region immediately after MI. Compared with the control group, both ADSC and ADSC-CM significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function. The therapeutic efficacy of ADSC was moderately superior to ADSC-CM. ADSC-CM significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarct border zone, to a similar degree with ADSC treatment. ADSC enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, but to a stronger degree than that seen in the ADSC-CM treatment. ADSC was able to differentiate to endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell in post-MI heart; these ADSC-derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. No cardiomyocyte differentiated from ADSC was found. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC-CM is sufficient to improve cardiac function of infarcted hearts. The therapeutic function of ADSC transplantation is mainly induced by paracrine-mediated cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while ADSC differentiation contributes a minor benefit by being involved in angiogenesis. Highlights 1 ADSC-CM is sufficient to exert a therapeutic potential. 2. ADSC was able to differentiate to vascular cells but not cardiomyocyte. 3. ADSC derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. 4. Paracrine effect is the major

  12. Effects of Synthetic Neural Adhesion Molecule Mimetic Peptides and Related Proteins on the Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Ruodan Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pluripotent stem cells differentiating into cardiomyocyte-like cells in an appropriate cellular environment have attracted significant attention, given the potential use of such cells for regenerative medicine. However, the precise mechanisms of lineage specification of pluripotent stem cells are still largely to be explored. Identifying the role of various small synthetic peptides involved in cardiomyogenesis may provide new insights into pathways promoting cardiomyogenesis. Methods: In the present study, using a transgenic murine embryonic stem (ES cell lineage expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC promoter (pαMHC-EGFP, we investigated the cardiomyogenic effects of 7 synthetic peptides (Betrofin3, FGLs, FGLL, hNgf_C2, EnkaminE, Plannexin and C3 on cardiac differentiation. The expression of several cardiac-specific markers was determined by RT-PCR whereas the structural and functional properties of derived cardiomyocytes were examined by immunofluorescence and electrophysiology, respectively. Results: The results revealed that Betrofin3, an agonist of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF peptide exerted the most striking pro-cardiomyogenic effect on ES cells. We found that BDNF receptor, TrkB expression was up-regulated during differentiation. Treatment of differentiating cells with Betrofin3 between days 3 and 5 enhanced the expression of cardiac-specific markers and improved cardiomyocyte differentiation and functionality as revealed by genes regulation, flow cytometry and patch clamp analysis. Thus Betrofin3 may exert its cardiomyogenic effects on ES cells via TrkB receptor. Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that Betrofin3 modulates BDNF signaling with positive cardiomyogenic effect in stage and dose-dependent manner providing an effective strategy to increase ES cell-based generation of cardiomyocytes and offer a novel therapeutic approach to

  13. Differential effects on cell motility, embryonic stem cell self-renewal and senescence by diverse Src kinase family inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, Christoffer, E-mail: christoffer.tamm@imbim.uu.se; Galito, Sara Pijuan, E-mail: sara.pijuan@imbim.uu.se; Anneren, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.anneren@imbim.uu.se

    2012-02-15

    The Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) has been shown to play an intricate role in embryonic stem (ES) cell maintenance. In the present study we have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the vastly different effects induced by various commonly used SFK inhibitors. We show that several diverse cell types, including fibroblasts completely lacking SFKs, cannot undergo mitosis in response to SU6656 and that this is caused by an unselective inhibition of Aurora kinases. In contrast, PP2 and PD173952 block motility immediately upon exposure and forces cells to grow in dense colonies. The subsequent halt in proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial cells in the center of the colonies approximately 24 h post-treatment appears to be caused by cell-to-cell contact inhibition rather than a direct effect of SFK kinase inhibition. Interestingly, in addition to generating more homogenous and dense ES cell cultures, without any diverse effect on proliferation, PP2 and PD173652 also promote ES cell self-renewal by reducing the small amount of spontaneous differentiation typically observed under standard ES cell culture conditions. These effects could not be mirrored by the use of Gleevec, a potent inhibitor of c-Abl and PDGFR kinases that are also inhibited by PP2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor SU6656 induces senescence in mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SU6656 inhibits mitosis in a SFK-independent manner via cross-selectivity for Aurora kinases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor PP2 impairs cell motility in various cell lines, including mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ensuing impeded motility, PP2 inhibits proliferation of various cells lines except for mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitors PP2 and PD173952 impede spontaneous differentiation in standard mouse ES culture maintenance.

  14. Differential effects on cell motility, embryonic stem cell self-renewal and senescence by diverse Src kinase family inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Christoffer; Galitó, Sara Pijuan; Annerén, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) has been shown to play an intricate role in embryonic stem (ES) cell maintenance. In the present study we have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the vastly different effects induced by various commonly used SFK inhibitors. We show that several diverse cell types, including fibroblasts completely lacking SFKs, cannot undergo mitosis in response to SU6656 and that this is caused by an unselective inhibition of Aurora kinases. In contrast, PP2 and PD173952 block motility immediately upon exposure and forces cells to grow in dense colonies. The subsequent halt in proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial cells in the center of the colonies approximately 24 h post-treatment appears to be caused by cell-to-cell contact inhibition rather than a direct effect of SFK kinase inhibition. Interestingly, in addition to generating more homogenous and dense ES cell cultures, without any diverse effect on proliferation, PP2 and PD173652 also promote ES cell self-renewal by reducing the small amount of spontaneous differentiation typically observed under standard ES cell culture conditions. These effects could not be mirrored by the use of Gleevec, a potent inhibitor of c-Abl and PDGFR kinases that are also inhibited by PP2. -- Highlights: ► SFK inhibitor SU6656 induces senescence in mouse ES cells. ► SU6656 inhibits mitosis in a SFK-independent manner via cross-selectivity for Aurora kinases. ► SFK inhibitor PP2 impairs cell motility in various cell lines, including mouse ES cells. ► Ensuing impeded motility, PP2 inhibits proliferation of various cells lines except for mouse ES cells. ► SFK inhibitors PP2 and PD173952 impede spontaneous differentiation in standard mouse ES culture maintenance.

  15. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...... impression on effects of removal of FGF2 and stimulation with ATRA, we combined the results of three cell lines for each experimental setting. When combining gene expression profiles of three cell lines for 96 genes, only 6 genes showed a significant up-regulation in all cell lines, when no FGF2 was added...

  16. [Inhibitory effects of Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharides on proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-hong; Yang, Di; Xue, Ming; Zhong, Ming

    2011-03-01

    To observe the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) on osteoblast cell proliferation and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion and to investigate the role of Pe-LPS in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pe-LPS (10, 25, 50 mg/L) respectively. The relative growth rate (RGR) was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) at different time point (12, 24, 48, 72 h). MC3T3-E1 cells were also stimulated with 10, 25 or 50 mg/L Pe-LPS for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The activity of ALP was detected by enzyme kinetics assay and the secretion of IL-6 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After the stimulation with 25 or 50 mg/L Pe-LPS for 72 h, the RGR of MC3T3-E1 cells descend to 87.46% and 71.12%. The ALP activities of MC3T3-E1 cells were inhibited obviously (P < 0.05) after the stimulation of different concentrations (10, 25, 50 mg/L) Pe-LPS for more than 24 hours. ELISA result showed that IL-6 increased to 32.21 ng/L treated with the 25 mg/L Pe-LPS for 6 h, 25 mg/L Pe-LPS gradually increased the expression of IL-6 from the ELISA results. Pe-LPS can induce the secretion of IL-6 in MC3T3-E1 and decrease the ALP activities of MC3T3-E1, the differentiation of osteoblasts was inhibited. with the long-time toxicity action of Pe-LPS, the proliferation rate of MC3T3-E1 also markedly decreased.

  17. The Study of Two Psychotherapy Approaches (Rogers Self Theory and Ellis Rational Theory) in Improvement of Bowen Self-differentiation and Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Naser; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of rational, behavioral and emotive therapy (REBT) and person-centered therapy (PCT) on self-differentiation and intimacy among divorce clients. In quasi-experimental study, 42 divorce clients (both males and females) who presented to the Counsling Center of Sanandaj, Iran were sampled. They were categorized into three groups of PCT, REBT, and control group (each group contained 14 subjects). The recovery indices (dependent variables) employed were the subject of self-differentiation and intimacy, which were measured twice before and after intervention of Differentiation of Self Inventory-2 (DSI-2) and intimacy. The therapy involved 8 one-hour sessions. It was held twice a week and therapeutic effects were traced after 8 months. The results showed that REBT and PCT were effective on self-differentiation scale and intimacy. Also they were influential in recovery self-differentiation scale and intimacy follow up stage. REBT and PCT were effective on self-differentiation and its subscales (Emotional reactivity, "I" position, Emotional cut off and Fusion with other) and general intimacy. None.

  18. Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G

    1994-02-01

    The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.

  19. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  20. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  1. Effects of fullerol on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ting TANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of fullerol on the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSCs based on hanging drop culture. Methods  rADSC spheres were formed by hanging drop culture for 3 days, then the spheres were dissociated to single cell by trypsin (called rADSC sphere-derived cells. The rADSC sphere-derived cells were cultured in 2-D adherent cell cultures for 24 hours, then the ordinary culture medium was replaced by osteogenic induction medium (osteogenic medium, OM. OM without fullerol served as control group (CM; OM with 1.0μmol/L fullerol was used as the experimental group (OM+Ful1.0μmol/L. Two groups were induced to differentiation for 14d and 21d, using two methods of alizarin red staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detecte the ability of rADSC sphere-derived cells differentiating into osteoblasts. Results  rADSCs could form a uniform size microspheres structure through hanging drop culture for 3 days; rADSC sphere-derived cells were obtained by dissipation of trypsin. Compared with OM group, OM+Ful1.0μmol/L can make rADSC sphere-derived cells form more mineralized calcium nodules, and enhance the expression of the relevant osteogenic gene Runx2, OCN and ColI. Conclusion  Fullerol can significantly enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs based on hanging drop culture, and it is helpful to improve the efficiency of osteogenic induction of rADSCs. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.03

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-07-11

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases.