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  1. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Proteins BapA and BapC Are Secreted TTSS3 Effectors and BapB Levels Modulate Expression of BopE.

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    Puthayalai Treerat

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative pathogens use a type III secretion system (TTSS for the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins play direct roles in modulation of host cell pathways for bacterial benefit. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, expresses three different TTSSs. One of these systems, the TTSS3, is essential for escape from host endosomes and therefore intracellular survival and replication. Here we have characterized three putative TTSS3 proteins; namely BapA, BapB and BapC. By employing a tetracysteine (TC-FlAsH™ labelling technique to monitor the secretion of TC-tagged fusion proteins, BapA and BapC were shown to be secreted during in vitro growth in a TTSS3-dependant manner, suggesting a role as TTSS3 effectors. Furthermore, we constructed B. pseudomallei bapA, bapB and bapC mutants and used the well-characterized TTSS3 effector BopE as a marker of secretion to show that BapA, BapB and BapC are not essential for the secretion process. However, BopE transcription and secretion were significantly increased in the bapB mutant, suggesting that BapB levels modulate BopE expression. In a BALB/c mouse model of acute melioidosis, the bapA, bapB and bapC mutants showed a minor reduction of in vivo fitness. Thus, this study defines BapA and BapC as novel TTSS3 effectors, BapB as a regulator of BopE production, and all three as necessary for full B. pseudomallei in vivo fitness.

  2. Histomorphologic spectrum of BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms in a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome.

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    Marušić, Zlatko; Buljan, Marija; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-06-01

    Multiple BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms are a hallmark of familial cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by BAP1 germline mutation. The syndrome is characterized by increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, cholangiocarcinoma, cutaneous and uveal melanoma and some other neoplasms. We report histomorphologic characteristics of six cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms with loss of BAP1 expression in two members of a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome. The neoplasms were dermal melanocytic nevi characterized by a proliferation of large epithelioid (spitzoid) melanocytes, and adipocytic metaplasia. Nuclear pseudoinclusions and multinucleated melanocytes were present in most neoplasms. In two of the cases, a nodular melanoma was found associated with a dermal nevus. None of the melanomas recurred or metastasized after 6 and 3 years of follow up. We report two new cases of melanoma arising in a BAP1-deficient melanocytic nevus in the setting of familial tumor predisposition syndrome. Adipocytic metaplasia and nuclear pseudoinclusions may be additional morphologic clues to a BAP1-deficient nevus. It remains to be seen whether these features are more common in familial than sporadic lesions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. BAP1 has a survival role in cutaneous melanoma.

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    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent.

  4. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

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    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  5. Modeling Renal Cell Carcinoma in Mice: Bap1 and Pbrm1 Inactivation Drive Tumor Grade.

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    Gu, Yi-Feng; Cohn, Shannon; Christie, Alana; McKenzie, Tiffani; Wolff, Nicholas; Do, Quyen N; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan; Wang, Tao; Dey, Anwesha; Busslinger, Meinrad; Xie, Xian-Jin; Hammer, Robert E; McKay, Renée M; Kapur, Payal; Brugarolas, James

    2017-08-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations, which are associated with tumors of different grade and prognosis. However, whether BAP1 and PBRM1 loss causes ccRCC and determines tumor grade is unclear. We conditionally targeted Bap1 and Pbrm1 (with Vhl ) in the mouse using several Cre drivers. Sglt2 and Villin proximal convoluted tubule drivers failed to cause tumorigenesis, challenging the conventional notion of ccRCC origins. In contrast, targeting with PAX8, a transcription factor frequently overexpressed in ccRCC, led to ccRCC of different grades. Bap1 -deficient tumors were of high grade and showed greater mTORC1 activation than Pbrm1 -deficient tumors, which exhibited longer latency. Disrupting one allele of the mTORC1 negative regulator, Tsc1 , in Pbrm1 -deficient kidneys triggered higher grade ccRCC. This study establishes Bap1 and Pbrm1 as lineage-specific drivers of ccRCC and histologic grade, implicates mTORC1 as a tumor grade rheostat, and suggests that ccRCCs arise from Bowman capsule cells. Significance: Determinants of tumor grade and aggressiveness across cancer types are poorly understood. Using ccRCC as a model, we show that Bap1 and Pbrm1 loss drives tumor grade. Furthermore, we show that the conversion from low grade to high grade can be promoted by activation of mTORC1. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 900-17. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Leung and Kim, p. 802 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 783 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Benzo(A)pyrene (BaP) treatment results in complete infertility in female pigeons

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    Hough, J.L.; Darrow, D.; Eaton, J.; Baird, M.B. (Masonic Medical Research Lab., Utica, NY (United States))

    1991-03-11

    BaP is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and a common environmental pollutant. Show Racer and White Carneau female pigeons injected weekly with BaP for 3 for 5 months were completely infertile, with ovaries appearing necrotic or oxidized. Fertility in benzo(e)pyrene (BeP, a noncarcinogenic PAH) treated birds was the same as for corn oil treated controls, as was embryo development. Thus, infertility in BaP treated birds appears to be related to its structure-carcinogenic potential. There was no readily apparent affect of BaP treatment on testes from male birds. In order to determine whether BaP metabolites covalently bind to DNA in the ovaries of these birds, pigeons were injected with BaP or BeP, controls were injected with corn oil. Animals were sacrificed 24h later, the ovaries or testes removed, and the DNA isolated and analyzed for PAH-DNA adducts by {sup 32}P-post labeling assay. One major and one minor PAH-DNA adduct was found in ovaries and testes from BaP treated birds. However, no PAH adducts were found in BeP treated or control animals. Thus, problems with fertility may arise because of the alteration in DNA by BaP metabolite binding in ovaries where rapid cell growth occurs during egg production.

  7. CDIP1-BAP31 Complex Transduces Apoptotic Signals from Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    Takushi Namba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31 as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  8. A recurrent germline BAP1 mutation and extension of the BAP1 tumor predisposition spectrum to include basal cell carcinoma

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    Wadt, Karin Anna Wallentin; Aoude, L G; Johansson, P

    2015-01-01

    ) and mesothelioma, as previously reported for germline BAP1 mutations. However, mutation carriers from three new families, and one previously reported family, developed basal cell carcinoma (BCC), thus suggesting inclusion of BCC in the phenotypic spectrum of the BAP1 tumor syndrome. This notion is supported...

  9. NeuCode Proteomics Reveals Bap1 Regulation of Metabolism

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    Joshua M. Baughman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce neutron-encoded (NeuCode amino acid labeling of mice as a strategy for multiplexed proteomic analysis in vivo. Using NeuCode, we characterize an inducible knockout mouse model of Bap1, a tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase whose in vivo roles outside of cancer are not well established. NeuCode proteomics revealed altered metabolic pathways following Bap1 deletion, including profound elevation of cholesterol biosynthetic machinery coincident with reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipid homeostasis proteins in liver. Bap1 loss increased pancreatitis biomarkers and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. These alterations accompany a metabolic remodeling with hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic lipid loss, and acinar cell degeneration. Liver-specific Bap1 null mice present with fully penetrant perinatal lethality, severe hypoglycemia, and hepatic lipid deficiency. This work reveals Bap1 as a metabolic regulator in liver and pancreas, and it establishes NeuCode as a reliable proteomic method for deciphering in vivo biology.

  10. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

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    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis

    2009-10-15

    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  11. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

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    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

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    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target

  13. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

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    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  14. Mesothelioma patient derived tumor xenografts with defined BAP1 mutations that mimic the molecular characteristics of human malignant mesothelioma

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    Kalra, Neetu; Zhang, Jingli; Thomas, Anish; Xi, Liqiang; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Burkett, Sandra; Tsokos, Maria G; Chen, Yuanbin; Raffeld, Mark; Miettinen, Markku; Pastan, Ira; Testa, Joseph R; Hassan, Raffit

    2015-01-01

    The development and evaluation of new therapeutic approaches for malignant mesothelioma has been sparse due, in part, to lack of suitable tumor models. We established primary mesothelioma cultures from pleural and ascitic fluids of five patients with advanced mesothelioma. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed their mesothelial origin. Patient derived xenografts were generated by injecting the cells in nude or SCID mice, and malignant potential of the cells was analyzed by soft agar colony assay. Molecular profiles of the primary patient tumors, early passage cell cultures, and patient derived xenografts were assessed using mutational analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and IHC. Primary cultures from all five tumors exhibited morphologic and IHC features consistent to those of mesothelioma cells. Mutations of BAP1 and CDKN2A were each detected in four tumors. BAP1 mutation was associated with the lack of expression of BAP1 protein. Three cell cultures, all of which were derived from BAP1 mutant primary tumors, exhibited anchorage independent growth and also formed tumors in mice, suggesting that BAP1 loss may enhance tumor growth in vivo. Both early passage cell cultures and mouse xenograft tumors harbored BAP1 mutations and CDKN2A deletions identical to those found in the corresponding primary patient tumors. The mesothelioma patient derived tumor xenografts with mutational alterations that mimic those observed in patient tumors which we established can be used for preclinical development of novel drug regimens and for studying the functional aspects of BAP1 biology in mesothelioma. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1362-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Molecular Analysis and Expression of bap Gene in Biofilm-Forming Multi-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Omid Azizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB. Methods: Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR. Biofilm formation was assayed by the microtiter method. Results: The sequence of bap was determined and deposited in the GenBank database (accession no. KR080550.1. Expression of bap in the presence of low iron was analyzed by relative quantitative real time PCR (rqRT-PCR. Nearly half of the isolates belonged to RAPD-types A and B remaining were either small clusters or singleton. The results of biofilm formation revealed that 23 (35.4%, 18 (27.7%, 13 (20%, and 11 (16.9% of the isolates had strong, moderate, weak, and no biofilm activities, respectively. ompA and csuE genes were detected in all, while bap and blaPER-1 were detected in 43 (66% and 42 (64% of the isolates that showed strong and moderate biofilm activities (p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Analysis of bap expression by rqRT-PCR revealed five isolates with four-fold bap overexpression in the presence of low iron concentration (20 μM. Conclusion: The results suggest that bap overexpression may influence biofilm formation in presence of low iron concentration.

  16. Molecular characteristics of bap-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy cow mastitis.

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    Snel, Gustavo G M; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Piccinini, Renata

    2015-08-01

    The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) of Staphylococcus aureus is a high molecular weight cell-wall-anchored protein involved in biofilm formation, first described in bovine mastitis strains from Spain. So far, studies regarding Bap were mainly based on the Spanish strain V329 and its mutants, but no information on the genetic variability of bap-positive Staph. aureus strains is yet available in the literature. The present study investigated the molecular characteristics of 8 bap-positive Staph. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis, isolated in 5 herds; somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk samples were also registered. Strains were characterised using MLST, SPA typing and microarray and the results were compared with V329. All isolates from this study and V329 were assigned to ST126, t605, but some molecular differences were observed. Only herd A and B strains harboured the genes for β-lactams resistance; the leukocidin D/E gene, a type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease subunit, 3rd locus gene and serin-protease A and B were carried by all strains, but not by V329, while serin-protease E was absent in V329 and in another isolate. Four isolates and V329 harboured the fibronectin-binding protein B gene. SCC showed the highest value in the milk sample affected by the only strain carrying all the virulence factors considered. Potential large variability of virulence was evidenced among V329 and all bap-positive Staph. aureus strains considered: the carriage of fnb could enhance the accumulation of biofilm, but the lack of lukD/E and splA, B or E might decrease the invasiveness of strain.

  17. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

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    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  18. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DO GÊNERO PRUNUS SOB DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP EM DOIS MEIOS DE CULTURA IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCKS IN DIFFERENT BAP CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO CULTURE MEDIA

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    CARLOS AUGUSTO POSSER SILVEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor concentração de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e meio de cultura para a multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp., recentemente introduzidos no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna e Mirabolano foram testados em dois meios de cultura, meio MS e meio MS ¾ (reduzido em 25% dos sais do meio inteiro, combinados com quatro concentrações da citocinina BAP: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mg.L-1. Observou-se que os genótipos apresentaram comportamentos diferentes entre si em relação às concentrações de BAP e aos meios. Concluiu-se que, para os porta-enxertos G x N22 e Mr.S 2/5, o melhor meio de multiplicação é o MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Marianna, o meio MS com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Mirabolano, o meio MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, sendo que, para este porta-enxerto, o BAP exerce efeito negativo sobre o tamanho das brotações, independentemente do tipo de meio. Já para o porta-enxerto G x N22, este efeito se fez notar apenas no meio MS. O porta-enxerto GF 677 não apresentou bons resultados na propagação in vitro.The purpose of this work was to determine the best BAP concentration and culture media for the in vitro multiplication of Prunus rootstocks starting from nodal segments. The rootstocks G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna and Mirabolano were tested in two culture media (MS and MS ¾ combined with four BAP concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 mg.L-1. It was observed that the genotypes had different performance as the two media and BAP concentrations are concerned. BAP provided better results in the MS ¾ for the rootstocks G x N22 and Mr.S 2/5. For 'Marianna', the best results were found in the MS at 0.7 mg.L-1 BAP. 'Mirabolano', showed better results in the MS ¾ at 0.5 mg.L-1 BAP and in the two tested media, the shoot length decreased with the increase for

  19. Efek NAA dan BAP terhadap Pembentukan Tunas, Daun, dan Tinggi Tunas Stek Mikro Nepenthes ampullaria Jack.

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    Heti Sartika Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the interaction between NAA and BAP as well as to obtain the best combination of both treatments in promoting the growth of Nepenthes ampullariamicrocutting.An experiment arranged in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD wasapplied. Stem segments were used as blocks, where block I was the first segment followed by the next two segments as block II and III respectively. Two factors, i.e. NAA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 µM and BAP concentrations (0, 9, 18, 27 µM were employed giving rise to 16 combination of treatments. Each treatment combination was replicated threetimes resulting in 48 experimental units. The parametersmeasured were date of shoot initiation, date of root initiation, shoot number, leaf number, root number, length of longest leafand shoot height. The results showed that interactionbetween NAA and BAP in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth was observed.  Combination between NAA of 0 µM and BAP of 18 µMwas found to be the best in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth.Meanwhile, combination between NAA 0 µM and BAP 27 µM was recommended to promote shoot number of N. ampullaria.

  20. Loss of expression of BAP1 is very rare in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

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    Andrici, Juliana; Parkhill, Thomas R; Jung, Jason; Wardell, Kathryn L; Verdonk, Brandon; Singh, Arjun; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Sheen, Amy; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Germline mutations of the BAP1 gene have been implicated in a cancer predisposition syndrome which includes mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanocytic lesions, renal cell carcinoma, and possibly other malignancies. Double hit inactivation of BAP1 with subsequent loss of expression of the BAP1 protein also occurs in approximately 50% of mesotheliomas. The link between BAP1 mutation and lung cancer is yet to be fully explored. We sought to assess BAP1 expression in a large cohort of lung cancers undergoing surgery with curative intent. We searched the Anatomical Pathology database of our institution for lung cancer patients undergoing surgery with curative intent between 2000 and 2010. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed in tissue microarray format. Our cohort included 257 lung cancer patients, of which 155 (60%) were adenocarcinomas and 72 (28%) were squamous cell carcinomas, with no other subtype comprising more than 3%. BAP1 loss of expression was found in only one lung cancer. We conclude that BAP1 mutation occurs very infrequently (0.4%) in non-small cell lung cancer. Given that the pathological differential diagnosis between lung carcinoma and mesothelioma may sometimes be difficult, this finding increases the specificity of loss of expression for BAP1 for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

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    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Effect of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine on shoot induction in explants of brazilwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katarina Oliveira Aragão

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic forest has been subjected to intense degradation, with only about 7% to 8% of its original area remaining today. This situation has raised concerns over the conservation of species threatened with extinction. In all, 276 tree and bush species are under threat, out of which this study chose to evaluate alternatives for protecting brazilwood ‘Pau-Brasil’ (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.. Most studies performed so far on this subject either evaluate the effect of cytokinins on induction of callogenesis or focus on improving cryopreservation methodologies. In an attempt to expand knowledge about biotechnological techniques enabling conservation of C. echinata, this work evaluated the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and explant type on induction of shoots in brazilwood. To attain that, explants were inoculated into basic MS medium and into MS medium supplemented with 2.5 µM, 3.5 µM and 4.5 µM of BAP, and kept in a growth room for 40 days under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. A 2x4 factorial design was adopted, with three replicates. Analyzed variables included shoot percentage, callogenesis and oxidations, and means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% probability level. Results showed a significant influence of BAP only on shoot induction, and of explant type on that variable and on other variables too. It was concluded that, under in vitro conditions, the nodal type of explant is more responsive to BAP action and that 2.5 µM is the recommended concentration for shoot induction in brazilwood.

  3. GERMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF CARNATION USING BAP AND KIN IN VITRO

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    D. P. Restelatto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to establish a system of in vitro multiplication for the harpsichord, the seeds were sterilized in sodium hypochlorite and inoculated in MS. The induction of axillary buds used the BAP and Kinetin (KIN at concentrations of 0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg/L. Was added, 3% (w/v sucrose, 0,6 (w/v agar and the pH ± 5.8. 40 days after the inoculation of seeds, germination was evaluated. The best average germination occurred in T1 (0 min in hypochlorite and T3 (10 min in hypochlorite (9,0 and 8,75 treatments, respectively, differing T2 (5 min in hypochlorite (3,75. In the formation of axillary buds, treatment T1 (2,0 mg / L BAP presented (7,1 buds /explant. Have the treatment T3 (4,0 mg /L BAP presented (5,5 buds / explant, and T1 (zero BAP statistically had the lowest bud formation (3,73 buds / explant. For CIN, it was observed that the best response (5,6 and 5,1 buds/explants were in the T1 (0 CIN and T3 (4.0 mg /L KIN treatments whereas in T2 (2,0 mg /L CIN had the lowest bud formation (2,7 buds /explant . Thus, sodium hypochlorite was effective in decontaminating and BAP and KIN hormones were effective for inducing gems

  4. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  5. Functional mapping and implications of substrate specificity of the yeast high-affinity leucine permease Bap2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Yuki; Uemura, Satsohi; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Morita, Asami; Shishido, Fumi; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Leucine is a major amino acid in nutrients and proteins and is also an important precursor of higher alcohols during brewing. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leucine uptake is mediated by multiple amino acid permeases, including the high-affinity leucine permease Bap2. Although BAP2 transcription has been extensively analyzed, the mechanisms by which a substrate is recognized and moves through the permease remain unknown. Recently, we determined 15 amino acid residues required for Tat2-mediated tryptophan import. Here we introduced homologous mutations into Bap2 amino acid residues and showed that 7 residues played a role in leucine import. Residues I109/G110/T111 and E305 were located within the putative α-helix break in TMD1 and TMD6, respectively, according to the structurally homologous Escherichia coli arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Upon leucine binding, these α-helix breaks were assumed to mediate a conformational transition in Bap2 from an outward-open to a substrate-binding occluded state. Residues Y336 (TMD7) and Y181 (TMD3) were located near I109 and E305, respectively. Bap2-mediated leucine import was inhibited by some amino acids according to the following order of severity: phenylalanine, leucine>isoleucine>methionine, tyrosine>valine>tryptophan; histidine and asparagine had no effect. Moreover, this order of severity clearly coincided with the logP values (octanol-water partition coefficients) of all amino acids except tryptophan. This result suggests that the substrate partition efficiency to the buried Bap2 binding pocket is the primary determinant of substrate specificity rather than structural amino acid side chain recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid, efficient and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by molecularly imprinted composite cartridge and HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin, E-mail: mecorman@sinop.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Sinop University, Department of Bioengineering, Sinop (Turkey); Armutcu, Canan [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cryogel-based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges were designed for the rapid, efficient, and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from water samples. First, a BaP-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine) composite cartridge was synthesized under semi-frozen conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and swelling tests. After the optimization of preconcentration parameters, i.e., pH and initial BaP concentration, the selectivity and preconcentration efficiency, and reusability of these cartridges were also evaluated. In selectivity experiments, BaP imprinted composite cartridge exhibited binding capacities 3.09, 9.52, 8.87, and 8.77-fold higher than that of the non-imprinted composite cartridge in the presence of competitors, such as benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), and 1-naphthol, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL), relative standard deviation (RSD) and preconcentration efficiency (PE) of the synthesized composite cartridge were calculated as 24.86 μg/L, 1.60%, and 349.6%, respectively. - Highlights: • Cryogel based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges as solid-phase extraction sorbents • Combination unique structural features of cryogels with MIP • An excellent ability to recognize the BaP molecule even if single-run contact • Rapid, efficient, selective and cost-friendly PAH preconcentration • Hydrophobic interactions via N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine.

  7. Broad autism phenotype features of Chinese parents with autistic children and their associations with severity of social impairment in probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Juan; Ou, Jian-Jun; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Su-Hong; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Zhu, Fu-Rong; Liu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Luo, Xue-Rong

    2015-07-23

    Parents of children with autism have higher rates of broad autism phenotype (BAP) features than parents of typically developing children (TDC) in Western countries. This study was designed to examine the rate of BAP features in parents of children with autism and the relationship between parental BAP and the social impairment of their children in a Chinese sample. A total of 299 families with autistic children and 274 families with TDC participated in this study. Parents were assessed using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), which includes self-report, informant-report, and best-estimate versions. Children were assessed using the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Parents of children with autism were significantly more likely to have BAP features than were parents of TDC; mothers and fathers in families with autistic children had various BAP features. The total scores of the informant and best-estimate BAPQ versions for fathers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the autism group, whereas the total scores of the three BAPQ versions for mothers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the TDC group. In the autism group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents (informant and best-estimate) were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents. In the TDC group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents (best-estimate). Parents of autistic children were found to have higher rates of BAP than parents of TDC in a sample of Chinese parents. The BAP features of parents are associated with their children's social functioning in both autism families and TDC families, but the patterns of the associations are different.

  8. RESPON PEMBENTUKAN KALUS KORO BENGUK (MUCUNA PRURIENS L. PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI 2,4-D DAN BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ariani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan konsentrasi 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D dan benzylamino purin (BAP optimal dalam pembentukan kalus dari eksplan setengah biji koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens L.. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan ialah rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor, yaitu konsentrasi 2,4-D (0,5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1,5 ppm, 2 ppm dan BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm untuk induksi kalus. Hasil induksi dipindahkan pada media MS0, kemudian dilanjutkan pada media MS yang ditambah BAP, IBA, GA. Parameter yang diamati adalah waktu terbentuk kalus, persentase eksplan berkalus, berat kalus per eksplan, warna dan tekstur kalus. Pada tahap induksi kalus, BAP 3 mg/l menyebabkan pertumbuhan kalus terberat dibandingkan konsentrasi lainnya. Sementara pada tahap diferensiasi, konsentrasi BAP 3 ppm dan 2,4-D 1 ppm merupakan konsentrasi yang mengakibatkan persentase kalus sehat tertinggi. Perlakuan 2,4-D 1 ppm dan BAP 3 ppm menghasilkan kalus putih transparan, kompak, dan berat kalus tertinggi (0,49 gram. Konsentrasi tersebut merupakan konsentrasi yang disarankan untuk menumbuhkan kalus koro bengukThis research aimed to determine the optimal concentration of 2,4-D and BAP in callus formation from an explant of half seed Mucuna pruriens. The research design was used completely randomized design with two factors: the concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1.5 ppm, 2 ppm  and BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, and 3 ppm for callus inductions. The induction result is moved to MS0 medium, then continued to MS medium which was added by BAP, IBA, GA. The measured parameters were: callus formation time, the percentage of callus explants, the weight of callus for each explants, color and texture of callus. During induction phase BAP 3 ppm caused the heaviest callus growth than others, meanwhile in differentiation phase BAP 3 ppm and 2,4-D 1 ppm caused the highest percentage of healthy callus. Treatment of 2,4-D 1 ppm and BAP 3 ppm produced white and compact transparent

  9. Concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro L. Merrill (Ananas comosus e no cultivo hidropônico das plântulas obtidas in vitro The effect of ANA and BAP concentrations on the micropropagation and hydroponic cultures of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Elizabeth Costa de Macêdo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação do abacaxizeiro, bem como no cultivo em hidroponia das plântulas obtidas in vitro, foram estudados em brotos de abacaxizeiro da variedade Pérola, inoculados em meio de cultura básico MS, suplementado com os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA em diferentes concentrações. Caracteres morfológicos quantitativos relacionados ao crescimento dos brotos e das plântulas de abacaxizeiro foram avaliados respectivamente durante os cultivos in vitro e em hidroponia e mostraram que, o tratamento T1 (BAP = 1,0 mg L-1e ANA = 0,5 mg L-1 proporcionou a maior taxa média de regeneração de brotos e conseqüentemente uma maior produção de matéria fresca. Entretanto, a altura dos brotos e a formação de suas raízes foram maiores nos tratamentos T2 (BAP = 0,5 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,25 mg L-1 e T3 (BAP = 0,25 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,12 mg L-1 . Após sessenta dias de cultivo em hidroponia, todas as plântulas oriundas do tratamento T1 apresentaram um bom desenvolvimento, expresso pela maioria dos caracteres morfológicos avaliados. O sistema de micropropagação utilizado neste trabalho possibilitou a obtenção de brotos de abacaxizeiro Pérola, em quantidade suficiente e ao mesmo tempo de fácil individualização, seguida da regeneração de plântulas que foram cultivadas em hidroponia.The effect of different ANA and BAP concentrations on in vitro and hydroponic cultures were studied. Pineapple shoots derived from Pérola explants variety were inoculated in MS media containing BAP and ANA in different concentrations. Growth parameters of shoots and plantlets were measured for in vitro and hydroponic cultures. Showed a highest multiplication rates of shoots and consequently highest fresh matter production were obtained with BAP and ANA at the concentrations of 1,0 and 0,5 mg L-1 respectively. However, the shoot length as well as the root number formed were higher in the T2 (0,5 de BAP + 0,25 de ANA

  10. The gene bap, involved in biofilm production, is present in Staphylococcus spp. strains from nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Amina; Ceotto, Hilana; Giambiagi-Demarval, Marcia; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed ten strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) involved in nosocomial infections in three Brazilian hospitals. Their antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that most strains exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance and possessed the mecA gene. The ability of these strains to adhere to polystyrene microtiter plates was also tested and nine of them proved to be biofilm producers at least in one of the three conditions tested: growth in TSB, in TSB supplemented with NaCl, or in TSB supplemented with glucose. The presence of the bap gene, which codes for the biofilm-associated protein (Bap), was investigated in all ten strains by PCR. AU strains were bop-positive and DNA sequencing experiments confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of a bap gene. The presence of the icaA gene, one of the genes involved in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) formation, was also detected by PCR in eight of the ten strains tested. The two icaA-negative strains were either weak biofilm producer or no biofilm producer, although they were bop-positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of the bap gene in nosocomial isolates of CNS, being also the first report on the presence of this gene in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and S. cohnii.

  11. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  12. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V.; Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  14. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  15. Suppressive role of OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of BAP1 in retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seungtae; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Wang; Um, Soo-Jong

    2017-10-07

    BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) has been implicated in diverse biological functions, including tumor suppression. However, its regulation via glycosylation and its role in embryonic stem (ES) cells are poorly defined. BAP1 was recently reported to interact with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT). Here, we confirmed the physical interaction and investigated its functional significance. The O-GlcNAcylation of BAP1, which requires OGT, was examined in vivo and in vitro, and was proven using alloxan, an OGT inhibitor. OGT promoted the BAP1-induced repression of retinoic acid (RA)-induced RA receptor (RAR) activation. The repressive activity of BAP1 was relieved by alloxan but exacerbated by PUGNAc, an O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor. Finally, we addressed the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the RA-induced differentiation of murine ES cells. Alkaline phosphatase staining revealed the cooperation of RA and alloxan for impairing the pluripotency of ES cells. This cooperation was also observed by measuring the size of embryonic bodies and the expression of Sox2, a pluripotency marker. Overall, our data suggest that OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of BAP1 prefers the maintenance of pluripotency, whereas its inhibition facilitates RA-induced differentiation in ES cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Germline BAP1 inactivation is preferentially associated with metastatic ocular melanoma and cutaneous-ocular melanoma families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ni Jenny Njauw

    Full Text Available BAP1 has been shown to be a target of both somatic alteration in high-risk ocular melanomas (OM and germline inactivation in a few individuals from cancer-prone families. These findings suggest that constitutional BAP1 changes may predispose individuals to metastatic OM and that familial permeation of deleterious alleles could delineate a new cancer syndrome.To characterize BAP1's contribution to melanoma risk, we sequenced BAP1 in a set of 100 patients with OM, including 50 metastatic OM cases and 50 matched non-metastatic OM controls, and 200 individuals with cutaneous melanoma (CM including 7 CM patients from CM-OM families and 193 CM patients from CM-non-OM kindreds.Germline BAP1 mutations were detected in 4/50 patients with metastatic OM and 0/50 cases of non-metastatic OM (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.059. Since 2/4 of the BAP1 carriers reported a family history of CM, we analyzed 200 additional hereditary CM patients and found mutations in 2/7 CM probands from CM-OM families and 1/193 probands from CM-non-OM kindreds (29% vs. 0.52%, p = .003. Germline mutations co-segregated with both CM and OM phenotypes and were associated with the presence of unique nevoid melanomas and highly atypical nevoid melanoma-like melanocytic proliferations (NEMMPs. Interestingly, 7/14 germline variants identified to date reside in C-terminus suggesting that the BRCA1 binding domain is important in cancer predisposition.Germline BAP1 mutations are associated with a more aggressive OM phenotype and a recurrent phenotypic complex of cutaneous/ocular melanoma, atypical melanocytic proliferations and other internal neoplasms (ie. COMMON syndrome, which could be a useful clinical marker for constitutive BAP1 inactivation.

  17. ORGANOGÊNESE IN VITRO DE Citrus EM FUNÇÃO DE CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP E SECCIONAMENTO DO EXPLANTE CITRUS IN VITRO ORGANOGENESIS RELATED TO BAP CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPLANT SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS LACAVA DE MOURA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento in vitro de Citrus depende diretamente do desenvolvimento de protocolos eficientes para regeneração de plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de concentrações de 6-benzilaminopuria (BAP na organogênese in vitro de limão-'Cravo' e laranja-'Pêra', bem como o efeito do seccionamento do explante em laranja-'Valência'. Para o limão-'Cravo', foram utilizados como explante, segmentos internodais de plântulas germinadas in vitro, cultivados em meio MT e variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 mg.L-1. Nas laranjas-'Pêra' e 'Valência' os explantes foram segmentos do epicótilo de plântulas germinadas in vitro. Os explantes de laranja-'Pêra' foram cultivados em meio MT variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 mg.L-1. Para a laranja-'Valência', metade dos explantes foram seccionados e cultivados em meio MT acrescido de 1,0 mg.L-1 de BAP. Todas as brotações obtidas foram alongadas no meio de cultura MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 e enraizadas no meio MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 0,5 g.L-1 de carvão ativado + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftaleno acético (ANA. O melhor resultado para o número de brotações adventícias foi obtido na concentração 2,5 mg.L-1 de BAP para limão-'Cravo', e nas concentrações 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 de BAP para laranja-'Pêra'. O seccionamento dos explantes favoreceu a organogênese in vitro da laranja-'Valência', porém as brotações apresentaram menor índice de enraizamento.The establishment of efficient plant regeneration protocols is essential for the success and application of in vitro breeding biotechnologies in Citrus. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP on the in vitro organogenesis of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck and 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, and the effect of cutting the explant on the in vitro organogenesis of

  18. Investigations on critical parameters, growth, structural and spectral studies of beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, D; Selvarajan, P; Perumal, S

    2014-01-01

    Beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) salt has been synthesized and the solubility of the synthesized sample in double distilled water was determined at different temperatures. Solution stability was studied by observing the metastable zone width by employing the polythermal method. Induction period values for different supersaturation ratios at room temperature were determined based on the isothermal method. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, critical free energy change, interfacial tension, and nucleation rate have been estimated for BAP salt on the basis of the classical nucleation theory. The lattice parameters of the grown BAP crystal were determined using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder XRD study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform–Raman studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the BAP crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was studied using the Kurtz–Perry powder technique. UV–visible spectral studies were carried out to understand optical transparency and the type of band gap of the grown BAP crystal. (paper)

  19. Effect of BAP, ethrel and stem girdling on growth and partitioning of photosynthates in Y-shaped mungbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, J.D.S.; Abbas, S.; Sita Ram; Sirohi, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    During early vegetative growth, pots grown mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek cv. Pusa 105) were forced to develop a Y-shaped stem consisting of two symmetrical branches. At preflowering stage, the plants were treated with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP-20 ppm) and ethrel (500 ppm). Stem girdling was also done just below the junction of the two symmetrical branches and hormonal application (BAP) was done on one of the branches and its effect was observed on other branch of the same plant. Suitable controls were kept. BAP delayed the leaf senescence, enhanced photosynthetic rate and its duration on the treated as well as untreated leaf, whereas ethrel enhanced leaf senescence, reduced photosynthetic rate and its duration. 14 C studies indicated that the translocation of photosynthates was diverted differentially to other plant parts through hormonal application. Girdling on main stem affected the remote effects of hormones and about 98% 14 C remained on the applied branch itself indicating that growth regulators showed their effect on the other branch through roots only. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Callus Induction of Gendarussa (Justicia gendarussa by Various Concentration of 2,4-D, IBA, and BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Kusuma Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., a medicinal plant, is Acanthaceae that has many functions. Furthermore, the compounds in gendarussa must be produced in high quantity and quality by applying callus culture method. Accordingly, it is important to study the effects of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP on callus induction of gendarussa leaves. This research design utilized a factorial design with two factors (2,4-D and IBA: 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/L and BAP: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L. The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, each of which was repeated 3 times. Observation was carried out in 6 weeks. Data on the time of callus formation, percentage of explants formed callus, and callus morphology were analyzed descriptively,while data on fresh and dry weight were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA (α = 0.5. Interestingly, the results showed that various concentration of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP affected callus induction from leaf explants of gendarussa. We concluded that the most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable. Moreover, the optimum treatment will be used to produce secondary metabolite and seed synthetic by cell suspension culture.

  1. Multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa': efeito da citocinina BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' apresenta alta produtividade, ótimo sabor e aparência dos frutos para a comercialização. No entanto, por ser altamente suscetível à escaldadura das folhas (Xylella fastidiosa Wells, esta variedade apresenta problemas de cultivo no sul do Brasil. As técnicas de cultura in vitro permitem propagar e rapidamente espécies de interesse, além de permitir a limpeza de patógenos e a produção de matrizes com qualidade genética e sanitária comprovada. Porém, o uso prático da propagação in vitro requer a otimização das condições de cultura para cada espécie e/ou variedade. Dentre os fatores que mais influenciam a micropropagação, estão as citocininas, com destaque para o BAP. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' sob diferentes concentrações de BAP. Após três subculturas em meio MA1, segmentos nodais com 0,5-1,0 cm foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças significativas no número de brotos para as diferentes concentrações de BAP testadas. No entanto, o maior número de brotos por explante (3,6 obteve-se na concentração de 2,0 mg.L-1 e a maior altura média dos brotos foi obtido na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. Concentrações maiores que a 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP inibiram o crescimento dos brotos. A micropropagação da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' a partir de ápices caulinares e gemas laterais em meio de cultura MA1 mostrou-se eficaz.

  2. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  3. A combination of MTAP and BAP1 immunohistochemistry in pleural effusion cytology for the diagnosis of mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Hida, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Shinji; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Oda, Yoshinao; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

    Homozygous deletion of 9p21 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and loss of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are useful for the differentiation between malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. The authors previously described that IHC expression of the protein product of the methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, which is localized in the 9p21 chromosomal region, was correlated with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH in MPM tissues. In the current study, the authors investigated whether a combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC could distinguish MPM from reactive mesothelial cells (RMC) in cell blocks obtained from pleural effusions. The authors examined IHC expression of MTAP and BAP1 in cell blocks obtained from pleural effusions of 45 cases of MPM and 21 cases of reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Furthermore, IHC expression of MTAP was compared with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH. MTAP and BAP1 IHC differentiated MPM from RMC with 100% specificity for both and sensitivities of 42.2% and 60.0%, respectively. The combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC yielded a sensitivity of 77.8%, which was higher than that of BAP1 IHC alone or 9p21 FISH alone (62.2%). Moreover, a high degree of concordance was observed between the results of MTAP IHC and 9p21 FISH in cell blocks. A combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC in cell blocks from pleural effusions appears to be a reliable and useful method for differentiating MPM cells from RMC and can be used in the routine diagnosis of MPM. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:54-63. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Defining key features of the broad autism phenotype: a comparison across parents of multiple- and single-incidence autism families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Childress, Debra; Lam, Kristen; Piven, Joseph

    2008-06-05

    This study examined the frequency of personality, language, and social-behavioral characteristics believed to comprise the broad autism phenotype (BAP), across families differing in genetic liability to autism. We hypothesized that within this unique sample comprised of multiple-incidence autism families (MIAF), single-incidence autism families (SIAF), and control Down syndrome families (DWNS), a graded expression would be observed for the principal characteristics conferring genetic susceptibility to autism, in which such features would express most profoundly among parents from MIAFs, less strongly among SIAFs, and least of all among comparison parents from DWNS families, who should display population base rates. Analyses detected linear expression of traits in line with hypotheses, and further suggested differential intrafamilial expression across family types. In the vast majority of MIAFs both parents displayed BAP characteristics, whereas within SIAFs, it was equally likely that one, both, or neither parent show BAP features. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to etiologic mechanisms in autism and relevance to molecular genetic studies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Methods. Two pits (W9 & W10) at Bap-Malar (figure 2), to a depth of about 4m, were excavated .... contain gypsum as a principal evaporate mineral, ... have yielded a good number of pollen represented ..... 4. Hill slopes. Not prominent. Prominent. 5. Topography. Gentle. Steep .... ery of Kot Diji pottery on these dunes opens.

  6. EFFECT OF BAP AND IAA ON SHOOT REGENERATION IN COTYLEDONARY EXPLANTS OF COSTA RICAN MELON GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez Melara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para establecer una metodología para la regeneración del melón criollo (Cucumis melo L, se investigó la influencia del genotipo (OSO-1, OSO-2, OSO- 3, PQRG-1, PQRG-2, PQRG-3, y EM-1 y la interacción de N6-bencilaminopurina (BAP (0,1, 0,5 y 1,0 mg.l-1 con ácido indolacético (AIA (0, 0,05 y 0,5 mg.l-1 en la inducción de brotes y regeneración de plantas. Independientemente de la concentración de BAP y AIA, el mayor porcentaje de formación de brotes se obtuvo en EM-1>OSO-1>PQRG-3>OSO-2>PQRG-2>PQRG-1>OSO-3. Por otra parte, independientemente del genotipo, el mayor porcentaje de formación de brotes se obtuvo con 0,5 mg.l-1 BAP y 0,05 mg.l-1 AIA o 1 mg.l-1 BAP y 0 mg.l-1 AIA. El protocolo de cultivo in vitro establecido puede ser utilizado para la micropropagación de genotipos "criollos" de melón.

  7. BAC-HAPPY mapping (BAP mapping: a new and efficient protocol for physical mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang T H Vu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical and linkage mapping underpin efforts to sequence and characterize the genomes of eukaryotic organisms by providing a skeleton framework for whole genome assembly. Hitherto, linkage and physical "contig" maps were generated independently prior to merging. Here, we develop a new and easy method, BAC HAPPY MAPPING (BAP mapping, that utilizes BAC library pools as a HAPPY mapping panel together with an Mbp-sized DNA panel to integrate the linkage and physical mapping efforts into one pipeline. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as an exemplar, a set of 40 Sequence Tagged Site (STS markers spanning approximately 10% of chromosome 4 were simultaneously assembled onto a BAP map compiled using both a series of BAC pools each comprising 0.7x genome coverage and dilute (0.7x genome samples of sheared genomic DNA. The resultant BAP map overcomes the need for polymorphic loci to separate genetic loci by recombination and allows physical mapping in segments of suppressed recombination that are difficult to analyze using traditional mapping techniques. Even virtual "BAC-HAPPY-mapping" to convert BAC landing data into BAC linkage contigs is possible.

  8. MACROPROPAGATION OF PLANTAIN (MUSA SPP. CULTIVARS PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE AND CORNE 1: EFFECT OF BENZYLAMINOPURINE (BAP CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deless Edmond Fulgence THIEMELE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, plantain is one of the most important starchy food and cash crops. Nonetheless, one of the major constraints for its production was the unavailability of healthy planting materials at planting time. This constraint could be lifted using the cloning of planting materials via the in vitro micropropagation or in vivo macropropagation techniques. Shelled corms from four cultivars, known as PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE and CORNE 1, were used. Three treatments differing in three hormonal concentrations, especially 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 mg L-1 were tested. The control one was hormone free. Tested treatments were laid out in a split plot design. The decorticated banana corms were sprayed twofold at 2 weeks interval with BAP solution when placed in sterilized soil in high humidity plastic tunnel. It emerged from results, regarding BAP concentration effect, that BAP treatment with 40 mg L-1 significantly reduced the emergence time of shoots at 20 days as against 25.1, 28.3 and 28.5 for the 2 tested other treatments as well as control, respectively. Likewise, the concentrations 40.0 mg L-1 both recorded the largest number of sprouted buds per corm and number of shoots per corm. With respect to banana cultivar effect, PITA 3 showed the largest number of shoots per corm. Basing on such findings, it is concluded that MSD technique combined with BAP at 40.0 mg L-1 is a suitable technique for improving of the in vivo macropropagation of plantain. This concentration increased at least 50 % of sucker production compared to control.

  9. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    vulnerable status. The high price and high market demand made the over harvested beyond regeneration capacity of the plant while the conservation efforts are terribly limited. Presentage of seed germination is not only very low but also time consuming, therefore we conducting preliminary study on in vitro propagation using  seed  Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. Methods: The research was conducted in laboratory tissue culture of Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Center Tawangmangu for three months. Seeds of A. reinwardtii Bl. obtained from Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu Central Java.  Seeds were peeled and air dryed for five days, washed using steril aquadest, soaked on 0.5% Agrept (5 minutes then on 2.125% sodium hypochloride (5 minutes and rinsed using sterile distilled water. This study uses a Murashige and Skoog (MS with a completely randomized design (CRD factorial design.. The first factor is   BAP at a concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and the second factor is giberelin concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1. MS media  with addition of BAP the concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and gibberellin the concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1 obtained 9 treatment combination. Results: The results showed the combination treatment of growth regulators BAP (4 mg.L-1 and giberelin (2 mg.L-1 is formed shoots and roots. The shoots were formed  30 days after planting with a height of 2 cm and the roots appear at 45 days after planting. Conclusion: Pulasari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. can be propagated through tissue culture using seeds as explants.Keywords: pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii BI, BAP and giberelin 

  10. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q F Li

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM. A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM, up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars. These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability.

  11. Cultivation period, lighting conditions and BAP concentrations on in vitro induction shoots of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of in vitro micropropagation allows the production of large amounts of plants. However, some aspects of the orchid’s in vitro micropropagation are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the lighting conditions, time of cultivation and BAP concentrations on in vitro budburst of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of biometric parameters of plants grown during 90 and 180 days on ½ MS medium under different lighting conditions (18.90 mol m-2 s-1, 14.85 mol m-2 s-1, 9.45 mol m-2 s-1 and concentrations of BAP (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5 e 3 mg L-1. The best results of budburst were obtained during 180 days, under white fluorescent light (18.90 mol m-2 s-1 and using 1.5±0.1 mg L-1 of BAP.

  12. Barium recovery by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor: effects of pH, Ba/P molar ratio and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Chi; Reano, Resmond L; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO₄ crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48 cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO₄ crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseededbarium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba₃(PO₄)₂) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO₄ and BaO were present at a pH of below 10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MO-DE-207B-05: Predicting Gene Mutations in Renal Cell Carcinoma Based On CT Imaging Features: Validation Using TCGA-TCIA Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Zhou, Z; Thomas, K; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to investigate the use of contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) features for the prediction of mutations of BAP1, PBRM1, and VHL genes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: For this study, we used two patient databases with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The first one consisted of 33 patients from our institution (UT Southwestern Medical Center, UTSW). The second one consisted of 24 patients from the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), where each patient is connected by a unique identi?er to the tissue samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). From the contrast enhanced CT image of each patient, tumor contour was first delineated by a physician. Geometry, intensity, and texture features were extracted from the delineated tumor. Based on UTSW dataset, we completed feature selection and trained a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict mutations of BAP1, PBRM1 and VHL genes. We then used TCIA-TCGA dataset to validate the predictive model build upon UTSW dataset. Results: The prediction accuracy of gene expression of TCIA-TCGA patients was 0.83 (20 of 24), 0.83 (20 of 24), and 0.75 (18 of 24) for BAP1, PBRM1, and VHL respectively. For BAP1 gene, texture feature was the most prominent feature type. For PBRM1 gene, intensity feature was the most prominent. For VHL gene, geometry, intensity, and texture features were all important. Conclusion: Using our feature selection strategy and models, we achieved predictive accuracy over 0.75 for all three genes under the condition of using patient data from one institution for training and data from other institutions for testing. These results suggest that radiogenomics can be used to aid in prognosis and used as convenient surrogates for expensive and time consuming gene assay procedures.

  14. Loss of BAP1 expression is very rare in peritoneal and gynecologic serous adenocarcinomas and can be useful in the differential diagnosis with abdominal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Jung, Jason; Sheen, Amy; D'Urso, Lisa; Sioson, Loretta; Pickett, Justine; Parkhill, Thomas R; Verdonk, Brandon; Wardell, Kathryn L; Singh, Arjun; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-05-01

    Gynecologic and primary peritoneal serous carcinoma may be difficult to distinguish from abdominal mesotheliomas clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically. BAP1 double-hit inactivation and subsequent loss of protein expression have been reported in more than half of all abdominal mesotheliomas. We therefore sought to investigate the expression of BAP1 in serous carcinoma and explore its potential utility as a marker in the differential diagnosis with mesothelioma. We searched the computerized database of the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia, for all cases of gynecologic and peritoneal serous carcinomas and mesotheliomas diagnosed between 1998 and 2014. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed on tissue microarray sections. Cases with completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of a positive internal control in nonneoplastic cells were considered negative. If staining was equivocal (eg, absent nuclear staining but no internal control), staining was repeated on whole sections. Loss of BAP1 expression was found in only 1 of 395 (0.3%) serous carcinomas but in 6 of 9 (67%) abdominal mesotheliomas (P < .001) and 131 of 277 (47%) thoracic mesotheliomas (P < .001). We conclude that BAP1 loss occurs extremely infrequently in gynecologic and peritoneal serous adenocarcinomas, whereas it is very common in mesotheliomas including abdominal mesothelioma. Therefore, although positive staining for BAP1 cannot be used to exclude a diagnosis of mesothelioma, loss of BAP1 expression can be used to very strongly support a pathological diagnosis of abdominal mesothelioma over serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mesothelioma: Identification of the Key Molecular Events Triggered by BAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    germline BAP1 heterozygous mice is associated with deregulated inflammatory response and increased risk of mesothelioma. Oncogene. 2015 Jun 29. (Epub...Tommaso Campanella Cancer Center. 2015, September. Catanzaro, Italy. 5. 7th International Symposium DAMPS and HMGB. 2015, September. Bonn, Germany . 6...with deregulated inflammatory response and increased risk of mesothelioma A Napolitano1,2, L Pellegrini1, A Dey3, D Larson1, M Tanji1, EG Flores1, B

  16. Deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathway leading to the reduction of cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youming; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Bin; Ge, Jianhui

    2018-04-15

    b-AP15, a potent and selective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 14 (USP14), displays in vitro and in vivo antitumor abilities on some types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its action is not well elucidated. The purposes of the present study are to observe the potential impacts of b-AP15 on cell survival of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to investigate whether and how this compound inhibits some survival-promoting signaling pathways. We found that b-AP15 significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, along with the perturbation of cell cycle and the decreased expressions of cell cycle-related proteins. We also demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enhanced by b-AP15 supplementation. The inhibition of ER stress/UPR only partly attenuated the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, b-AP15 treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling pathways, and suppressed phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, which were not restored by the inhibition of ER stress/UPR. Furthermore, the expression levels of signaling molecules in Notch1 were reduced by specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Notably, either Wnt or Notch1 signaling inhibitor mitigated phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, and mimicked the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These results clearly indicate that b-AP15 induced cytotoxic response to hepatocellular carcinoma cells by augmenting ER stress/UPR and inhibiting Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathways. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which b-AP15 produces its antitumor therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-01-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 μM) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  18. Development of Targeted Molecular Therapy for Cancers Harboring BAP1 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    study in cultured cells because the loss of BAP1 results in stem cell-like behavior; the cells proliferate slowly, become dedifferentiated and are...result is the inhibition of histone H2A ubiquitination and the accumulation of ubiquitin at the DNA double- strand break sites. The PRC1-mediated...immunodeficiency allows the growth of human cancer cells and cancer stem cells with significant fidelity to the original tumor. b. Actual or anticipated

  19. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, M.S.; Lopez, J.M.; Mastral, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R 2 = 0.817, PRESS/SSY = 0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q CV 2 =0.813, PRESS/SSY = 0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.679 and PRESS/SSY = 0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.551, PRESS/SSY = 0.449).

  1. Bap1 and Pbrm1: Determinants of Tumor Grade and mTOR Activation in VHL-Deficient Mouse Models of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet Y; Kim, William Y

    2017-08-01

    Large genome sequencing efforts have identified frequent mutations in the histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling genes BAP1 and PBRM1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this issue of Cancer Discovery , Gu and colleagues model these genetic events in mice and report that dual inactivation of Vhl with either Bap1 or Pbrm1 results in faithful genetically engineered murine models of ccRCC. Moreover, their work establishes that Bap1 and Pbrm1 are determinants of tumor grade and mTORC1 activation and provocatively suggests that the cell of origin of ccRCC may lie in PAX8-expressing Bowman capsule cells. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 802-4. ©2017 AACR See related article by Gu et al., p. 900 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Concentração de bap e a eficiência de micropropagação de bananeira tetraplóide (grupo AAAB Bap concentration and tetraploid banana micropropagation efficiency (AAAB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver um procedimento eficiente para a produção de mudas de bananeiras tetraplóides (Musa sp. cv. FHIA-01, grupo AAAB estudou-se o efeito do clone no desenvolvimento in vitro dos explantes e as taxas de contaminação, multiplicação e nível de oxidação em meios de cultura contendo cinco concentrações de BAP. Na fase de introdução in vitro dos explantes, foi observada elevada taxa de contaminação (22,32%, causada, principalmente, por bactérias. No entanto, os níveis de contaminação decresceram na seqüência dos subcultivos, tendo sido de 1,07% no oitavo subcultivo. As maiores taxas de multiplicação foram obtidas no meio de cultura MS com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em média de 2,65 plântulas por subcultivo, possibilitando a produção estimada de 584 plântulas de FHIA-01 por explante inicial no sexto e 3451 no oitavo subcultivo. Em função do clone, houve a produção estimada de 305 a 4497 plântulas por explante inicial, após oito subculturas. A eficiência de aclimatização das plântulas foi de 94%, não sendo encontrados variantes somaclonais em condições de casa-de-vegetação.The objective of the present work was to establish an efficient procedure for the in vitro production of tetraploid banana plantlets (Musa sp. cv. FHIA-01, AAAB group. The cloning effect on the in vitro development of the explants, the rates of contamination and multiplication, and the level of oxidation in culture media with five benzylaminopurine (BAP concentrations were studied. In the phase of in vitro introduction of explants, a high level of contamination (22.32%, caused mainly by bacteria, was observed. However, the degree of contamination decreased along the subcultures, reaching 1.07% in the eighth subculture. Higher multiplication rates were obtained, averaging 2.65 per subculture, on the MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 BAP, leading to an estimated production of 584 and 3451 plantlets/initial explant after

  3. Effects on survival of BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in sporadic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis with independent validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Payal; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Christie, Alana; Zhrebker, Leah; Pavía-Jiménez, Andrea; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xie, Xian-Jin; Brugarolas, James

    2013-02-01

    Clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas display divergent clinical behaviours. However, the molecular genetic events driving these behaviours are unknown. We discovered that BAP1 is mutated in about 15% of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, and that BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations are largely mutually exclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of these molecular subtypes and to determine whether patients with BAP1-mutant and PBRM1-mutant tumours had different overall survival. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed 145 patients with primary clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma and defined PBRM1 and BAP1 mutation status from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW), TX, USA, between 1998 and 2011. We classified patients into those with BAP1-mutant tumours and those with tumours exclusively mutated for PBRM1 (PBRM1-mutant). We used a second independent cohort (n=327) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation. In both cohorts, more than 80% of patients had localised or locoregional disease at presentation. Overall both cohorts were similar, although the TCGA had more patients with metastatic and higher-grade disease, and more TCGA patients presented before molecularly targeted therapies became available. The median overall survival in the UTSW cohort was significantly shorter for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours (4·6 years; 95% CI 2·1-7·2), than for patients with PBRM1-mutant tumours (10·6 years; 9·8-11·5), corresponding to a HR of 2·7 (95% CI 0·99-7·6, p=0·044). Median overall survival in the TCGA cohort was 1·9 years (95% CI 0·6-3·3) for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours and 5·4 years (4·0-6·8) for those with PBRM1-mutant tumours. A HR similar to the UTSW cohort was noted in the TCGA cohort (2·8; 95% CI 1·4-5·9; p=0·004). Patients with mutations in both BAP1 and PBRM1, although a minority (three in UTSW cohort and four in TCGA cohort), had the worst overall survival (median 2·1 years, 95

  4. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  5. EFFECT OF BAP ON PROLIFERATION OF Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke (PARICA SHOOTS, IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Parica is a native tropical forest plant pertaining to the ofcaesalpinaceae family. It is species considered of great potential, due its wide use. Aiming reproducing the species, in vitro, stem segments of plantlets established in vitro were excised and inoculated on solid MS supplemented with 0; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 mg.L-1 of BAP with 3% of sucrose, 0,1% of PVP and one control. The activities had been carried out in the Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Biotechnology of the Embrapa Oriental, Amazon, and Belem (PA. The cultures had been under sun photo period for 16 hours 25+ 1°C of temperature. After three weeks of cultivation the explants were evaluated, counting the number and length of explants shoots. The treatment with 3 mg.L-1 BAP presented greater number of shoot proliferation with 2,14 for explants. The shoots were transferred to MS medium in the same conditions of culture for rooting.

  6. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  7. Seasonal variation of benzo(a) pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Callén Romero, Mª Soledad; López Sebastián, José Manuel; Mastral Lamarca, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (...

  8. INDUKSI KALUS JERUK KASTURI (CITRUS MICROCARPA MENGGUNAKAN HORMON 2,4-D DAN BAP DENGAN METODE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mahadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa or musk lime is one horticulture crops has been known as beverage and food flavorings. This research aimed to determine the effect of 2,4-D and BAP on callus induction of explants calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa. Parameters observed is percentage of explants, time appeared callus, callus width, and texture of the callus. Research results and a growing percentage of the width callus explants were analyzed by ANOVA and a further test DMRT at 5% level. The next to appear callus timing parameters and texture of callus analyzed in description. The result shows that a combination of hormones D4B1 and D4B2 produces a callus emerged fastest of 3.3 days after culture. The highest percentage of callus formation that is 100% contained in the treatment of D2B0, D2B0.5-D4B0. The mean width of callus was highest in treatment D4B2with a width of 0.97 cm. Embryogenic callus resulting by treatment of D2B1, D2B2, and D3B0. However, the best a combination of hormones is treatment D2B2 (2 mg/l, 2,4-D, dan 2 mg/l BAP producing embryogenic callus edvanced to suspension cultures.

  9. PROPAGACIÓN VEGETATIVA DE PLÁTANO Y BANANO CON LA APLICACIÓN DE BENZILAMINOPURINA (6-BAP) Y ACIDO INDOLACETICO (AIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Hayron Fabricio Canchignia Martínez; Gonzalo Rafael Benavides Velasquez; Marjorie Dolores Espinoza Roca; Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño; Orly Fernando Cevallos Falquez; Silvia Gicela Saucedo Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    En la propagación vegetativa de dos variedades de Banano (Valery y Orito) y una de Plátano (Barraganete), se sometió a diferentes tratamientos hormonales, para evaluar el número de brotes, la concentración 30 mg L-1 de BAP alcanzó el mayor promedio, con 2.36 brotes para todas las variedades. En longitud y diámetro de brotes, la concentración que logró el mayor promedio fue C0, no encontrándose diferencias entre las concentraciones de 6-BAP y AIA. La variedad que presentó la mayor longitud y d...

  10. A cryptic BAP1 splice mutation in a family with uveal and cutaneous melanoma, and paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K.; Choi, J.; Chung, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivating germ line BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) mutations have recently been reported in families with uveal or cutaneous malignant melanoma (UMM, CMM), mesothelioma, and meningioma. Although apparently predisposing to a wide range of tumors, the exact tumor spectrum associated with germ...

  11. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  12. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  13. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio; Reed, John C.; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6 1 22/P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit

  14. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Reed, John C. [Program on Apoptosis, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Pascual, Jaime, E-mail: pascual@burnham.org [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  15. Concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina no desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas precoces In vitro effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on early peach and nectarine embryos development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando melhorar o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas, de maturação precoce, adicionou-se, em meio básico de cultura, o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP nas concentrações de 0,5,10,15 e 20µM. Esse meio consistiu na solução salina de Murashige & Skoog acrescido de tiamina, 1mg/l; ácido nicotínico, 0,5mg/l; inositol, 100mg/1, glicina, 250mg/l; glutamina, 500mg/l; asparagina, 250mg/l, ácido giberélico, 0,1mg/l; sacarose, 30g/l, e ágar, 6g/l. A melhor taxa de desenvolvimento dos embriões, após 30dias de cultura, ocorreu nas concentrações de 5 e 10µM de BAP, com uma emissão média de 4,5 brotos por embrião. Nas concentrações de 15 e 20mM de BAP, o número de brotações foi maior, porém com menor aproveitamento, devido à presença dos sintomas indesejáveis de vitrificação. O BAP não eliminou, totalmente, a roseta e o ananismo fisiológico dos embriões.Embryos of early peach and nectarine were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3%sacarose,0.6%agar and(in mg/liter 1 thiamin, 0.5 nicotinic acid, 100 inositol, 250 glycin, 500 glutamin, 250 asparagin, 0.1 giberelic acid, and BAP at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20µM. The frequency of growth was as high as 100% when BAP was included in the medium. The best development of the embryos occurred with BAP rates of 5 and 10µM. At these concentrations of BAP, the mean number of adventitious shoots was 4.5 per embryo. The vitrification ratio was higher at concentrations of 15 and 20µM. The inclusion of BAP, consistently reduced but not fully eliminated lhe rosette and dwarf appearances in vitroplantules.

  16. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  17. Computer program design specifications for the Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) science data decommutation program (BAPS48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Balloon-Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) Science Data Docummutation Program (BAPS48) is a pulse code modulation docummutation program that will format the BUSS science data contained on a one inch PCM tracking tape into a seven track serial bit stream formatted digital tape.

  18. The B.A.P. PACOCHA (SS-48) Collision: The Escape and Medical Recompression Treatment of Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-30

    Navy double-lock chamber which, for simplicity, will be referred to as chamber one. Commander Sierralta and Lieutenant Commander Villela supervised... Sierralta and Commander Murata were trained in Argentina in 1987. Inside tenders were divers with Peruvian Navy nursing training, similar to the U.S...ENT specialist, Member of rescue team aboard B.A.P. IQUIQUE Commander Fernando Sierralta Gutierrez, Medical Officer. Trained in submarine medicine in

  19. Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Righi, L; Ciocan, C; Pelucchi, C; La Vecchia, C; Romano, C; Papotti, M; Pira, E

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosis of mesothelioma based on death certificate is subject to misclassification, which may bias the results of epidemiology studies. A high proportion of mesothelioma harbor mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene. We searched medical and pathology records and specimens for 127 workers from a textile-asbestos factory in Italy who died during 1963-2013 with a diagnosis of pleural or peritoneal neoplasm or mesothelioma on death certificate, to confirm the diagnosis with immunohistochemistry markers. We calculated the odds ratio of confirmation by selected characteristics and asbestos exposure variables. When sufficient pathology material was available, we analyzed BAP1 protein expression. The diagnosis of mesothelioma was histologically confirmed for 35 cases (27.6%); 5 cases were classified as non-mesothelioma (3.9%), for 33 cases a mention of mesothelioma was found on record but no sufficient material was available for revision (26.0%); no records were available for 54 cases (death-certificate-only 42.5%). Diagnostic confirmation was not associated with sex, location of the neoplasm, age, or duration of employment; however, there was a significant association with time since first employment (P for linear trend 0.04). An association between duration of employment and time since first employment was observed for confirmed cases but not for death-certificate-only cases. BAP1 protein was lost in 18/35 cases (51.4%), without an association with sex, location, age, indices of asbestos exposure, or survival. We were able to confirm by immunohistochemistry a small proportion of mesothelioma diagnoses on certificates of deceased asbestos workers, and confirmation correlated with latency of asbestos exposure but not other characteristics. BAP1 protein loss is a frequent event in mesothelioma of asbestos-exposed workers, but does not correlate with exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  20. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment. Results: On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant. Conclusions: It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  1. SMARCB1/INI1/BAF47- deficient pleural malignant mesothelioma with rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriko; Hasegawa, Masaru; Hiroshima, Kenzo

    2018-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) with rhabdoid features is an MM variant. Fifteen cases have been reported previously, all of which were combined with other types of MM. Herein, we report an autopsy case of pleural MM with monomorphic rhabdoid features. The patient was a 62-year-old male without a history of asbestos exposure. An autopsy revealed a soft, granular tumor that replaced the entire left pleura and had invaded to the diaphragm and lower lobe of the lung. The tumor cells, which had eosinophilic plump cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei, were loosely cohesive. Immunohistochemistry showed that the cells were diffusely positive for calretinin, D2-40, vimentin, CAM5.2, and AE1/AE3; and negative for WT-1, TTF-1, CK7, CEA, desmin, CD34, BCL-2, S100 protein, and p40. Neither homozygous deletion of p16 nor BAP-1 protein loss was observed. Loss of INI1/BAF47 protein, an indicator of malignant rhabdoid tumor, was observed. Therefore, MM with rhabdoid features was confirmed. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Inducción de la brotación in vitro de microplántulas de nogal (Juglans neotropica) tratadas con Thidiazuron (TDZ) y 6-Bencilaminnopurina (BAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Tapia, Denisse Fabiola; Rocano Curillo, Melida Noemi; Salazar, Jazmin M.; Torres, Carlos S.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2014-01-01

    El nogal (Juglans neotropica) es una especie de gran potencial para proyectos de conservación y agro-productivos en la eco-región Andina. No obstante, su baja capacidad germinativa limita su propagación para reforestación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del tratamiento con Thidiazuron (TDZ) y 6-Bencilaminopurina (BAP) en la inducción in vitro de brotes de J. neotropica. Las microplántulas tratadas con BAP produjeron más brotes que aquellas tratadas con TDZ. Las microplán...

  3. BAP1 missense mutation c.2054 A>T (p.E685V completely disrupts normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site in a human mesothelioma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Morrison

    Full Text Available BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lost or deleted in diverse cancers, including uveal mela¬noma, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, clear cell renal carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, BAP1 germline mutations have been reported in families with combinations of these same cancers. A particular challenge for mutation screening is the classification of non-truncating BAP1 sequence variants because it is not known whether these subtle changes can affect the protein function sufficiently to predispose to cancer development. Here we report mRNA splicing analysis on a homozygous substitution mutation, BAP1 c. 2054 A&T (p.Glu685Val, identified in an MPM cell line derived from a mesothelioma patient. The mutation occurred at the 3rd nucleotide from the 3' end of exon 16. RT-PCR, cloning and subsequent sequencing revealed several aberrant splicing products not observed in the controls: 1 a 4 bp deletion at the end of exon 16 in all clones derived from the major splicing product. The BAP1 c. 2054 A&T mutation introduced a new 5' splice site (GU, which resulted in the deletion of 4 base pairs and presumably protein truncation; 2 a variety of alternative splicing products that led to retention of different introns: introns 14-16; introns 15-16; intron 14 and intron 16; 3 partial intron 14 and 15 retentions caused by activation of alternative 3' splice acceptor sites (AG in the introns. Taken together, we were unable to detect any correctly spliced mRNA transcripts in this cell line. These results suggest that aberrant splicing caused by this mutation is quite efficient as it completely abolishes normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site and activation of cryptic splice sites. These data support the conclusion that BAP1 c.2054 A&T (p.E685V variant is a pathogenic mutation and contributes to MPM through disruption of normal splicing.

  4. Phytoextraction of contaminated urban soils by Panicum virgatum L. enhanced with application of a plant growth regulator (BAP) and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The chromatin remodeling BAP complex limits tumor-promoting activity of the Hippo pathway effector Yki to prevent neoplastic transformation in Drosophila epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Shilin; Herranz, Héctor; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes are mutated in many human cancers. In this article, we make use of a Drosophila genetic model for epithelial tumor formation to explore the tumor suppressive role of SWI/SNF complex proteins. Members of the BAP complex exhibit...

  6. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma: a case report showing papillary tubular adenoma-like features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a case showing eccrine syringofibroadenoma occurred on the dorsum of the right foot of a 46-year-old Japanese female. Histopathologic examination revealed anastomosing cords and strands of cuboidal epithelial cells extending from the epidermis to the upper dermis, with a number of well-defined ducts suggesting eccrine ductal origin. In addition, there were papillary tubular adenoma-like ductal structures lined by a few rows of epithelial cells with papillary projections into the lumen surrounded by fibrous stroma in the mid-dermis. It is of note that various histologic features showing different differentiation were seen in a single lesion of eccrine syringofibroadenoma.

  7. Ist2 in the yeast cortical endoplasmic reticulum promotes trafficking of the amino acid transporter Bap2 to the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolf

    Full Text Available The equipment of the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with specific nutrient transporters is highly regulated by transcription, translation and protein trafficking allowing growth in changing environments. The activity of these transporters depends on a H(+ gradient across the plasma membrane generated by the H(+-ATPase Pma1. We found that the polytopic membrane protein Ist2 in the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER is required for efficient leucine uptake during the transition from fermentation to respiration. Experiments employing tandem fluorescence timer protein tag showed that Ist2 was necessary for efficient trafficking of newly synthesized leucine transporter Bap2 from the ER to the plasma membrane. This finding explains the growth defect of ist2Δ mutants during nutritional challenges and illustrates the important role of physical coupling between cortical ER and plasma membrane.

  8. Benfotiamine in treatment of alcoholic polyneuropathy: an 8-week randomized controlled study (BAP I Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, H; Lehrl, S; Bitsch, R; Köpcke, W

    1998-01-01

    A three-armed, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind study was used to examine the efficacy of benfotiamine vs a combination containing benfotiamine and vitamins B6 and B12 in out-patients with severe symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy (Benfotiamine in treatment of Alcoholic Polyneuropathy, BAP I). The study period was 8 weeks and 84 patients fulfilled all the prerequisite criteria and completed the study as planned. Benfotiamine led to significant improvement of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Vibration perception (measured at the tip of the great toe) significantly improved in the course of the study, as did motor function. and the overall score reflecting the entire range of symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy. A tendency toward improvement was evident for pain and co-ordination; no therapy-specific adverse effects were seen.

  9. Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Foo; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL sampling sites were found to be 1650 +/- 1240, 1220 +/- 520, and 831 +/- 427 ng/m3, respectively. The results indicated that PAH concentrations were higher at INDUSTRY and URBAN sampling sites than the RURAL sampling sites because of the more industrial processes, traffic exhausts and human activities. The estimation dry deposition and size distribution of PAHs were also studied. The results indicated that the estimated dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs were 58.5, 48.8, and 38.6 microg/m2/day at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL, respectively. The BaP equivalency results indicated that the health risk of gas phase PAHs were higher than the particle phase at three sampling sites of central Taiwan. However, compared with the BaP equivalency results to other studies conducted in factory, this study indicated the health risk of PAHs was acceptable in the ambient air of central Taiwan.

  10. Clinicopathogical characteristics and mammographic features of breast cancer showing architectural distortion on a mammogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Masao; Hirose, Naoko; Suwa, Kaori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Otuki, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-seven cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in this clinic between January 2003 and December 2010. Of those, 97 patients who showed architectural distortion on mammography were examined regarding the clinicopathological characteristics and mammographic features. The overall rate of architectural distortion was 13.3%, which became higher with progression of the clinical stage. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 50.5% histologically, and the most common histological type was scirrhous carcinoma at 36.2%, papillotubular carcinoma at 33%, invasive lobular carcinoma at 12.1%, and ductal carcinoma in situ at 11%. Cases of extensive ductal spread beyond the breast quadrant, accompanied by microcalcifications or showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography, were present at significantly high rates. Cases showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography accounted for 66% of the total, and, when these cases were not associated with any other mammographic findings, the most suspected histology of the lesion was invasive lobular carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. (author)

  11. The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Billeci, Lucia; Calderoni, Sara; Conti, Eugenia; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cioni, Giovanni; Muratori, Filippo; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the “Broader Autism Phenotype” (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characteri...

  12. PACHE Trainee Spotlight: Roslyn Curry Featured on Thesis Thursday Radio Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyn Curry, a student at the University of Arizona (UA), was featured on a local radio program, Thesis Thursday, where she discussed her participation in the U54 PACHE Partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) as a research trainee in Dr. William Montfort’s Lab at the University of Arizona Cancer Cente

  13. Ozone pollution affects flower numbers and timing in a simulated BAP priority calcareous grassland community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Felicity; Williamson, Jennifer; Mills, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Mesocosms representing the BAP Priority habitat ‘Calcareous Grassland’ were exposed to eight ozone profiles for twelve-weeks in two consecutive years. Half of the mesocosms received a reduced watering regime during the exposure periods. Numbers and timing of flowering in the second exposure period were related to ozone concentration and phytotoxic ozone dose (accumulated stomatal flux). For Lotus corniculatus, ozone accelerated the timing of the maximum number of flowers. An increase in mean ozone concentration from 30 ppb to 70 ppb corresponded with an advance in the timing of maximum flowering by six days. A significant reduction in flower numbers with increasing ozone was found for Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria and the relationship with ozone was stronger for those that were well-watered than for those with reduced watering. These changes in flowering timing and numbers could have large ecological impacts, affecting plant pollination and the food supply of nectar feeding insects. - Highlights: ► An increase in ozone accelerated timing of maximum flowering in Lotus corniculatus. ► Ozone reduced flower numbers in Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria. ► Reduced water availability did not protect most species from the effects of ozone. - Increased tropospheric ozone affected timing of flowering and maximum flower numbers in calcareous grassland mesocosms.

  14. Molecular Imaging of β-Amyloid Plaques with Near-Infrared Boron Dipyrromethane (BODIPY-Based Fluorescent Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Watanabe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of β-amyloid (Aβ plaques is a critical neurodegenerative change in Alzheimer disease (AD. We designed and synthesized novel boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY-based Aβ probes (BAPs and evaluated their utility for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain. In binding experiments in vitro, BAPs showed high affinity for synthetic Aβ aggregates (Kd = 18–149 nM. Furthermore, BAPs clearly stained Aβ plaques in sections of Tg2576 mice. In mouse brain tissue, BAPs showed sufficient uptake for optical imaging. In addition, ex vivo fluorescent staining of brain sections from Tg2576 mice after the injection of BAP-2 showed selective binding of Aβ plaques with little nonspecific binding. BAPs may be useful as a near-infrared fluorescent probe for imaging Aβ plaques.

  15. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maswadeh HM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamzah M Maswadeh,1 Ahmed N Aljarbou,1 Mohammed S Alorainy,2 Arshad H Rahmani,3 Masood A Khan3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, 3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox or etoposide (ETP were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98% in liposomes (Lip prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP. Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the

  16. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as guardian against environmental carcinogen benzo[alpha]pyrene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Dhasmana

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, like Benzo[alpha]Pyrene (BaP are known to cause a number of toxic manifestations including lung cancer. As Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs have recently been shown to adsorb a number of PAHs from soil and water, we investigated whether TiO2 NPs could provide protection against the BaP induced toxicity in biological system. A549 cells when co-exposed with BaP (25 µM, 50 µM and 75 µM along with 0.1 µg/ml,0.5 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml of TiO2 NPs, showed significant reduction in the toxic effects of BaP, as measured by Micronucleus Assay, MTT Assay and ROS Assay. In order to explore the mechanism of protection by TiO2 NP against BaP, we performed in silico studies. BaP and other PAHs are known to enter the cell via aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12074 as compared to the docking score of BaP with AHR (4600. This indicates a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR, in case if both the TiO2 NP and BaP are present. Further, we have done the docking of BaP with the TiO2 NP bound AHR-complex (score 4710, and observed that BaP showed strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not at its original binding site (at AHR. TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of BaP in to the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by BaP.

  17. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles As Guardian against Environmental Carcinogen Benzo[alpha]Pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Anupam; Sajid Jamal, Qazi Mohd.; Mir, Snober Shabnam; Bhatt, Madan Lal Bramha; Rahman, Qamar; Gupta, Richa; Siddiqui, Mohd. Haris; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), like Benzo[alpha]Pyrene (BaP) are known to cause a number of toxic manifestations including lung cancer. As Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have recently been shown to adsorb a number of PAHs from soil and water, we investigated whether TiO2 NPs could provide protection against the BaP induced toxicity in biological system. A549 cells when co-exposed with BaP (25 µM, 50 µM and 75 µM) along with 0.1 µg/ml,0.5 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml of TiO2 NPs, showed significant reduction in the toxic effects of BaP, as measured by Micronucleus Assay, MTT Assay and ROS Assay. In order to explore the mechanism of protection by TiO2 NP against BaP, we performed in silico studies. BaP and other PAHs are known to enter the cell via aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12074) as compared to the docking score of BaP with AHR (4600). This indicates a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR, in case if both the TiO2 NP and BaP are present. Further, we have done the docking of BaP with the TiO2 NP bound AHR-complex (score 4710), and observed that BaP showed strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not at its original binding site (at AHR). TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of BaP in to the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by BaP. PMID:25215666

  18. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  19. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F.; Muller, Claude P.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  20. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hei Kyung; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, and Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2010-05-15

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  1. Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits and the Relationship to Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F

    2018-04-03

    Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.

  2. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  3. Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Zanotti, Roberta; González-de-Olano, David; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Vega, Arantza; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Morgado, José Mário; Perbellini, Omar; García-Montero, Andrés; De Matteis, Giovanna; Teodósio, Cristina; Rossini, Maurizio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Schena, Donatella; Mayado, Andrea; Zamò, Alberto; Mollejo, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Paula; Cabañes, Nieves; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of ISMs(-) associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis (insectISMs(-)) versus other patients with ISM. A total of 335 patients presenting with MC activation syndrome, including 143 insectISMs(-), 72 ISMs(-) triggered by other factors (otherISMs(-)), 56 ISMs(+), and 64 nonclonal MC activation syndrome, were studied. Compared with otherISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, insectISMs(-) cases showed marked male predominance (78% vs 53% and 46%; P < .001), a distinct pattern of MC-related symptoms, and significantly lower median serum baseline tryptase levels (22.4 vs 28.7 and 45.8 μg/L; P ≤ .009). Moreover, insectISMs(-) less frequently presented BM MC aggregates (46% vs 70% and 81%; P ≤ .001), and they systematically showed MC-restricted KIT mutation. ISMs(-) patients with anaphylaxis triggered exclusively by insects display clinical and laboratory features that are significantly different from other ISM cases, including other ISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, suggesting that they represent a unique subgroup of ISM with a particularly low BM MC burden in the absence of adverse prognostic factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Commentary on "Effects on survival of BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in sporadic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis with independent validation." Kapur P, Peña-Llopis S, Christie A, Zhrebker L, Pavía-Jiménez A, Rathmell WK, Xie XJ, Brugarolas J. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14(2):159-67. [Epub 2013 Jan 16]. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70584-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas display divergent clinical behaviours. However, the molecular genetic events driving these behaviours are unknown. We discovered that BAP1 is mutated in about 15% of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, and that BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations are largely mutually exclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of these molecular subtypes and to determine whether patients with BAP1-mutant and PBRM1-mutant tumours had different overall survival. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed 145 patients with primary clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma and defined PBRM1 and BAP1 mutation status from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW), TX, USA, between 1998 and 2011. We classified patients into those with BAP1-mutant tumours and those with tumours exclusively mutated for PBRM1 (PBRM1-mutant). We used a second independent cohort (n=327) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation. In both cohorts, more than 80% of patients had localised or locoregional disease at presentation. Overall both cohorts were similar, although the TCGA had more patients with metastatic and higher-grade disease, and more TCGA patients presented before molecularly targeted therapies became available. The median overall survival in the UTSW cohort was significantly shorter for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours (4·6 years; 95% CI 2·1-7·2), than for patients with PBRM1-mutant tumours (10·6 years; 9·8-11·5), corresponding to a HR of 2·7 (95% CI 0·99-7·6, p=0·044). Median overall survival in the TCGA cohort was 1·9 years (95% CI 0·6-3·3) for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours and 5·4 years (4·0-6·8) for those with PBRM1-mutant tumours. A HR similar to the UTSW cohort was noted in the TCGA cohort (2·8; 95% CI 1·4-5·9; p=0·004). Patients with mutations in both BAP1 and PBRM1, although a minority (three in UTSW cohort and four in TCGA cohort), had the worst overall survival (median 2·1 years, 95

  5. Myofibroblasts in interstitial lung diseases show diverse electron microscopic and invasive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Henna M; Lehtonen, Siri T; Sormunen, Raija T; Harju, Terttu H; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bloigu, Risto S; Kaarteenaho, Riitta L

    2012-09-01

    The characteristic features of myofibroblasts in various lung disorders are poorly understood. We have evaluated the ultrastructure and invasive capacities of myofibroblasts cultured from small volumes of diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients with different types of lung diseases. Cells were cultured from samples of BAL fluid collected from 51 patients that had undergone bronchoscopy and BAL for diagnostic purposes. The cells were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy to achieve ultrastructural localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin. The levels of α-SMA protein and mRNA and fibronectin mRNA were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The invasive capacities of the cells were evaluated. The cultured cells were either fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. The structure of the fibronexus, and the amounts of intracellular actin, extracellular fibronectin and cell junctions of myofibroblasts varied in different diseases. In electron and immunoelectron microscopy, cells cultured from interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) expressed more actin filaments and α-SMA than normal lung. The invasive capacity of the cells obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was higher than that from patients with other type of ILDs. Cells expressing more actin filaments had a higher invasion capacity. It is concluded that electron and immunoelectron microscopic studies of myofibroblasts can reveal differential features in various diseases. An analysis of myofibroblasts cultured from diagnostic BAL fluid samples may represent a new kind of tool for diagnostics and research into lung diseases.

  6. Overexpression of Catalase Enhances Benzo(a)pyrene Detoxification in Endothelial Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Hong; Ramesh, Aramandla; Goodwin, J Shawn; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, ZhongMao

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells. Our data showed that endothelial microsomes were enriched in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and epoxide hydrolase 1 (EH1), and contained considerable levels of quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP). Treatment of wild-type MAECs with 1μM BaP for 2 h increased the expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1 and NQO1 by ~300, 64 and 116%, respectively. However, the same treatment did not significantly alter the expression of EH1 and GSTP. Overexpression of catalase did not significantly increase EH1, but upregulated BaP-induced expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1, NQO1 and GSTP in the following order: 1A1>NQO1>GSTP>1B1. Overexpression of catalase did not alter the distribution of each of these enzymes in the microsomes. In contrast to our previous report showing lower level of BaP phenols versus BaP diols/diones in the whole-cell, this report demonstrated that the sum of microsomal BaP phenolic metabolites were ~60% greater than that of the BaP diols/diones after exposure of microsomes to BaP. Overexpression of catalase reduced the concentrations of microsomal BaP phenols and diols/diones by ~45 and 95%, respectively. This process enhanced the ratio of BaP phenol versus diol/dione metabolites in a potent manner. Taken together, upregulation of phase II XMEs and CYP1 proteins, but not EH1 in the ER might be the mechanism by which overexpression of catalase reduces the levels of all the BaP metabolites, and

  7. Combined field/modelling approaches to represent the air-vegetation distribution of benzo[a]pyrene using different vegetation species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    A strategy designed to combine the features of field-based experiments and modelling approaches is presented in this work to assess air-vegetation distribution of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Given the lack of simultaneous data in both environmental matrices, a methodology with two main steps was employed. First, evaluating the simulations with the chemistry transport model (CTM) WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) + CHIMERE data against the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) network, to test the aptitude of the CTM to replicate the respective atmospheric levels. Then, using modelled concentrations and a method to estimate air levels of BaP from biomonitoring data to compare the performance of different pine species (Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis) to describe the atmospheric evidences. The comparison of modelling vs. biomonitoring has a higher dependence on the location of the sampling points, rather than on the pine species, as some tend to overestimate and others to underestimate BaP concentrations, in most cases regardless of the season. The climatology of the canopy levels of BaP was successfully validated with the concentrations in pine needles (most biases below 26%), however, the model was unable to distinguish between species. This should be taken into consideration in future studies, as biases can rise up to 48%, especially in summer and autumn, the. The comparison with biomonitoring data showed a similar pattern, but with the best results in the warmer months.

  8. Potential of Fluorescence Imaging Techniques To Monitor Mutagenic PAH Uptake by Microalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is one of the major environmental pollutants that causes mutagenesis and cancer. BaP has been shown to accumulate in phytoplankton and zooplankton. We have studied the localization and aggregation of BaP in Chlorella sp., a microalga that is one of the primary producers in the food chain, using fluorescence confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with the phasor approach to characterize the location and the aggregation of BaP in the cell. Our results show that BaP accumulates in the lipid bodies of Chlorella sp. and that there is Förster resonance energy transfer between BaP and photosystems of Chlorella sp., indicating the close proximity of the two molecular systems. The lifetime of BaP fluorescence was measured to be 14 ns in N,N-dimethylformamide, an average of 7 ns in Bold’s basal medium, and 8 ns in Chlorella cells. Number and brightness analysis suggests that BaP does not aggregate inside Chlorella sp. (average brightness = 5.330), while it aggregates in the supernatant. In Chlorella grown in sediments spiked with BaP, in 12 h the BaP uptake could be visualized using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25020149

  9. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from cows' milk and environment based on bap, icaA, and mecA genes and phenotypic susceptibility to antimicrobials and teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of

  10. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  11. Potential use of DNA adducts to detect mutagenic compounds in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Guoxiong; Lyons, Brett; Killham, Ken; Singleton, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this study, three different soils with contrasting features, spiked with 300 mg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/kg dry soil, were incubated at 20 deg. C and 60% water holding capacity for 540 days. At different time points, BaP and DNA were extracted and quantified, and DNA adducts were quantified by 32 P-postlabelling. After 540 days incubation, 69.3, 81.6 and 83.2% of initial BaP added remained in Cruden Bay, Boyndie and Insch soils, respectively. Meanwhile, a significantly different amount of DNA-BaP adducts were found in the three soils exposed to BaP over time. The work demonstrates the concept that DNA adducts can be detected on DNA extracted from soil. Results suggest the technique is not able to directly reflect bioavailability of BaP transformation products. However, this new method provides a potential way to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil and to assess the outcomes of soil remediation. - A novel DNA adduct assay may provide a potential technique to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil

  12. Integrated genomic classification of melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system using mutation analysis, copy number alterations and DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, Klaus; Koelsche, Christian; van de Nes, Johannes A P; Schrimpf, Daniel; Gessi, Marco; Möller, Inga; Sucker, Antje; Scolyer, Richard A; Buckland, Michael E; Murali, Rajmohan; Pietsch, Torsten; von Deimling, Andreas; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2018-06-11

    In the central nervous system, distinguishing primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors from melanoma metastases and predicting their biological behavior solely using histopathologic criteria can be challenging. We aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of integrated molecular analysis. Targeted next-generation-sequencing, array-based genome-wide methylation analysis and BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed on the largest cohort of central nervous system melanocytic tumors analyzed to date, incl. 47 primary tumors of the central nervous system, 16 uveal melanomas. 13 cutaneous melanoma metastasis and 2 blue nevus-like melanomas. Gene mutation, DNA-methylation and copy-number profiles were correlated with clinicopathological features. Combining mutation, copy-number and DNA-methylation profiles clearly distinguished cutaneous melanoma metastases from other melanocytic tumors. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors, uveal melanomas and blue nevus-like melanoma showed common DNA-methylation, copy-number alteration and gene mutation signatures. Notably, tumors demonstrating chromosome 3 monosomy and BAP1 alterations formed a homogeneous subset within this group. Integrated molecular profiling aids in distinguishing primary from metastatic melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors, uveal melanoma and blue nevus-like melanoma share molecular similarity with chromosome 3 and BAP1 alterations markers of poor prognosis. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The Broad Autism (EndoPhenotype: Neurostructural And Neurofunctional Correlates In Parents Of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Billeci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP. BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date overview of research findings on the neurostructural and neurofunctional substrates in parents of individuals with ASD (pASD. The primary hypothesis was that, like for the behavioral profile, the pASD express an intermediate neurobiological pattern between ASD individuals and healthy controls.The 13 reviewed studies evaluated structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain volumes, chemical signals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, task-related functional activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG, or magnetoencephalography (MEG in pASD. The studies showed that pASD are generally different from healthy controls at a structural and functional level despite often not behaviorally impaired. More atypicalities in neural patterns of pASD seem to be associated with higher scores at BAP assessment. Some of the observed atypicalities are the same of the ASD probands. In addition, the pattern of neural correlates in pASD resembles that of adult individuals with ASD, or it is specific, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism are the same as those detected in ASD subjects. Future studies should ideally include a group of pASD and HC with their ASD and non-ASD probands respectively. They should subgrouping the pASD according to the BAP scores, considering gender as a

  14. An antiviral protein from Bougainvillea spectabilis roots; purification and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasaraswathi, R; Sadasivam, S; Ward, M; Walker, J M

    1998-04-01

    An antiviral protein active against mechanical transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus was identified in the root tissues of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Bougainvillea Antiviral Protein I (BAP I) was purified to apparent homogeneity from the roots of Bougainvillea by ammonium sulphate precipitation, CM- and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. BAP I is a highly basic protein (pI value > 8.6) with an Mr of 28,000. The N-terminal sequence of BAP I showed homology with other plant antiviral proteins. Preliminary tests suggest that purified BAP I is capable of interfering with in vitro protein synthesis.

  15. p53 Mutagenesis by Benzo[a]pyrene derived Radical Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sushmita; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik; Francey, Lauren; Lu, Ding; Jeffrey Field, Trevor M. Penning

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a major human carcinogen in combustion products such as cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, is metabolically activated into DNA-reactive metabolites via three different enzymatic pathways. The pathways are the anti-(+)-benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9, 10-epoxide pathway (P450/ epoxide hydrolase catalyzed) (B[a]PDE), the benzo[a]pyrene o-quinone pathway (aldo ketose reductase (AKR) catalyzed) and the B[a]P radical cation pathway (P450 peroxidase catalyzed). We used a yeast p53 mutagenesis system to assess mutagenesis by B[a]P radical cations. Because radical cations are short-lived, they were generated in situ by reacting B[a]P with cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and then monitoring the generation of the more stable downstream products, B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione. Based on the B[a]P-1,6 and 3,6-dione formation, approximately 4µM of radical cation was generated. In the mutagenesis assays, the radical cations produced in situ showed a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity from 0.25 µM to 10 µM B[a]P with no significant increase seen with further escalation to 50 µM B[a]P. However, mutagenesis was 200-fold less than with the AKR pathway derived B[a]P, 7–8 dione. Mutant p53 plasmids, which yield red colonies, were recovered from the yeast to study the pattern and spectrum of mutations. The mutation pattern observed was G to T (31%) > G to C (29%) > G to A (14%). The frequency of codons mutated by the B[a]P radical cations was essentially random and not enriched at known cancer hotspots. The quinone products of radical cations, B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione were more mutagenic than the radical cation reactions, but still less mutagenic than AKR derived B[a]P-7,8-dione. We conclude that B[a]P radical cations and their quinone products are weakly mutagenic in this yeast-based system compared to redox cycling PAH o-quinones. PMID:22768918

  16. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Luchun [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and {sup 14}C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of {sup 14}C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed.

  18. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Semple, Kirk T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and 14 C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of 14 C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed

  19. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  20. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  1. Genotype, explant, medium, light and radiation effects on the in vitro plant regeneration in alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fiki, A.A.; Abdel-Hameed, A.A.M.; Sayed, A.I.H.

    2005-01-01

    The relative importance of genotype, explants, radiation, medium and light and their interactions for in vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been studied. Shoot and leaf explants of two commercially grown Egyptian cultivars, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid and Siwa Tarkibi, were used in the study. The effect of gamma radiation doses 40, 80, 120 and 160 Gy were negative on plant regeneration, in spite of increase with some treatments. The best results of plant regeneration were obtained with dose 40 Gy with control light regime (16 h) on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in both shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi. The shoot explant of cv. Siwa was sensitive for gamma radiation dose 40 Gy while affirmative effect was obtained in leaf explant on MS + 1.0 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime. However, dose 80 Gy showed the best results on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in shoot and leaf explants of both cultivars, with control light regime in shoot explant and dark/light (DL) and dark/dark (DD) in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, while with light/dark (LD) in shoot explant and control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Siwa. On the other hand, the highest plant regeneration ratio observed with dose 120 Gy were on 1.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi but on 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control and dark/light (DL) light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Siwa. Whereas, the radiation dose 160 Gy showed severe effect on plant regeneration in both cultivars but highest percentage was observed on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with dark/light (DL) in shoot explant, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP with control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in shoot explant and MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in leaf explant with dark/light (DL) in cv. Siwa. However, the effects of the same doses on callus growth showed that the highest callus weight was

  2. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  3. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. In vitro propagation of Calla lily: adenine sulphate and 6-benzilaminopurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia De Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calla lily [Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng.] belonging to the Araceae family is appreciated as cut flower and in com­position of gardens. However, the conventional propagation of this plants shows a poor productive. Thus, tissue culture besides allowing fast clonal propagation also provides healthy and uniforms plants. The aim was study the influence of the differents concentrations of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP and adenine sulphate (AS on in vitro multiplication of Calla lily. The explants were maintained in MS medium added with BAP (0.0, 8.9, 17.8 and 26.7 μM and adenine sulphate (0, 54, 108 and 162 μM. The plants were transferred to growth room and maintained at 25±1ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours for 60 days, under luminous intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1, for a period of 60 days. The experimental design was entirely randomized with four repetitions of three seedlings each, resulting in twelve plants per treatment, each tube with one plant. The statistics analysis showed interactive effects for quantify of BAP and AS for leaves number and fresh mass of the aerial parts. The highest number of leaves (4.8 and fresh mass of aerial parts (0.73 g was obtained with 26.7 μM of BAP combined with 108 μM of AS, highest number of shoots (2.6 was obtained with 22,19 μM of BAP and highest lengh of sprouts (5.0 cm was observed in the absence of BAP. The addition of BAP increased the number of shoots per explant. The use of adenine sulphate in combination with BAP had a positive effect for the accumulation of fresh weight and number of leaves in vitro culture.

  6. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  8. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  9. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  10. Classification Influence of Features on Given Emotions and Its Application in Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yin; Chen, Chuang; Liu, Li-Long

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem that there is a large amount of redundant data in high-dimensional speech emotion features, we analyze deeply the extracted speech emotion features and select better features. Firstly, a given emotion is classified by each feature. Secondly, the recognition rate is ranked in descending order. Then, the optimal threshold of features is determined by rate criterion. Finally, the better features are obtained. When applied in Berlin and Chinese emotional data set, the experimental results show that the feature selection method outperforms the other traditional methods.

  11. Change of cholinergic transmission and memory deficiency induced by injection of b-amyloid protein into NBM of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The change of cholinergic transmission of b-amyloid protein (b-AP) treated rats was studied by intracerebral microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC analysis. b-AP1-40 was injected into nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Passive avoidance response test (step-down test) and delayed alternation task were used for memory testing. The impairment of memory after injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM exhibited mainly the deficiency of short-term working memory. One week after injection of b-AP1-40 the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from frontal cortex of freely-moving rats decreased significantly, and the response of cholinergic nerve ending to the action of high [K+] solution was rather weak. In control animals the percentage of increase of ACh- release during behavioral performance was 57%, while in b-AP1-40 - treated rats it was 34%. The temporary in-crease of the ACh-release of the rat put into a new place was also significantly diminished in b-AP1-40 -treated rats. The results show that the injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM impairs the cholinergic transmission in frontal cortex, and the impairment of cholinergic transmission may be the main cause of the deficit of working memory.

  12. When do letter features migrate? A boundary condition for feature-integration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B E; Mewhort, D J; Browse, R A

    1991-01-01

    Feature-integration theory postulates that a lapse of attention will allow letter features to change position and to recombine as illusory conjunctions (Treisman & Paterson, 1984). To study such errors, we used a set of uppercase letters known to yield illusory conjunctions in each of three tasks. The first, a bar-probe task, showed whole-character mislocations but not errors based on feature migration and recombination. The second, a two-alternative forced-choice detection task, allowed subjects to focus on the presence or absence of subletter features and showed illusory conjunctions based on feature migration and recombination. The third was also a two-alternative forced-choice detection task, but we manipulated the subjects' knowledge of the shape of the stimuli: In the case-certain condition, the stimuli were always in uppercase, but in the case-uncertain condition, the stimuli could appear in either upper- or lowercase. Subjects in the case-certain condition produced illusory conjunctions based on feature recombination, whereas subjects in the case-uncertain condition did not. The results suggest that when subjects can view the stimuli as feature groups, letter features regroup as illusory conjunctions; when subjects encode the stimuli as letters, whole items may be mislocated, but subletter features are not. Thus, illusory conjunctions reflect the subject's processing strategy, rather than the architecture of the visual system.

  13. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  14. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Berend E.; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H.; Bos, Willem Jan W.

    2002-01-01

    Background Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from

  15. FEATURE SELECTION METHODS BASED ON MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR CLASSIFYING HETEROGENEOUS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Enggar Pawening

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Datasets with heterogeneous features can affect feature selection results that are not appropriate because it is difficult to evaluate heterogeneous features concurrently. Feature transformation (FT is another way to handle heterogeneous features subset selection. The results of transformation from non-numerical into numerical features may produce redundancy to the original numerical features. In this paper, we propose a method to select feature subset based on mutual information (MI for classifying heterogeneous features. We use unsupervised feature transformation (UFT methods and joint mutual information maximation (JMIM methods. UFT methods is used to transform non-numerical features into numerical features. JMIM methods is used to select feature subset with a consideration of the class label. The transformed and the original features are combined entirely, then determine features subset by using JMIM methods, and classify them using support vector machine (SVM algorithm. The classification accuracy are measured for any number of selected feature subset and compared between UFT-JMIM methods and Dummy-JMIM methods. The average classification accuracy for all experiments in this study that can be achieved by UFT-JMIM methods is about 84.47% and Dummy-JMIM methods is about 84.24%. This result shows that UFT-JMIM methods can minimize information loss between transformed and original features, and select feature subset to avoid redundant and irrelevant features.

  16. Using gridded multimedia model to simulate spatial fate of Benzo[α]pyrene on regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Xie, Shuangwei; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Predicting the environmental multimedia fate is an essential step in the process of assessing the human exposure and health impacts of chemicals released into the environment. Multimedia fate models have been widely applied to calculate the fate and distribution of chemicals in the environment, which can serve as input to a human exposure model. In this study, a grid based multimedia fugacity model at regional scale was developed together with a case study modeling the fate and transfer of Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) in Bohai coastal region, China. Based on the estimated emission and in-site survey in 2008, the BaP concentrations in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water as well as the transfer fluxes were derived under the steady-state assumption. The model results were validated through comparison between the measured and modeled concentrations of BaP. The model results indicated that the predicted concentrations of BaP in air, fresh water, soil and sediment generally agreed with field observations. Model predictions suggest that soil was the dominant sink of BaP in terrestrial systems. Flow from air to soil, vegetation and costal water were three major pathways of BaP inter-media transport processes. Most of the BaP entering the sea was transferred by air flow, which was also the crucial driving force in the spatial distribution processes of BaP. The Yellow River, Liaohe River and Daliao River played an important role in the spatial transformation processes of BaP. Compared with advection outflow, degradation was more important in removal processes of BaP. Sensitivities of the model estimates to input parameters were tested. The result showed that emission rates, compartment dimensions, transport velocity and degradation rates of BaP were the most influential parameters for the model output. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to determine parameter uncertainty, from which the coefficients of variation for the estimated BaP

  17. Phytoremediation for co-contaminated soils of chromium and benzo[a]pyrene using Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2014-02-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the single effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or chromium (Cr) and the joint effect of Cr-B[a]P on the growth of Zea mays, its uptake and accumulation of Cr, and the dissipation of B[a]P over 60 days. Results showed that single or joint contamination of Cr and B[a]P did not affect the plant growth relative to control treatments. However, the occurrence of B[a]P had an enhancing effect on the accumulation and translocation of Cr. The accumulation of Cr in shoot of plant significantly increased by ≥ 79 % in 50 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments and by ≥ 86 % in 100 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments relative to control treatments. The presence of plants did not enhance the dissipation of B[a]P in lower (1and 5 mg kg(-1)) B[a]P contaminated soils; however, over 60 days of planting Z. mays seemed to enhance the dissipation of B[a]P by over 60 % in 10 mg kg(-1) single contaminated soil and by 28 to 41 % in 10 mg kg(-1)B[a]P co-contaminated soil. This suggests that Z. mays might be a useful plant for the remediation of Cr-B[a]P co-contaminated soil.

  18. Guilt by Association: The 13 micron Dust Feature in Circumstellar Shells and Related Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, S. D.

    A study of spectra from the SWS on ISO of optically thin oxygen-rich dust shells shows that the strength of the 13 micron dust emission feature is correlated with the CO2 bands (13--17 microns) and dust emission features at 19.8 and 28.1 microns. SRb variables tend to show stronger 13 micron features than Mira variables, suggesting that the presence of the 13 micron and related features depends on pulsation mode and mass-loss rate. The absence of any correlation to dust emission features at 16.8 and 32 microns makes spinel an unlikely carrier. The most plausible carrier of the 13 micron feature remains crystalline alumina, and we suggest that the related dust features may be crystalline silicates. When dust forms in regions of low density, it may condense into crystalline grain structures.

  19. Impacts of lake water environmental condition on bioavailable-phosphorus of surface sediments in Lixia River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailable-phosphorus (BAP fractions of the lake surface sediments (the upper 0−5cm depth and environmental indicators of the related lake water column were investigated in five lakes in Lixia River basin during three seasons in order to evaluate the impacts of environmental indicators of the water column on the BAP fractions of surface sediments. The concentration of BAP varied significantly in different seasons. Factor analysis was used to identify the factors which influence sedimentary BAP significantly in the different seasons. The results showed that AAP and Olsen-P were significantly affected by the chemical oxygen demand through the bacterial activity in summer. The high intensity of bacterial activity and density of algae, and low concentrations of NO3-N and dissolved oxygen under high temperature enhanced the BAP released from anaerobic sediment and significantly contributed to the eutrophication of the lake, especially in summer. In addition, macrophyte roots were beneficial to absorption of AAP and Olsen-P.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of a Gene Specific to Lager Brewing Yeast That Encodes a Branched-Chain Amino Acid Permease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yukiko; Omura, Fumihiko; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    We found two types of branched-chain amino acid permease gene (BAP2) in the lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus BH-225 and cloned one type of BAP2 gene (Lg-BAP2), which is identical to that of Saccharomyces bayanus (by-BAP2-1). The other BAP2 gene of the lager brewing yeast (cer-BAP2) is very similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAP2 gene. This result substantiates the notion that lager brewing yeast is a hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The amino acid sequence homology between S. cerevisiae Bap2p and Lg-Bap2p was 88%. The transcription of Lg-BAP2 was not induced by the addition of leucine to the growth medium, while that of cer-BAP2 was induced. The transcription of Lg-BAP2 was repressed by the presence of ethanol and weak organic acid, while that of cer-BAP2 was not affected by these compounds. Furthermore, Northern analysis during beer fermentation revealed that the transcription of Lg-BAP2 was repressed at the beginning of the fermentation, while cer-BAP2 was highly expressed throughout the fermentation. These results suggest that the transcription of Lg-BAP2 is regulated differently from that of cer-BAP2 in lager brewing yeasts. PMID:11472919

  1. Feature selection for splice site prediction: A new method using EDA-based feature ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzé Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of relevant biological features in large and complex datasets is an important step towards gaining insight in the processes underlying the data. Other advantages of feature selection include the ability of the classification system to attain good or even better solutions using a restricted subset of features, and a faster classification. Thus, robust methods for fast feature selection are of key importance in extracting knowledge from complex biological data. Results In this paper we present a novel method for feature subset selection applied to splice site prediction, based on estimation of distribution algorithms, a more general framework of genetic algorithms. From the estimated distribution of the algorithm, a feature ranking is derived. Afterwards this ranking is used to iteratively discard features. We apply this technique to the problem of splice site prediction, and show how it can be used to gain insight into the underlying biological process of splicing. Conclusion We show that this technique proves to be more robust than the traditional use of estimation of distribution algorithms for feature selection: instead of returning a single best subset of features (as they normally do this method provides a dynamical view of the feature selection process, like the traditional sequential wrapper methods. However, the method is faster than the traditional techniques, and scales better to datasets described by a large number of features.

  2. Photoeffects of near ultraviolet light upon a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposed to mouse skin microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirano, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Near ultraviolet (UV) light has been reported to both enhance and inhibit the tumor incidence in mice dermally exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. Near UV light interacts with PAHs producing a variety of oxygenated products such as phenols, endoperoxides and quinones. However, little is known about BaP products formed from near UV irradiation of BaP-exposed mouse skin. Therefore, 14 C-BaP was incubated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) induced C 3 H/HeJ and DBA/2J mouse skin microsomes with or without a 365 nm light source. The results indicated that the concurrent 365 nm light irradiation of induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP greatly enhanced the total conversion of BaP to its products, approximately 3-fold for the C 3 H/HeJ and approximately 7-fold for the DBA/2J mouse microsomes, compared to the induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP alone. HPLC analyses of organic extracts indicated a more than additive enhancement of the formation of most of the individual cochromatographed BaP metabolites due to the combined interaction of 365 nm light with BaP and skin microsomes. Similar interactions were observed using benz(a)anthracene (BaA) in this system. These data show that near UV light alters the metabolic profile of PAHs produced by mouse skin microsomes

  3. Feature-Based Retinal Image Registration Using D-Saddle Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal image registration is important to assist diagnosis and monitor retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. However, registering retinal images for various registration applications requires the detection and distribution of feature points on the low-quality region that consists of vessels of varying contrast and sizes. A recent feature detector known as Saddle detects feature points on vessels that are poorly distributed and densely positioned on strong contrast vessels. Therefore, we propose a multiresolution difference of Gaussian pyramid with Saddle detector (D-Saddle to detect feature points on the low-quality region that consists of vessels with varying contrast and sizes. D-Saddle is tested on Fundus Image Registration (FIRE Dataset that consists of 134 retinal image pairs. Experimental results show that D-Saddle successfully registered 43% of retinal image pairs with average registration accuracy of 2.329 pixels while a lower success rate is observed in other four state-of-the-art retinal image registration methods GDB-ICP (28%, Harris-PIIFD (4%, H-M (16%, and Saddle (16%. Furthermore, the registration accuracy of D-Saddle has the weakest correlation (Spearman with the intensity uniformity metric among all methods. Finally, the paired t-test shows that D-Saddle significantly improved the overall registration accuracy of the original Saddle.

  4. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease caused by Western diet containing benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Nebert, Daniel W; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice. A Western diet plus BaP induced lipid-droplet accumulation in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice. The hepatic steatosis observed in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice was associated with increased cholesterol, triglyceride and bile acid levels. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice fed Western diet plus BaP had changes in expression of genes involved in bile acid and lipid metabolism, and showed no increase in Cyp1a2 expression but did exhibit enhanced Cyp1b1 mRNA expression, as well as hepatic inflammation. Enhanced BaP metabolic activation, oxidative stress and inflammation may exacerbate metabolic dysfunction in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice. Thus, Western diet plus BaP induces NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a protective role of CYP1A1 against NAFLD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  6. Hedonic capacity in the broader autism phenotype: Should social anhedonia be considered a characteristic feature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek eNovacek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social motivational processes may partially explain the differences in social interaction seen among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The social motivation hypothesis would predict an association between reduced hedonic capacity and ASD. However, to date, findings have been mixed regarding hedonic deficits among individuals with ASD; adults report lower levels of both social and physical pleasure whereas adolescents only report experiencing lower social pleasure. Moreover, previous studies examining the association between anhedonia and autistic traits have not used measures of hedonic response or taken temporal aspects of pleasure into account. The present study examined associations between autistic traits and the experience of pleasure using a nonclinical sample of young adults to further clarify the nature of hedonic deficits in the broader autism phenotype (BAP. Results revealed that autistic traits were negatively associated with both the experience of social pleasure as well as general pleasure, although the association was stronger for social pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that reduced social pleasure was a better predictor of autistic traits than general pleasure. Together these findings suggest that reduced social hedonic capacity is associated with autistic traits in the general population and should be included in conceptualizations of the BAP.

  7. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Dutta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our

  8. Protective Effect of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Extract against Benzo[a]pyrene Induced Skin Damage through Inhibition of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunju; Lee, JungA; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2017-12-20

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action. In this study, we confirmed that B[a]P induced nuclear translocation and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were decreased by pretreatment of mulberry extract. Mulberry extract could decrease DNA damage through the suppression of B[a]P derived DNA adduct formation and restoration of cell cycle retardation at S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a major active compound of mulberry extract, showed biological activities to protect the cells from B[a]P exposure, similar to the effectivity of the mulberry extract. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of C3G against B[a]P inducing skin cancer is attributable to repress the AhR signaling pathway.

  9. Mechanisms of biochar assisted immobilization of Pb2+ by bioapatite in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Tian, Da; Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Lingyi; Su, Mu; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhen; Hu, Shuijin; Hou, Deyi

    2018-01-01

    Bioapatite (BAp) is regarded as an effective material to immobilize lead (Pb 2+ ) via the formation of stable pyromorphite. However, when applied in contaminated soil, due to its low surface area and low adsorption capacity, BAp might not sufficiently contact and react with Pb 2+ . Biochar, a carbon storage material, typically has high surface area and high adsorption capacity. This study investigated the feasibility of using biochar as a reaction platform to enhance BAp immobilization of Pb 2+ . An alkaline biochar produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP) and a slightly acidic biochar produced from hardwood (SB) were selected. The results of aqueous adsorption showed the combination of biochar (WSP or SB) and BAp effectively removed Pb 2+ from the aqueous solution containing 1000 ppm Pb 2+ . XRD, ATR-IR, and SEM/EDX results revealed the formation of hydroxypyromorphite on both biochars' surfaces. This study demonstrates that biochars could act as an efficient reaction platform for BAp and Pb 2+ in aqueous solution due to their high surface area, porous structure, and high adsorption capacity. Therefore, it is mechanistically feasible to apply biochar to enhance BAp immobilization of Pb 2+ in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-isothermal Crystallization, Thermal Stability, and Mechanical Performance of Poly(L-lactic acid/Barium Phenylphosphonate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yan-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a nucleating agent in semi-crystalline polymers is a frequently utilized way to improve the crystallization performance, and the use of a nucleating agent has a very great effect on the performance of the polymer in other areas including thermal stability and mechanical properties. In this investigation, barium phenylphosphonate (BaP was prepared as a crystallization accelerator for Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA, and the non-isothermal crystallization behavior, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of PLLA modified by BaP were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and electronic tensile testing. Non-isothermal crystallization analysis showed that the BaP could significantly accelerate the crystallization of PLLA, and the non-isothermal crystallization peak shifted to a higher temperature with increasing concentration of BaP, however, the corresponding crystallization peak became wider. XRD results after non-isothermal crystallization confirmed the non-isothermal crystallization DSC results. Additionally, the addition of BaP did not change the crystal form of PLLA. A comparative study on thermal stability indicated that BaP decreased the onset decomposition temperature of PLLA, resulting from the formation of more tiny and imperfect crystals. Whereas the influence of BaP on the thermal decomposition profile of PLLA was negligible. In terms of mechanical properties, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of PLLA/BaP increased compared to the virgin PLLA, unfortunately, the elongation at break decreased.

  11. Clinical significance of bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Sun Junming; Hua Wenjing

    2002-01-01

    To study the changes in bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, seventy patients with hyperthyroidism and sixty healthy controls were investigated by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serum ICTP, chemiluminescent immunoassay for BAP and serum thyroid hormone and meanwhile bone mineral density was measured. The results showed that the levels of serum BAP, ICTP and thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P<0.01), BMD was significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.01). The correlation analysis showed that both BAP and ICTP were negatively correlated with BMD (all P<0.05). The results from this investigation indicated that increased bone turnover is significantly associated with an increased thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism, and bone resorption is greater than formation resulting in a bone mass loss. Measurement of serum BAP and ICTP levels may be of help to judge the severity of bone metabolism, study the state of an illness in hyperthyroidism

  12. Innovations in individual feature history management - The significance of feature-based temporal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Seong, J.C.; Kim, B.; Usery, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    A feature relies on three dimensions (space, theme, and time) for its representation. Even though spatiotemporal models have been proposed, they have principally focused on the spatial changes of a feature. In this paper, a feature-based temporal model is proposed to represent the changes of both space and theme independently. The proposed model modifies the ISO's temporal schema and adds new explicit temporal relationship structure that stores temporal topological relationship with the ISO's temporal primitives of a feature in order to keep track feature history. The explicit temporal relationship can enhance query performance on feature history by removing topological comparison during query process. Further, a prototype system has been developed to test a proposed feature-based temporal model by querying land parcel history in Athens, Georgia. The result of temporal query on individual feature history shows the efficiency of the explicit temporal relationship structure. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  13. The feature-weighted receptive field: an interpretable encoding model for complex feature spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, Ghislain; Naselaris, Thomas

    2017-06-20

    We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRF is organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRF model is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted. Thus, the model has two separable sets of parameters: "where" parameters that characterize the location and extent of pooling over visual features, and "what" parameters that characterize tuning to visual features. The "where" parameters are analogous to classical receptive fields, while "what" parameters are analogous to classical tuning functions. By treating these as separable parameters, the fwRF model complexity is independent of the resolution of the underlying feature maps. This makes it possible to estimate models with thousands of high-resolution feature maps from relatively small amounts of data. Once a fwRF model has been estimated from data, spatial pooling and feature tuning can be read-off directly with no (or very little) additional post-processing or in-silico experimentation. We describe an optimization algorithm for estimating fwRF models from data acquired during standard visual neuroimaging experiments. We then demonstrate the model's application to two distinct sets of features: Gabor wavelets and features supplied by a deep convolutional neural network. We show that when Gabor feature maps are used, the fwRF model recovers receptive fields and spatial frequency tuning functions consistent with known organizational principles of the visual cortex. We also show that a fwRF model can be used to regress entire deep

  14. Chlorophyll catalyse the photo-transformation of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Lai, Xueying; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Fang, Ling; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms cause great damage to water quality and aquaculture. However, this study showed that dead algal cells and chlorophyll could accelerate the photo-transformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant with potently mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicities, under visible light irradiation. Chlorophyll was found to be the major active substance in dead algal cells, and generated a high level of singlet oxygen to catalyse the photo-transformation of BaP. According to various BaP metabolites formed, the degradation mechanism was proposed as that chlorophyll in dead algal cells photo-oxidized BaP to quinones via photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen. The results provided a good insight into the role of chlorophyll in the photo-transformation of organic contaminants and could be a possible remediation strategy of organic pollutants in natural environment. PMID:26239357

  15. Effects of gamma-rays irradiation in seed of mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) composition of media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Dameria; H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Study the effects of gamma-rays irradiation and composition and media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon of mungbean. Wallet variety have been conducted. The explants derived of irradiated seeds of 10-20 Gy of gamma rays were planted in the 0.7% agar solution. One day after planting in the agar media the embryo axis of germinate seed were removed and the node of cotyledon were cultured in the regeneration media as examples. The results shown that shoot regeneration was influenced by media composition and the doses of gamma rays irradiation in seed. In the MURASHIGE and SKOOG medium which contain of BAP or 2-iP or Kinetin with 3 ppm concentrate respectively the explants could produced 100% of shoots. However, the highest. number of produced shoot (3 shoots) was showed in the medium which contained of BAP. The medium with I ppm concentrate od BAP could produced 100% shoot regeneration and the maximum number of shoots (4 shoots) per explant was showed in with 5 ppm. concentrate of BAP. The effectivity off BAP for shoot regeneration by enrichment of 12 ppm Ag 2 SO 4 in the media. Irradiation of 10-20 Gy gamma rays on seeds of mungbean walet variety could improved shoot regeneration of explants from node cotyledon. (author)

  16. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  17. Particle swarm optimization based feature enhancement and feature selection for improved emotion recognition in speech and glottal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Hariharan; Polat, Kemal; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, many research works have been published using speech related features for speech emotion recognition, however, recent studies show that there is a strong correlation between emotional states and glottal features. In this work, Mel-frequency cepstralcoefficients (MFCCs), linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCCs), perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features, gammatone filter outputs, timbral texture features, stationary wavelet transform based timbral texture features and relative wavelet packet energy and entropy features were extracted from the emotional speech (ES) signals and its glottal waveforms(GW). Particle swarm optimization based clustering (PSOC) and wrapper based particle swarm optimization (WPSO) were proposed to enhance the discerning ability of the features and to select the discriminating features respectively. Three different emotional speech databases were utilized to gauge the proposed method. Extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed to classify the different types of emotions. Different experiments were conducted and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the speech emotion recognition performance compared to previous works published in the literature.

  18. Effects of subchronic benzo(a)pyrene exposure on neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus related with spatial learning and memory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chongying; Cheng, Shuqun; Xia, Yinyin; Peng, Bin; Tang, Qian; Tu, Baijie

    2011-11-18

    Exposure of laboratory rats to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental contaminant with its high lipophilicify which is widely dispersed in the environment and can easily cross the blood brain barrier presenting in the central nervous system, is associated with impaired learning and memory. The purpose of the research was to examine whether subchronic exposure to BaP affects spatial learning and memory, and how it alters normal gene expression in hippocampus, as well as selection of candidate genes involving neurotransmitter receptor attributed to learning and memory. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate behavioral differences between BaP-treated and vehicle-treated groups. To gain a better insight into the mechanism of BaP-induced neurotoxicity on learning and memory, we used whole genome oligo microarrays as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess the global impact of gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 6.25mg/kg of BaP or vehicle for 14 weeks. The results from the Morris water maze (MWM) test showed that rats treated with BaP exhibited significantly higher mean latencies as compared to vehicle controls. BaP exposure significantly decreased the number of crossing the platform and the time spent in the target area. After the hippocampus was collected from each rat, total RNA was isolated. Microarray and PCR revealed that exposure to BaP affected mRNA expression of neurotransmitter receptors. The web tool DAVID was used to analyze the significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways in the differentially expressed genes. Analysis showed that the most significantly affected gene ontology category was behavior. Furthermore, the fourth highest significantly affected gene ontology category was learning and memory. KEGG molecular pathway analysis showed that "neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction" was affected by BaP with highest statistical significance, and 9 candidate neurotransmitter receptor

  19. Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Chunlan; Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Haiyan [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Huzhou Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Zhang Guanglin [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  1. Interactions of serum albumins with antitumor agent benzo [a] phenazine-a spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, Radhakrishnan; Naveenraj, Selvaraj; Anandan, Sambandam

    2011-01-01

    We present an investigation on the site specific interaction of antitumor agent benzo [a] phenazine (BAP) with serum albumins (HSA and BSA) and related photo-physical properties using absorption, emission and lifetime measurements. The absorption and emission measurements reveal that the binding of biomolecule benzo [a] phenazine took place near tryptophan moiety present in sub-domain IIA in serum albumins (HSA and BSA). In the selective excitation of benzo [a] phenazine at 365 nm, it was observed that the ground state of serum albumin quenches the excited benzo [a] phenazine through charge transfer exciplexation. The fluorescence decay analysis of serum albumins in the presence of benzo [a] phenazine shows decrease in lifetime, which confirms that photo-induced electron transfer takes place from serum albumins (HSA and BSA) to BAP. Also a suitable mechanism was proposed for the observed photo-induced electron transfer processes. Binding average distance (r) between the donor (serum albumins) and acceptor (benzo [a] phenazine) calculated using FRET theory confirmed their high probability of binding interaction. - Graphical Abstract: Highlights: → Benzo [a] phenazine (BAP) specifically bounds with tryptophan present in HSA and BSA. → Ground state of serum albumin quenches the excited BAP at 365 nm. → Lifetime of serum albumins decreases in the presence of BAP. → Photo-induced electron transfer from HSA and BSA to BAP takes place.

  2. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Escalante

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM and associated extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a, from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of

  3. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  4. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  5. Addressing scalability while feature requests persist. A look at NASA Worldview's new features and their implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Worldview is a high-traffic web mapping application created using the JavaScript mapping library, OpenLayers. This presentation will primarily focus on three new features: A wrapping component that seamlessly shows satellite imagery over the dateline where most maps either stop or wrap the imagery of the same date. An animation feature that allows users to select date ranges over which they can animate. An A/B comparison feature that gives users the power to compare imagery between dates and layers. In response to an increasingly large codebase caused by ongoing feature requests, Worldview is transitioning to a smaller core codebase comprised of external reusable modules. When creating a module with the intention of having someone else reuse it for a different task, one inherently starts generating code that is easier to read and easier to maintain. This presentation will show demos of these features and cover development techniques used to create them.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  7. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  8. Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene in Malaysian commercialized coffee powder using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Kasim; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Licaberth Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a non desirable product of incomplete combustion at temperatures between 300 and 600 degree Celsius and may be produced during roasting step. In this study, selected samples of roasted coffee powder were analysed for BaP. Extraction of BaP was achieved using C 18 solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by gas chromatography. Calibration curve prepared with concentrations ranged between 3 - 50 ppm showed good linearity with r = 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.25 ppm and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.85 ppm. Recovery of BaP obtained from spiked sample (3 ppm) was 88.7 % with RSD (n=3) of 5.4 %. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples, at level ranging from 0.14 to 0.62 ppb. (author)

  9. Comparing the Effects of Benzyladenine and meta-Topolin on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szidónia KŐSZEGHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of aromatic plants reveals an effective way of obtaining high volume, virus-free plant material of uniform quality. The application of meta-Topolin (mT (N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl adenine-9-riboside and aromatic cytokinin as Benzyladenine (BAP in the micro propagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. was tested for the first time and plant growth parameters assessed to determine the optimum level of these cytokinins. Additionally, the rate of root-growth inhibition due to these two cytokinins was also assessed. Our results show that 1 mg/l (4.43 mM BAP and 0.5 mg/l (2.07 mMmT produced the most favourable effects on new shoot developments. Meta-Topolin was shown to increase the quality of the plants and in comparison with BAP fewer distortions were observed. No significant differences in root-growth inhibition between the mT and BAP were detected.  

  10. Comparing the Effects of Benzyladenine and meta-Topolin on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szidónia KŐSZEGHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of aromatic plants reveals an effective way of obtaining high volume, virus-free plant material of uniform quality. The application of meta-Topolin (mT (N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl adenine-9-riboside and aromatic cytokinin as Benzyladenine (BAP in the micro propagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. was tested for the first time and plant growth parameters assessed to determine the optimum level of these cytokinins. Additionally, the rate of root-growth inhibition due to these two cytokinins was also assessed. Our results show that 1 mg/l (4.43 mM BAP and 0.5 mg/l (2.07 mMmT produced the most favourable effects on new shoot developments. Meta-Topolin was shown to increase the quality of the plants and in comparison with BAP fewer distortions were observed. No significant differences in root-growth inhibition between the mT and BAP were detected.

  11. 7-11-year-old children show an advantage for matching and recognizing the internal features of familiar faces: evidence against a developmental shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Lesley; Burton, Mike

    2004-08-01

    Adults are better at recognizing familiar faces from the internal facial features (eyes, nose, mouth) than from the external facial features (hair, face outline). However, previous research suggests that this "internal advantage" does not appear until relatively late in childhood, and some studies suggest that children rely on external features to recognize all faces, whether familiar or not. We use a matching task to examine face processing in 7-8- and 10-11-year-old children. We use a design in which all face stimuli can be used as familiar items (for participants who are classmates) and unfamiliar items (for participants from a different school). Using this design, we find an internal feature advantage for matching familiar faces, for both groups of children. The same children were then shown the external and internal features of their classmates and were asked to name or otherwise identify them. Again, both age groups identified more of their classmates correctly from the internal than the external features. This is the first time an internal advantage has been reported in this age group. Results suggest that children as young as 7 process faces in the same way as do adults, and that once procedural difficulties are overcome, the standard effects of familiarity are observed.

  12. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  13. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  14. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  15. Determination of lead, zinc and benzo(a)pyrene in incineration flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Gao Zhuqin; Guo Qian

    2003-01-01

    An analitical method was developed for the determination of lead(Pb), zinc(Zn) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in flue gas of radwaste pyroysis incinerator, respectively using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sample preparation and the influence of major components in back-ground were researched. Interference correction coefficient for Pb and Zn are given in this article. The recovery of Pb, Zn and BaP are all above 84.0% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) were 3.51% for Pb, 7.28% for Zn and 4.50% for BaP, respectively. It shows that this analytical method can meet the incineration processes. (authors)

  16. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  18. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

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    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  19. Influence of cell cycle on responses of MCF-7 cells to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddings Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is a widespread environmental genotoxic carcinogen that damages DNA by forming adducts. This damage along with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR induces complex transcriptional responses in cells. To investigate whether human cells are more susceptible to BaP in a particular phase of the cell cycle, synchronised breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to BaP. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry, DNA adduct formation was assessed by 32P-postlabeling analysis, microarrays of 44K human genome-wide oligos and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression (mRNA changes and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of some proteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are involved in BaP metabolism. Results Following BaP exposure, cells evaded G1 arrest and accumulated in S-phase. Higher levels of DNA damage occurred in S- and G2/M- compared with G0/G1-enriched cultures. Genes that were found to have altered expression included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed the involvement of various signalling pathways in response to BaP exposure, such as the Catenin/Wnt pathway in G1, the ERK pathway in G1 and S, the Nrf2 pathway in S and G2/M and the Akt pathway in G2/M. An important finding was that higher levels of DNA damage in S- and G2/M-enriched cultures correlated with higher levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and proteins. Moreover, exposure of synchronised MCF-7 cells to BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP, did not result in significant changes in DNA adduct levels at different phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions This study characterised the complex gene response to BaP in MCF-7 cells and revealed a strong correlation between the varying efficiency of BaP metabolism and DNA damage in different phases of the cell

  20. Unsupervised feature learning for autonomous rock image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; McIsaac, Kenneth; Osinski, Gordon R.; Francis, Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous rock image classification can enhance the capability of robots for geological detection and enlarge the scientific returns, both in investigation on Earth and planetary surface exploration on Mars. Since rock textural images are usually inhomogeneous and manually hand-crafting features is not always reliable, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method to autonomously learn the feature representation for rock images. In our tests, rock image classification using the learned features shows that the learned features can outperform manually selected features. Self-taught learning is also proposed to learn the feature representation from a large database of unlabelled rock images of mixed class. The learned features can then be used repeatedly for classification of any subclass. This takes advantage of the large dataset of unlabelled rock images and learns a general feature representation for many kinds of rocks. We show experimental results supporting the feasibility of self-taught learning on rock images.

  1. Assessing blood flow, microvasculature, erythema and redness in hypertrophic scars: A cross sectional study showing different features that require precise definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M E H; Stekelenburg, C M; Simons, J M; Brouwer, K M; Vlig, M; van den Kerckhove, E; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-08-01

    In hypertrophic scar assessment, laser Doppler imaging (LDI), colorimetry and subjective assessment (POSAS) can be used to evaluate blood flow, erythema and redness, respectively. In addition, the microvasculature (i.e. presence of microvessels) can be determined by immunohistochemistry. These measurement techniques are frequently used in clinical practice and/or in research to evaluate treatment response and monitor scar development. However, until now it has not been tested to what extent the outcomes of these techniques are associated, whilst the outcome terms are frequently used interchangeably or replaced by the umbrella term 'vascularization'. This is confusing, as every technique seems to measure a specific feature. Therefore, we evaluated the correlations of the four measurement techniques. We included 32 consecutive patients, aged ≥18 years, who underwent elective resection of a hypertrophic scar. Pre-operatively, we performed LDI (measuring blood flow), colorimetry (measuring erythema) and the POSAS (subjective redness) within the predefined scar area of interest (∼1.5cm). Subsequently, the scar was excised and the area of interest was sent for immunohistochemistry, to determine the presence of microvessels. Only a statistically significant correlation was found between erythema values (colorimetry) and subjective redness assessment (POSAS) (r=0.403, p=0.030). We found no correlations between the outcomes of LDI, immunohistochemistry and colorimetry. Blood flow, the presence of microvessels and erythema appear to be different hypertrophic scar features because they show an absence of correlation. Therefore, in the field of scar assessment, these outcome terms cannot be used interchangeably. In addition, we conclude that the term 'vascularization' does not seem appropriate to serve as an umbrella term. The use of precise definitions in research as well as in clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  3. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuemei; An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan; Wang Yingxiong; Cao Jia

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  4. Kidney transplantation restored uncoupled bone turnover in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kido, Ryo; Nakajima, Ichiro; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Teraoka, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2012-07-01

    While kidney transplantation (KTx) reverses many disorders associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients who have received KTx often have chronic kidney disease and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). However, it is unknown how bone metabolism changes by KTx. Living donor-KTx recipients (n = 34) at Tokyo Women's Medical University were prospectively recruited and the levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type 1 collagen (NTX) were measured before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation. Before KTx, serum BAP was within the reference range in more than half of patients while NTX was high in most patients. Serum NTX was higher in patients with longer dialysis durations compared to that with shorter durations before KTx. However, there was no difference in serum BAP between these patients. After KTx, BAP increased while NTX decreased along with the decline of PTH. In addition, the numbers of patients who showed high BAP and NTX were comparable after KTx. These results suggest that bone formation is suppressed and uncoupled with bone resorption in patients with ESRD and this uncoupling is restored by KTx. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism of bone uncoupling in patients with ESRD.

  5. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  6. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, Olivier; Miaud, Claude; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Bocher, Aurore; Mouchet, Florence; Guittonneau, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 μg L -1 ); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a new

  7. Spectral characterization of the fluorescent components present in humic substances, fulvic acid and humic acid mixed with pure benzo(a)pyrene solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fallah, Rawa; Rouillon, Régis; Vouvé, Florence

    2018-06-01

    The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). Then, to each type of fraction having similar DOC content, was added an increasing volume of pure BaP solution in attempt to assess the behavior of BaP with the fluorophores present in each one. The application of FEEMs-PARAFAC method validated a three-component model that consisted of the two resulted fluorophores from HSs, FA and HA (C1 and C2) and a BaP-like fluorophore (C3). Spectral modifications were noted for components C2HSs (C2 in humic substances fraction) (λex/λem: 420/490-520 nm), C2FA (C2 in fulvic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 400/487(517) nm) and C1HA (C1 in humic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 350/452(520) nm). We explored the impact of increasing the volume of the added pure BaP solution on the scores of the fluorophores present in the soil fractions. It was found that the scores of C2HSs, C2FA, and C1HA increased when the volume of the added pure BaP solution increased. Superposition of the excitation spectra of these fluorophores with the emission spectrum of BaP showed significant overlaps that might explain the observed interactions between BaP and the fluorescent compounds present in SOM physical fractions.

  8. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Miaud, Claude, E-mail: claude.miaud@univ-savoie.fr [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Ficetola, Gentile Francesco [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Department of Biology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bocher, Aurore [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Mouchet, Florence [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR CNRS-UPS-INPT 5245, Institut National Polytechnique-ENSAT, Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Guittonneau, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Devaux, Alain [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, INRA-EFPA, Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2009-11-08

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a

  9. Flow-like Features On Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows features on Jupiter's moon Europa that may be 'flows' from ice volcanoes. It was taken by the Galileo spacecraft solid state imaging (CCD) system during its seventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing features with shapes similar to lava flows on Earth. Two such features can be seen in the northwest corner of the image. The southern feature appears to have flowed over a ridge along its western edge. Scientists use these types of relationships to determine which feature formed first. In this case, the ridge probably formed before the flow-like feature that covers it.The image, centered at 22.6 degrees north latitude and 106.7 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 180 by 215 kilometers (112 by 134 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) across. This image was obtained on April 28, 1997, when Galileo was 27,590 kilometers (16,830 miles) from Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. Feature extraction for magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films using gradient feature segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanqing, Zhu.; Xinsai, Wang; Xuecheng, Zou; Haihua, Li; Xiaofei, Yang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to realize feature extraction on low contrast magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films. The method is based on the following three steps: first, Lee-filtering method is adopted to realize pre-filtering and noise reduction; this is followed by gradient feature segmentation, which separates the object area from the background area; finally the common linking method is adopted and the characteristic parameters of magnetic domain are calculated. We describe these steps with particular emphasis on the gradient feature segmentation. The results show that this method has advantages over other traditional ones for feature extraction of low contrast images

  11. Effects of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the immune-associated activities of hemocytes and recovery responses in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Huang, Wei-Bin; Wang, Qiang-Wei; Wu, Man-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study reports that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces immunomodulation in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In the present study, it was further observed that long-term chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP modulated the immunocompetence of abalones in terms of the change in activity of the antioxidant and immune associated parameters tested. In addition, the effect of tributyltin (TBT), another important genotoxicant in the aquatic environment, was investigated. Exposure of abalones to sublethal concentrations of TBT and BaP for 21 days resulted in significant decrease of total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. Conversely induction of extra and intra cellular superoxide generation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity was present when the abalones were exposed to TBT and BaP. Most of the immune associated parameters tested showed clear time dependent response to both toxicants. Within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to BaP, recovery was observed as evidenced by most of the parameters returning to their normal level. However, no recovery was observed within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to TBT as evidenced by continued elevation of intra cellular superoxide and nitrite production and decrease in THC, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. This suggested a prolonged TBT-induced impact on the immune reaction and possibly more damage than that caused by BaP. Overall the results suggest that chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of TBT or BaP causes modulations in the immunocompetence of abalones with most of the immune associated parameters tested being stimulated, and this might be harmful to the host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  13. Testing the feasibility of training peers with a spinal cord injury to learn and implement brief action planning to promote physical activity to people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Davis, Connie; Casemore, Sheila; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the feasibility of training peers with spinal cord injury (SCI) to learn brief action planning (BAP), an application of motivational interviewing principles, to promote physical activity to mentees with SCI. Method Thirteen peers with SCI attended a half-day BAP workshop. Using a one-arm, pre-, post-test design, feasibility to learn BAP was assessed in terms of peers' (1) BAP and motivational interviewing spirit competence; (2) training satisfaction; and (3) motivations to use BAP as assessed by measures of the theory of planned behavior constructs. Measures were taken at baseline, immediately post-training, and 1 month follow up. Results Following the training, participants' BAP and motivational interviewing competence significantly increased (P's  2.27). Training satisfaction was very positive with all means falling above the scale midpoint. Participants' perceived behavioral control to use BAP increased from baseline to post (P  0.05). Conclusion Training peers with a SCI to learn to use BAP is feasible. Practical implications BAP is a tool that can be feasibly learned by peers to promote physical activity to their mentees. PMID:25429692

  14. Effect of benzyl amino purine and indole-3-acetic acid on propagation of Sterculia foetida in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniastuti, E.; Widodo, C. E.; Samanhudi; Delfianti, M. N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Sterculia foetida is an oval seed plants that can be used as biofuel, which is one of the environmental friendly fuels. This plant is quite hard to find because not many peoples cultivate the plants. An in vitro propagation is one way to preserve the plant. This research aimed to determine optimum concentration of benzyl amino purine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to propagate S. foetida in vitro. The results showed that woody plant medium (WPM) added by 4 mg L BAP-1 and 0.5 mg L IAA-1 was able to produce complete plantlet, whereas those added by 4 mg L BAP-1 and 1 mg L IAA-1 generated the best growth of shoot and leaves.

  15. Ratings of Broader Autism Phenotype and Personality Traits in Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joyce; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Fein, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The study examines whether "optimal outcome" (OO) children, despite no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), exhibit personality traits often found in those with ASD. Nine zero acquaintance raters evaluated Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and Big Five personality traits of 22 OO individuals, 27 high functioning individuals with ASD (HFA), and 23 typically developing (TD) peers. HFA children displayed higher ratings than their peers on all BAP traits. OO were indistinguishable from TD, with the exception of greater extraversion (e.g., increased talkativeness), a potential tendency to be less emotionally stable, and pragmatic language deficits such as getting sidetracked in conversation. Overall, OO individuals are not showing BAP characteristics, but may be subject to other mild ADHD-like characteristics.

  16. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of lung cancer in rats by intratracheal insufflation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, L N

    1963-01-01

    One, 3, or 5 monthly intratracheal injections of 2 to 2.5 mg dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in India ink-solvent or 5 or 7 monthly injections of 5 mg benzyprene (BaP) in India ink-solvent into rats produced tumors, starting at 5 months, mostly around accumulations of ink. Results showed 27.8% of 151 animals receiving DMBA and surviving to 5 months developed carcinomas, as compared to 7 of 12 animals receiving BaP.

  18. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E_2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  19. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  20. Interconnection of Key Microbial Functional Genes for Enhanced Benzo[a]pyrene Biodegradation in Sediments by Microbial Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zaisheng; He, Yuhong; Cai, Haiyuan; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Krumholz, Lee R; Jiang, He-Long

    2017-08-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) can stimulate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, but the mechanism of this process is poorly understood at the microbial functional gene level. Here, the use of SMFC resulted in 92% benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) removal over 970 days relative to 54% in the controls. Sediment functions, microbial community structure, and network interactions were dramatically altered by the SMFC employment. Functional gene analysis showed that c-type cytochrome genes for electron transfer, aromatic degradation genes, and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes involved in lignin degradation were significantly enriched in bulk sediments during SMFC operation. Correspondingly, chemical analysis of the system showed that these genetic changes resulted in increases in the levels of easily oxidizable organic carbon and humic acids which may have resulted in increased BaP bioavailability and increased degradation rates. Tracking microbial functional genes and corresponding organic matter responses should aid mechanistic understanding of BaP enhanced biodegradation by microbial electrochemistry and development of sustainable bioremediation strategies.

  1. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  2. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to bind benzo(a)pyrene and the mechanism of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Zhou, Fang; Qi, Yeqiong; Dziugan, Piotr; Bai, Fengling; Walczak, Piotr; Zhang, Bolin

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the binding ability of Lactobacillus strains to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 15 strains were analysed. L. plantarum CICC 22135 and L. pentosus CICC 23163 exhibited high efficiency in removing BaP from aqueous medium; the binding rates were 66.76% and 64.31%, respectively. This process was affected by temperature, incubation time and pH, and cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. Additionally, both strains, especially strain CICC 23163 showed high specificity in binding BaP. The cell-BaP complexes were stable in aqueous medium. The mechanism of binding was investigated by examining the binding ability of different components of the microorganism cells. The results revealed that peptidoglycans played an important role in binding BaP and its structural integrity was required. Consequently, we proposed that the mechanism of this process was a physisorption and peptidoglycan was the main binding site. These two strains may be used for dietary detoxification in human diet and animal feed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallothionein mRNA induction is correlated with the decrease of DNA strand breaks in cadmium exposed zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Châtel, Amélie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2014-05-15

    We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  5. Inflation and WMAP three year data. Features have a feature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covi, L.; Hamann, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melchiorri, A. [INFN, Roma (Italy)]|[Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Slosar, A. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Sorbera, I. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2006-06-15

    The new three year WMAP data seem to confirm the presence of non-standard large scale features in the Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies power spectrum. While these features may hint at uncorrected experimental systematics, it is also possible to generate, in a cosmological way, oscillations on large angular scales by introducing a sharp step in the inflaton potential. Using current cosmological data, we derive constraints on the position, magnitude and gradient of a possible step in the inflaton potential. We show that a step in the potential, while strongly constrained by current data, is still allowed and may provide an interesting explanation to the currently measured deviations from the standard featureless spectrum. (Orig.)

  6. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  7. Internal versus external features in triggering the brain waveforms for conjunction and feature faces in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Aiqing; Jiang, Jingguo; Fu, Qiao

    2014-08-20

    Previous research has found that conjunction faces (whose internal features, e.g. eyes, nose, and mouth, and external features, e.g. hairstyle and ears, are from separate studied faces) and feature faces (partial features of these are studied) can produce higher false alarms than both old and new faces (i.e. those that are exactly the same as the studied faces and those that have not been previously presented) in recognition. The event-related potentials (ERPs) that relate to conjunction and feature faces at recognition, however, have not been described as yet; in addition, the contributions of different facial features toward ERPs have not been differentiated. To address these issues, the present study compared the ERPs elicited by old faces, conjunction faces (the internal and the external features were from two studied faces), old internal feature faces (whose internal features were studied), and old external feature faces (whose external features were studied) with those of new faces separately. The results showed that old faces not only elicited an early familiarity-related FN400, but a more anterior distributed late old/new effect that reflected recollection. Conjunction faces evoked similar late brain waveforms as old internal feature faces, but not to old external feature faces. These results suggest that, at recognition, old faces hold higher familiarity than compound faces in the profiles of ERPs and internal facial features are more crucial than external ones in triggering the brain waveforms that are characterized as reflecting the result of familiarity.

  8. Finger vein recognition based on the hyperinformation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The finger vein is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification due to its advantages over other existing biometrics. In finger vein recognition, feature extraction is a critical step, and many feature extraction methods have been proposed to extract the gray, texture, or shape of the finger vein. We treat them as low-level features and present a high-level feature extraction framework. Under this framework, base attribute is first defined to represent the characteristics of a certain subcategory of a subject. Then, for an image, the correlation coefficient is used for constructing the high-level feature, which reflects the correlation between this image and all base attributes. Since the high-level feature can reveal characteristics of more subcategories and contain more discriminative information, we call it hyperinformation feature (HIF). Compared with low-level features, which only represent the characteristics of one subcategory, HIF is more powerful and robust. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, we provide a case study to extract HIF. We conduct comprehensive experiments to show the generality of the proposed framework and the efficiency of HIF on our databases, respectively. Experimental results show that HIF significantly outperforms the low-level features.

  9. The metabolism and distribution of 14C-8N6-benzyladenine in lettuce seeds and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeber, R.G. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation sought to follow the uptake of the cytokinin, 14 C-8N 6 -benzyladenine (BAP), by lettuce seeds through time, trace the movement of the metabolites through several areas of the seedling, and identify the BAP metabolites. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) were exposed to a two hour pulse of the radioactive BAP. These seeds were harvested at 4 hour intervals from 2-48 hours. Seedlings incubated from 36-48 hours were cut in two; root, stem, shoot tip and seed coats. Each of these groups were extracted in 70% methanol and their radioactive isolated by high performance liquid chromatography. Radioactive fractions were pooled and reduced for further analysis by thin layer chromatography. The major compound identified throughout the time periods was BAP, exclusively found from 2-20 hours. BAP riboside was found in addition to BAP from 24-32 hours. The 40 and 44 hour extracts contained BAP and its riboside in the shoot and BAP in the seed coat. The 48 hours extract contained BAP and its riboside in both the shoot tip and the seed coat. This study produced information on the following points. A cytokinin exposure of 2 hours or less is needed to break dormancy in these seeds

  10. Pulmonary gene and microRNA expression changes in mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene by oral gavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Yauk, Carole Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The study examines pulmonary response in mice exposed to BaP by oral gavage. → We examined pulmonary gene and miRNA expression changes and measured DNA adducts. → We compare the mechanisms of action that operate in lungs relative to the liver. → We show differences in biological pathways activated in lungs versus the liver. → We suggest that liver miRNAs are less sensitive to perturbations than lung miRNAs. -- Abstract: Exposure to the environmental mutagen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alters the expression of AHR-responsive genes as well as genes involved in other pathways. We recently reported that exposure of adult mice to BaP resulted in a robust transcriptome response in the liver, but this was accompanied by a complete lack of change in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Since BaP exposure does not result in hepatocarcinogenicity, but does cause lung cancer, in the present study we examine the pulmonary mRNA and miRNA responses to BaP in the same mice. Adult male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 150 and 300 mg/kg BaP by oral gavage for three consecutive days and sacrificed 4 h after the last exposure. Serum clinical chemistry was performed for both the doses to assess the general toxicity of BaP; a modest decrease in serum inorganic phosphorous was observed at both the doses. A small decrease in serum glucose following 150 mg/kg and alkaline phosphatase following 300 mg/kg BaP was observed. BaP-DNA adduct levels in whole lung and liver tissues were assessed by 32 P postlabelling and similar dose dependent increases were observed for lung and liver. Using DNA microarrays, pulmonary mRNA and miRNA expressions were analysed. Over 1000 genes were statistically differentially expressed (p < 0.05). The perturbed pathways included oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, cell proliferation, cell cycle, B and T-cell receptor signalling and primary immunodeficiency signalling pathways. Analysis of miRNA profiles revealed downregulation of miR-150, miR-142-5p, mi

  11. Effect of dietary factors on mutagenesis, metabolism, and binding to DNA of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, at concentrations of 5 to 50 μg/plate, inhibited rate liver S9 protein dependent benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 by 30-81% and B[a]P 7,8-dihydrodiol (DHD)-induced mutagenesis by 29 to 75%. EA did not significantly affect the metabolism of B[a]P or B[a]P 7,8-DHD as determined by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the organosoluble fraction and by the quantification of water-soluble conjugates. At these concentrations EA inhibited the covalent binding of [ 3 H] B[a]P and [ 3 H] B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolites to calf thymus DNA by 5 to 42% and 27 to 64%, respectively. Formation of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide:deoxyguanosine (BPDE:dG) adducts was inhibited by 13 to 56% for B[a]P for B[a]P and 11 to 38% for B[a]P 7,8-DHD. These results suggest that the antimutagenic effect of EA and its inhibition of B[a]P and B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolite-binding to DNA is not due to the inhibition of S9-mediated metabolism of these compounds. The inhibitory effect may be by previously described scavenging mechanism or by a DNA-affinity binding mechanism that prevents BPDE:DNA adduct formation

  12. Cascaded face alignment via intimacy definition feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; Lam, Kin-Man; Chiu, Man-Yau; Wu, Kangheng; Lei, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging popularity of regression-based face aligners, which directly learn mappings between facial appearance and shape-increment manifolds. We propose a random-forest based, cascaded regression model for face alignment by using a locally lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature. This feature is more discriminative than the pose-indexed feature, more efficient than the histogram of oriented gradients feature and the scale-invariant feature transform feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental validation of our algorithm shows that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when testing on some challenging datasets. Compared with the LBF-based algorithm, our method achieves about twice the speed, 20% improvement in terms of alignment accuracy and saves an order of magnitude on memory requirement.

  13. Micropropagation of ginger (zingiber officinale var. rubrum) using buds from microshoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraida, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum (ZOR) is cultivated for its medicinal value despite the constraints of longer life cycle. The study has established an efficient and reproducible protocol to micropropagate ZOR using buds generated on the surface of the ginger. Surface sterilized young buds of 0.5-1 cm and 2-4 cm cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with BAP showed the highest survival rate (55-65%) and produced the highest average number of microshoots per explant (3.2±0.06) respectively. MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin were used to evaluate shoot multiplication and root induction. BAP concentrations between 3.0-5.0 mg/L was very effective in promoting microshoots and resulted in 100% of microshoot propagation. Microshoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced the highest number of shoots while 0-0.5 mg/L BAP enhanced shoot length and 3mg/L NAA in combination with BAP produced highest number of roots. Microshoots maintained on MS medium supplemented with 4.5% sucrose produced the highest number of plantlets (23±2.5) and roots per explants (15.4±2.4) meanwhile reducing the length of lateral roots (2.6±0.2). (author)

  14. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabowska-Kita, Agnieszka; Trabczynska, Anna; Korytko, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Monika M.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2015-01-01

    The brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is transiently induced in adult mammals in response to reduced ambient temperature. Since it is unknown whether a cold challenge can permanently induce brown adipocytes (BAs), we reared C57BL/6J (B6) and AxB8/PgJ (AxB8) mice at 17 or 29°C from birth to weaning, to assess the BAP in young and adult mice. Energy balance measurements showed that 17°C reduced fat mass in the preweaning mice by increasing energy expenditure and suppressed diet-induced obesity in adults. Microarray analysis of global gene expression of inguinal fat (ING) from 10-day-old (D) mice indicates that expression at 17°C vs. 29°C was not different. Between 10 and 21 days of age, the BAP was induced coincident with morphologic remodeling of ING and marked changes in expression of neural development genes (e.g., Akap 12 and Ngfr). Analyses of Ucp1 mRNA and protein showed that 17°C transiently increased the BAP in ING from 21D mice; however, BAs were unexpectedly present in mice reared at 29°C. The involution of the BAP in WAT occurred after weaning in mice reared at 23°C. Therefore, the capacity to stimulate thermogenically competent BAs in WAT is set by a temperature-independent, genetically controlled program between birth and weaning.—Chabowska-Kita, A., Trabczynska, A., Korytko, A., Kaczmarek, M. M., Kozak, L. P. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes. PMID:25896784

  15. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  16. Genetic Background of Iris Melanomas and Iris Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppelen, Natasha M; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Sisley, Karen; Rennie, Ian G; Rundle, Paul; Brands, Tom; van den Bosch, Quincy C C; Mensink, Hanneke W; de Klein, Annelies; Kiliç, Emine; Verdijk, Robert M

    2018-01-19

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Iris melanoma comprises 4% to 10% of all UMs and has a lower mortality rate. The genetic changes in iris melanoma are not as well characterized as ciliary body or choroidal melanoma. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the genetic background of iris melanoma and iris nevi. Multicenter, retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with iris melanoma or iris nevi who underwent surgical intervention as primary or secondary treatment. Next-generation sequencing of GNAQ, GNA11, EIF1AX, SF3B1, BAP1, NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-Kit, TP53, and TERT was performed on 30 iris melanomas and 7 iris nevi. Copy number status was detected using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, SNP array, or fluorescent in situ hybridization. BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed on all samples. Mutation and copy number status were analyzed. Results of BAP1 immunohistochemistry were used for survival analysis. In 26 of the 30 iris melanoma and all iris nevi, at least 1 mutation was identified. Multiple mutations were detected in 23 iris melanoma and 5 nevi, as well as mutations in GNAQ and GNA11. Furthermore, 13 of 30 BAP1, 5 of 30 EIF1AX, and 2 of 30 SF3B1 mutations were identified in iris melanoma. No correlation between BAP1 status and disease-free survival was found. The iris nevi showed 1 EIF1AX and 3 BAP1 mutations. Two of the nevi, with a BAP1 mutation, were histologically borderline malignant. Mutations in NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-KIT, and TP53 were detected in 6 iris melanomas and 4 iris nevi. Mutations that are often found in uveal and cutaneous melanoma were identified in this cohort of iris melanomas and iris nevi. Therefore, iris melanomas harbor a molecular profile comparable to both choroidal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. These findings may offer adjuvant targeted therapies for iris melanoma. There was no prognostic significance of

  17. MetaFIND: A feature analysis tool for metabolomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Pádraig

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics, or metabonomics, refers to the quantitative analysis of all metabolites present within a biological sample and is generally carried out using NMR spectroscopy or Mass Spectrometry. Such analysis produces a set of peaks, or features, indicative of the metabolic composition of the sample and may be used as a basis for sample classification. Feature selection may be employed to improve classification accuracy or aid model explanation by establishing a subset of class discriminating features. Factors such as experimental noise, choice of technique and threshold selection may adversely affect the set of selected features retrieved. Furthermore, the high dimensionality and multi-collinearity inherent within metabolomics data may exacerbate discrepancies between the set of features retrieved and those required to provide a complete explanation of metabolite signatures. Given these issues, the latter in particular, we present the MetaFIND application for 'post-feature selection' correlation analysis of metabolomics data. Results In our evaluation we show how MetaFIND may be used to elucidate metabolite signatures from the set of features selected by diverse techniques over two metabolomics datasets. Importantly, we also show how MetaFIND may augment standard feature selection and aid the discovery of additional significant features, including those which represent novel class discriminating metabolites. MetaFIND also supports the discovery of higher level metabolite correlations. Conclusion Standard feature selection techniques may fail to capture the full set of relevant features in the case of high dimensional, multi-collinear metabolomics data. We show that the MetaFIND 'post-feature selection' analysis tool may aid metabolite signature elucidation, feature discovery and inference of metabolic correlations.

  18. Antimutagenic activity of some naturally occurring compounds towards cigarette-smoke condensate and benzo(a)pyrene in the Salmonella/microsome assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwel, L.; van der Hoeven, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    Several compounds, occurring in food, were tested for antimutagenic activity towards cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Antimutagenicity was determined in the Salmonella/microsome test, with tester strain TA98, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. Dose-response curves did show reduction of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity by ellagic acid, riboflavin and chlorophyllin. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, although less distinct, also inhibited CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, tocopherol acetate, chlorogenic acid and butyl hydroxyanisole did not have any influence on the mutagenicity of CSC and BaP. The similarity in results for cigarette-smoke condensate and for BaP indicates that a general mechanism may be involved in the inhibition of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity.

  19. Dissolved organic phosphorus and its bioavailable fraction in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, M.; Nausch, G.; Setzkorn, D.; Welz, Ä.

    2009-04-01

    shortage. DOP concentrations of 0.54 µM exceeding this range has been detected in a spring bloom. BAP concentrations ranged between 0.02 and 0.34 µM comprising a proportion between 9 and 61% of the DOP. The amount of BAP was strongly correlated with the ambient DOP concentrations at the beginning of the experiments and can be described by the equation: BAP= (0.92* DOP)-0.14. The regression slope of 0.92 indicated that all DOP above the intercept with the abscissa is bioavailable and those variations in DOP were caused by fluctuations in BAP. The remaining refractory DOP varied between 0.13 and 0.20µM and did not vary seasonally. Parallel experiments in 2005 without carbon and nitrogen additions reveal the BAP utilization by heterotrophic bacteria under natural conditions. The bacterial uptake of BAP ranged between 18 and 78% and reached 100% during the summer bloom of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. BAP utilization despite the availability of DIP indicates that phosphorus uptake may be often carbon and/or nitrogen limited and the BAP could satisfy bacterial carbon or nitrogen demand. The limitation was repressed during the summer bloom of diazotrophioc cyanobacteria. Here the BAP fulfils the phosphorus demand. The spatial variability of DOP concentrations in summer 2008 shows a gradient in DOP concentrations from south to north. In the southern and central Baltic Sea, DOP values in the surface ranged between 0.25 and 0.39 µM. In the Gulf of Finland, concentrations of around 0.25 µM were found. In the Gulf of Bothnia, characterized by a phosphate limitation especially in the northern part, DOP concentrations decreased from 0.20 µM in the southernmost part down to 0.12 µM in the northernmost region. BAP amounted between 8% and 57% of DOP. High BAP proportions were detected in the Bornholm Basin (57%) and the Gulf of Finland (45%). The lowest percentage (8 %) was found in the northernmost part in the Gulf of Bothnia. Differing from the results in the central Baltic Sea in

  20. Iris recognition based on key image feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Tian, Q; Zhang, J; Wu, S; Zeng, Y

    2008-01-01

    In iris recognition, feature extraction can be influenced by factors such as illumination and contrast, and thus the features extracted may be unreliable, which can cause a high rate of false results in iris pattern recognition. In order to obtain stable features, an algorithm was proposed in this paper to extract key features of a pattern from multiple images. The proposed algorithm built an iris feature template by extracting key features and performed iris identity enrolment. Simulation results showed that the selected key features have high recognition accuracy on the CASIA Iris Set, where both contrast and illumination variance exist.

  1. Complex metabolic interactions between benzo(a)pyrene and tributyltin in presence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in South American catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heloísa H P; Babin, Mathieu; Garcia, Juan Ramon Esquivel; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco A F; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; Pelletier, Émilien

    2013-10-01

    In an attempt to explore complex metabolic interactions between toxicants present in polluted freshwater, hepatic metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and tributyltin (TBT) in fish was investigated when these compounds were administrated alone, mixed together and along with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Ten Rhamdia quelen per group were treated with a single intra-peritoneal (IP) dose (5-day experiment) or three successive doses (15-day experiment) either containing BaP (0.3; 3 or 30mgkg(-1)) or TBT (0.03; 0.3 or 3mgkg(-1)) or a combination of BaP+TBT, BaP+DDT, TBT+DDT and BaP+TBT+DDT under their respective lower doses, with DDT dose kept at 0.03mgkg(-1). Tetrahydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP-tetrol-I), and dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were analyzed to assess BaP and TBT hepatic metabolism, respectively. A significant difference in BaP-tetrol-I concentration was observed in liver and bile between the lowest and the highest doses of BaP in both 5 and 15-day experiments. In the 15-day experiment, the presence of TBT with BaP reduced the amount of BaP-tetrol-I in bile compared to the BaP alone. The time of exposure and the number of doses affected BaP-tetrol-I concentration in the bile of fish exposed to BaP 0.3mgkg(-1) and BaP+DDT. TBT and its metabolites concentrations showed a dose-dependent increase in the liver in both experiments and in the bile in the 5-day experiment. TBT at its lowest dose was completely metabolized into DBT and MBT in the liver in the 15-day experiment. No TBT metabolites were detected in the bile of fish exposed to the mixtures in the 5-day experiment, except for a small MBT amount found in BaP+TBT+DDT. This study strengthens the hypothesis of a metabolic interaction between BaP and TBT in fish and suggests DDT as an important third player when present in the mixture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Henri; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis

  3. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  4. Mammographic feature enhancement by multiscale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, A.F.; Schuler, S.; Fan, J.; Huda, W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis by overcomplete multiresolution representations. The authors show that efficient representations may be identified within a continuum of scale-space and used to enhance features of importance to mammography. Methods of contrast enhancement are described based on three overcomplete multiscale representations: (1) the dyadic wavelet transform (separable), (2) the var-phi-transform (nonseparable, nonorthogonal), and (3) the hexagonal wavelet transform (nonseparable). Multiscale edges identified within distinct levels of transform space provide local support for image enhancement. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet coefficients modified at one or more levels by local and global nonlinear operators. In each case, edges and gain parameters are identified adaptively by a measure of energy within each level of scale-space. The authors show quantitatively that transform coefficients, modified by adaptive nonlinear operators, can make more obvious unseen or barely seen features of mammography without requiring additional radiation. The results are compared with traditional image enhancement techniques by measuring the local contrast of known mammographic features. The authors demonstrate that features extracted from multiresolution representations can provide an adaptive mechanism for accomplishing local contrast enhancement. By improving the visualization of breast pathology, they can improve chances of early detection while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients

  5. Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, N; Sinha, R; Hsu, C H; Greenberg, A; Rothman, N

    2001-05-01

    Animal studies have shown that dietary intake of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), causes increased levels of tumors at several sites, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of dietary intake of BaP and cancer in humans is not clear. We created a BaP database of selected food products that could be linked to Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) to estimate BaP intake. BaP levels were measured for each food line-item (composite samples) which consisted of a variety of foods in a FFQ. Composite sample parts were derived from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) which represents the most common food items consumed by the general population. Meat samples were cooked by different techniques in controlled conditions, and by various restaurants and fast-food chains. Non-meat products were purchased from the major national supermarket chains. The quantities of BaP were measured using a thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/spectrofluorometer technique and were highly correlated with both BaP (r=0.99) [corrected] and sum of carcinogenic PAH (r=0.98) measured by HPLC technique. We linked our database to the results from a FFQ and estimated the daily BaP intake of various food items in 228 subjects in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The highest levels of BaP (up to about 4 ng BaP/g of cooked meat) were found in grilled/barbecued very well done steaks and hamburgers and in grilled/barbecued well done chicken with skin. BaP concentrations were lower in meats that were grilled/barbecued to medium done and in all broiled or pan-fried meat samples regardless of doneness level. The BaP levels in non-meat items were generally low. However, certain cereals and greens (e.g. kale, collard greens) had levels up to 0.5 ng/g. In our population, the bread/cereal/grain, and grilled/barbecued meat, respectively, contributed 29 and 21 percent to the mean daily intake of BaP. This database may be

  6. DYNAMIC FEATURE SELECTION FOR WEB USER IDENTIFICATION ON LINGUISTIC AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ONLINE TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identification and authentication of web users participating in the Internet information processes (based on features of online texts.In digital forensics web user identification based on various linguistic features can be used to discover identity of individuals, criminals or terrorists using the Internet to commit cybercrimes. Internet could be used as a tool in different types of cybercrimes (fraud and identity theft, harassment and anonymous threats, terrorist or extremist statements, distribution of illegal content and information warfare. Linguistic identification of web users is a kind of biometric identification, it can be used to narrow down the suspects, identify a criminal and prosecute him. Feature set includes various linguistic and stylistic features extracted from online texts. We propose dynamic feature selection for each web user identification task. Selection is based on calculating Manhattan distance to k-nearest neighbors (Relief-f algorithm. This approach improves the identification accuracy and minimizes the number of features. Experiments were carried out on several datasets with different level of class imbalance. Experiment results showed that features relevance varies in different set of web users (probable authors of some text; features selection for each set of web users improves identification accuracy by 4% at the average that is approximately 1% higher than with the use of static set of features. The proposed approach is most effective for a small number of training samples (messages per user.

  7. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32 P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique pattern of

  9. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  10. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  11. Aggrecan-based extracellular matrix shows unique cortical features and conserved subcortical principles of mammalian brain organization in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi Martin, 1838).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, M; Brückner, G; Jäger, C; Seeger, G; Künzle, H; Arendt, T

    2010-02-03

    The Madagascan tenrecs (Afrotheria), an ancient mammalian clade, are characterized by unique brain anatomy. Striking features are an expanded paleocortex but a small and poorly differentiated neocortex devoid of a distinct granular layer IV. To investigate the organization of cortical areas we analyzed extracellular matrix components in perineuronal nets (PNs) using antibodies to aggrecan, lectin staining and hyaluronan-binding protein. Selected subcortical regions were studied to correlate the cortical patterns with features in evolutionary conserved systems. In the neocortex, paleocortex and hippocampus PNs were associated with nonpyramidal neurons. Quantitative analysis in the cerebral cortex revealed area-specific proportions and laminar distribution patterns of neurons ensheathed by PNs. Cortical PNs showed divergent structural phenotypes. Diffuse PNs forming a cotton wool-like perisomatic rim were characteristic of the paleocortex. These PNs were associated with a dense pericellular plexus of calretinin-immunoreactive fibres. Clearly contoured PNs were devoid of a calretinin-positive plexus and predominated in the neocortex and hippocampus. The organization of the extracellular matrix in subcortical nuclei followed the widely distributed mammalian type. We conclude that molecular properties of the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix are conserved during evolution of mammals; however, the matrix scaffold is adapted to specific wiring patterns of cortical and subcortical neuronal networks. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  13. Comparative emissions from Pakistani coals and traditional coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Y X [Guangzhou Medical College (China). Dept. of Hygiene; Huang, L F [Guangzhou Health and Anti-epidemic Station (China)

    1994-12-31

    Briquette coal has been widely used for domestic cooking and heating in many Chinese cites over the last two decades. To determine whether burning briquette coal contributes significantly to indoor air pollution, a study was performed in cities-of Southern China in which the measured levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, TSP, SD, B(a)P in the kitchens of coal burning families were compared with levels obtained in families using gas. Significantly higher contentions of these pollutants, whose peaks correlated with daily cooking episodes, were detected in coal burning families. The levels of TSP and B(a)P were further found to be dependent on cooking methods, with deep frying and stir-frying of meat generating the most indoor TSP and B(a)P. Briquette coal burning was found to be the source of B(a)P contamination in food. A higher incidence of chronic pharyngitis as well as a suppressed salivary bacteriolytic enzyme activity were found in children of coal burning families. Epidemiologic and laboratory studies also show a close association between coal burning and the incidence of lung cancer in females. (author)

  14. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-30

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between bone turnover markers and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationships between serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 429 Japanese men, with special emphasis on 2 age groups (40–59 years and 60 years or over). The heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Serum samples were collected, and TRACP-5b and BAP levels were measured. The stiffness index was significantly decreased with age. Log (TRACP-5b) was significantly increased with age, but Log (BAP) was stable. Generalized linear models showed that higher levels of Log (TRACP-5b) and Log (BAP) were correlated with a lower stiffness index after adjusting for covariates in men aged 60 years or over, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. In conclusion, higher rates of bone turnover markers were associated with a lower stiffness index only in elderly men. These results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups of men. PMID:29465590

  16. Biodegradation of benzo[α]pyrene, toluene, and formaldehyde from the gas phase by a consortium of Rhodococcus erythropolis and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Paulina; Cáceres, Manuel; Scott, Felipe; Díaz-Robles, Luis; Aroca, Germán; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important indoor contaminants. Their hydrophobic nature hinders the possibility of biological abatement using biofiltration. Our aim was to establish whether the use of a consortium of Fusarium solani and Rhodococcus erythropolis shows an improved performance (in terms of mineralization rate and extent) towards the degradation of formaldehyde, as a slightly polar VOC; toluene, as hydrophobic VOC; and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) as PAH at low concentrations compared to a single-species biofilm in serum bottles with vermiculite as solid support to mimic a biofilter and to relate the possible improvements with the surface hydrophobicity and partition coefficient of the biomass at three different temperatures. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of the surface of the biofilms was affected by the hydrophobicity of the carbon source in F. solani but it did not change in R. erythropolis. Similarly, the partition coefficients of toluene and BaP in F. solani biomass (both as pure culture and consortium) show a reduction of up to 38 times compared to its value in water, whereas this reduction was only 1.5 times in presence of R. erythropolis. Despite that increments in the accumulated CO 2 and its production rate were found when F. solani or the consortium was used, the mineralization extent of toluene was below 25%. Regarding BaP degradation, the higher CO 2 production rates and percent yields were obtained when a consortium of F. solani and R. erythropolis was used, despite a pure culture of R. erythropolis exhibits poor mineralization of BaP.

  17. Changes in the physiological activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. under the influence of exogenous growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year pot experiment (2008–2009 conducted at the Vegetation Hall, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, we investigated the influence of exogenous growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and their mixture, on the activity of gas exchange and selected physiological features of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.. The experimental factors included the following Polish soybean cultivars: ‘Aldana’, ‘Progres’ and ‘Jutro’. During plant growth, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, and substomatal CO2 concentration (ci were determined. Two soybean cultivars, i.e. ‘Jutro’ and ‘Progres’, showed a significant increase in the intensity of assimilation and transpiration after using all kinds of growth regulators as compared with the control plants. It was found that the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using a mixture of growth regulators (IBA + BAP, was characterized by the significantly highest CO2 assimilation (A and transpiration (E as well as the highest stomatal conductance (gs. The ‘Aldana’ cultivar, on the other hand, responded by a significant reduction in the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and subsomatal CO2 concentration. The spraying of the plants with exogenous growth regulators had a significant influence on the increase in the number of stomata and stomatal pore length, mostly on the lower epidermis of the lamina. It was also found that plants from the ‘Jutro’ and ‘Aldana’ cultivars sprayed with IBA and IBA + BAP were characterized by the highest yield, as compared with the control plants. In the case of the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using the growth regulators, a positive correlation was observed between the assimilation and transpiration rates and the length of stomata, which in consequence produced increased yields.

  18. Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....

  19. A performance evaluation of point pair features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Drost, Bertram; Tombari, Federico

    2018-01-01

    have low resolution data, where local histogram features show a higher performance than PPFs. We also found that PPFs compared to most local histogram features degrade faster under disturbances such as occlusion and clutter, however, PPFs still remain more descriptive on an absolute scale. The main...

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene impedes self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and influences fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqing; Jiang, Rong; An, Liqin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Sicheng; Qiong, Shi; Weng, Yaguang

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are implicated in the bone-forming process during fracture repair. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-a cigarette smoke component and powerful motivator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-unfavorably influences bone condition and osteoblast differentiation. The first thing we noticed decreases self-renewal and differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem (hBM-MSCs) from smokers and activates Ahr signaling in MSCs by up-regulating the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression. In vitro studies, we employed C3H10T1/2 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) with BaP and discovered that BaP impaired innate properties of MSCs. Further investigation into MSCs showed that exposure to BaP activated Ahr signaling and inhibited TGF-β1/SMAD4 and TGF-β1/ERK/AKT signaling pathways. Corresponding with the outcomes, tibial fracture calluses produced by BaP-administered rats appeared to delay healing. This effect of BaP was abrogated by resveratrol, a natural Ahr antagonist, in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrated that Ahr may play a key role in BaP-impaired innate properties by inhibiting SMAD-dependent signaling pathways TGF-β1/SMAD4 and SMAD-independent TGF-β1/ERK/AKT signaling pathways. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited MSCs from adverse effects caused by BaP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. → Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. → BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. → Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. → The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  2. Multi-scale salient feature extraction on mesh models

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Shen, ChaoHui

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes. It is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales. The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly, where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale. We demonstrate this multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection. Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  4. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  5. Characterization of soluble microbial products and their fouling impacts in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Tao; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Schepper, Veerle D.; Nam, Seongnam; Nopens, Ingmar; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) fouling is not only influenced by the soluble microbial products (SMP) concentration but by their characteristics. Experiments of separate producing biomass associated products (BAP) and utilization associated products (UAP) allowed the separation of BAP and UAP effects from sludge water (SW). Thus, filtration of individual SMP components and further characterization becomes possible. Unstirred cell filtration was used to study fouling mechanisms and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) were used to characterize the foulant. Generally, the SMP exhibiting characteristics of higher molecular weight, greater hydrophilicity and a more reduced state showed a higher retention percentage. However, the higher retention does not always yield higher fouling effects. The UAP filtration showed the highest specific cake resistance and pore blocking resistance attributed to their higher percentage of low molecular weight molecules, although their retention percentage was lower than the SW and BAP filtration. The UAP produced in the cell proliferation phase appeared to have the highest fouling potential. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Characterization of soluble microbial products and their fouling impacts in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Tao

    2010-09-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) fouling is not only influenced by the soluble microbial products (SMP) concentration but by their characteristics. Experiments of separate producing biomass associated products (BAP) and utilization associated products (UAP) allowed the separation of BAP and UAP effects from sludge water (SW). Thus, filtration of individual SMP components and further characterization becomes possible. Unstirred cell filtration was used to study fouling mechanisms and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) were used to characterize the foulant. Generally, the SMP exhibiting characteristics of higher molecular weight, greater hydrophilicity and a more reduced state showed a higher retention percentage. However, the higher retention does not always yield higher fouling effects. The UAP filtration showed the highest specific cake resistance and pore blocking resistance attributed to their higher percentage of low molecular weight molecules, although their retention percentage was lower than the SW and BAP filtration. The UAP produced in the cell proliferation phase appeared to have the highest fouling potential. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Crystal structure of a β-aminopeptidase from an Australian Burkholderia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-White, Marietta; Dumsday, Geoff J; Johanesen, Priscilla; Lyras, Dena; Drinkwater, Nyssa; McGowan, Sheena

    2017-07-01

    β-Aminopeptidases are a unique group of enzymes that have the unusual capability to hydrolyze N-terminal β-amino acids from synthetic β-peptides. β-Peptides can form secondary structures mimicking α-peptide-like structures that are resistant to degradation by most known proteases and peptidases. These characteristics of β-peptides give them great potential as peptidomimetics. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of BcA5-BapA, a β-aminopeptidase from a Gram-negative Burkholderia sp. that was isolated from activated sludge from a wastewater-treatment plant in Australia, is reported. The crystal structure of BcA5-BapA was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å and showed a tetrameric assembly typical of the β-aminopeptidases. Each monomer consists of an α-subunit (residues 1-238) and a β-subunit (residues 239-367). Comparison of the structure of BcA5-BapA with those of other known β-aminopeptidases shows a highly conserved structure and suggests a similar proteolytic mechanism of action.

  8. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  9. Invariant Feature Matching for Image Registration Application Based on New Dissimilarity of Spatial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Kahaki, Seyed Mostafa; Nordin, Md Jan; Ashtari, Amir H.; J. Zahra, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    An invariant feature matching method is proposed as a spatially invariant feature matching approach. Deformation effects, such as affine and homography, change the local information within the image and can result in ambiguous local information pertaining to image points. New method based on dissimilarity values, which measures the dissimilarity of the features through the path based on Eigenvector properties, is proposed. Evidence shows that existing matching techniques using similarity metrics—such as normalized cross-correlation, squared sum of intensity differences and correlation coefficient—are insufficient for achieving adequate results under different image deformations. Thus, new descriptor’s similarity metrics based on normalized Eigenvector correlation and signal directional differences, which are robust under local variation of the image information, are proposed to establish an efficient feature matching technique. The method proposed in this study measures the dissimilarity in the signal frequency along the path between two features. Moreover, these dissimilarity values are accumulated in a 2D dissimilarity space, allowing accurate corresponding features to be extracted based on the cumulative space using a voting strategy. This method can be used in image registration applications, as it overcomes the limitations of the existing approaches. The output results demonstrate that the proposed technique outperforms the other methods when evaluated using a standard dataset, in terms of precision-recall and corner correspondence. PMID:26985996

  10. Invariant Feature Matching for Image Registration Application Based on New Dissimilarity of Spatial Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mousavi Kahaki

    Full Text Available An invariant feature matching method is proposed as a spatially invariant feature matching approach. Deformation effects, such as affine and homography, change the local information within the image and can result in ambiguous local information pertaining to image points. New method based on dissimilarity values, which measures the dissimilarity of the features through the path based on Eigenvector properties, is proposed. Evidence shows that existing matching techniques using similarity metrics--such as normalized cross-correlation, squared sum of intensity differences and correlation coefficient--are insufficient for achieving adequate results under different image deformations. Thus, new descriptor's similarity metrics based on normalized Eigenvector correlation and signal directional differences, which are robust under local variation of the image information, are proposed to establish an efficient feature matching technique. The method proposed in this study measures the dissimilarity in the signal frequency along the path between two features. Moreover, these dissimilarity values are accumulated in a 2D dissimilarity space, allowing accurate corresponding features to be extracted based on the cumulative space using a voting strategy. This method can be used in image registration applications, as it overcomes the limitations of the existing approaches. The output results demonstrate that the proposed technique outperforms the other methods when evaluated using a standard dataset, in terms of precision-recall and corner correspondence.

  11. Chemical carcinogenesis in feral fish: uptake, activation, and detoxication of organic xenobiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Nishimoto, M.; Reichert, W.L.; Collier, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    The high prevalance of liver neoplasms in English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and substantially lower prevalence of neoplasms in a closely related species, starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) captured from industrialized waterways, provide a unique opportunity to compare biochemical processes involved in chemical carcinogenesis in feral fish species. Because levels of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in urban sediments are correlated with prevalences of liver neoplasms in English sole, the authors have initiated detailed studies to evaluate the effects of endogenous and exogenous factors on uptake, activation and detoxication of carcinogenic AHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), using spectroscopic, chromatographic, and radiometric techniques. The results obtained thus far show that sole readily takes up AHs associated with sediment from urban areas and that the presence of other xenobiotics, such as PCBs, in sediment increases tissue concentrations of BaP metabolites. Extensive metabolism of BaP occurred whether sole was exposed to this AH via sediment, per os, or intraperitoneally. Substantial modification of hepatic DNA occurred and persisted for a period of 2-4 weeks after a single exposure to BaP. The level of covalent binding of BaP intermediates to hepatic DNA was 10-fold higher in juvenile than adult sole and 90-fold higher in juvenile sole than in Sprague-Dawley rat, a species which is resistant to BaP-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. These results, along with the authors findings that hepatic GST activity in flounder was two times higher than in sole, demonstrate that microsomal metabolism of BaP does not accurately reflect the differences in the ability of these fish to form BaP-DNA adducts in vivo and also suggest that detoxication of reactive intermediates is an important factor in determining the levels of DNA modification by AHs and resulting toxic effects in feral fish

  12. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  13. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  14. EEG feature selection method based on decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results.

  15. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Mixed Feature Representation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kaiyang; Han, Ke; Wu, Song; Wang, Guohua; Wei, Leyi

    2017-09-22

    DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities. The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non-DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features (SSF), is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability. In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in 10-fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique. The feature vectors, which are a combination of SSF and K-Skip-N-Grams, show the best performance in the test set. Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features.

  16. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Mixed Feature Representation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyang Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities. The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non-DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features (SSF, is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability. In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in 10-fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique. The feature vectors, which are a combination of SSF and K-Skip-N-Grams, show the best performance in the test set. Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features.

  17. Optimized feature subsets for epileptic seizure prediction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Bruno; Ventura, Francisco; Teixeira, César; Dourado, António

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of the number of EEG features to give as inputs to epilepsy seizure predictors is a needed step towards the development of a transportable device for real-time warning. This paper presents a comparative study of three feature selection methods, based on Support Vector Machines. Minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance, Recursive Feature Elimination, Genetic Algorithms, show that, for three patients of the European Database on Epilepsy, the most important univariate features are related to spectral information and statistical moments.

  18. Feature-Space Clustering for fMRI Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai; Liptrot, Mathew G.

    2001-01-01

    MRI sequences containing several hundreds of images, it is sometimes necessary to invoke feature extraction to reduce the dimensionality of the data space. A second interesting application is in the meta-analysis of fMRI experiment, where features are obtained from a possibly large number of single......-voxel analyses. In particular this allows the checking of the differences and agreements between different methods of analysis. Both approaches are illustrated on a fMRI data set involving visual stimulation, and we show that the feature space clustering approach yields nontrivial results and, in particular......, shows interesting differences between individual voxel analysis performed with traditional methods. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  19. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  20. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Soto, Alex, E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpanotop@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gatogeno@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  1. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Soto, Alex

    2016-01-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  2. Biometric feature extraction using local fractal auto-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Zhang Jia-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Image texture feature extraction is a classical means for biometric recognition. To extract effective texture feature for matching, we utilize local fractal auto-correlation to construct an effective image texture descriptor. Three main steps are involved in the proposed scheme: (i) using two-dimensional Gabor filter to extract the texture features of biometric images; (ii) calculating the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales using fractal auto-correlation algorithm; and (iii) linking the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales into a big vector for matching. Experiments and analyses show our proposed scheme is an efficient biometric feature extraction approach. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  3. Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.

  4. Critical feature analysis of a radiotherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, Andrew; Jackson, Daniel; Ramanan, Prasad; Flanz, Jay; Leyman, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The software implementation of the emergency shutdown feature in a major radiotherapy system was analyzed, using a directed form of code review based on module dependences. Dependences between modules are labelled by particular assumptions; this allows one to trace through the code, and identify those fragments responsible for critical features. An 'assumption tree' is constructed in parallel, showing the assumptions which each module makes about others. The root of the assumption tree is the critical feature of interest, and its leaves represent assumptions which, if not valid, might cause the critical feature to fail. The analysis revealed some unexpected assumptions that motivated improvements to the code

  5. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  6. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  7. Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Musienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied­. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions.

  8. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  9. Naive Bayes-Guided Bat Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majid Taha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the amount of data and information is said to double in every 20 months or so, feature selection has become highly important and beneficial. Further improvements in feature selection will positively affect a wide array of applications in fields such as pattern recognition, machine learning, or signal processing. Bio-inspired method called Bat Algorithm hybridized with a Naive Bayes classifier has been presented in this work. The performance of the proposed feature selection algorithm was investigated using twelve benchmark datasets from different domains and was compared to three other well-known feature selection algorithms. Discussion focused on four perspectives: number of features, classification accuracy, stability, and feature generalization. The results showed that BANB significantly outperformed other algorithms in selecting lower number of features, hence removing irrelevant, redundant, or noisy features while maintaining the classification accuracy. BANB is also proven to be more stable than other methods and is capable of producing more general feature subsets.

  10. Naive Bayes-Guided Bat Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmed Majid; Mustapha, Aida; Chen, Soong-Der

    2013-01-01

    When the amount of data and information is said to double in every 20 months or so, feature selection has become highly important and beneficial. Further improvements in feature selection will positively affect a wide array of applications in fields such as pattern recognition, machine learning, or signal processing. Bio-inspired method called Bat Algorithm hybridized with a Naive Bayes classifier has been presented in this work. The performance of the proposed feature selection algorithm was investigated using twelve benchmark datasets from different domains and was compared to three other well-known feature selection algorithms. Discussion focused on four perspectives: number of features, classification accuracy, stability, and feature generalization. The results showed that BANB significantly outperformed other algorithms in selecting lower number of features, hence removing irrelevant, redundant, or noisy features while maintaining the classification accuracy. BANB is also proven to be more stable than other methods and is capable of producing more general feature subsets. PMID:24396295

  11. Improving scale invariant feature transform-based descriptors with shape-color alliance robust feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhu, Zhengdan; Zhang, Liang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing appropriate descriptors for interest points in image matching is a critical aspect task in computer vision and pattern recognition. A method as an extension of the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptor called shape-color alliance robust feature (SCARF) descriptor is presented. To address the problem that SIFT is designed mainly for gray images and lack of global information for feature points, the proposed approach improves the SIFT descriptor by means of a concentric-rings model, as well as integrating the color invariant space and shape context with SIFT to construct the SCARF descriptor. The SCARF method developed is more robust than the conventional SIFT with respect to not only the color and photometrical variations but also the measuring similarity as a global variation between two shapes. A comparative evaluation of different descriptors is carried out showing that the SCARF approach provides better results than the other four state-of-the-art related methods.

  12. Features for detecting smoke in laparoscopic videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Nour Aldeen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Video-based smoke detection in laparoscopic surgery has different potential applications, such as the automatic addressing of surgical events associated with the electrocauterization task and the development of automatic smoke removal. In the literature, video-based smoke detection has been studied widely for fire surveillance systems. Nevertheless, the proposed methods are insufficient for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos because they often depend on assumptions which rarely hold in laparoscopic surgery such as static camera. In this paper, ten visual features based on motion, texture and colour of smoke are proposed and evaluated for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos. These features are RGB channels, energy-based feature, texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, HSV colour space feature, features based on the detection of moving regions using optical flow and the smoke colour in HSV colour space. These features were tested on four laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. Experimental observations show that each feature can provide valuable information in performing the smoke detection task. However, each feature has weaknesses to detect the presence of smoke in some cases. By combining all proposed features smoke with high and even low density can be identified robustly and the classification accuracy increases significantly.

  13. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  14. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  15. MRI features of placenta accreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Manrui; Du Mu; Huang Yi; Liu Bingguang; Zhang Fangjing; Guo Jimin; Zhu Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MRI features of placenta accreta. Methods: From Apr 2009 to Jun 2011, 15 patients with placenta accrete received MRI examination. In them, placenta accreta was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations or postoperative histopathology. The MR features of placenta accreta in them (study group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those in 15 pregnant women without placenta accreta (control group) with Fisher exact test. Results: In the 15 patients with placenta accreta,uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge was detected in 14 patients; heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta was detected in 15 patients; dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images was detected in 15 patients; and increased subplacental vascularity was detected in 11 patients on T 1 - weighted images. In the study group, 14 patients showed at least three of the above four features, and in all of them uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images were detected; one patient showed heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity. In the control group,none patient had three of the above features.Uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity were detected in 3, 6, 3 and 4 patients (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.000 and 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: The main MRI features of placenta accreta are uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images Besides, increased subplacental vascularity also could provide useful information for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. (authors)

  16. We're Playing "Jeremy Kyle"! Television Talk Shows in the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on an episode of play in a primary school playground in England, which featured a group of children re-enacting elements of the television talk show "The Jeremy Kyle Show". The episode is analysed in the light of work that has identified the key elements of the talk show genre and the children's play is examined in…

  17. Correlation optics in progress: introduction to the feature issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Gbur, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and showing, in part, the trend from micro-optics to nano-optics.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and showing, in part, the trend from micro-optics to nano-optics....

  18. Enhancing facial features by using clear facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.

  19. A Novel Real-Time Feature Matching Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affine Scale Invariant Feature Transform (ASIFT can obtain fully affine invariance, however, its time cost reaches about twice that in Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. We propose an improved ASIFT algorithm based on feature points in scale space for real-time application. In order to detect the affine invariant feature point, we establish a second-order difference of Gaussian (DOG pyramid and replace the extreme detection in the DOG pyramid by zero detection in the proposed second-order DOG pyramid, which decreases the complexity of the scheme. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a big progress in the real-time performance compared to the traditional one, while preserving the fully affine invariance and precision.

  20. Improvement of embryogenesis and regeneration by air desiccation in maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morshed, S.; Siddique, B.; Islam, S.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Calli derived from mature embryos of four maize varieties viz. Mohar, Khoi bhutta, Barnali and Shuvra were cultured in three basal media for regeneration (MS, N6 and 6N1) which individually supplemented with four hormonal combinations e.g. H1 = BAP 0.5 mg/l + IAA 0.0 mg/l, H2 = BAP 1.0 mg/l + IAA 0.5 mg/l, H3 = BAP 1.5 mg/l + IAA 1.0 mg/l and H4 = BAP 2.0 mg/l + IAA 1.5 mg/l. The highest frequency of regeneration was found with MS + H2 (41.35%) in Mohar, while the lowest was 17.37% in 6N1 + H1 for Barnali. To enhance the capability of regeneration, calli were pretreated by ten groups (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60 h) of desiccation periods. The degrees of desiccation of pretreated calli were determined; and it was ranged as 6.23 to 40.52% where Khoi bhutta showed the maximum value at 60 h desiccation. The callus of Mohar exhibited the highest frequency of regeneration (75.24%) which desiccated for 48 h; and it was around 2 fold higher than the control. The variety Khoi bhutta showed the lowest efficiency (31.80%) when the callus was desiccated for 6 h. All the varieties performed their maximum regeneration at different periods, where 36, 30 and 42 h desiccation were optimal for Barnali (67.23%), Khoi bhutta (68.03%) and Shuvra (73.98%) accordingly. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant effect of maize genotype and periods of partial air desiccation to enhance regeneration at p<0.05 level. (author)

  1. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  2. Feature singletons attract spatial attention independently of feature priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashar, Amit; White, Alex L; Fang, Wanghaoming; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    People perform better in visual search when the target feature repeats across trials (intertrial feature priming [IFP]). Here, we investigated whether repetition of a feature singleton's color modulates stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention by presenting a probe stimulus immediately after each singleton display. The task alternated every two trials between a probe discrimination task and a singleton search task. We measured both stimulus-driven spatial attention (via the distance between the probe and singleton) and IFP (via repetition of the singleton's color). Color repetition facilitated search performance (IFP effect) when the set size was small. When the probe appeared at the singleton's location, performance was better than at the opposite location (stimulus-driven attention effect). The magnitude of this attention effect increased with the singleton's set size (which increases its saliency) but did not depend on whether the singleton's color repeated across trials, even when the previous singleton had been attended as a search target. Thus, our findings show that repetition of a salient singleton's color affects performance when the singleton is task relevant and voluntarily attended (as in search trials). However, color repetition does not affect performance when the singleton becomes irrelevant to the current task, even though the singleton does capture attention (as in probe trials). Therefore, color repetition per se does not make a singleton more salient for stimulus-driven attention. Rather, we suggest that IFP requires voluntary selection of color singletons in each consecutive trial.

  3. Automatic processing of unattended object features by functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Martina Mayer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers can selectively attend to object features that are relevant for a task. However, unattended task-irrelevant features may still be processed and possibly integrated with the attended features. This study investigated the neural mechanisms for processing both task-relevant (attended and task-irrelevant (unattended object features. The Garner paradigm was adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test whether specific brain areas process the conjunction of features or whether multiple interacting areas are involved in this form of feature integration. Observers attended to shape, colour, or non-rigid motion of novel objects while unattended features changed from trial to trial (change blocks or remained constant (no-change blocks during a given block. This block manipulation allowed us to measure the extent to which unattended features affected neural responses which would reflect the extent to which multiple object features are automatically processed. We did not find Garner interference at the behavioural level. However, we designed the experiment to equate performance across block types so that any fMRI results could not be due solely to differences in task difficulty between change and no-change blocks. Attention to specific features localised several areas known to be involved in object processing. No area showed larger responses on change blocks compared to no-change blocks. However, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that several functionally-localised areas showed significant positive interactions with areas in occipito-temporal and frontal areas that depended on block type. Overall, these findings suggest that both regional responses and functional connectivity are crucial for processing multi-featured objects.

  4. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  5. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  6. Classification of line features from remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Kolankiewiczová, Soňa

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with object-based classification of high resolution data. The aim of the thesis (paper, work) is to develope an acceptable classification process of linear features (roads and railways) from high-resolution satellite images. The first part shows different approaches of the linear feature classification and compares theoretic differences between an object-oriented and a pixel-based classification. Linear feature classification was created in the second part. The high-resolution...

  7. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  8. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  9. PBPK simulated DNA adduct formation: Relevance for the risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; van Eijkeren JCH; Kroese ED; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In een voorgaand rapport is een fysiologisch-kinetisch model (UPBPKL model) voor de orale blootstelling aan B(a)P beschreven (Zeilmaker et al., 1998). Dit model simuleert, na orale blootstelling, de verdeling van B(a)P in het lichaam en het metabolisme van B(a)P, inclusief de vorming van (een

  10. Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by two freshwater microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus: a comparative study useful for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Llasera, Martha Patricia; Olmos-Espejel, José de Jesús; Díaz-Flores, Gabriel; Montaño-Montiel, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the removal of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sorption and degradation by two microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus was performed. The monitoring of the amount of BaP remaining in the liquid culture media and the biomass along with the appearance of three metabolites (4,5 dihydrodiol-BaP; 7,8-dihydrodiol-BaP; and 9,10 dihydrodiol-BaP) at short time periods (from 0.25 to 72 h) in cultures exposed to BaP was made by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Complete removal of BaP was achieved by the two live microalgal species: S. capricornutum at 15 h of exposure (99%) and S. acutus at 72 h of exposure (95%). Sorption is an important phenomenon for BaP removal by S. capricornutum but biodegradation is the principal means of removing BaP in live cells. The formation of metabolites by S. capricornutum is rapid and seems to be proportional to the amount of the BaP added to cultures. In contrast, in these bioassays, most of the BaP removal of S. acutus is due to sorption rather than degradation. The appearance of metabolites in the cultures is very slow and at a low amount compared to cultures of S. capricornutum. The similarities and differences existing between the two microalgae are important for the establishment of the conditions for bioremediation.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  12. Effective traffic features selection algorithm for cyber-attacks samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Liu, Fangzheng; Du, Zhenyu

    2018-05-01

    By studying the defense scheme of Network attacks, this paper propose an effective traffic features selection algorithm based on k-means++ clustering to deal with the problem of high dimensionality of traffic features which extracted from cyber-attacks samples. Firstly, this algorithm divide the original feature set into attack traffic feature set and background traffic feature set by the clustering. Then, we calculates the variation of clustering performance after removing a certain feature. Finally, evaluating the degree of distinctiveness of the feature vector according to the result. Among them, the effective feature vector is whose degree of distinctiveness exceeds the set threshold. The purpose of this paper is to select out the effective features from the extracted original feature set. In this way, it can reduce the dimensionality of the features so as to reduce the space-time overhead of subsequent detection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and it has some advantages over other selection algorithms.

  13. Discovering highly informative feature set over high dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng; Masseglia, Florent; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2012-01-01

    For many textual collections, the number of features is often overly large. These features can be very redundant, it is therefore desirable to have a small, succinct, yet highly informative collection of features that describes the key characteristics of a dataset. Information theory is one such tool for us to obtain this feature collection. With this paper, we mainly contribute to the improvement of efficiency for the process of selecting the most informative feature set over high-dimensional unlabeled data. We propose a heuristic theory for informative feature set selection from high dimensional data. Moreover, we design data structures that enable us to compute the entropies of the candidate feature sets efficiently. We also develop a simple pruning strategy that eliminates the hopeless candidates at each forward selection step. We test our method through experiments on real-world data sets, showing that our proposal is very efficient. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Discovering highly informative feature set over high dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2012-11-01

    For many textual collections, the number of features is often overly large. These features can be very redundant, it is therefore desirable to have a small, succinct, yet highly informative collection of features that describes the key characteristics of a dataset. Information theory is one such tool for us to obtain this feature collection. With this paper, we mainly contribute to the improvement of efficiency for the process of selecting the most informative feature set over high-dimensional unlabeled data. We propose a heuristic theory for informative feature set selection from high dimensional data. Moreover, we design data structures that enable us to compute the entropies of the candidate feature sets efficiently. We also develop a simple pruning strategy that eliminates the hopeless candidates at each forward selection step. We test our method through experiments on real-world data sets, showing that our proposal is very efficient. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Sexual dimorphism in medulloblastoma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Ciucci, Alessandra; Marucci, Gianluca; Travaglia, Daniele; Stigliano, Egidio; Foschini, Maria Pia; Scambia, Giovanni; Gallo, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Male sex is a risk factor for medulloblastoma (MB), and is also a negative predictor for clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in tumour biological features and hormone receptor profiles in a cohort of MB patients. Sixty-four MBs and five normal cerebella were included in the study. Cell proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and microvessel density (CD31) were evaluated in tumours by immunohistochemistry. Tissues were analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ5 and androgen receptor (AR) expression. The results demonstrated sex-specific features in MBs, with tumours from females showing a higher apoptosis/proliferation ratio and less tumour vascularization than tumours from males. MBs were negative for ERα and AR, but expressed ERβ isoforms at similar levels between the sexes. Altogether, these findings indicate that signalling mechanisms that control cell turnover and angiogenesis operate more efficiently in females than in males. The lack of sex differences in the hormone receptor profiles suggests that circulating oestrogens could be the major determinants of the sexual dimorphism observed in MB features. Here, we provide molecular support for epidemiological data showing sex differences in MB incidence and outcome, completely defining the hormone receptor profile of the tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species Organogênese in vitro em algumas espécies de cítrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.A organogênese in vitro

  17. Microbial transformation of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millner, G.C.; Fu, P.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fungal metabolism of the potent mutagenic and carcinogenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NO 2 -BaP) was investigated. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with 6-NO 2 -BaP for periods ranging between 1 and 7 d, and the metabolites formed were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by their UV-visible absorption, mass, and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results of the study indicate that C. elegans metabolized 6-NO 2 -BaP to glucoside and sulfate conjugates of 1- and 3-hydroxy 6-NO 2 -BaP and suggests that glycosylation and sulfation reactions may represent detoxification pathways in the fungal metabolism of nitro-PAHs. Experiments using [G- 3 H]-6-NO 2 -BaP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 62% of 6-NO 2 -BaP with 168 h. The data also indicated that the nitro group at the C-6 position of benzo[a]pyrene blocked metabolism at the regions peri to the nitro substituent (C-7, C-8 positions) and enhanced metabolism at the C-1 and C-3 positions. The ability of the fungus C. elegans to metabolize 6-NO 2 -BaP to biologically inactive compounds may have practical applications in the detoxification of nitro-PAH-contaminated wastes

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-protein interactions. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1979-10-01

    As bovine serum albumin (BSA) undergoes acid- or base-induced conformational changes, the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) to BSA, as well as the type II uv fluorescence (380 nm) due to pyrene-like oxidation products, increases. The presence of fatty acids also enhances the binding of BaP to BSA at neutral pH, whereas the visible fluorescence of BaP is effectively quenched by fatty acids. L-Tryptophan, which is specifically bound to BSA, enhances the BaP binding and particularly the formation of pyrene-type products. Upon removal of oxygen, the production of the type I uv fluorescence (340, 357, 378 nm) probably due to BaP radicals is diminished and hydroxy-BaP derivatives are not formed. While BaP undergoes oxygen-dependent reactions with cysteine, non-carcinogenic benzo(e)pyrene does not react with cysteine. The BaP fluorescence of young collagen (from 4 to 6 weeks old rat tail tendon) is more intense than that of old collagen (from about 2 years old rat tail tendon). With increasing temperature, the former fluorescence decreases, whereas the latter increases. The denaturation temperature of both BaP-collagen and uv (365 nm)-irradiated BaP-collagen complexes does not differ from that of collagen itself

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE BENZO(A)PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE-DNA ADDUCTS IN CALF THYMUS DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[alpyrene-7,8-dione (BPQ) is a reactive aldo-keto reductase-mediated product of B[a]P-7,8-diol, a major P450/epoxide hydrolase metabolite of the multi-species carcinogen, B[a]P. The role of BPQ in B[a]P's genotoxicity and carcinogenesis is evolving. Toxicity pathways involvi...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE BENZOLALPYRENE-7,8-QUINONE-DNA ADDUCTS IN CALF THYMUS DNA AND POLYDEOXYNUCLEOTIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bcnzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (BPQ) is a reactive aldo-keto reductase-mediated product of B[a]P-7,8-diol, a major P450/epoxide hydrolase metabolite of the multi-species carcinogen, B[a]P. The role of BPQ in B[a]P's genotoxicity and carcinogenesis is evolving. Toxicity pathways involvi...

  1. Dietary benzo(a)pyrene intake during pregnancy and birth weight: associations modified by vitamin C intakes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Mendez, Michelle A; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain. To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism. This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients. The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P<0.05), but no interactions were found with other vitamins. The multivariate-adjusted coefficients (95%CI) for birth weight in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake were -44.4g (-76.5, -12.3) in the group with low vitamin C intakes vs. -17.6g (-29.0, -6.1) in the high vitamin C intake group. The results suggest that higher prenatal exposure to dietary B(a)P may reduce birth weight. Lowering maternal intake of B(a)P and increasing dietary vitamin C intake during pregnancy may help to reduce any adverse effects of B(a)P on birth weight. © 2013.

  2. Cytochrome b5 and epoxide hydrolase contribute to benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A1 under low NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiborová, Marie; Moserová, Michaela; Černá, Věra; Indra, Radek; Dračínský, Martin; Šulc, Miroslav; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we had administered benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to genetically engineered mice (HRN) which do not express NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in hepatocytes and observed higher DNA adduct levels in livers of these mice than in wild-type mice. To elucidate the reason for this unexpected finding we have used two different settings for in vitro incubations; hepatic microsomes from control and BaP-pretreated HRN mice and reconstituted systems with cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), POR, cytochrome b 5 , and epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in different ratios. In microsomes from BaP-pretreated mice, in which Cyp1a1 was induced, higher levels of BaP metabolites were formed, mainly of BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol. At a low POR:CYP1A1 ratio of 0.05:1 in the reconstituted system, the amounts of BaP diones and BaP-9-ol formed were essentially the same as at an equimolar ratio, but formation of BaP-3-ol was ∼1.6-fold higher. Only after addition of mEH were BaP dihydrodiols found. Two BaP-DNA adducts were formed in the presence of mEH, but only one when CYP1A1 and POR were present alone. At a ratio of POR:CYP1A1 of 0.05:1, addition of cytochrome b 5 increased CYP1A1-mediated BaP oxidation to most of its metabolites indicating that cytochrome b 5 participates in the electron transfer from NADPH to CYP1A1 required for enzyme activity of this CYP. BaP-9-ol was formed even by CYP1A1 reconstituted with cytochrome b 5 without POR. Our results suggest that in livers of HRN mice Cyp1a1, cytochrome b 5 and mEH can effectively activate BaP to DNA binding species, even in the presence of very low amounts of POR

  3. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  4. Imaging features of thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B.; Dincol, G.

    1999-01-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of β-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  5. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouser K

    Full Text Available Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine, KNN (K Nearest Neighbor and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  6. Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1β secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanjun; Tian Huaijun; Cao Jia; Gao Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1β secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2 + testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1β secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1β secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1β, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1β as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with β-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis

  8. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  9. Effects of auxins and cytokinins on tomato callus from anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on growth substance requirements of tomato callus derived from anthers for culture in vitro. Linsmaier and Skoog (1965 medium was used with various levels of auxins (IAA and NAA and cytokinins (K and BAP. The results show that cytokinin is an absolute requirement for callus growth irrespective of the auxin level. The optimum concentration of auxin in combination with cytokinin was found to be 5 μM of NAA or 25 μM of IAA, with 5 μM of K or BAP. Callus growth on media with NAA and cytokinin was superior to that on IAA, amounting to 6.05 g per piece on medium with 5 μM of NAA and BAP. Tissues grown on this medium have the highest water content. At the onset of culture the tissue is characterized by weak growth and attains its maximal increase in fresh weight after 6 weeks.

  10. Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Cattleya sp. dengan Perlakuan Benzyl Amino Purine pada Media Dasar Pupuk Daun Modifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Plantlets of Cattleya Orchid on The Fooliar Fertilizer-Based Medium added with Benzyl Amino Purine. The aim of the current research was to investigate the appropriate concentrationof plant growth regulator BAP on the growth of Cattleya plantlet. The experiment was utilized a Randomized Completely Design with five treatments and six replications. The basal medium used was modification of foliar fertilizer of Growmore (trade mark with addition of fish emulsion, Vitamin B1 and active charcoal. BAP concentration used as treatment were 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 2.0 ppm. Variables observed were height, leaf number, root number, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plantlets. The result showed that concentration of 1 ppm BAP resulted in the highest value for plantlet height (5.67 cm, leaf number (4.67, root length (2.07 cm, fresh weight (0.36 g and dry weight (0.043 g.

  11. Discriminating Induced-Microearthquakes Using New Seismic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Horton, S.

    2016-12-01

    We studied characteristics of induced-microearthquakes on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers using machine-learning techniques. Forty features in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains were measured on each waveform, and several techniques such as correlation-based feature selection, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Logistic Regression (LR) and X-mean were used as research tools to explore the relationship between these seismic features and source parameters. The results show that spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Two new measurements developed as seismic features for this study, spectral centroids and 2D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain, performed better than the common seismic measurements. These features can be used by machine learning techniques for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes-1.7Reference: Mousavi, S.M., S.P. Horton, C. A. Langston, B. Samei, (2016) Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression, Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw258.

  12. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  13. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  14. Assessment of trophic transfer of benzo(a)pyrene genotoxicity from the post-larval pink shrimp F. brasiliensis to the juvenile Florida pompano T. carolinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Arthur José da Silva; Santos, Thaís Cruz Alves; Gomes, Vicente; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti de Albergaria; Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos Rocha; Hasue, Fabio Matsu; Van Ngan, Phan

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) genotoxicity was investigated in a one-step predator-prey relationship with the trophic-related marine species. Florida pompanos were fed for 5 and 10 days with pink shrimp post larvae previously exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations. Parent BaP body burden was measured in samples of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis. BaP metabolites were determined in bile samples of Trachinotus carolinus and DNA damage was assessed through the comet and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) assays in fish erythrocytes. BaP body burden increased significantly with the PAH concentration in pink shrimp PLs as well as the fish bile BaP metabolites. Both, comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increase on erythrocyte DNA damage of Florida pompanos fed with BaP-exposed pink shrimp on both feeding periods. The trophic route of BaP genotoxicity is discussed as well as the PAH biotransformation as the inducing mechanism for the DNA damages observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro multiplication and somatic embryogenesis of Perezia pinnatifida (Asteraceae medicinal Andean plant

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    Percy Olivera-Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work inform on in vitro propagation of the "valeriana" Perezia pinnatifida (Humb. & Bonpl. Wedd. Shoot multiplication and indirect somatic embryogenesis methodologies were performed. The basal culture medium for all stages was Murashige and Skoog, middle of salts supplemented with 2.0% sucrose, 0.3% phytagel and pH 5.67; the treatments were prepared with or without phytohormones. The hormonal supplements for the shoot multiplication were: BAP 1.0 mg.L-1 + ANA 0.01 mg.L-1, and BAP 1.0 mg.L-1; for embryogenic callus induction were: ANA or 2,4-D (1.0 mg.L-1 and 2.0 mg.L-1; and for the embryo germination were: BAP (0.5 and 1.0 mg.L-1 or BAP 0.5mg.L-1 + ANA 0.05mg.L-1. BAP 1.0 mg.L-1 produced the higher number buds. For somatic embryogenesis, ANA 1.0 mg.L-1 induced a greater area of embryogenic callus, and BAP 0.5 mg.L-1 allowed major germination of the somatic embryos.

  16. Disruption of visual feature binding in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Saito, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    In a series of five experiments, we studied the effect of a visual suffix on the retention in short-term visual memory of both individual visual features and objects involving the binding of two features. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2 involved suffixes consisting of features external to the to-be-remembered set and revealed a modest but equivalent disruption on individual and bound feature conditions. Experiments 3A and 3B involved suffixes comprising features that could potentially have formed part of the to-be-remembered set (but did not on that trial). Both experiments showed greater disruption of retention for objects comprising bound features than for their individual features. The results are interpreted as differentiating two components of suffix interference, one affecting memory for features and bindings equally, the other affecting memory for bindings. The general component is tentatively identified with the attentional cost of operating a filter to prevent the suffix from entering visual working memory, whereas the specific component is attributed to the particular fragility of bound representations when the filter fails.

  17. A Feature Subset Selection Method Based On High-Dimensional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Kwoh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important step in building accurate classifiers and provides better understanding of the data sets. In this paper, we propose a feature subset selection method based on high-dimensional mutual information. We also propose to use the entropy of the class attribute as a criterion to determine the appropriate subset of features when building classifiers. We prove that if the mutual information between a feature set X and the class attribute Y equals to the entropy of Y , then X is a Markov Blanket of Y . We show that in some cases, it is infeasible to approximate the high-dimensional mutual information with algebraic combinations of pairwise mutual information in any forms. In addition, the exhaustive searches of all combinations of features are prerequisite for finding the optimal feature subsets for classifying these kinds of data sets. We show that our approach outperforms existing filter feature subset selection methods for most of the 24 selected benchmark data sets.

  18. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes): relationship between lymphoid CYP1A activity and humoral immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, E.A.; Li, Y.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to the environmental contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) results in suppression of immune function in both mammalian and fish species. This laboratory has previously demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of BaP reduced lymphocyte proliferation, phagocyte-mediated superoxide generation, and antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The objective of the current study was to determine the role of BaP metabolism in the observed immunosuppression. Results from rodent studies have suggested that BaP elicits its immunotoxic effects via upregulation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and the subsequent production of immunosuppressive BaP metabolites. In this study, exposure of medaka to 200 μg BaP/g BW significantly induced CYP1A expression or activity within lymphoid tissue 48 h post-IP injection; induction was observed specifically within distinct subpopulations of kidney mononuclear cells. Concurrent injection of fish with BaP and the CYP1A1 inhibitors α-naphthoflavone (ANF) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) resulted in inhibition of renal EROD activity and amelioration of BaP-induced suppression of medaka AFC numbers. Results of this study suggest that (1) BaP-induced suppression of medaka humoral immunity relies upon the CYP1A-catalyzed production of immunotoxic BaP metabolites and (2) BaP metabolites may be created in situ, directly by specific cells within kidney lymphoid tissue. Thus, apparently, mechanisms involved in BaP-induced immunosuppression have been phylogenetically conserved from fish to mammals

  20. A Polygon and Point-Based Approach to Matching Geospatial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Ruiz-Lendínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for matching bidimensional entities is presented in this paper. The matching is proposed for both area and point features extracted from geographical databases. The procedure used to obtain homologous entities is achieved in a two-step process: The first matching, polygon to polygon matching (inter-element matching, is obtained by means of a genetic algorithm that allows the classifying of area features from two geographical databases. After this, we apply a point to point matching (intra-element matching based on the comparison of changes in their turning functions. This study shows that genetic algorithms are suitable for matching polygon features even if these features are quite different. Our results show up to 40% of matched polygons with differences in geometrical attributes. With regards to point matching, the vertex from homologous polygons, the function and threshold values proposed in this paper show a useful method for obtaining precise vertex matching.

  1. 6-Benzilaminopurina e ácido indolbutírico na multiplicação in vitro da amoreira - preta (Rubus idaeus L., cv. Tupy 6-Benzylamino purine and indol butyric acid on the in vitro multiplication of blackberry (Rubus idaeus, cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes níveis de BAP (0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10miM e de AIB (0; 0,5 e 1miM na multiplicação in vitro da amoreira-preta cv. Tupy. O meio utilizado foi o MS suplementado com 100mg.-1 de mio-inositol, 30g.-1 de sacarose e 6g.-1 de ágar. Após a inoculação, as culturas foram mantidas em sala de cultura com 16 horas de fotoperíodo, temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC e radiação de 25µmoles.m-2.s-1. O número de gemas e o número de brotações foram avaliados com intervalo semanal, num total de quatro avaliações, e, na última avaliação, considerou-se a altura da brotação, bem como foi determinada a taxa de multiplicação. O maior número de gemas foi obtido com 2miM de BAP e, na ausência de AIB, enquanto o maior número de brotações foi atingido, até a terceira semana de cultivo, com 2 e 4miM de BAP. Para altura das brotações, tanto na ausência como no nível de 1miM de AIB, o aumento nas concentrações de BAP resultou na diminuição do comprimento das brotações linearmente. Observou-se, de modo geral, com o aumento dos níveis de BAP, para todas as doses de AIB, uma redução na altura das brotações. A concentração de 1miM de AIB associado com BAP influenciou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação, até a concentração de 5,9miM de BAP. Quando utilizado isoladamente, o BAP promoveu aumento na taxa de multiplicação até o nível de 5,1miM. O AIB a 0,5miM, em todos os níveis de BAP, não influenciou significativamente na taxa de multiplicação.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different BAP levels (0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10muM and IBA (0; 0.5 and 1muM on the in vitro multiplication of blackberry, cv. Tupy. The MS nutrient medium was supplemented with myo-inositol (100mg.-1, sucrose (30g.-1 and agar (6g.-1. The cultures were inoculated and then kept at a 16 hour-photoperiod, temperature of 25 ± 2ºC and 25µmoles.m-2.s-1 radiation. The number of buds and shoots was evaluated weekly

  2. Influence of the 6 Bencilaminopurina on the in vitro behavior of Henequen plants obtained by embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo González

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the acclimatization phase, a group of derived plants from henequen embryos, germinated in a medium with different concentrations of 6 BAP, was evaluated. In these results it is evidenced that the content of 6 BAP in the germination medium determined the behaviour of the vitroplants. The lower concentrations provoked an significative increase in the height and width of the base from plants, superior surviver percentage and minor stomata opening. These results suggest that high concentations of 6 BAP prevents the development of the acclimatization phase in derived plants from henequen embryos. Key words: somatic embryogenesis, 6 BAP, aclimatization. Agave

  3. Spatial and Time Domain Feature of ERP Speller System Extracted via Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaehong; Lee, Jungnyun; Whang, Mincheol

    2018-01-01

    Feature of event-related potential (ERP) has not been completely understood and illiteracy problem remains unsolved. To this end, P300 peak has been used as the feature of ERP in most brain-computer interface applications, but subjects who do not show such peak are common. Recent development of convolutional neural network provides a way to analyze spatial and temporal features of ERP. Here, we train the convolutional neural network with 2 convolutional layers whose feature maps represented spatial and temporal features of event-related potential. We have found that nonilliterate subjects' ERP show high correlation between occipital lobe and parietal lobe, whereas illiterate subjects only show correlation between neural activities from frontal lobe and central lobe. The nonilliterates showed peaks in P300, P500, and P700, whereas illiterates mostly showed peaks in around P700. P700 was strong in both subjects. We found that P700 peak may be the key feature of ERP as it appears in both illiterate and nonilliterate subjects.

  4. Feature selection from a facial image for distinction of sasang constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Imhoi; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Myoung Geun; Kim, Keun Ho

    2009-09-01

    Recently, oriental medicine has received attention for providing personalized medicine through consideration of the unique nature and constitution of individual patients. With the eventual goal of globalization, the current trend in oriental medicine research is the standardization by adopting western scientific methods, which could represent a scientific revolution. The purpose of this study is to establish methods for finding statistically significant features in a facial image with respect to distinguishing constitution and to show the meaning of those features. From facial photo images, facial elements are analyzed in terms of the distance, angle and the distance ratios, for which there are 1225, 61 250 and 749 700 features, respectively. Due to the very large number of facial features, it is quite difficult to determine truly meaningful features. We suggest a process for the efficient analysis of facial features including the removal of outliers, control for missing data to guarantee data confidence and calculation of statistical significance by applying ANOVA. We show the statistical properties of selected features according to different constitutions using the nine distances, 10 angles and 10 rates of distance features that are finally established. Additionally, the Sasang constitutional meaning of the selected features is shown here.

  5. Classification of Textures Using Filter Based Local Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocekci Veysel Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work local features are used in feature extraction process in image processing for textures. The local binary pattern feature extraction method from textures are introduced. Filtering is also used during the feature extraction process for getting discriminative features. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm before the extraction process, three different noise are added to both train and test images. Wiener filter and median filter are used to remove the noise from images. We evaluate the performance of the method with Naïve Bayesian classifier. We conduct the comparative analysis on benchmark dataset with different filtering and size. Our experiments demonstrate that feature extraction process combine with filtering give promising results on noisy images.

  6. Post-cancer Treatment with Condurango 30C Shows Amelioration of Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer in Rats Through the Molecular Pathway of Caspa- se-3-mediated Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Sourav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present investigation aimed at examining if post-cancer treatment with a potentized homeopathic drug, Condurango 30C, which is generally used to treat oesophageal cancer, could also show an ameliorating effect through apoptosis induction on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Lung cancer was induced after four months by chronic feeding of BaP to rats through gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for one month. After four months, the lung-cancer-bearing rats were treated with Condurango 30C for the next one (5th, two (5th-6th and three (5th-7th months, respectively, and were sacrificed at the corresponding time- points. The ameliorating effect, if any, after Condurango 30C treatment for the various periods was evaluated by using protocols such as histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, annexinV-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry of the apoptosis marker, DNA fragmentation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of lung tissue samples. Results: Striking recovery of lung tissue to a near normal status was noticed after post-cancerous drug treatment, as evidenced by SEM and histology, especially after one and two months of drug treatment. Data from the annexinV-FITC/PI and DNA fragmentation assays revealed that Condurango 30C could induce apoptosis in cancer cells after post-cancer treatment. A critical analysis of signalling cascade, evidenced through a RT-PCR study, demonstrated up-regulation and down-regulation of different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, related to a caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was especially discernible after one-month and two- month drug treatments. Correspondingly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the ameliorative potential of Condurango 30C by its ability to down-regulate the elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression, a

  7. Shielding voices: The modulation of binding processes between voice features and response features by task representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.

  8. The Effects of Benzo(apyrene and 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-diox:in from Automobile Exhaust...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Carević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete combustion process is a potential source ofbenzo(apyrene (BaP and tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD . These compounds have been detected in effluents ofmunicipal incinerators, sewage sludge, cigarette smoke, automobileexhaust etc. Although BaP and TCD have carcinogenicpotential, in recent years these agents have received great attentiondue to their environmental persistence and remarkablyacute toxicity.To assess health risks associated with human exposure toBaP and TCDD, it was of interest to evaluate their effects uponhuman polymorphonuclear leucocytes by measuring the releaseof lysosomal and cytoplasmic enzymes.Suspensions of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes(PMNL were treated with BaP, TCDD and BaP+ TCDD atconcentrations of 1 0·1, 1 Q-6M. These agents provoked a progressivetime- and dose-dependent release of lysosomal enzymebeta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, beta-GLM and LDH respectively. Atconcentrations listed TCDD was much more effective in realisingboth enzymes beta -G LM and LDH than BaP. In the experimentswith the combination of BaP+ TCDD, extracellular releaseof beta-GLM or LDH was significantly higher as comparedto BaP or TCDD-treated samples. lt seems possible thatTCDD affected the solubility of beta-GLM and LDH to agreater extent than the activity of BaP.The observations obtained in these studies suggest that BaPand TCDD damage the lysosomal and cellular membranes.

  9. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Devi, Salam Gyaneshwori; Mittal, Soniya; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal) were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward's triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause. PMID:23481051

  10. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  11. Benzopyrene exposure disrupts DNA methylation and growth dynamics in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Rodenhiser, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Exposures to environmental carcinogens and unhealthy lifestyle choices increase the incidence of breast cancer. One such compound, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), leads to covalent DNA modifications and the deregulation of gene expression. To date, these mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood, particularly in the case of breast cancer. We tested the effects of BaP exposure on cellular growth dynamics and DNA methylation in four breast cancer cell lines since disruptions in DNA methylation lead to deregulated gene expression and the loss of genomic integrity. We observed robust time- and concentration-dependent loss of proliferation, S phase and G2M accumulation and apoptosis in p53 positive MCF-7 and T47-D cells. We observed minimal responses in p53 negative HCC-1086 and MDA MB 231 cells. Furthermore, BaP increased p53 levels in both p53 positive cell lines, as well as p21 levels in MCF-7 cells, an effect that was prevented by the p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α. No changes in global levels of DNA methylation levels induced by BaP were detected by the methyl acceptor assay (MAA) in any cell line, however, methylation profiling by AIMS (amplification of intermethylated sites) analysis showed dynamic, sequence-specific hypo- and hypermethylation events in all cell lines. We also identified BaP-induced hypomethylation events at a number of genomic repeats. Our data confirm the p53-specific disruption of the cell cycle as well as the disruption of DNA methylation as a consequence of BaP treatment, thus reinforcing the link between environmental exposures, DNA methylation and breast cancer

  12. Experimental exposure of blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to high levels of benzo[a]pyrene and possible implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciale, A; Zena, R; Calabrò, C; Bertuccio, C; Aragona, M; Saija, A; Trombetta, D; Cimino, F; Lo Cascio, P

    2018-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are lipophilic compounds able to accumulate in the food chain. Mussels showed to bioaccumulate contaminants, such as PAHs, so that recurrent consumption of such contaminated food represents a risk for human health. This study was aimed to elucidate if acute exposure of Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), a bivalve of great economic importance in several countries, to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at doses able to induce cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and pathological changes in mussel gills, can produce accumulation in soft tissue. We explored the cytotoxic effects (cell viability, DNA laddering, and glutathione levels) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from blue mussels previously exposed for 12 and 72h via water to B[a]P (0.5-1mg/L). In our experimental conditions, B[a]P induced CYP1A induction and morphological changes in mussel gills and a significant B[a]P accumulation in soft tissue. Conversely, exposing PBMCs to organic extracts obtained from contaminated mussels, resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability and cell glutathione content, and in an increase in DNA laddering. This confirms that consumption of mussels from B[a]P polluted waters might affect human health. Our data lead us to suggest that CYP1A activity in mussel gills may be useful (more than the amount of detected PAHs in the mussel edible tissue) as a marker in assessment of risk for health of consumers exposed to PAHs through ingestion of shellfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene inhibit intestinal lipase activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Stefan; Sæle, Øystein; de Veen, Bas T H; Vos, Joëlle; Flik, Gert; Berntssen, Marc H G; Klaren, Peter H M

    2017-08-01

    Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are detected in aquafeeds where fish oils are (partially) replaced by vegetable oils. The highly lipophilic PAHs solubilize readily in oil droplets and micelles in the intestinal lumen that can affect enzymatic lipid digestion by altering lipase activity. We therefore investigated the effect of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), on bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) activity in desalted luminal extracts of the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the triacylglycerides rapeseed oil and fish oil as substrates. The hydrolysis of rapeseed oil and fish oil measured at a calculated substrate concentration of 2.2mM, increased linearly up to 30min at 15°C. Substrate dependency under initial velocity conditions was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K m value of 1.2mM for rapeseed and fish oil. Rapeseed oil hydrolysis was inhibited by 1nM BaP and 10nM PHE. The hydrolysis of fish oil was only inhibited by 10μM BaP. The in vitro lipase activity data were corroborated by TLC/HPLC analysis of the reaction products, showing that in the presence of BaP and PHE, 46-80% less free fatty acids (FFA) were hydrolysed from rapeseed and fish oil triacylglycerides. The presence of low concentrations of BaP and PHE decreased rapeseed oil hydrolysis by BAL whereas fish oil hydrolysis was not affected. The replacement of fish oil by rapeseed oil in aquafeeds introduces PAHs that could affect lipid digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Color and neighbor edge directional difference feature for image retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaobing Huang; Shengsheng Yu; Jingli Zhou; Hongwei Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel image feature termed neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram is proposed, in which the neighbor edge directional difference unit is defined and computed for every pixel in the image, and is used to generate the neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram. This histogram and color histogram are used as feature indexes to retrieve color image. The feature is invariant to image scaling and translation and has more powerful descriptive for the natural color images. Experimental results show that the feature can achieve better retrieval performance than other color-spatial features.

  15. Multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto de Prunus spp. 'Carelli' In vitro multiplication of Prunus spp. rootstocks 'Carelli'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Teixeira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a falta de porta-enxertos para as Prunáceas, principalmente de origem clonal, tem incentivado a seleção de novas variedades e o uso de técnicas de cultura in vitro para a propagação. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto 'Carelli' sob efeito de diferentes concentrações da citocinina 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. Segmentos nodais com 0,5 cm de comprimento foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Lepoivre, suplementado com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg.L-1 BAP. Estes segmentos nodais são oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro, após duas subculturas em meio de cultura de Lepoivre, suplementado com 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. As avaliações para número de brotos por explante e altura média das brotações foram realizadas após 21 dias de cultura in vitro. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos com BAP não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si. A taxa média de multiplicação foi de 3,3 a 3,4 brotos por explante. O tratamento sem adição de BAP não apresentou a formação de brotações axilares, mas resultou em brotos com maior altura média (16,2 mm. O uso de BAP afetou significativamente a altura das brotações, e o acréscimo nas suas concentrações reduziu o comprimento das mesmas. Concentrações de BAP superiores a 1,0 mg.L-1de BAP reduziram o comprimento das brotações e promoveram hiperidricidade. O uso de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveu a formação de 3,3 brotos por explante com 11,0 mm de altura média, em condições adequadas para o enraizamento.In Brazil the lack of well adapted rootstocks in the Peach industry, mainly of clonal origin, forces the selection of new varieties and the use of tissue culture techniques for the mass clonal propagation. In the present work it was evaluated the in vitro multiplication potential of "Carelli" rootstock in response to different levels of BA. Nodal segments (0.5 cm length were inoculated in

  16. Featureous: infrastructure for feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand how user-observable program features are implemented and how their implementations relate to each other. It is worthwhile to improve this situation, since feature-centric program...... understanding and modification are essential during software evolution and maintenance. In this paper, we present an infrastructure built on top of the NetBeans IDE called Featureous that allows for rapid construction of tools for feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our infrastructure...... encompasses a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of analytical views and an API allowing for addition of third-party extensions. To form a common conceptual framework for future feature-centric extensions, we propose to structure feature centric analysis along three dimensions: perspective...

  17. Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Features of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Mie Young; Rho, Eun Jin; Yi, Jeong Geun; Han, Chun Hwan [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Yong [Choong Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Color Doppler ultrasonographic(US) features of 28 patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis were evaluated with regard to echo and color-flow patterns. Correlation of color-flow pattern with thyroid function was performed. All 28 patients showed varying degrees of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and a heterogeneous echo pattern.Color-flow pattern of increased blood flow. Low to moderate, focally increased blood flow was seen in 26 patients(92.8%). Of these 26 patients, 24 patients showed subclinical hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Two patients who showed hyperthyroidism showed several pieces of focally increased color flow, Which was noted during both systole and diastole. Diffuse, multifocal color-flow throughout thyroid gland was seen in two patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis: one with clinical hypothyroidism and the other with subclinical hypothyroidism. Even though Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed variable color-flow patterns, we believe that heterogenous parenchymal echopattern with low or moderately increased flow is a rather characteristic feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we suggest that color Doppler US provides additional information for evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  18. Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Features of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Mie Young; Rho, Eun Jin; Yi, Jeong Geun; Han, Chun Hwan; Hwang, Hee Yong

    1995-01-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonographic(US) features of 28 patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis were evaluated with regard to echo and color-flow patterns. Correlation of color-flow pattern with thyroid function was performed. All 28 patients showed varying degrees of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and a heterogeneous echo pattern.Color-flow pattern of increased blood flow. Low to moderate, focally increased blood flow was seen in 26 patients(92.8%). Of these 26 patients, 24 patients showed subclinical hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Two patients who showed hyperthyroidism showed several pieces of focally increased color flow, Which was noted during both systole and diastole. Diffuse, multifocal color-flow throughout thyroid gland was seen in two patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis: one with clinical hypothyroidism and the other with subclinical hypothyroidism. Even though Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed variable color-flow patterns, we believe that heterogenous parenchymal echopattern with low or moderately increased flow is a rather characteristic feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we suggest that color Doppler US provides additional information for evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  19. Pedestrian count estimation using texture feature with spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pedestrian count estimation approach based on global image descriptors formed from multi-scale texture features that considers spatial distribution. For regions of interest, local texture features are represented based on histograms of multi-scale block local binary pattern, which jointly constitute the feature vector of the whole image. Therefore, to achieve an effective estimation of pedestrian count, principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimension of the global representation features, and a fitting model between image global features and pedestrian count is constructed via support vector regression. The experimental result shows that the proposed method exhibits high accuracy on pedestrian count estimation and can be applied well in the real world.

  20. Research on oral test modeling based on multi-feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuliang; Tao, Yiyue; Lei, Jun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the spectrum of speech signal is taken as an input of feature extraction. The advantage of PCNN in image segmentation and other processing is used to process the speech spectrum and extract features. And a new method combining speech signal processing and image processing is explored. At the same time of using the features of the speech map, adding the MFCC to establish the spectral features and integrating them with the features of the spectrogram to further improve the accuracy of the spoken language recognition. Considering that the input features are more complicated and distinguishable, we use Support Vector Machine (SVM) to construct the classifier, and then compare the extracted test voice features with the standard voice features to achieve the spoken standard detection. Experiments show that the method of extracting features from spectrograms using PCNN is feasible, and the fusion of image features and spectral features can improve the detection accuracy.

  1. Callus formation in vitro and internodal stem apices in savory = Calogênese in vitro de segmentos apicais caulinares e internodais em segurelha (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate with this work different growth regulators on callus formation in shoot apical and internodal stem segments of Satureja hortensis. The explants were isolated from in vitro seedlings and cultured on MS nutrient medium supplemented with NAA (0 and 1 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μM. The presence of auxin NAA gave higher marks to the calluses at 30 days of evaluation, these notes also increased with the addition of BAP. There were significant interactions between factors in evaluating NAA and BAP for 60 days, both in apical stem segments as in internodal stem segments. To stemapices percentage of friable callus tends to decrease with increasing concentration of BAP. As for compact calluses increased BAP leads to an increase in the percentage of this type of callus. The presence of NAA increased callus formation in both friable and compact calluses on. This trend was also observed in internodal stem segments. The callus formation was highly rhizogenic observed in the presence of NAA, hardly occurs in the absence of auxin. The use of BAP is recommended in case of regeneration of plants through micropropagation, if the goal is the production of metabolites, the use of BAP can be harmful by reducing the production of friable callus.= Buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar diferentes reguladores de crescimento sobre a calogênese em segmentos caulinares apicais e internodais de Satureja hortensis L.. Os explantes foram isolados de plântulas germinadas in vitro e cultivados em meio nutritivo MS acrescido de ANA (0 e 1 μM e de BAP (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20 μM. A presença da auxina ANA proporcionou notas mais altas para os calos aos 30 dias de avaliação, estas notas também aumentaram com o acréscimo da citocinina BAP. Houve interações significativas entre os fatores ANA e BAP na avaliação aos 60 dias, nos dois tipos de segmentos caulinares(apicais e internodais. Nos segmentos apicais caulinares a porcentagem de calos fri

  2. MRI features of peripheral traumatic neuromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Section, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Montgomery, Elizabeth A. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Pathology, Oncology and Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Musculoskeletal Imaging Section Chief, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To describe the MRI appearance of traumatic neuromas on non-contrast and contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study retrospectively reviewed 13 subjects with 20 neuromas. Two observers reviewed pre-operative MRIs for imaging features of neuroma (size, margin, capsule, signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement, neurogenic features and denervation) and the nerve segment distal to the traumatic neuroma. Descriptive statistics were reported. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship between size of neuroma and parent nerve. Of 20 neuromas, 13 were neuromas-in-continuity and seven were end-bulb neuromas. Neuromas had a mean size of 1.5 cm (range 0.6-4.8 cm), 100 % (20/20) had indistinct margins and 0 % (0/20) had a capsule. Eighty-eight percent (7/8) showed enhancement. All 100 % (20/20) had tail sign; 35 % (7/20) demonstrated discontinuity from the parent nerve. None showed a target sign. There was moderate positive correlation (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) with larger neuromas arising from larger parent nerves. MRI evaluation of the nerve segment distal to the neuroma showed increased size (mean size 0.5 cm ± 0.4 cm) compared to the parent nerve (mean size 0.3 cm ± 0.2 cm). Since MRI features of neuromas include enhancement, intravenous contrast medium cannot be used to distinguish neuromas from peripheral nerve sheath tumours. The clinical history of trauma with the lack of a target sign are likely the most useful clues. (orig.)

  3. Feature Article

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Feature Article. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 80-85 Feature Article. What's New in Computers Windows 95 · Vijnan Shastri · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89 Feature ...

  4. Featureous: A Tool for Feature-Centric Analysis of Java Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is necessary for incorporating user-requested modifications during software evolution and maintenance. However, such comprehension is difficult to achieve in case of large object-oriented programs due to the size, complexity, and implicit character...... of mappings between features and source code. To support programmers in overcoming these difficulties, we present a feature-centric analysis tool, Featureous. Our tool extends the NetBeans IDE with mechanisms for efficient location of feature implementations in legacy source code, and an extensive analysis...

  5. Learning features for tissue classification with the classification restricted Boltzmann machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Gijs; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Performance of automated tissue classification in medical imaging depends on the choice of descriptive features. In this paper, we show how restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) can be used to learn features that are especially suited for texture-based tissue classification. We introduce the convo...... outperform conventional RBM-based feature learning, which is unsupervised and uses only a generative learning objective, as well as often-used filter banks. We show that a mixture of generative and discriminative learning can produce filters that give a higher classification accuracy....

  6. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  7. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  8. Familiarity and Within-Person Facial Variability: The Importance of the Internal and External Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Manesi, Zoi; Towler, Alice; Reynolds, Michael G; Burton, A Mike

    2018-01-01

    As faces become familiar, we come to rely more on their internal features for recognition and matching tasks. Here, we assess whether this same pattern is also observed for a card sorting task. Participants sorted photos showing either the full face, only the internal features, or only the external features into multiple piles, one pile per identity. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed the standard advantage for familiar faces-sorting was more accurate and showed very few errors in comparison with unfamiliar faces. However, for both familiar and unfamiliar faces, sorting was less accurate for external features and equivalent for internal and full faces. In Experiment 3, we asked whether external features can ever be used to make an accurate sort. Using familiar faces and instructions on the number of identities present, we nevertheless found worse performance for the external in comparison with the internal features, suggesting that less identity information was available in the former. Taken together, we show that full faces and internal features are similarly informative with regard to identity. In comparison, external features contain less identity information and produce worse card sorting performance. This research extends current thinking on the shift in focus, both in attention and importance, toward the internal features and away from the external features as familiarity with a face increases.

  9. Spatial and Time Domain Feature of ERP Speller System Extracted via Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature of event-related potential (ERP has not been completely understood and illiteracy problem remains unsolved. To this end, P300 peak has been used as the feature of ERP in most brain–computer interface applications, but subjects who do not show such peak are common. Recent development of convolutional neural network provides a way to analyze spatial and temporal features of ERP. Here, we train the convolutional neural network with 2 convolutional layers whose feature maps represented spatial and temporal features of event-related potential. We have found that nonilliterate subjects’ ERP show high correlation between occipital lobe and parietal lobe, whereas illiterate subjects only show correlation between neural activities from frontal lobe and central lobe. The nonilliterates showed peaks in P300, P500, and P700, whereas illiterates mostly showed peaks in around P700. P700 was strong in both subjects. We found that P700 peak may be the key feature of ERP as it appears in both illiterate and nonilliterate subjects.

  10. Feature Selection from a Facial Image for Distinction of Sasang Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhoi Koo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, oriental medicine has received attention for providing personalized medicine through consideration of the unique nature and constitution of individual patients. With the eventual goal of globalization, the current trend in oriental medicine research is the standardization by adopting western scientific methods, which could represent a scientific revolution. The purpose of this study is to establish methods for finding statistically significant features in a facial image with respect to distinguishing constitution and to show the meaning of those features. From facial photo images, facial elements are analyzed in terms of the distance, angle and the distance ratios, for which there are 1225, 61 250 and 749 700 features, respectively. Due to the very large number of facial features, it is quite difficult to determine truly meaningful features. We suggest a process for the efficient analysis of facial features including the removal of outliers, control for missing data to guarantee data confidence and calculation of statistical significance by applying ANOVA. We show the statistical properties of selected features according to different constitutions using the nine distances, 10 angles and 10 rates of distance features that are finally established. Additionally, the Sasang constitutional meaning of the selected features is shown here.

  11. Feature Selection from a Facial Image for Distinction of Sasang Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Imhoi; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Myoung Geun

    2009-01-01

    Recently, oriental medicine has received attention for providing personalized medicine through consideration of the unique nature and constitution of individual patients. With the eventual goal of globalization, the current trend in oriental medicine research is the standardization by adopting western scientific methods, which could represent a scientific revolution. The purpose of this study is to establish methods for finding statistically significant features in a facial image with respect to distinguishing constitution and to show the meaning of those features. From facial photo images, facial elements are analyzed in terms of the distance, angle and the distance ratios, for which there are 1225, 61 250 and 749 700 features, respectively. Due to the very large number of facial features, it is quite difficult to determine truly meaningful features. We suggest a process for the efficient analysis of facial features including the removal of outliers, control for missing data to guarantee data confidence and calculation of statistical significance by applying ANOVA. We show the statistical properties of selected features according to different constitutions using the nine distances, 10 angles and 10 rates of distance features that are finally established. Additionally, the Sasang constitutional meaning of the selected features is shown here. PMID:19745013

  12. 18F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Rahman, Tasmiah; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamada, Shizuka; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2017-11-01

    The aims of our study were to find the textural features on 18 F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between 18 F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively. These features were compared between SCC and NSCC using a Bonferroni adjusted P value threshold of 0.0028 (0.05/18). To assess the association between PET features, a heat map analysis with hierarchical clustering, one of the radiomics approaches, was performed. Among 18 PET features, correlation, a second-order textural feature derived from NGLCM, was a stable parameter and it was the only feature which showed a robust trend toward significant difference between SCC and NSCC. Cervical SCC showed a higher correlation (0.70 ± 0.07) than NSCC (0.64 ± 0.07, P = 0.0030). The other PET features did not show any significant differences between SCC and NSCC. A higher correlation in SCC might reflect higher structural integrity and stronger spatial/linear relationship of cancer cells compared with NSCC. A heat map with a PET feature dendrogram clearly showed 5 distinct clusters, where correlation belonged to a cluster including MTV and TLG. However, the association between correlation and MTV/TLG was not strong. Correlation was a relatively independent PET feature in cervical cancer. 18 F-FDG PET textural features might reflect the

  13. Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of right ventricular infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy, B.; Nanda, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time, two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction who had clinical features suggestive of right ventricular involvement. All patients showed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In the four-chamber view, seven patients showed akinesis of the entire right ventricular diaphragmatic wall and three showed akinesis of segments of the diaphragmatic wall. Segmental dyskinetic areas involving the right ventricular free wall were identified in four patients. One patient showed a large right ventricular apical aneurysm. Other echocardiographic features included enlargement of the right ventricle in eight cases, paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven cases, tricuspid incompetence in eight cases, dilation of the stomach in four cases and localized pericardial effusion in two cases. Right ventricular infarction was confirmed by radionuclide methods in seven patients, at surgery in one patient and at autopsy in two patients

  14. Laboratory simulation of infrared astrophysical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory infrared emission and absorption spectra have been taken of terrestrial silicates, meteorites and lunar soils in the form of micrometer and sub-micrometer grains. The emission spectra were taken in a way that imitates telescopic observations. The purpose was to see which materials best simulate the 10 μm astrophysical feature. The emission spectra of dunite, fayalite and Allende give a good fit to the 10 μm broadband emission feature of comets Bennett and Kohoutek. A study of the effect of grain size on the presence of the 10 μm emission features of dunite shows that for particles larger than 37 μm no feature is seen. The emission spectrum of the Murray meteorite, a Type 2 carbonaceous chondrite, is quite similar to the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Hydrous silicates or amorphous magnesium silicates in combination with high-temperature condensates, such as olivine or anorthite, would yield spectra that match the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Glassy olivine and glassy anorthite in approximately equal proportions would also give a spectrum that is a good fit to the cometary 10 μm feature. (Auth.)

  15. MR Imaging Features of Fibrocystic Change of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Hui; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Studies specifically reporting MR imaging of fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast are very few and its MR imaging features are not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the MR imaging features of FCC of the breast. Materials and Methods Thirty one patients of pathologically proved FCC of the breast were retrospectively reviewed. The MRI study was performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner with standard bilateral breast coil. The imaging protocol consisted of pre-contrast T1W imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced axial T1W imaging. The MRI features were interpreted based on the morphologic and enhancement kinetic descriptors defined on ACR BIRADS-MRI lexicon. Results FCC of the breast had a wide spectrum of morphologic and kinetic features on MRI. Two types of FCC were found, including a more diffuse type of non-mass lesion (12/31, 39%) showing benign enhancement kinetic pattern with medium wash-in in early phase (9/10, 90%) and a focal mass type lesion (11/31, 35%) with enhancement kinetic usually showing rapid up-slope mimicking a breast cancer (8/11, 73%). Conclusion MRI is able to elaborate the diverse imaging features of fibrocystic change of the breast. Our result showed that FCC presenting as focal mass type lesion were usually over-diagnosed as malignancy. Understanding MR imaging of FCC is important to determine which cohort of patients should be followed up alone or receive aggressive management. PMID:18436406

  16. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  17. Integration of heterogeneous features for remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Xingnan; Ning, Chen; Shi, Aiye; Lv, Guofang

    2018-01-01

    Scene classification is one of the most important issues in remote sensing (RS) image processing. We find that features from different channels (shape, spectral, texture, etc.), levels (low-level and middle-level), or perspectives (local and global) could provide various properties for RS images, and then propose a heterogeneous feature framework to extract and integrate heterogeneous features with different types for RS scene classification. The proposed method is composed of three modules (1) heterogeneous features extraction, where three heterogeneous feature types, called DS-SURF-LLC, mean-Std-LLC, and MS-CLBP, are calculated, (2) heterogeneous features fusion, where the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is utilized to integrate the heterogeneous features, and (3) an MKL support vector machine classifier for RS scene classification. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on three challenging benchmark datasets (a 6-class dataset, a 12-class dataset, and a 21-class dataset), and the experimental results show that the proposed method leads to good classification performance. It produces good informative features to describe the RS image scenes. Moreover, the integration of heterogeneous features outperforms some state-of-the-art features on RS scene classification tasks.

  18. Wired for success: A history of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway, 1892--1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Charles Vincent

    The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway (BA&P) was a standard gauge common carrier short line railroad within the state of Montana. A subsidiary of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, the BA&P was built to carry ore from mines at Butte, Montana to Anaconda, twenty-six miles away, for concentrating and smelting. Other freight and passenger business was of secondary importance. In 1912, when General Electric contracted to convert the BA&P from steam to electric operation, the short line became a proving ground for main line railroad electrification, and the center of attention from advocates for electric power. Electric operation was demonstrated to be mechanically superior to the use of steam locomotives on the BA&P. Immediately after the BA&P proved the technological feasibility of high voltage direct current for moving heavy freight trains, the Chicago Milwaukee & St. Paul (CM&St.P) electrified over 600 miles of transcontinental main line using the basic technology demonstrated on the BA&P. However, on long distances of track with relatively few trains such as the CM&St.P, the capital cost of the electric distribution system exceeded the operational savings obtained by use of electric locomotives. Steam locomotives remained the primary form of railroad motive power in the United States until the 1950's, when the diesel-electric locomotive combined the mechanical efficiency of electric motors with an on-board diesel generating plant, eliminating the need for expensive electric power supply and distribution wires of conventional electrics. The BA&P purchased three diesels in the early 1950's, but relied primarily on its electric locomotives until 1967, when diesel operation became less costly than continued use of electric motive power. The BA&P offers a microcosmic view of the transformation of one industry in response to technological and economic forces as the United States moved from reliance on coal-burning steam power to electric power and internal combustion

  19. Saliency image of feature building for image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xinuo; Sun, Jiyin; Wang, Peng

    2011-11-01

    The purpose and method of image quality assessment are quite different for automatic target recognition (ATR) and traditional application. Local invariant feature detectors, mainly including corner detectors, blob detectors and region detectors etc., are widely applied for ATR. A saliency model of feature was proposed to evaluate feasibility of ATR in this paper. The first step consisted of computing the first-order derivatives on horizontal orientation and vertical orientation, and computing DoG maps in different scales respectively. Next, saliency images of feature were built based auto-correlation matrix in different scale. Then, saliency images of feature of different scales amalgamated. Experiment were performed on a large test set, including infrared images and optical images, and the result showed that the salient regions computed by this model were consistent with real feature regions computed by mostly local invariant feature extraction algorithms.

  20. Boosting Discriminant Learners for Gait Recognition Using MPCA Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a boosted linear discriminant analysis (LDA solution on features extracted by the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA to enhance gait recognition performance. Three-dimensional gait objects are projected in the MPCA space first to obtain low-dimensional tensorial features. Then, lower-dimensional vectorial features are obtained through discriminative feature selection. These feature vectors are then fed into an LDA-style booster, where several regularized and weakened LDA learners work together to produce a strong learner through a novel feature weighting and sampling process. The LDA learner employs a simple nearest-neighbor classifier with a weighted angle distance measure for classification. The experimental results on the NIST/USF “Gait Challenge” data-sets show that the proposed solution has successfully improved the gait recognition performance and outperformed several state-of-the-art gait recognition algorithms.

  1. Detection of Fraudulent Emails by Employing Advanced Feature Abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Glasdam, Mathies

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fraudulent email detection model using advanced feature choice. We extracted various kinds of features and compared the performance of each category of features with the others in terms of the fraudulent email detection rate. The different types of features...... are incorporated step by step. The detection of fraudulent email has been considered as a classification problem and it is evaluated using various state-of-the art algorithms and on CCM [1] which is authors' previous cluster based classification model. The experiments have been performed on diverse feature sets...... and the different classification methods. The comparison of the results is also presented and the evaluations shows that for the fraudulent email detection tasks, the feature set is more important regardless of classification method. The results of the study suggest that the task of fraudulent emails detection...

  2. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, V.L.; Gomes, T.; Barreira, L.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L −1 (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L −1 (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear receptor

  3. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  4. Prominent feature extraction for review analysis: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Basant; Mittal, Namita

    2016-05-01

    Sentiment analysis (SA) research has increased tremendously in recent times. SA aims to determine the sentiment orientation of a given text into positive or negative polarity. Motivation for SA research is the need for the industry to know the opinion of the users about their product from online portals, blogs, discussion boards and reviews and so on. Efficient features need to be extracted for machine-learning algorithm for better sentiment classification. In this paper, initially various features are extracted such as unigrams, bi-grams and dependency features from the text. In addition, new bi-tagged features are also extracted that conform to predefined part-of-speech patterns. Furthermore, various composite features are created using these features. Information gain (IG) and minimum redundancy maximum relevancy (mRMR) feature selection methods are used to eliminate the noisy and irrelevant features from the feature vector. Finally, machine-learning algorithms are used for classifying the review document into positive or negative class. Effects of different categories of features are investigated on four standard data-sets, namely, movie review and product (book, DVD and electronics) review data-sets. Experimental results show that composite features created from prominent features of unigram and bi-tagged features perform better than other features for sentiment classification. mRMR is a better feature selection method as compared with IG for sentiment classification. Boolean Multinomial Naïve Bayes) algorithm performs better than support vector machine classifier for SA in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  5. Compact Representation of High-Dimensional Feature Vectors for Large-Scale Image Recognition and Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Jianxin; Cai, Jianfei

    2016-05-01

    In large-scale visual recognition and image retrieval tasks, feature vectors, such as Fisher vector (FV) or the vector of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD), have achieved state-of-the-art results. However, the combination of the large numbers of examples and high-dimensional vectors necessitates dimensionality reduction, in order to reduce its storage and CPU costs to a reasonable range. In spite of the popularity of various feature compression methods, this paper shows that the feature (dimension) selection is a better choice for high-dimensional FV/VLAD than the feature (dimension) compression methods, e.g., product quantization. We show that strong correlation among the feature dimensions in the FV and the VLAD may not exist, which renders feature selection a natural choice. We also show that, many dimensions in FV/VLAD are noise. Throwing them away using feature selection is better than compressing them and useful dimensions altogether using feature compression methods. To choose features, we propose an efficient importance sorting algorithm considering both the supervised and unsupervised cases, for visual recognition and image retrieval, respectively. Combining with the 1-bit quantization, feature selection has achieved both higher accuracy and less computational cost than feature compression methods, such as product quantization, on the FV and the VLAD image representations.

  6. Chemoresistance to Cancer Treatment: Benzo-α-Pyrene as Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzobo, Kevin; Hassen, Naseeha; Senthebane, Dimakatso Alice; Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Rowe, Arielle; Shipanga, Hendrina; Wonkam, Ambroise; Parker, M Iqbal; Mowla, Shaheen; Dandara, Collet

    2018-04-17

    Background: Environmental pollution such as exposure to pro-carcinogens including benzo-α-pyrene is becoming a major problem globally. Moreover, the effects of benzo-α-pyrene (BaP) on drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug resistance warrant further investigation, especially in cancer outpatient chemotherapy where exposure to environmental pollutants might occur. Method: We report here on the effects of benzo-α-pyrene on esophageal cancer cells in vitro, alone, or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, 5-flurouracil, or paclitaxel. As the study endpoints, we employed expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, drug metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, colony formation, migration, and signaling cascades in the WHCO1 esophageal cancer cell line after 24 h of treatment. Results: Benzo-α-pyrene had no significant effect on WHCO1 cancer cell proliferation but reversed the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs by reducing drug-induced cell death and apoptosis by 30–40% compared to drug-treated cells. The three drugs significantly reduced WHCO1 cell migration by 40–50% compared to control and BaP-treated cells. Combined exposure to drugs was associated with significantly increased apoptosis and reduced colony formation. Evaluation of survival signaling cascades showed that although the MEK-ERK and Akt pathways were activated in the presence of drugs, BaP was a stronger activator of the MEK-ERK and Akt pathways than the drugs. Conclusion: The present study suggest that BaP can reverse the effects of drugs on cancer cells via the activation of survival signaling pathways and upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Our data show that BaP contribute to the development of chemoresistant cancer cells.

  7. BaP-metals co-exposure induced tissue-specific antioxidant defense in marine mussels Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Qu, Mengjie; Ding, Jiawei; Zhang, Yifei; Wang, Yi; Di, Yanan

    2018-04-18

    Both benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) and metals are frequently found in marine ecosystem and can cause detrimental effects in marine organism, especially the filter feeder-marine mussels. Although the biological responses in mussels have been well-studied upon the single metal or BaP exposure, the information about antioxidant defense, especially in different tissues of mussels, are still limited. Considering the variety of contaminants existing in the actual marine environment, single BaP (56 μg/L) and the co-exposure with Cu, Cd and Pb (50 μg/L, 50 μg/L and 3 mg/L respectively) were applied in a 6 days exposure followed by 6 days depuration experiment. The alterations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were assessed in haemolymph, gills and digestive glands of marine mussels, Mytilus coruscus. An unparalleled change in antioxidant biomarkers was observed in all cells/tissues, with the SOD activity showing higher sensitivity to exposure. A tissue-specific response showing unique alteration in gill was investigated, indicating the different function of tissues during stress responses. Depressed antioxidant effects were induced by BaP-metals co-exposure, indicating the interaction may alter the intact properties of BaP. To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the antioxidant defense induced by combined exposure of BaP-metals regarding to tissue-specific responses in marine mussels. The results and experimental model will provide valuable information and can be utilized in the investigation of stress response mechanisms, especially in relation to tissue functions in marine organism in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of fraudulent emails by employing advanced feature abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Nizamani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a fraudulent email detection model using advanced feature choice. We extracted various kinds of features and compared the performance of each category of features with the others in terms of the fraudulent email detection rate. The different types of features are incorporated step by step. The detection of fraudulent email has been considered as a classification problem and it is evaluated using various state-of-the art algorithms and on CCM (Nizamani et al., 2011 [1] which is authors’ previous cluster based classification model. The experiments have been performed on diverse feature sets and the different classification methods. The comparison of the results is also presented and the evaluation show that for the fraudulent email detection tasks, the feature set is more important regardless of classification method. The results of the study suggest that the task of fraudulent emails detection requires the better choice of feature set; while the choice of classification method is of less importance.

  9. Salient Region Detection via Feature Combination and Discriminative Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel approach to detect salient regions of an image via feature combination and discriminative classifier. Our method, which is based on hierarchical image abstraction, uses the logistic regression approach to map the regional feature vector to a saliency score. Four saliency cues are used in our approach, including color contrast in a global context, center-boundary priors, spatially compact color distribution, and objectness, which is as an atomic feature of segmented region in the image. By mapping a four-dimensional regional feature to fifteen-dimensional feature vector, we can linearly separate the salient regions from the clustered background by finding an optimal linear combination of feature coefficients in the fifteen-dimensional feature space and finally fuse the saliency maps across multiple levels. Furthermore, we introduce the weighted salient image center into our saliency analysis task. Extensive experiments on two large benchmark datasets show that the proposed approach achieves the best performance over several state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A feature-based approach to modeling protein-protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-05-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to pi-related interactions, especially pi . . . pi interactions.

  12. A feature-based approach to modeling protein–protein interaction hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-01-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to π–related interactions, especially π · · · π interactions. PMID:19273533

  13. A Meta-Heuristic Regression-Based Feature Selection for Predictive Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A high-dimensional feature selection having a very large number of features with an optimal feature subset is an NP-complete problem. Because conventional optimization techniques are unable to tackle large-scale feature selection problems, meta-heuristic algorithms are widely used. In this paper, we propose a particle swarm optimization technique while utilizing regression techniques for feature selection. We then use the selected features to classify the data. Classification accuracy is used as a criterion to evaluate classifier performance, and classification is accomplished through the use of k-nearest neighbour (KNN and Bayesian techniques. Various high dimensional data sets are used to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Results show that our approach gives better results when compared with other conventional feature selection algorithms.

  14. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alzamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases. Keywords: Informal settlements, Physical, Features, Urban, Kampung, Jakarta, Indonesia

  15. Chemical sensing of Benzo[a]pyrene using Corchorus depressus fluorescent flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmad, Nasir Mehmood; Hameed, Maryam; Naeem, Ayesha; Tahir, Rabbiya

    2018-04-01

    Plant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids are in use for the development of optical biosensor. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is a pervasive environmental and dietary carcinogen. A fluorescent assay is developed using plant isolated flavonoid for the detection of B[a]P. High content saponins are excluded from the flavonoid-containing methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus by implying reduction of silver ions by saponins resulting in formation of silver nanoparticles. Isolated plant flavonoids are used to develop a spectrofluorometric assay for the detection of B[a]P. Decrease in the flavonoid fluorescence intensity by B[a]P is found to be based on both static and dynamic quenching. Specificity of the assay for B[a]P was tested for other carcinogens belonging to different classes of compounds. Flavonoids-mediated sensing can be implied for the development of new generation of nanoparticle-based biosensors that can be more sensitive and less susceptible to external factors, such as temperature and humidity.

  16. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Uziel, Y.; Chuang, S.; Silverman, E.; Krafchik, B.; Laxer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  17. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Yongpeng [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: yongpengt@yahoo.com.cn; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Liang Feng [Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen Jianmin [Shenzhen Municipal Hospital for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong 518020 (China); Zhang Hong; Liu Guoqing; Sun Huibin [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luong, John H.T. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H4P 2R2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl{sub 2}) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  18. In vitro callogenesis induction of Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman Dressler & W.E. Higgins (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Coutiño-Cortés

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman Dressler & W.E. Higgins, is a native orchid from Mexico, considered as threatened species in the NOM-ECOL-059-SEMARNAT-2010, mainly due to the disappearance of its natural habitat and illegal collection during the flowering season. The aim of this research was to induce in vitro callogenesis using different types of explants and phytoregulators, in order to establish a mass production technique as a contribution to the conservation of this species. We evaluated leaf and pseudobulb pith explants growing in semi-solid medium MS, adding BAP, 2, 4-D, Kin, the combination of BAP/2 and 4-D/Kin/Sad and a control without any type of plant growth regulators. Statistical analysis showed that pseudobulb pith explants are more suitable for in vitro callus induction in comparison to leaf explants, because of a lower percentage of contamination (18.8% in pith and 73.2% in leaves. Likewise, the pseudobulb pith explants showed increased callus formation (10.8% in comparison to leaf explants (7.6%. Regarding the phytoregulators employed, BAP promoted increased callus formation (17% compared to other phytoregulators (7-10%. This is the first report of the use of pseudobulb pith as an explant for callus induction in G. skinneri.

  19. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 µM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 µM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  20. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma cancer cells through reactive oxygen species-induced endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Min; Lee, Hae-Miru; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 60 well established carcinogens. In this study, we examined the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a main CS component, on the viability and apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines. An MTT assay confirmed that B(a)P decreased the cell viability of JEG-3 and BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blot (WB) assay revealed that protein expression of cyclin D and cyclin E decreased, while protein expression of p21 and p27 was increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. The changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in JEG-3 and BeWo cells exposed to B(a)P were also measured by a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, which revealed that ROS levels increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. WB assay also confirmed that each B(a)P treatment of JEG-3 and BeWo cells for 4 h promoted the expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha protein (p-eIF2α) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which are known to be involved in ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) related apoptosis. Overall, the protein expression of Bax (a pro-apoptosis marker) increased, while the expression of Bcl-xl (an anti-apoptotic marker) decreased and the number of apoptotic cells increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. Taken together, these results suggest that B(a)P has the potential to induce apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cells by increasing the ROS level and simultaneously activating ER-stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alexnet Feature Extraction and Multi-Kernel Learning for Objectoriented Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L.; Li, H.; Hu, C.; Zhang, W.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    In view of the fact that the deep convolutional neural network has stronger ability of feature learning and feature expression, an exploratory research is done on feature extraction and classification for high resolution remote sensing images. Taking the Google image with 0.3 meter spatial resolution in Ludian area of Yunnan Province as an example, the image segmentation object was taken as the basic unit, and the pre-trained AlexNet deep convolution neural network model was used for feature extraction. And the spectral features, AlexNet features and GLCM texture features are combined with multi-kernel learning and SVM classifier, finally the classification results were compared and analyzed. The results show that the deep convolution neural network can extract more accurate remote sensing image features, and significantly improve the overall accuracy of classification, and provide a reference value for earthquake disaster investigation and remote sensing disaster evaluation.

  2. ALEXNET FEATURE EXTRACTION AND MULTI-KERNEL LEARNING FOR OBJECTORIENTED CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that the deep convolutional neural network has stronger ability of feature learning and feature expression, an exploratory research is done on feature extraction and classification for high resolution remote sensing images. Taking the Google image with 0.3 meter spatial resolution in Ludian area of Yunnan Province as an example, the image segmentation object was taken as the basic unit, and the pre-trained AlexNet deep convolution neural network model was used for feature extraction. And the spectral features, AlexNet features and GLCM texture features are combined with multi-kernel learning and SVM classifier, finally the classification results were compared and analyzed. The results show that the deep convolution neural network can extract more accurate remote sensing image features, and significantly improve the overall accuracy of classification, and provide a reference value for earthquake disaster investigation and remote sensing disaster evaluation.

  3. Linear Regression on Sparse Features for Single-Channel Speech Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel N.; Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard

    2007-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of separating multiple speakers from a single microphone recording. We formulate a linear regression model for estimating each speaker based on features derived from the mixture. The employed feature representation is a sparse, non-negative encoding of the speech...... mixture in terms of pre-learned speaker-dependent dictionaries. Previous work has shown that this feature representation by itself provides some degree of separation. We show that the performance is significantly improved when regression analysis is performed on the sparse, non-negative features, both...

  4. Visual attention to features by associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G; Moskowitz, Joshua B; Pratt, Jay

    2014-11-01

    Expecting a particular stimulus can facilitate processing of that stimulus over others, but what is the fate of other stimuli that are known to co-occur with the expected stimulus? This study examined the impact of learned association on feature-based attention. The findings show that the effectiveness of an uninformative color transient in orienting attention can change by learned associations between colors and the expected target shape. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned two distinct sequences of stimulus-response-outcome, where stimuli were defined by shape ('S' vs. 'H'), responses were localized key-presses (left vs. right), and outcomes were colors (red vs. green). Next, in a test phase, while expecting a target shape (80% probable), participants showed reliable attentional orienting to the color transient associated with the target shape, and showed no attentional orienting with the color associated with the alternative target shape. This bias seemed to be driven by learned association between shapes and colors, and not modulated by the response. In addition, the bias seemed to depend on observing target-color conjunctions, since encountering the two features disjunctively (without spatiotemporal overlap) did not replicate the findings. We conclude that associative learning - likely mediated by mechanisms underlying visual object representation - can extend the impact of goal-driven attention to features associated with a target stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Definitions of engineered safety features and related features for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In light water moderated, light water cooled nuclear power plants, definitions are given of engineered safety features which are designed to suppress or prevent dispersion of radioactive materials due to damage etc. of fuel at the times of power plant failures, and of related features which are designed to actuate or operate the engineered safety features. Contents are the following: scope of engineered safety features and of related features; classification of engineered safety features (direct systems and indirect systems) and of related features (auxiliaries, emergency power supply, and protective means). (Mori, K.)

  6. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  7. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wölfl

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b, during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  8. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging features of fibrocystic change of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Hui; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2008-11-01

    Studies specifically reporting MRI of fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast are very few and its MRI features are not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the MRI features of FCC of the breast. Thirty-one patients with pathologically proven FCC of the breast were retrospectively reviewed. The MRI study was performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner with standard bilateral breast coil. The imaging protocol consisted of pre-contrast T1-weighed imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighed imaging. The MRI features were interpreted based on the morphologic and enhancement kinetic descriptors defined on ACR BIRADS-MRI lexicon. FCC of the breast had a wide spectrum of morphologic and kinetic features on MRI. Two types of FCC were found, including a more diffuse type of nonmass lesion (12/31, 39%) showing benign enhancement kinetic pattern with medium wash-in in early phase (9/10, 90%) and a focal mass-type lesion (11/31, 35%) with enhancement kinetic usually showing rapid up-slope mimicking a breast cancer (8/11, 73%). MRI is able to elaborate the diverse imaging features of FCC of the breast. Our result showed that FCC presenting as a focal mass-type lesion was usually overdiagnosed as malignancy. Understanding MRI of FCC is important to determine which cohort of patients should be followed up alone or receive aggressive management.

  10. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake, Tyrsites atun (snoek, Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail and Brama brama (angel fish were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE, and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed.

  12. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  13. A new karren feature: hummocky karren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plan Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karren are small-scale landforms on karst surfaces and many types have been described so far. Here we present an apparently new feature which was found on the Hochschwab karst massive in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. So far only few outcrops each having less than 1 m² within a very restricted area have been found. Morphometric analysis reveals that the karren consist of a randomly distributed, dispersed assemblage of small hummocks and depressions in between. The mean distance between neighbouring hummocks is 4 to 5 cm and the mean height is 0.85 cm. Longitudinal sections are gently sinuous. The occurrences are delimited by thin soil cover with grassy vegetation and the karren continue below that vegetation cover. Therefore, it is clear that the features have formed subcutaneously. Corroded fissures where water could infiltrate into the epikarst are absent. The bedrock lithology is Middle Triassic limestone of the Wetterstein Formation in lagoonal facies. Geological structures do not govern the feature. The surface is not a bedding plane and small joints and fractures do not govern the arrangement of the hummocks. Thin section analysis regarding rock texture and dolomite components show that there is no compositional difference between hummocks and depressions. Geochemical analyses show that the limestone is very pure with a very low content of Magnesia. Slightly higher Magnesia contents at the hummock surfaces are significant. The data obtained so far only indicate that some dissolution mechanism but not any rock property governs the irregular array. As there exist no descriptions of comparable features in literature, the name “hummocky karren” is suggested for that type of karren landform.

  14. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tawny; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hutman, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM), adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental) or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample). Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  15. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  16. Design of Test Facility to Evaluate Boric Acid Precipitation Following a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong-Kwan; Song, Yong-Jae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The U.S.NRC has identified a concern that debris associated with generic safety issue (GSI) - 191 may affect the potential precipitation of boric acid due to one or more of the following phenomena: - Reducing mass transport (i.e. mixing) between the core and the lower plenum (should debris accumulate at the core inlet) - Reduced lower plenum volume (should debris settle in the lower plenum), and, - Increased potential for boric acid precipitation (BAP) in the core (should debris accumulate in suspension in the core) To address these BAP issues, KHNP is planning to conduct validation tests by constructing a BAP test facility. This paper describes the design of test facility to evaluate BAP following a LOCA. The design of BAP test facility has been developed by KHNP. To design the test facility, test requirements and success criteria were established, and scaling analysis of power-to-volume method, Ishii-Kataoka method, and hierarchical two-tiered method were investigated. The test section is composed of two fuel assemblies with half of full of prototypic FA height. All the fuel rods are heated by the electric power supplier. The BAP tests in the presence of debris, buffering agents, and boron will be performed following the test matrix.

  17. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biological Sciences, Higher Teachers Training College, University of Yaounde I, ... shows the highest frequency of somatic embryos) the induction of these structures is ... regulators (2,4-D/BAP), were added and tested. All.

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of CT Features for Differentiating Complicated and Uncomplicated Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Sung Soo; Jeon, Jong-June; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify computed tomographic (CT) features for differentiating complicated appendicitis in patients suspected of having appendicitis and to summarize their diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods Studies on diagnostic accuracy of CT features for differentiating complicated appendicitis (perforated or gangrenous appendicitis) in patients suspected of having appendicitis were searched in Ovid-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Overlapping descriptors used in different studies to denote the same image finding were subsumed under a single CT feature. Pooled diagnostic accuracy of the CT features was calculated by using a bivariate random effects model. CT features with pooled diagnostic odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals not including 1 were considered as informative. Results Twenty-three studies were included, and 184 overlapping descriptors for various CT findings were subsumed under 14 features. Of these, 10 features were informative for complicated appendicitis. There was a general tendency for these features to show relatively high specificity but low sensitivity. Extraluminal appendicolith, abscess, appendiceal wall enhancement defect, extraluminal air, ileus, periappendiceal fluid collection, ascites, intraluminal air, and intraluminal appendicolith showed pooled specificity greater than 70% (range, 74%-100%), but sensitivity was limited (range, 14%-59%). Periappendiceal fat stranding was the only feature that showed high sensitivity (94%; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 98%) but low specificity (40%; 95% confidence interval, 23%, 60%). Conclusion Ten informative CT features for differentiating complicated appendicitis were identified in this study, nine of which showed high specificity, but low sensitivity. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  19. Metabolic interactions between low doses of benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus): a long-term in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padros, Jaime; Pelletier, Emilien; Ribeiro, Ciro Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We have previously reported that short-term, single exposure to a high dose of tributyltin (TBT), a widely used antifouling biocide, inhibited both the in vivo metabolism and metabolic activation of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in fish; (BaP), in turn, stimulated TBT metabolism. Here, we provide further mechanistic evidence of mutual metabolic interactions between BaP and TBT in response to long-term, repeated exposures to low doses. Juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) received 10 separate ip injections (a single injection every 6 days) of BaP (3 mg/kg), TBT (0.3 mg/kg), or both in combination; control fish received corn oil vehicle only. Two days after the 2nd (Day 8), 6 th (Day 32), and 10th dose (Day 56), blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers. HPLC/fluorescence analysis indicated that TBT cotreatment inhibited the formation of (+)-anti-BaP diol-epoxide adducts with plasma albumin (53%, Day 8), hepatic DNA (27%, Day 32), or both albumin and globin (50 and 58%, Day 56) compared to BaP alone. This antagonistic interaction was associated with a time-dependent modulation (inhibition at Day 8, enhancement at Day 32) of both cytochrome P450 (P450)1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and biliary BaP metabolite formation. TBT cotreatment also inhibited (39%) the BaP-mediated induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity observed at Day 8. Treatment with TBT alone increased EROD activity (60%) at Day 32, but decreased both GST activity (70 and 37%) and glutathione content (24% and 16%) at Days 32 and 56, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that, at Day 56, BaP cotreatment increased (200%) the levels of biliary butyltin compounds, including mono- and dibutyltin metabolites. This potentiative interaction was associated with a protective effect of BaP cotreatment against the TBT-mediated decreases in GST activity and glutathione content. The

  20. Featured Image: Diamonds in a Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    This unique image which measures only 60 x 80 micrometers across reveals details in the Kapoeta meteorite, an 11-kg stone that fell in South Sudan in 1942. The sparkle in the image? A cluster of nanodiamonds discovered embedded in the stone in a recent study led by Yassir Abdu (University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates). Abdu and collaborators showed that these nanodiamonds have similar spectral features to the interiors of dense interstellar clouds and they dont show any signs of shock features. This may suggest that the nanodiamonds were formed by condensation of nebular gases early in the history of the solar system. The diamonds were trapped in the surface material of the Kapoeta meteorites parent body, thought to be the asteroid Vesta. To read more about the authors study, check out the original article below.CitationYassir A. Abdu et al 2018 ApJL 856 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab433

  1. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  2. Hybrid feature selection for supporting lightweight intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianglong; Zhao, Wentao; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Redundant and irrelevant features not only cause high resource consumption but also degrade the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), especially when coping with big data. These features slow down the process of training and testing in network traffic classification. Therefore, a hybrid feature selection approach in combination with wrapper and filter selection is designed in this paper to build a lightweight intrusion detection system. Two main phases are involved in this method. The first phase conducts a preliminary search for an optimal subset of features, in which the chi-square feature selection is utilized. The selected set of features from the previous phase is further refined in the second phase in a wrapper manner, in which the Random Forest(RF) is used to guide the selection process and retain an optimized set of features. After that, we build an RF-based detection model and make a fair comparison with other approaches. The experimental results on NSL-KDD datasets show that our approach results are in higher detection accuracy as well as faster training and testing processes.

  3. Principal Feature Analysis: A Multivariate Feature Selection Method for fMRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain decoding with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI requires analysis of complex, multivariate data. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA has been widely used in recent years. MVPA treats the activation of multiple voxels from fMRI data as a pattern and decodes brain states using pattern classification methods. Feature selection is a critical procedure of MVPA because it decides which features will be included in the classification analysis of fMRI data, thereby improving the performance of the classifier. Features can be selected by limiting the analysis to specific anatomical regions or by computing univariate (voxel-wise or multivariate statistics. However, these methods either discard some informative features or select features with redundant information. This paper introduces the principal feature analysis as a novel multivariate feature selection method for fMRI data processing. This multivariate approach aims to remove features with redundant information, thereby selecting fewer features, while retaining the most information.

  4. TreeBASIS Feature Descriptor and Its Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Fowers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature descriptor called TreeBASIS that provides improvements in descriptor size, computation time, matching speed, and accuracy. This new descriptor uses a binary vocabulary tree that is computed using basis dictionary images and a test set of feature region images. To facilitate real-time implementation, a feature region image is binary quantized and the resulting quantized vector is passed into the BASIS vocabulary tree. A Hamming distance is then computed between the feature region image and the effectively descriptive basis dictionary image at a node to determine the branch taken and the path the feature region image takes is saved as a descriptor. The TreeBASIS feature descriptor is an excellent candidate for hardware implementation because of its reduced descriptor size and the fact that descriptors can be created and features matched without the use of floating point operations. The TreeBASIS descriptor is more computationally and space efficient than other descriptors such as BASIS, SIFT, and SURF. Moreover, it can be computed entirely in hardware without the support of a CPU for additional software-based computations. Experimental results and a hardware implementation show that the TreeBASIS descriptor compares well with other descriptors for frame-to-frame homography computation while requiring fewer hardware resources.

  5. High Dimensional Classification Using Features Annealed Independence Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Fan, Yingying

    2008-01-01

    Classification using high-dimensional features arises frequently in many contemporary statistical studies such as tumor classification using microarray or other high-throughput data. The impact of dimensionality on classifications is largely poorly understood. In a seminal paper, Bickel and Levina (2004) show that the Fisher discriminant performs poorly due to diverging spectra and they propose to use the independence rule to overcome the problem. We first demonstrate that even for the independence classification rule, classification using all the features can be as bad as the random guessing due to noise accumulation in estimating population centroids in high-dimensional feature space. In fact, we demonstrate further that almost all linear discriminants can perform as bad as the random guessing. Thus, it is paramountly important to select a subset of important features for high-dimensional classification, resulting in Features Annealed Independence Rules (FAIR). The conditions under which all the important features can be selected by the two-sample t-statistic are established. The choice of the optimal number of features, or equivalently, the threshold value of the test statistics are proposed based on an upper bound of the classification error. Simulation studies and real data analysis support our theoretical results and demonstrate convincingly the advantage of our new classification procedure.

  6. Image features for misalignment correction in medical flat-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklein, Julia; Kunze, Holger; Kalender, Willi A.; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Misalignment artifacts are a serious problem in medical flat-detector computed tomography. Generally, the geometrical parameters, which are essential for reconstruction, are provided by preceding calibration routines. These procedures are time consuming and the later use of stored parameters is sensitive toward external impacts or patient movement. The method of choice in a clinical environment would be a markerless online-calibration procedure that allows flexible scan trajectories and simultaneously corrects misalignment and motion artifacts during the reconstruction process. Therefore, different image features were evaluated according to their capability of quantifying misalignment. Methods: Projections of the FORBILD head and thorax phantoms were simulated. Additionally, acquisitions of a head phantom and patient data were used for evaluation. For the reconstruction different sources and magnitudes of misalignment were introduced in the geometry description. The resulting volumes were analyzed by entropy (based on the gray-level histogram), total variation, Gabor filter texture features, Haralick co-occurrence features, and Tamura texture features. The feature results were compared to the back-projection mismatch of the disturbed geometry. Results: The evaluations demonstrate the ability of several well-established image features to classify misalignment. The authors elaborated the particular suitability of the gray-level histogram-based entropy on identifying misalignment artifacts, after applying an appropriate window level (bone window). Conclusions: Some of the proposed feature extraction algorithms show a strong correlation with the misalignment level. Especially, entropy-based methods showed very good correspondence, with the best of these being the type that uses the gray-level histogram for calculation. This makes it a suitable image feature for online-calibration.

  7. MRI features of chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Liu Xia; Cheng Kebin; Liu Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MR imaging features of chondroblastoma. Methods: MRI examinations of 20 patients with histological proven chondmblastoma were reviewed retrospectively. The MRI findings of chondroblastoma including the signal intensity, the shape, the growth patterns, and the surrounding bone marrow edema and the adjacent soft tissue edema, the periosteal reaction, the adjacent joint effusion were analyzed. Results: All 20 cases demonstrated heterogeneous MR signal intensity on T 1 WI and T 2 WI images and showed lobular margins. Sixteen cases demonstrated expansive growth patterns. Surrounding bone marrow edema was found in 18 cases and adjacent soft tissue edema in 14 cases. Periosteal reaction was identified in 6 cases. In 7 cases the tumor extended to adjacent soft tissue. Adjacent joint effusion was visible on MRI in 6 cases. Conclusion: Heterogeneous signal intensity, lobular margins and expansive growth pattern, adjacent bone marrow and soft tissue edema were the common features of chondroblastoma on MRI. (authors)

  8. Intracranial meningeal masson's hemangioma: CT and angiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Chi, Je Gen; Han, Man Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jip

    1985-01-01

    Masson's hemangioma is a rare benign vascular condition with a papillary intravascular endothelial proliferation which may appear either as a primary form as a secondary form in a pre-existing vascular process. CT and angiographic features of 2 cases with Masson's hemangioma were presented. Both of them were located extra-axially in the posterior fossa. CT findings were not specific in both cases; One showed homogeneously enhancing mass, simulating meningioma. And the other demonstrated a multiocular rim enhancing mass. However, the angiographic features were rather characteristic; Both cases showed persistent vascular poolings of contrast media which were supplied form the meningeal vessels. Angiographic differential diagnosis of similar lesions in the posterior fossa is discussed

  9. Feature hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingyu; Fu, Jiarun; Zhang, Hongxin; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Currently, researches on content based image retrieval mainly focus on robust feature extraction. However, due to the exponential growth of online images, it is necessary to consider searching among large scale images, which is very timeconsuming and unscalable. Hence, we need to pay much attention to the efficiency of image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a feature hashing method for image retrieval which not only generates compact fingerprint for image representation, but also prevents huge semantic loss during the process of hashing. To generate the fingerprint, an objective function of semantic loss is constructed and minimized, which combine the influence of both the neighborhood structure of feature data and mapping error. Since the machine learning based hashing effectively preserves neighborhood structure of data, it yields visual words with strong discriminability. Furthermore, the generated binary codes leads image representation building to be of low-complexity, making it efficient and scalable to large scale databases. Experimental results show good performance of our approach.

  10. Familiarity and within-person facial variability: the importance of the internal and external features

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, R. S. S.; Manesi, Z.; Towler, A.; Reynolds, M. G.; Burton, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    As faces become familiar, we come to rely more on their internal features for recognition and matching tasks. Here, we assess whether this same pattern is also observed for a card sorting task. Participants sorted photos showing either the full face, only the internal features, or only the external features into multiple piles, one pile per identity. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed the standard advantage for familiar faces—sorting was more accurate and showed very few errors in comparison w...

  11. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual

  12. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, A; Lopez-Beltran, A; Egan, A J; Bostwick, D G

    1998-05-01

    A wide variety of architectural patterns of adenocarcinoma may be seen in the prostate. We have recently encountered a hitherto-undescribed pattern of growth characterized by intraluminal ball-like clusters of cancer cells reminiscent of renal glomeruli, which we refer to as prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features. To define the architectural features, frequency, and distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features, we reviewed 202 totally embedded radical prostatectomy specimens obtained between October 1992 and April 1994 from the files of the Mayo Clinic. This series was supplemented by 100 consecutive needle biopsies with prostatic cancer from January to February 1996. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features was characterized by round to oval epithelial tufts growing within malignant acini, often supported by a fibrovascular core. The epithelial cells were sometimes arranged in semicircular concentric rows separated by clefted spaces. In the radical prostatectomy specimens, nine cases (4.5%) had glomeruloid features. The glomeruloid pattern constituted 5% to 20% of each cancer (mean, 8.33%) and was usually located at the apex or in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Seven cases were associated with a high Gleason score (7 or 8), one with a score of 6, and one with a score of 5. All cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and extensive perineural invasion. Pathological stages included T2c (three cases), T3b (four cases), and T3c (two cases); one of the T3b cases had lymph node metastases (N1). Three (3%) of 100 consecutive routine needle biopsy specimens with cancer showed glomeruloid features, and this pattern constituted 5% to 10% of each cancer (mean, 6.7%). The Gleason score was 6 for two cases and 8 for one case. Two cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and one case had perineural invasion. Glomeruloid features were not observed in any benign or

  13. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE FITOHORMONAS EN LA MICROPROPAGACIÓN DEL PLÁTANO DOMINICO HARTÓN (Musa AAB Simmonds EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PHYTOHORMONES IN MICROPROPAGATION OF DOMINICO HARTÓN PLANTAIN (Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIS HOYOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la concentración hormonal en la generación de brotes al micropropagar plátano dominico hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds con 10 tratamientos en un diseño completamente al azar (DCA. Se probaron tres concentraciones de BAP y AIA en arreglo factorial 3x3: 0.01; 0.5 y 5 mg/L. Los tratamientos presentaron diferencias significativas (pThe effect of the hormonal concentration in the generation of bud in micropropagation of dominico-harton plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds was evaluated with 10 treatments in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Three concentrations of BAP and IAA in a 3x3 factorial arrangement: 0,01; 0,5 and 5 mg/L were tested. The treatments presented significant differences (p< 0.01% in vitro multiplication phase. The MSDt test showed that the major number of bud were found with 5mg/L of BAP / 0.5mg/L of AIA and 5mg/L of BAP / 0.01mg/L of AIA combinations. To determine the optimum concentration of AIA from the resultant rank (0,01-0,5 mg/L, an aditional experiment with 6 treatments in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD, varying only AIA concentration was conducted. The concentrations 0.2 and 0,3 mg/L of AIA (p< 0.01% generated the biggest number of sprouts in the stage of multiplication

  14. Determination of Benzo[α]pyrene in Edible Oil Using Tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine Bonded Silica SPE Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Deng, Zhi-Fen; Hongbo, Wang; Peng, Bin; Ma, Xue; Lan, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Sheng

    2018-06-01

    Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) is a well-known carcinogen in edible oil. In this study, a method combined solid-phase extraction (SPE) with fluorescent detection was developed using tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine sorbent (SiO 2 -OCA) for the clean-up and enrichment of BaP. The interaction between SiO 2 -OCA and BaP involves a donor-acceptor complex mechanism. The experimental procedure was as follows: BaP was extracted from edible oil with DMF/H 2 O (9:1, v/v). Then, the ratio of DMF/H 2 O was adjusted to 1:2 prior to SPE. The final concentrate was analyzed using a fluorescence detector at excitation and emission wavelengths of 255 and 420 nm. The method was fully validated. The linearity was in the range of 0.1-100 μg kg -1 with a coefficient of 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.1 μg kg -1 , respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 88.0-122.3%. The intraday and interday precisions were 6.8% and 9.2%, respectively. Compared with other methods, the method reported in this article shows a good detection limit, high reproducibility and recovery, and linearity over a broad concentration range. This established method was also applied to evaluate real samples. The concentration of six tested samples was below 5 μg kg -1 .

  15. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  17. Quality of radiomic features in glioblastoma multiforme: Impact of semi-automated tumor segmentation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Eun; Kim, Jong Hyo [Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Bo Yeong [Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Micheal D.; Jamshidi, Neema [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and quality of radiomic features in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) derived from tumor volumes obtained with semi-automated tumor segmentation software. MR images of 45 GBM patients (29 males, 16 females) were downloaded from The Cancer Imaging Archive, in which post-contrast T1-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR sequences were used. Two raters independently segmented the tumors using two semi-automated segmentation tools (TumorPrism3D and 3D Slicer). Regions of interest corresponding to contrast-enhancing lesion, necrotic portions, and non-enhancing T2 high signal intensity component were segmented for each tumor. A total of 180 imaging features were extracted, and their quality was evaluated in terms of stability, normalized dynamic range (NDR), and redundancy, using intra-class correlation coefficients, cluster consensus, and Rand Statistic. Our study results showed that most of the radiomic features in GBM were highly stable. Over 90% of 180 features showed good stability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥ 0.8), whereas only 7 features were of poor stability (ICC < 0.5). Most first order statistics and morphometric features showed moderate-to-high NDR (4 > NDR ≥1), while above 35% of the texture features showed poor NDR (< 1). Features were shown to cluster into only 5 groups, indicating that they were highly redundant. The use of semi-automated software tools provided sufficiently reliable tumor segmentation and feature stability; thus helping to overcome the inherent inter-rater and intra-rater variability of user intervention. However, certain aspects of feature quality, including NDR and redundancy, need to be assessed for determination of representative signature features before further development of radiomics.

  18. An ant colony optimization based feature selection for web page classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Esra; Özel, Selma Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    The increased popularity of the web has caused the inclusion of huge amount of information to the web, and as a result of this explosive information growth, automated web page classification systems are needed to improve search engines' performance. Web pages have a large number of features such as HTML/XML tags, URLs, hyperlinks, and text contents that should be considered during an automated classification process. The aim of this study is to reduce the number of features to be used to improve runtime and accuracy of the classification of web pages. In this study, we used an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to select the best features, and then we applied the well-known C4.5, naive Bayes, and k nearest neighbor classifiers to assign class labels to web pages. We used the WebKB and Conference datasets in our experiments, and we showed that using the ACO for feature selection improves both accuracy and runtime performance of classification. We also showed that the proposed ACO based algorithm can select better features with respect to the well-known information gain and chi square feature selection methods.

  19. Feature extraction with deep neural networks by a generalized discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlsatz, André; Lippel, Jens; Zielke, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We present an approach to feature extraction that is a generalization of the classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the basis of deep neural networks (DNNs). As for LDA, discriminative features generated from independent Gaussian class conditionals are assumed. This modeling has the advantages that the intrinsic dimensionality of the feature space is bounded by the number of classes and that the optimal discriminant function is linear. Unfortunately, linear transformations are insufficient to extract optimal discriminative features from arbitrarily distributed raw measurements. The generalized discriminant analysis (GerDA) proposed in this paper uses nonlinear transformations that are learnt by DNNs in a semisupervised fashion. We show that the feature extraction based on our approach displays excellent performance on real-world recognition and detection tasks, such as handwritten digit recognition and face detection. In a series of experiments, we evaluate GerDA features with respect to dimensionality reduction, visualization, classification, and detection. Moreover, we show that GerDA DNNs can preprocess truly high-dimensional input data to low-dimensional representations that facilitate accurate predictions even if simple linear predictors or measures of similarity are used.

  20. Proliferação e enraizamento in vitro de brotos de palma forrageira - Opuntia ficus-indica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641 Proliferation and rooting in vitro of buds of palm grass Opuntia ficusindica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Paiva Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular da Universidade Federal do Ceará com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do 6- benzilaminopurina (BAP e do ácido indolacético (AIA na proliferação e no enraizamento in vitro de brotos da palma forrageira. Os explantes foram incubados no meio de cultura com sais e vitaminas MS, suplementados com 5% de sacarose, 0,8% de ágar e pH 5,85. Para a proliferação, os brotos foram inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura em diferentes concentrações de BAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. No enraizamento, os brotos foram inoculados no meio de cultura contendo diferentes concentrações de AIA. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. Concluiu-se que os melhores protocolos para a proliferação e o enraizamento de brotos foram, respectivamente, BAP 1,00mg/L e AIA 5,00mg/LThe work was carried out in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Ceará Federal University. The aim was to evaluate the effects of 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP and indolacetic acid (IAA on proliferation and rooting ,em>in vitro of buds of palm grass. The samples were incubated in the culture environment with salts, vitamins MS, 5% of sucrose, 0.8% of agar and pH of 5.85. For the proliferation, the buds were inoculated in Petri plates, and the culture environment was contained in different BAP concentrations. The experimental delineation was entirely randomly in an arrangement factorial of 10 x 3 and three replications. In the rooting, the buds were inoculated in the culture environment and they had different concentrations of indoacetic acid (IAA. Results showed that the best protocols for proliferation and buds of rooting were, respectively: BAP to 1.00mg/L and IAA to 5.00mg/L

  1. Association of Glycemic Status with Bone Turnover Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sweta Vilas; Meenatchi, Suruthi; Reeta, R; Ramesh, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, A R; Lenin, C

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has profound implications on the skeleton. Even though bone mineral density is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, they are more prone for fractures. The weakening of bone tissue in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be due to uncontrolled blood sugar levels leading to high levels of bone turnover markers in blood. The aim of this study is to find the association between glycemic status and bone turnover markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This case-control study was carried out in a tertiary health care hospital. Fifty clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the age group between 30 and 50 years were included as cases. Fifty age- and gender-matched healthy nondiabetics were included as controls. Patients with complications and chronic illness were excluded from the study. Depending on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, patients were grouped into uncontrolled (HbA1c >7%, n = 36) and controlled (HbA1c diabetics. Based on duration of diabetes, patients were grouped into newly diagnosed, 1-2 years, 3-5 years, and >5 years. Serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and HbA1c levels were estimated. OC/BAP and OC/ACP ratio was calculated. Student's t -test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done for OC/BAP and OC/ACP ratios. Serum OC, HbA1c, and OC/BAP ratio were increased in cases when compared to controls and were statistically significant ( P type 2 diabetes mellitus and was statistically significant ( P = 0.01). In patients with >5-year duration of diabetes, HbA1c level was high and was statistically significant ( P 2). BAP levels were high in uncontrolled diabetics but statistically not significant. ROC curve showed OC/BAP ratio better marker than OC/ACP ratio. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus affects bone tissue resulting in variations in bone turnover markers. Bone turnover

  2. Speech Emotion Feature Selection Method Based on Contribution Analysis Algorithm of Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojia; Mao Qirong; Zhan Yongzhao

    2008-01-01

    There are many emotion features. If all these features are employed to recognize emotions, redundant features may be existed. Furthermore, recognition result is unsatisfying and the cost of feature extraction is high. In this paper, a method to select speech emotion features based on contribution analysis algorithm of NN is presented. The emotion features are selected by using contribution analysis algorithm of NN from the 95 extracted features. Cluster analysis is applied to analyze the effectiveness for the features selected, and the time of feature extraction is evaluated. Finally, 24 emotion features selected are used to recognize six speech emotions. The experiments show that this method can improve the recognition rate and the time of feature extraction

  3. Classification of radiolarian images with hand-crafted and deep features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Ali Seydi; Kaya, Aydın; Keçeli, Seda Uzunçimen

    2017-12-01

    Radiolarians are planktonic protozoa and are important biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental indicators for paleogeographic reconstructions. Radiolarian paleontology still remains as a low cost and the one of the most convenient way to obtain dating of deep ocean sediments. Traditional methods for identifying radiolarians are time-consuming and cannot scale to the granularity or scope necessary for large-scale studies. Automated image classification will allow making these analyses promptly. In this study, a method for automatic radiolarian image classification is proposed on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of radiolarians to ease species identification of fossilized radiolarians. The proposed method uses both hand-crafted features like invariant moments, wavelet moments, Gabor features, basic morphological features and deep features obtained from a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Feature selection is applied over deep features to reduce high dimensionality. Classification outcomes are analyzed to compare hand-crafted features, deep features, and their combinations. Results show that the deep features obtained from a pre-trained CNN are more discriminative comparing to hand-crafted ones. Additionally, feature selection utilizes to the computational cost of classification algorithms and have no negative effect on classification accuracy.

  4. Analyses of associations between reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant capacity and related factors among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamae, Kazuyoshi; Eto, Toshiharu; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Nakamaru, Shingo; Koshikawa, Kazunori; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Hirano, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    Evidence based on epidemiologic investigations using biochemical parameter is meaningful for health promotion and administration among adolescents. We conducted Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROM) and Biological Antioxidant Potentials (BAP) tests, along with a questionnaire survey, for a sample of 74 high school students (16.51±0.11 years of aged mean±SE), to investigate the associations between ROM, BAP, and related factors, including BMI and blood biochemical data. Venous blood samples (approximately 7cc) were collected. At the same time, each individual's information was obtained from the questionnaire. The mental health status was investigated using the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression scale (CES-D) included in the same questionnaire. The mean values and standard errors of all variables were calculated. In addition, the relationships between ROM and BAP with these factors were analyzed. The results revealed the preferred levels of ROM (261.95 ± 9.52 U.CARR) and, BAP (2429.89±53.39 µmol/L) and blood biochemical data. Few significant relationships between two markers and related factors were found. So, we detected a cluster with an imbalance between ROM and BAP, which means low antioxidant ability, whereas the other clusters had conditions with moderate balance or good balance between them. Moreover, we determined the Oxidative stress-Antioxidant capacity ratio (OAR), using the ROM and BAP values, in order to clarify the characteristic of the detected clusters.However, comparative analyses across the three clusters did not yield significant differences in all related factors. No correlations between ROM, BAP and related factors were indicated, although significant association between ROM and BAP was observed (R2=0.1156, R=0.340, P=0.013). The reason for these results can be explained by the influences of good health and young age. On the other hand, present study suggests that some latent problems among adolescents may be related to unhealthy

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  6. Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Chinese wines can be classification or graded by the micrographs. Micrographs of Chinese wines show floccules, stick and granule of variant shape and size. Different wines have variant microstructure and micrographs, we study the classification of Chinese wines based on the micrographs. Shape and structure of wines' particles in microstructure is the most important feature for recognition and classification of wines. So we introduce a feature extraction method which can describe the structure and region shape of micrograph efficiently. First, the micrographs are enhanced using total variation denoising, and segmented using a modified Otsu's method based on the Rayleigh Distribution. Then features are extracted using proposed method in the paper based on area, perimeter and traditional shape feature. Eight kinds total 26 features are selected. Finally, Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features and BP neural network have been presented. We compare the recognition results for different choices of features (traditional shape features or proposed features). The experimental results show that the better classification rate have been achieved using the combinational features proposed in this paper.

  7. Feature-Selective Attention Adaptively Shifts Noise Correlations in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Joshua D; Rapone, Brittany; Verhein, Jessica; O'Connor, Kevin N; Sutter, Mitchell L

    2017-05-24

    Sensory environments often contain an overwhelming amount of information, with both relevant and irrelevant information competing for neural resources. Feature attention mediates this competition by selecting the sensory features needed to form a coherent percept. How attention affects the activity of populations of neurons to support this process is poorly understood because population coding is typically studied through simulations in which one sensory feature is encoded without competition. Therefore, to study the effects of feature attention on population-based neural coding, investigations must be extended to include stimuli with both relevant and irrelevant features. We measured noise correlations ( r noise ) within small neural populations in primary auditory cortex while rhesus macaques performed a novel feature-selective attention task. We found that the effect of feature-selective attention on r noise depended not only on the population tuning to the attended feature, but also on the tuning to the distractor feature. To attempt to explain how these observed effects might support enhanced perceptual performance, we propose an extension of a simple and influential model in which shifts in r noise can simultaneously enhance the representation of the attended feature while suppressing the distractor. These findings present a novel mechanism by which attention modulates neural populations to support sensory processing in cluttered environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although feature-selective attention constitutes one of the building blocks of listening in natural environments, its neural bases remain obscure. To address this, we developed a novel auditory feature-selective attention task and measured noise correlations ( r noise ) in rhesus macaque A1 during task performance. Unlike previous studies showing that the effect of attention on r noise depends on population tuning to the attended feature, we show that the effect of attention depends on the tuning

  8. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales In vitro propagation of Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón from flowering buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leonor Marulanda-ángel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt, AIA (1 mg/lt y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BAP y 0.5 mg/lt de AIA, alcanzando una tasa de multiplicación de tres nuevas yemas. El enraizamiento de las plántulas in vitro se logró con 1.3 mg/lt de AIA. La aclimatación en vivero fue 92% de supervivencia. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (Anova y un test de Tukey para las variables evaluadas las cuales mostraron diferencias estadísticas en cada fase. La propagación in vitro de heliconias a partir de yemas florales requiere mayor tiempo en la fase de establecimiento y multiplicación, no obstante permite mayores porcentajes de supervivencia y una menor contaminación, ofreciendo material de siembra de diferentes especies de esta planta de interés comercial.A protocol for in vitro propagation of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón was developed using flowering buds as initial explants. 250 flowering buds were established in different assays with NaClO at 1% during 20 minutes. The establishment in Murashige & Skoog's medium with BAP (2mg/L, AIA (1 mg/L and L-cystein (0.1 g/L showed the best results. Shoot multiplication was obtained with BAP (6 mg/L with a subsequent subculture in a medium with BAP (2 mg/L and AIA (0.5 mg/L, reaching multiplication rates of 3.0 new shoots. Rooting was achieved with AIA 1.3 mg/L. The survival rate during greenhouse acclimatization was 92%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Turkey's test were realized for each of the variables evaluated that showed statistical differences in all stages. The in vitro propagation of

  9. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Uziel, Y. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Chuang, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Silverman, E. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Krafchik, B. (Div. of Dermatology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Laxer, R. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  10. LINGUISTIC FEATURES ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRONIC COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at identifying linguistic features used in the English electronic commerce websites used in correlation with the field, tenor and mode of discourse as parts of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL approach. Findings have shown that in the field of discourse, the linguistic features are largely appeared in the experiential domain analysis which shows that all terms of registers function as technical terms, of which the two major forms of nouns and verbs were the most frequent categories among other kinds of technical terms. The goal orientation is considered to be as a long term and the social activity is exchange. In the tenor of discourse, the linguistic features are highly appeared in the social distance analysis which shows that the social distance between participants is considered minimal. The agentive role is said to be equal and the social role is considered as non-hierarchic. In the mode of discourse, the linguistic features are excessively occurred in the language role analysis which exists equally of both constitutive and ancillary. The channel is in graphic mode. The medium is in written with a visual contact as its device.

  11. Neighbors Based Discriminative Feature Difference Learning for Kinship Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a discriminative feature difference learning method for facial image based kinship verification. To transform feature difference of an image pair to be discriminative for kinship verification, a linear transformation matrix for feature difference between an image pair...... than the commonly used feature concatenation, leading to a low complexity. Furthermore, there is no positive semi-definitive constrain on the transformation matrix while there is in metric learning methods, leading to an easy solution for the transformation matrix. Experimental results on two public...... databases show that the proposed method combined with a SVM classification method outperforms or is comparable to state-of-the-art kinship verification methods. © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media...

  12. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  13. Joint Tensor Feature Analysis For Visual Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Keung; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Wen, Jiajun; Ho, Chu Po

    2015-11-01

    Tensor-based object recognition has been widely studied in the past several years. This paper focuses on the issue of joint feature selection from the tensor data and proposes a novel method called joint tensor feature analysis (JTFA) for tensor feature extraction and recognition. In order to obtain a set of jointly sparse projections for tensor feature extraction, we define the modified within-class tensor scatter value and the modified between-class tensor scatter value for regression. The k-mode optimization technique and the L(2,1)-norm jointly sparse regression are combined together to compute the optimal solutions. The convergent analysis, computational complexity analysis and the essence of the proposed method/model are also presented. It is interesting to show that the proposed method is very similar to singular value decomposition on the scatter matrix but with sparsity constraint on the right singular value matrix or eigen-decomposition on the scatter matrix with sparse manner. Experimental results on some tensor datasets indicate that JTFA outperforms some well-known tensor feature extraction and selection algorithms.

  14. Mobility as a feature: Evidence from Zulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Zeller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence for the view that syntactic movement of an element Y to a position X is not driven by features of the target X, but by features of the moving element Y. The data that constitute evidence for this type of analysis come from A-bar movement constructions (object left and right dislocation; object relativisation in the Bantu language Zulu. As I show, only object-DPs that move out of the VP in Zulu are active Goals for Agree-relations and can trigger object agreement with the verb. The fact that the functional head responsible for object agreement must be able to identify a DP in its c-command domain as an active Goal entails that the “mobility” of this DP must be encoded as a property of the DP. Based on this conclusion, I also discuss two proposals about the nature of the feature that activates a DP for movement in Zulu and examine the conditions that determine how this feature is checked and deleted through movement.

  15. Polarimetric SAR Image Classification Using Multiple-feature Fusion and Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a supervised classification algorithm for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR images using multiple-feature fusion and ensemble learning. First, we extract different polarimetric features, including extended polarimetric feature space, Hoekman, Huynen, H/alpha/A, and fourcomponent scattering features of PolSAR images. Next, we randomly select two types of features each time from all feature sets to guarantee the reliability and diversity of later ensembles and use a support vector machine as the basic classifier for predicting classification results. Finally, we concatenate all prediction probabilities of basic classifiers as the final feature representation and employ the random forest method to obtain final classification results. Experimental results at the pixel and region levels show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Coexposure to benzo[a]pyrene plus UVA induced DNA double strand breaks: visualization of Ku assembly in the nucleus having DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko; Koike, Manabu; Ohashi, Norio; Takahashi, Sentaro; Goto, Rensuke

    2004-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with potential carcinogenicity. It has been shown that BaP, upon UVA irradiation, synergistically induced oxidative DNA damage, but other DNA damage was not confirmed. In this study, we examined whether coexposure to BaP plus UVA induces double strand breaks (DSBs) using xrs-5 cells, deficient in the repair of DSBs (Ku80 mutant), and whether Ku translocates involving the formation of DSBs. BaP plus UVA had a significant cytotoxic effect on CHO-K1 cells and an even more drastic effect on Ku80-deficient, xrs-5 cells, suggesting that the DSBs were generated by coexposure to BaP plus UVA. The DSBs were repaired in CHO-K1 cells within 30 min, but not in xrs-5 cells, indicating the involvement of a non-homologous end joining, which needs Ku proteins. Furthermore, we succeeded in visualizing that Ku80 rapidly assembled to the exposed region, in which DSBs might be generated, and clarified that the presence of both Ku70 and Ku80 was important for their accumulation

  18. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  19. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  20. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in combination with NAA had the highest regeneration in shoot tips explants. NAA in combination ... so its cultivation in farms (traditional method) is not economical. Tavares et al.

  1. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S.

    2006-01-01

    %, BAP (55%), CTX-I (33%), and YKL-40 (43%). Univariate analysis showed an association to survival: PINP (HR = 1.6, P 4, P 4, P = 0.004). In multivariate Cox analysis performance status, WHO grade, Soloway score, PINP...

  2. Associations Between PET Textural Features and GLUT1 Expression, and the Prognostic Significance of Textural Features in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Park, Seong Yong; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Su Jin

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the association between positron emission tomography (PET) textural features and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression level and further investigated the prognostic significance of textural features in lung adenocarcinoma. We evaluated 105 adenocarcinoma patients. We extracted texture-based PET parameters of primary tumors. Conventional PET parameters were also measured. The relationships between PET parameters and GLUT1 expression levels were evaluated. The association between PET parameters and overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox's proportional hazard regression models. In terms of PET textural features, tumors expressing high levels of GLUT1 exhibited significantly lower coarseness, contrast, complexity, and strength, but significantly higher busyness. On univariate analysis, the metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, contrast, busyness, complexity, and strength were significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analysis showed that lower complexity (HR=2.017, 95%CI=1.032-3.942, p=0.040) was independently associated with poorer survival. PET textural features may aid risk stratification in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of Lesion-Partitioned Features and Retrieval of Contrast-Enhanced Liver Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most critical step in grayscale medical image retrieval systems is feature extraction. Understanding the interrelatedness between the characteristics of lesion images and corresponding imaging features is crucial for image training, as well as for features extraction. A feature-extraction algorithm is developed based on different imaging properties of lesions and on the discrepancy in density between the lesions and their surrounding normal liver tissues in triple-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT scans. The algorithm includes mainly two processes: (1 distance transformation, which is used to divide the lesion into distinct regions and represents the spatial structure distribution and (2 representation using bag of visual words (BoW based on regions. The evaluation of this system based on the proposed feature extraction algorithm shows excellent retrieval results for three types of liver lesions visible on triple-phase scans CT images. The results of the proposed feature extraction algorithm show that although single-phase scans achieve the average precision of 81.9%, 80.8%, and 70.2%, dual- and triple-phase scans achieve 86.3% and 88.0%.

  4. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density, but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 μm features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 μm feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 μm size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density.

  5. A Novel Approach for Automatic Machining Feature Recognition with Edge Blend Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Keong Chen Wong; Yusof Yusri

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for efficiently recognizing and determining the convexity of an edge blend feature. The algorithm first recognizes all of the edge blend features from the Boundary Representation of a part; then a series of convexity test have been run on the recognized edge blend features. The novelty of the presented algorithm lies in, instead of each recognized blend feature is suppressed as most of researchers did, the recognized blend features of this research are gone th...

  6. Dermal absorption of benzo[a]pyrene into human skin from soil: Effect of artificial weathering, concentration, and exposure duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Trevor K; Shirai, Jeffry H; Bunge, Annette L; Lowney, Yvette W; Ruby, Michael V; Kissel, John C

    2017-11-01

    In vitro assessments of 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time. Results from the weathered and unweathered soils were similar except for the mass recovered in the washed skin, which was lower for the weathered soil only at the higher concentration. We hypothesize that chemical concentrations exceeded the BaP sorption capacity accessible within the artificial weathering timeframe for all soils tested, and that BaP mass in the washed skin was dominated by particles that were not removed by washing. Fluxes into and through skin from soils were lower by an order of magnitude than from acetone-deposited BaP.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene exposure under future ocean acidification scenarios weakens the immune responses of blood clam, Tegillarca granosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenhao; Zha, Shanjie; Wang, Yichen; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Chai, Xueliang; Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to converge into the ocean and accumulate in the sediment, posing great threats to marine organisms such as the sessile bottom burrowing bivalves. However, the immune toxicity of POPs, such as B[a]P, under future ocean acidification scenarios remains poorly understood to date. Therefore, in the present study, the impacts of B[a]P exposure on the immune responses of a bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa, under present and future ocean acidification scenarios were investigated. Results obtained revealed an increased immune toxicity of B[a]P under future ocean acidification scenarios in terms of reduced THC, altered haemocyte composition, and hampered phagocytosis, which may attribute to the synergetic effects of B[a]P and ocean acidification. In addition, the gene expressions of pathogen pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6), pathway mediators (TRAF6, TAK1, TAB2, IKKα and Myd88), and effectors (NF-ĸB) of the important immune related pathways were significantly down-regulated upon exposure to B[a]P under future ocean acidification scenarios. Results of the present study suggested an increased immune toxicity of B[a]P under future ocean acidification scenarios, which will significantly hamper the immune responses of T. granosa and subsequently render individuals more susceptible to pathogens challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neither separate nor equivalent : Relationships between feature representations within bound objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that binding, or encoding a feature with respect to other features in time and space, can convey cognitive advantages. However, evidence across many kinds of stimuli and paradigms presents a mixed picture, alternatively showing cognitive costs or cognitive advantages associated

  9. Deformable MR Prostate Segmentation via Deep Feature Learning and Sparse Patch Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-04-01

    Automatic and reliable segmentation of the prostate is an important but difficult task for various clinical applications such as prostate cancer radiotherapy. The main challenges for accurate MR prostate localization lie in two aspects: (1) inhomogeneous and inconsistent appearance around prostate boundary, and (2) the large shape variation across different patients. To tackle these two problems, we propose a new deformable MR prostate segmentation method by unifying deep feature learning with the sparse patch matching. First, instead of directly using handcrafted features, we propose to learn the latent feature representation from prostate MR images by the stacked sparse auto-encoder (SSAE). Since the deep learning algorithm learns the feature hierarchy from the data, the learned features are often more concise and effective than the handcrafted features in describing the underlying data. To improve the discriminability of learned features, we further refine the feature representation in a supervised fashion. Second, based on the learned features, a sparse patch matching method is proposed to infer a prostate likelihood map by transferring the prostate labels from multiple atlases to the new prostate MR image. Finally, a deformable segmentation is used to integrate a sparse shape model with the prostate likelihood map for achieving the final segmentation. The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on the dataset that contains 66 T2-wighted prostate MR images. Experimental results show that the deep-learned features are more effective than the handcrafted features in guiding MR prostate segmentation. Moreover, our method shows superior performance than other state-of-the-art segmentation methods.

  10. A Feature Subtraction Method for Image Based Kinship Verification under Uncontrolled Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental problem of local feature based kinship verification methods is that a local feature can capture the variations of environmental conditions and the differences between two persons having a kin relation, which can significantly decrease the performance. To address this problem...... the feature distance between face image pairs with kinship and maximize the distance between non-kinship pairs. Based on the subtracted feature, the verification is realized through a simple Gaussian based distance comparison method. Experiments on two public databases show that the feature subtraction method...

  11. News video story segmentation method using fusion of audio-visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun; Wu, Ling-da; Zeng, Pu; Luan, Xi-dao; Xie, Yu-xiang

    2007-11-01

    News story segmentation is an important aspect for news video analysis. This paper presents a method for news video story segmentation. Different form prior works, which base on visual features transform, the proposed technique uses audio features as baseline and fuses visual features with it to refine the results. At first, it selects silence clips as audio features candidate points, and selects shot boundaries and anchor shots as two kinds of visual features candidate points. Then this paper selects audio feature candidates as cues and develops different fusion method, which effectively using diverse type visual candidates to refine audio candidates, to get story boundaries. Experiment results show that this method has high efficiency and adaptability to different kinds of news video.

  12. Adaptive feature selection using v-shaped binary particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xuyang; Dong, Hongbin; Zhou, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection is an important preprocessing method in machine learning and data mining. This process can be used not only to reduce the amount of data to be analyzed but also to build models with stronger interpretability based on fewer features. Traditional feature selection methods evaluate the dependency and redundancy of features separately, which leads to a lack of measurement of their combined effect. Moreover, a greedy search considers only the optimization of the current round and thus cannot be a global search. To evaluate the combined effect of different subsets in the entire feature space, an adaptive feature selection method based on V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization is proposed. In this method, the fitness function is constructed using the correlation information entropy. Feature subsets are regarded as individuals in a population, and the feature space is searched using V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization. The above procedure overcomes the hard constraint on the number of features, enables the combined evaluation of each subset as a whole, and improves the search ability of conventional binary particle swarm optimization. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive method with respect to the number of feature subsets. The experimental results show the advantages of optimizing the feature subsets using the V-shaped transfer function and confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of the feature subsets obtained under different classifiers.

  13. The importance of internal facial features in learning new faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Christopher A; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    For familiar faces, the internal features (eyes, nose, and mouth) are known to be differentially salient for recognition compared to external features such as hairstyle. Two experiments are reported that investigate how this internal feature advantage accrues as a face becomes familiar. In Experiment 1, we tested the contribution of internal and external features to the ability to generalize from a single studied photograph to different views of the same face. A recognition advantage for the internal features over the external features was found after a change of viewpoint, whereas there was no internal feature advantage when the same image was used at study and test. In Experiment 2, we removed the most salient external feature (hairstyle) from studied photographs and looked at how this affected generalization to a novel viewpoint. Removing the hair from images of the face assisted generalization to novel viewpoints, and this was especially the case when photographs showing more than one viewpoint were studied. The results suggest that the internal features play an important role in the generalization between different images of an individual's face by enabling the viewer to detect the common identity-diagnostic elements across non-identical instances of the face.

  14. Processing of word stress related acoustic information: A multi-feature MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honbolygó, Ferenc; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Csépe, Valéria

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components. As a control condition, we presented non-speech counterparts of the speech stimuli. Results showed all but one feature (non-speech intensity deviant) eliciting the MMN component, which was larger for speech compared to non-speech stimuli. Two other components showed stimulus related effects: the N350 and the LDN (Late Discriminative Negativity). The N350 appeared to the vowel duration and consonant duration deviants, specifically to features related to the temporal characteristics of stimuli, while the LDN was present for all features, and it was larger for speech than for non-speech stimuli. We also found that the f0 and consonant duration features elicited a larger MMN than other features. These results suggest that stress as a phonological feature is processed based on long-term representations, and listeners show a specific sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental cues signaling the prosodic boundaries of words. These findings support a two-stage model in the perception of stress and phoneme related acoustical information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicogenomic analysis in the combined effect of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the deve