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Sample records for shortfin silverside chirostoma

  1. Oocyte structure and ultrastructure in the Mexican silverside fish Chirostoma humboldtianum (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae

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    Rodolfo Cárdenas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the structural and ultrastructural features of gonads from endemic Mexican fish have received scarce attention. This study describes the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the oocyte in Chirostoma humboldtianum. The ovary is asynchronic, and as such, most phases of oocyte development are found in the same ovary. The complete process of oogenesis was divided in five stages: oogonium and folliculogenesis, primary growth, cortical alveoli and lipid inclusions, vitellogenesis and maturation. The presence of big filaments, which appear at the end of primary growth, induces some common follicular adaptation. During primary growth, abundant ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria are grouped in the cytoplasm. At the end of this stage, the Z1 layer of the chorion is developed, while microvilli start to be evident as well. In the cortical alveoli and lipid droplets phase, intense PAS positive vesicles, some of them containing nucleoid material, are observed in the peripheral cytoplasm and the lipid droplets take a more central position. In vitellogenesis, the proteic yolk accumulates in a centripetal way while the chorion is completely formed. In maturation, the germinal vesicle migrates to the animal pole, meiosis is restored, and there is nuclear breakdown. The oocyte increases its size and holds some oil droplets and a big fluid mass of yolk. On the outside, filaments surround the oocyte completely. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1825-1835. Epub 2008 December 12.Los aspectos estructurales y ultraestructrurales de las gónadas de peces mexicanos endémicos han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo reportamos las características histológicas y ultraestructurales del ovocito de Chirostoma hulmboldtianum. El ovario es de tipo asincrónico, por ende, la mayoría de las fases del desarrollo del ovocito pueden ser encontradas en el mismo ovario. El desarrollo del ovocito fue dividido en cinco etapas: ovo-gonia y foliculog

  2. Genomic Sequence of a Ranavirus Isolated from Short-Finned Eel (Anguilla australis)

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    Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Toffan, Anna; Cappellozza, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) was isolated from short-finned eel imported to Italy from New Zealand. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that SERV is a unique member of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, branching at the base of the tree near other fish ranaviruses....

  3. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

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    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    There is an ongoing disagreement regarding the aging of the shortfin mako due to a difference of interpretation in the periodic deposition of vertebral growth band pairs, especially for the larger size classes. Using analysis of length-month information, tagging data, and length-frequency analysis, concluded that two band pairs were formed in the vertebral centrum every year (biannual band-pair interpretation). Cailliet et al. (1983), however, presented growth parameters based on the common assumption that one band pair forms annually (annual band-pair interpretation). Therefore, growth rates obtained by Pratt & Casey (1983) were twice that of Cailliet et al. (1983) and could lead to age discrepancies of about 15 years for maximum estimated ages on the order of 30 from the annual band-pair interpretation. Serious consequences in the population dynamics could occur for this species if inputs are based on an invalid age interpretation. The latest Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Highly Migratory Species (HMS), for example, adopted the biannual band pair deposition hypothesis because it apparently fit the observed growth patterns best (Pacific Fishery Management Council 2003). However, the ongoing uncertainty about the aging of the shortfin mako was acknowledged and it was recommended that an endeavor to resolve this issue be made. Since 1983, five additional studies on the age and growth of the shortfin mako have been conducted (Chan 2001, Campana et al. 2002, Hsu 2003, Ribot-Carballal et al. 2005, Bishop et al. 2006). Using Marginal Increment Ratio (MIR), Hsu (2003) indicated the formation of annual translucent bands from July to September in western North Pacific Ocean shortfin makos. Using Marginal Increment Analysis (MIA) Ribot-Carballal et al. (2005) supported the annual band-pair interpretation for 109 shortfin makos collected in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Although the study provided support for annual band-pair deposition, no statistical test was performed

  4. Chemical Changes In Shortfin Scad (Decapterus Macrosoma) at Chilled (4 degree Celcius) and Frozen (-18 degree Celcius) Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazilah Fazilin Juhari; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Seng, C.C.; Anida Yusoff; Emilia Azrina Mohd Bakri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical changes in muscle tissue of shortfin scad during storage at chilled (4 degree Celcius) and frozen (-18 degree Celcius) conditions for 18 days. The chemical changes were monitored every three days for Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Peroxide value (PV), Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVBN) and Trimethylamine (TMA) content. Results show that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in peroxide and TBA values between chilled and frozen shortfin scad starting from day 3. The highest PV values occured in chilled and frozen shortfin scad at day 12 (1.57 mEq/ kg and 1.13 mEq/ kg, respectively), and then decreased due to decomposition of hydroperoxides to secondary products such as aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. In contrast, TBA reached the highest values at day 15 for both chilled and frozen shortfin scad. For TVBN content, only the chilled sample shows significant increased (p<0.05) with storage time. The TVBN values declined significantly (p<0.05) for frozen shortfin scad. The TMA values for both chilled and frozen shortfin scad increased during storage. However, the TMA values increased at a faster rate in chilled compared to frozen shortfin scad. Based on the PV, TBA, TVBN and TMA values, chilled shortfin scad undergoes spoilage at a faster rate compared to the frozen shortfin scad. (author)

  5. Alimentación de Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes; (Pisces: atherinopsidae en el estanque JC en Soyaniquilpan, Estado de México

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    G. Elías Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los charales son peces endémicos del centro de México que han sido consumidos desde épocas prehispánicas, en la actualidad, el volumen de su captura ha disminuido por diversos motivos como la sobrepesca y la contaminación del hábitat, por lo cual es muy importante estudiar las poblaciones que quedan para conocer sus requerimientos ecológicos y alimenticios y poder plantear alternativas para su conservación. Por lo anterior, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: determinar los grupos alimenticios que consume Chirostoma humboldtianum en el estanque JC en Soyaniquilpan, Estado de México y la variación de algunos parámetros físicos y químicos del agua. Se realizaron seis muestreos mensuales de diciembre de 2001 a mayo de 2002. Se registró la temperatura, la profundidad, la transparencia, la conductividad, la turbiedad, el pH, el oxígeno disuelto, la dureza y la alcalinidad. Los peces se capturaron con un chinchorro de 25 metros de longitud y 8 mm de abertura y fueron fijados con formalina al 10 %. El contenido alimenticio fue identificado con claves especializadas. Para determinar el porcentaje de los grupos alimenticios se utilizó el método volumétrico y de frecuencias. Se encontró que el agua es templada, turbia, con regular cantidad de oxígeno disuelto, de dureza moderada. Chirostoma humboldtianum consumió 21 tipos de organismos, destacando Keratella, Trichocerca, Asplanchna, Bosmina, además de copépodos, coríxidos y quironómidos. El método de frecuencias mostró a Cyclops y Keratella como el alimento preferencial.

  6. Ecotoxicological tests with cadmium and chromium using postlarvae of silverside Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia Hildebrand

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    Giovana Vera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the mean effective concentrations (EC50% of cadmium (Cd+2 and chromium (Cr+6 using postlarvae of the silverside fish Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia were determined. The postlarvae were exposed to different concentrations of the metals, between 0,142 and 1,208 mg.L–1 of cadmium and between 0,53 and 33,74 mg.L–1 of chromium. The mean effective concentrations (EC50% obtained were 0,648 mg.L–1 of cadmium (at 96 h and 2,68 mg.L–1 of chromium (at 96 h. Comparatively, cadmium is more toxic than chromium, and silverside is more tolerant than other organisms.

  7. Physical quality of Simental Ongole crossbred silverside meat at various boiling times

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    Riyanto, J.; Cahyadi, M.; Guntari, W. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the physical quality of silverside beef meat at various boiling times. Samples that have been used are the back thigh or silverside meat. Treatment of boiling meat included TR (meat without boiled), R15 (boiled 15 minutes), and R30 (boiled for 30 minutes). The experimental design using Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Each replication was done in triple physical quality test. Determination of physical quality was performed at the Livestock Industry and Processing Laboratory at Sebelas Maret University Surakarta and the Meat Technology Laboratory at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Gadjah Mada University. The result of variance analysis showed that boiling affect cooking loss (P≥0.05) and but did not affect (P≤0,05) pH, water holding capacity and meat tenderness. The conclusions of the study showed that boiling for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreased the cooking loss of Simental Ongole Crossbred silverside meat. Meat physical quality of pH, water holding capacity and the value of tenderness is not affected by boiling for 15 and 30 minutes.

  8. Silversides (Odontesthes bonariensis) reside within freshwater and estuarine habitats, not marine environments

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    Avigliano, Esteban; Miller, Nathan; Volpedo, Alejandra Vanina

    2018-05-01

    Otolith core-to-edge Sr:Ca ratio was determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to analyze the salinity-habitat migration history of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, within the Uruguay River (freshwater) and Río de la Plata Estuary (estuarine water) (Plata Basin, South America). Regular core-to-edge oscillations in Sr:Ca suggest that the silverside makes annual migrations between freshwater (1 PSU) habitats, with no evidence of marine incursion or non-migratory individuals. Empirical equations that represent the relationship between conductivity/salinity and otolith Sr:Ca ratio were used to identify where in an otolith an individual transitioned between freshwater and brackish habitats. In most specimens, the first migration between habitats likely occurred within the first year of life. Average numbers of changes between stable Sr:Ca signatures (sites with different salinities) determined by Change-Point analysis were similar from Uruguay River (8.9 ± 3.7) and Río de la Plata Estuary (7.5 ± 2.5) for comparable age fish (p < 0.05), suggesting that habitat use is similar in both collection sites.

  9. Evaluation of Reference Genes to Analyze Gene Expression in Silverside Odontesthes humensis Under Different Environmental Conditions

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    Tony L. R. Silveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Some mammalian reference genes, which are widely used to normalize the qRT-PCR, could not be used for this purpose due to its high expression variation. The normalization with false reference genes leads to misinterpretation of results. The silversides (Odontesthes spp. has been used as models for evolutionary, osmoregulatory and environmental pollution studies but, up to now, there are no studies about reference genes in any Odontesthes species. Furthermore, many studies on silversides have used reference genes without previous validations. Thus, present study aimed to was to clone and sequence potential reference genes, thereby identifying the best ones in Odontesthes humensis considering different tissues, ages and conditions. For this purpose, animals belonging to three ages (adults, juveniles, and immature were exposed to control, Roundup®, and seawater treatments for 24 h. Blood samples were subjected to flow-cytometry and other collected tissues to RNA extraction; cDNA synthesis; molecular cloning; DNA sequencing; and qRT-PCR. The candidate genes tested included 18s, actb, ef1a, eif3g, gapdh, h3a, atp1a, and tuba. Gene expression results were analyzed using five algorithms that ranked the candidate genes. The flow-cytometry data showed that the environmental challenges could trigger a systemic response in the treated fish. Even during this systemic physiological disorder, the consensus analysis of gene expression revealed h3a to be the most stable gene expression when only the treatments were considered. On the other hand, tuba was the least stable gene in the control and gapdh was the least stable in both Roundup® and seawater groups. In conclusion, the consensus analyses of different tissues, ages, and treatments groups revealed that h3a is the most stable gene whereas gapdh and tuba are the least stable genes, even being considered two constitutive genes.

  10. Spatial ecology of blue shark and shortfin mako in southern Peru: local abundance, habitat preferences and implications for conservation

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    Adams, Grant D.; Flores, Daniel; Flores, Oscar Galindo

    2016-01-01

    While global declines of pelagic shark populations have been recognized for several years, conservation efforts remain hampered by a poor understanding of the spatial distribution and ecology. Two species of conservation concern are the blue shark Prionace glauca and the shortfin mako shark Isuru...

  11. Regional differentiation and post-glacial expansion of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, an annual fish with high dispersal potential

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    Mach, Megan E.; Sbrocco, Elizabeth J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Duffy, Tara A.; Conover, David O.; Barber, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The coastal marine environment of the Northwest Atlantic contains strong environmental gradients that create distinct marine biogeographic provinces by limiting dispersal, recruitment, and survival. This region has also been subjected to numerous Pleistocene glacial cycles, resulting in repeated extirpations and recolonizations in northern populations of marine organisms. In this study, we examined patterns of genetic structure and historical demography in the Atlantic silverside, Menidia men...

  12. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

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    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  13. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

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    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Calling under pressure: Short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

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    Jensen, Frants Havmand; Marrero Perez, Jacobo; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species...... among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic...... DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows...

  15. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.

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    Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-10-22

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise.

  16. Heavy metals in tissues of stranded short-finned pilot whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneburner, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selected tissues from four short-finned pilot whales that stranded at Cumberland Island National Seashore were analyzed for total cadmium, mercury and selenium by neutron activation. Cadmium reached a maximum mean wet weight concentration of 31.4 ppm in the kidney tissues. Maximum mean wet weight concentrations of mercury, 230.9 ppm, and selenium, 44.2 ppm, were found in the liver tissues. The lowest concentration of each metal was found in the blubber. Postmortem examination showed that the whales had no food in their stomachs. The whales must have been utilizing metabolic reserves, contaminated with residual concentrations of heavy metals, prior to beaching. This utilization of reserves probably resulted in the high concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium found in the liver and kidney tissues. Since the heavy metal concentrations were three to four times greater in the stranded whales, as compared to apparently healthy whales of the same species, it is suggested that heavy metal toxicosis may have been a factor contributing to this particular stranding. (Auth.)

  17. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

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    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  18. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

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    Ramesh, Pandian, E-mail: prms23@gmail.com [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India); Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N. [University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.

  19. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Pandian; Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2 1 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation

  20. Growth of the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in a subtropical estuary with some insights concerning the weight-length relationship

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    BARBARA M. DE CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Specimens of Brazilian silverside (Atherinella brasiliensis, n=9672 with a length range of 1.5 to 14.2 cm were captured in the intertidal areas of the Estuarine Complex of Paranaguá, Brazil, between August 2010 and July 2011. The species’ weight-length relationship was represented by the equation W=0.00533 L3.136 with a slightly positive allometry (b>3 and could be divided into two growth stanzas: W = W1 + W2; Stanza 1: W1= SW. (0.005239 L3.152; Stanza 2: W2= (1 - SW. (0.000699 L3.913; Switch-Function: SW = [1 + e1.204 (L - 11.66]-1. The breakpoint between the first and second stanza (11.66 cm matches published values for the estimated size at first maturity of adult females. Frequency distributions indicate that the species is present in the shallow areas of the Estuarine Complex of Paranaguá during all phases of its ontogenetic development, with the recruitment of juveniles taking place between October and November. Modal displacement was monitored throughout 12 months. The von Bertalanffy growth model and longevity was estimated as follow: asymptotic length (L∞ of 17.5 cm, growth coefficient (K of 0.89 (year-1 and longevity (A95 of 3.33 years. We present some considerations with regard to the general methodology for adjusting weight-length relationships.

  1. Behaviour of Short-finned Pilot Whales Globicephala macrorhynchus (Gray, 1846 (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Delphinidae in the southeastern Arabian Sea

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    Kurichithara K. Sajikumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence and behaviour of a pod of short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus in the southeastern Arabian Sea. The pod was observed in the southeastern side of Minicoy Island, in the Nine degree channel (09°219′23′′N;74°39′529′′E on 03.02.2013. Later, on 06.02.2013,the same pod of pilot whales were observed near Kalpeni Island (10°02′402′′N; 73°39′579′′E 130 km northwest of the previous location. The average length of the whales was estimated as 550 cm and weight as approximately 1200 kg. They were travelling in a northwesterly direction. The pod size of the whales sighted was twelve and several species specific behaviour such as side rolling, spyhopping, lobtailing, peduncle arching and movement patterns such as synchronous travelling and logging could be observed. The occurrence of scars and injuries on the body of four whales in the pod are also reported.

  2. A Spatio-Temporal Model of Phenotypic Evolution in the Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) and Its Implications for Size-Selective Fishing in a Warmer World

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    Sbrocco, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    A pervasive phenotypic pattern observed across marine fishes is that vertebral number increases with latitude. Jordan's Rule, as it is known, holds true both within and across species, and like other ecogeographic principles (e.g., Bergmann's Rule), it is presumed to be an adaptive response to latitudinal gradients in temperature. As such, future ocean warming is expected to impact not only the geographic range limits of marine fishes that conform to Jordan's Rule, but also their phenotype, with warmer waters selecting for fish with fewer vertebrae at any given latitude. Here I present a model of phenotypic evolution over space and time for the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), a common marine fish found in coastal waters along the western North Atlantic. This species has long served as a model organism for the study of fisheries-induced selection and exhibits numerous latitudinal clines in phenotypic and life-history traits, including vertebral number. Common garden experiments have shown that vertebral number is genetically determined in this species, but correlative models of observed vertebral counts and climate reveal that SST is the single strongest predictor of phenotype, even after accounting for gene flow. This result indicates that natural selection is responsible for maintaining vertebral clines in the silverside, and allows for the prediction of phenotypic responses to ocean warming. By integrating genetic estimates of population connectivity, species distribution models, and statistical models, I find that by the end of the 21st century, ocean warming will select for silversides with up to 8% fewer vertebrae. Mid-Atlantic populations are the most mal-adapted for future conditions, but may be rescued by migration from small-phenotype southern neighbors or by directional selection. Despite smaller temperature anomalies, the strongest impacts of warming will be felt at both northern and southern edges of the distribution, where genetic rescue from

  3. Gene-Culture Coevolution in a Social Cetacean: Integrating Acoustic and Genetic Data to Understand Population Structure in the Short-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, Amy

    The evolutionary ecology of a species is driven by a combination of random events, ecological and environmental mechanisms, and social behavior. Gene-culture coevolutionary theory attempts to understand the evolutionary trajectory of a species by examining the interactions between these potential drivers. Further, our choice of data type will affect the patterns we observe, therefore by integrating several types of data we achieve a holistic understanding of the various aspects of evolutionary ecology within a species. In order to understand population structure in short-finned pilot whales, I use a combination of genetic and acoustic data to examine structure on evolutionary (genetic) and cultural (acoustic) timescales. I first examine structure among geographic populations in the Pacific Ocean. Using genetic sequences from the mitochondrial control region, I show that two genetically and morphologically distinct types of short-finned pilot whale, described off the coast of Japan, have non-overlapping distributions throughout their range in the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the acoustic features of their social calls indicates that they are acoustically differentiated, possibly due to limited communication between the two types. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the two types may be separate species or subspecies. Next, I examine structure among island communities and social groups within the Hawaiian Island population of short-finned pilot whales. Using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, I showed that the hierarchical social structure in Hawaiian pilot whales is driven by genetic relatedness; individuals remain in groups with their immediate family members, and preferentially associate with relatives. Similarly, social structure affects genetic differentiation, likely by restricting access to mates. Acoustic differentiation among social groups indicates that social structure may also restrict the flow of cultural information, such as vocal

  4. A Comparative Study of Intratesticular Ductules in the Spermatogenically Active Testes of Shortfin Mako and Thresher Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, Leon Mendel; Sulikowski, James

    2016-10-01

    This comparative study of the radial testes of sexually mature thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) and shortfin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus) describes the histology of the three-tiered network of sperm-carrying ductules in the testis and the lymphomyeloid tissue associated with it, namely the epigonal organ. In both species, a testis → epigonal gradient was evident regarding the thickness of the ductule epithelial lining and subepithelial investment of connective tissue. Ductules straddling the testis-epigonal border often displayed luminal leukocytes and various signs of regression, including the progressive thickening of the ductule epithelial lining, dissolution of the cytoplasm, and loss of normal histoarchitecture. In Isurus, large amorphous areas formed due to the fusion of neighboring regressing ductules. The epigonal organ of Alopias additionally revealed circular degenerative sperm-containing, Hassall-like bodies with either a degenerate or cellular appearance, the latter the result of cell proliferative activity (as shown by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry) in an expanding outer border comprising cells with intensely PCNA immunoreactive slender and oblong nuclei. The latter cells exhibited a periphery-to-center transformation of their nuclei, at which stage they were PCNA-negative and most likely in a terminally differentiated state as they phagocytized the cell debris in the degenerate core. Intermediate stages of these circular bodies were a rarity. The relationship between these degenerate bodies, and the common occurrence of blind pockets in the epithelial linings and non-apoptosis-related degenerate patches in the apical cytoplasmic regions of the irregular shaped ductules in Alopias is unclear, and needs further elucidation. Anat Rec, 299:1435-1448, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin, Nurrul Shaqinah; Azmai, Mohammad Noor Amal; Ismail, Ahmad; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth), the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric), and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum) for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish.

  6. Do freshwater fishes diversify faster than marine fishes? A test using state-dependent diversification analyses and molecular phylogenetics of new world silversides (atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Devin D; Weir, Jason T; Piller, Kyle R; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2013-07-01

    Freshwater habitats make up only ∼0.01% of available aquatic habitat and yet harbor 40% of all fish species, whereas marine habitats comprise >99% of available aquatic habitat and have only 60% of fish species. One possible explanation for this pattern is that diversification rates are higher in freshwater habitats than in marine habitats. We investigated diversification in marine and freshwater lineages in the New World silverside fish clade Menidiinae (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae). Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and a state-dependent speciation-extinction framework, we determined the frequency and timing of habitat transitions in Menidiinae and tested for differences in diversification parameters between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that Menidiinae is an ancestrally marine lineage that independently colonized freshwater habitats four times followed by three reversals to the marine environment. Our state-dependent diversification analyses showed that freshwater lineages have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine lineages. Net diversification rates were higher (but not significant) in freshwater than marine environments. The marine lineage-through time (LTT) plot shows constant accumulation, suggesting that ecological limits to clade growth have not slowed diversification in marine lineages. Freshwater lineages exhibited an upturn near the recent in their LTT plot, which is consistent with our estimates of high background extinction rates. All sequence data are currently being archived on Genbank and phylogenetic trees archived on Treebase. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Odontesthes mirinensis, sp.n. um novo peixe-rei (Pisces, Atherinidae, Atherinopsinae para o extremo sul do Brasil Odontesthes mirinensis, sp.n. a new silverside (Pisces, Atherinidae, Atherinopsinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise de Azevedo Bemvenuti

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontesthes mirinensis, a new species of silverside, is described in coastal lagoons system of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from other Odontesthes species by short snout and having 24-29 gill rakers on the lower branch of the first branchial arch. Osteological features (bones of the skull, axial skeleton and girdles are included and discussed. Meristic and morphometric variables were analyzed separately, through multivariate procedures. Principal Component Analysis show that Odontesthes mirinensis, sp.n. does not exhibit significant geographic variation on body shape.

  8. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  9. Histological Features of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wild Indonesian Shortfin Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844, Captured in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrul Shaqinah Nasruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844, captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth, the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric, and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish.

  10. Effects of prolonged entanglement in discarded fishing gear with substantive biofouling on the health and behavior of an adult shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Cartamil, Daniel P

    2012-02-01

    A mature male shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, was captured with a three-strand twisted natural fiber rope wrapped around the body causing deep abrasions, scoliosis of the back, and undernourishment. Fifty-two pelagic peduculate barnacles from four species were found fouling on the rope. Assuming larval settlement occurred following entanglement, barnacle growth-rate data suggest the rope had been around the shark for at least 150 days. However, the onset of severe scoliosis (likely linked to the increased constriction of the rope with growth and the added drag induced by biofouling) indicates that this rope may have been in place much longer. Following removal of the rope, a pop-up satellite archival tag was attached to the shark to assess post-release health. The resulting 54 days of tag deployment data show that despite its injuries, the shark survived, and following an initial stress period, exhibited movement patterns characteristic of healthy makos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Movements and dive patterns of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) released from a mass stranding in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S.; Fougeres, Erin M.; Cooper, Arthur G.; Stevens, Robert O.; Brodsky, Micah; Lingenfelser, Robert; Dold, Chris; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) are among the most common cetaceans to engage in mass strandings in the southeastern United States. Because these are primarily pelagic, continental shelf-edge animals, much of what is known about this species has derived from mass stranding events. Post-release monitoring via satellite-linked telemetry was conducted with two adult males determined on-site to be healthy, and released directly from a mass stranding of 23 pilot whales in May 2011, near Cudjoe Key, Florida. Tracking provided an opportunity to evaluate the decision for immediate release vs rehabilitation, and to learn more about the lives of members of this difficult-to-study species in the wild. The two pilot whales remained together for at least 16 d before transmissions from one pilot whale (Y-404) ceased. Dive patterns and travel rates suggested that Y-404’s condition deteriorated prior to signal loss. Pilot Whale Y-400 was tracked for another 51 d, moving from the Blake Plateau to the Greater Antilles, remaining in the Windward Passage east of Cuba for the last 17 d of tracking. Once he reached the Antilles, Y-400 remained in high-relief habitat appropriate for the species and made dives within or exceeding the reported range for depth and duration for this species, following expected diel patterns, presumably reflecting continued good health. Telemetry data indicate that he made at least one dive to 1,000 to 1,500 m, and several dives lasted more than 40 min. Although the fates of the two released pilot whales may have been different, the concept of evaluating health and releasing individuals determined to be healthy at the time of stranding appears to have merit as an alternative to bringing all members of mass-stranded pilot whale groups into rehabilitation.

  12. Digestive enzyme activities are higher in the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, than in ectothermic sharks as a result of visceral endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kyle C; Wraith, James; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2015-08-01

    Lamnid sharks are regionally endothermic fishes that maintain visceral temperatures elevated above the ambient water temperature. Visceral endothermy is thought to increase rates of digestion and food processing and allow thermal niche expansion. We tested the hypothesis that, at in vivo temperatures, the endothermic shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, has higher specific activities of three digestive enzymes-gastric pepsin and pancreatic trypsin and lipase-than the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, and the blue shark, Prionace glauca, neither of which can maintain elevated visceral temperatures. Homogenized stomach or pancreas tissue obtained from sharks collected by pelagic longline was incubated at both 15 and 25 °C, at saturating substrate concentrations, to quantify tissue enzymatic activity. The mako had significantly higher enzyme activities at 25 °C than did the thresher and blue sharks at 15 °C. This difference was not a simple temperature effect, because at 25 °C the mako had higher trypsin activity than the blue shark and higher activities for all enzymes than the thresher shark. We also hypothesized that the thermal coefficient, or Q 10 value, would be higher for the mako shark than for the thresher and blue sharks because of its more stable visceral temperature. However, the mako and thresher sharks had similar Q 10 values for all enzymes, perhaps because of their closer phylogenetic relationship. The higher in vivo digestive enzyme activities in the mako shark should result in higher rates of food processing and may represent a selective advantage of regional visceral endothermy.

  13. Melanomacrophages in three species of free-ranging sharks from the northwestern Atlantic, the blue shark Prionacae glauca (L.), the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrhinchus Rafinesque, and the thresher, Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J D; Kotran, K; Shackett, M; Barker, T

    2009-10-01

    The melanomacrophage aggregates or cells (MMC) are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure to pollution in fish, albeit their numbers and morphological characteristics can be influenced not only by environmental toxins but also by a range of physiological parameters and pathological conditions. Accordingly, before we can use MMC as biomarkers in any fish species, their normal, 'background' characteristics have to be established in apparently healthy fish. The knowledge of MMC in sharks is minimal. The aim of this study was to characterize MMC from 51 free-ranging, large pelagic sharks from the northwestern Atlantic, including shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrhinchus, thresher, Alopias vulpinus and blue shark, Prionacae glauca. The rationale of this study was twofold. First, because, sharks have life histories predisposing them to the accumulation of environmental toxins they constitute good sentinel species of the health of the global marine ecosystem. Second, because many shark populations are in decline or threatened by extinction, we need to expand our understanding of their health status in order to develop appropriate protective measures. All sharks were collected by sports fishing gear between June and August in 2007. Their health condition was assessed by necropsy, morphometrics, and by microscopic examination of gonads, livers, spleens and kidneys. Routine, haematoxylin and eosin and/or Pearl's reagent-stained paraffin embedded sections were studied by light microscopy. Our results provide the first data on the morphometric and morphological characteristics of MMC in viscera of apparently healthy free-ranging sharks from the northwestern Atlantic.

  14. Hábito alimentar e osteologia da boca do peixe-rei, Odontesthes humensis de Buen (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae na Lagoa Mirim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Feeding habits and mouth osteology of silverside, Odontesthes humensis de Buen (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae in the Mirim Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lameiro Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Gut contents of 304 individuals of the silverside Odontesthes humensis de Buen, 1953 were analyzed using frequency of occurrence (FO% and gravimetric (P% methods. A total of 207 individuals (68.1% had some food itens in the gut, while 97 individuals (31.9% had empty guts. The silverside Odontesthes humensis has presented a benthic carnivorous diet, preying mainly on molluscs and arthropods. The molluscs Heleobia sp. (FO = 61.35% and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (FO = 57.97% were the most frequent itens, followed by Neocorbicula limosa (Maton, 1811 (FO = 17.39%. Among the arthropods, the coleoptera insects (FO= 18.84% were dominant followed by, insect larvae (FO = 6.76%, the crustacean Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 (FO = 1.93% and isopods (FO = 1.45%. Vegetal remains, organic matter and digested fish were grouped due to low frequency (FO = 9.13% being considered occasional. Juvenile fed mainly on insect larvae and moluscs, while the adults preferred molluscs and coleoptera. On the description of its feeding apparatus the importance of a protrusible upper jaw was observed, being important on the capture of prey in inaccessible places. A protrusible mouth and the format of the pharingean plates, are important morphological characters that assist on the capture and handling of prey. The molariform shaped pharingean teeth help break hard food items, as shells and carapaces.

  15. Temperature, energy acquisition and energy use in the Chilean silverside Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinopsidae Temperatura, adquisición de energía y uso de energía en el pejerrey chileno Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOPOLDO FUENTES

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water temperature (Tw on the energy acquisition and use in the chilean silverside Basilichthys australis (Eigenmann 1927, an endemic species inhabiting freshwater ecosystems in Chile. We tested the effect of Tw (11.5, 14.0, 18.0, 22.0 and 26.0 °C on food intake, digestibility, food transit time and metabolic rate. As expected, this study demonstrated that many physiological variables under study were significantly affected by Tw, as well as the net energy balance of this species. Nevertheless, the net energy balance was not strictly related to the range of Tws evaluated. At Tws lower than 14 °C the energy budget was depressed, because food intake was lower than at Tws between 14 and 26 °C, where food intake was higher and independent of Tw. Consequently, at these temperatures the energy balance was positive and also independent of Tw. Physiologically, B. australis appears to be a tolerant species with respect to the wide range of water temperature in habitats at different depths. Thus, its distributions may extend through the entire profile of lakes and rivers, even in systems characterised by spatial and temporal thermal variabilityEn este trabajo evaluamos la influencia de la temperatura del agua (Ta en la adquisición de energía y su uso por parte del pejerrey chileno Basilichthys australis (Eigenmann 1927, una especie endémica que habita los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de Chile. Investigamos el efecto de Ta (11,5, 14,0, 18,0, 22,0 y 26,0 °C en la ingesta de alimento, digestibilidad, tiempo de transito del alimento y tasa metabólica. De acuerdo a lo esperado, este estudio demostró que varias de las variables fisiológicas bajo estudio fueron significativamente afectadas por Ta, así como el balance energético de esta especie. Sin embargo, el balance neto de energía no estuvo estrictamente relacionado al rango de Tas evaluadas. En Tas inferiores a 14 °C el presupuesto de energía fue deprimido, debido a

  16. Biological patterns of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in the slope trawl fishery off Brazil Patrones biológicos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en la pesquería de arrastre en el talud continental de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial exploitation of the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus was virtually non-existent in Brazilian waters until 2000 when foreign trawlers initiated their operations on slope grounds as part of a government-induced chartering program. Since then, the species has been included among the targets of a developing slope trawl fishing off southeastern and southern Brazil. Biological samples were collected from commercial catches of 25 national and seven foreign (chartered trawlers between 23°-33°S and 170-740 m depth. These samples represent two periods of the commercial exploitation of Illex argentinus in Brazil: 2001-2003, when both chartered and national trawlers operated simultaneously, and 2006-2007, when only national vessels continued to exploit I. argentinus along with other slope stocks. Catches contained immature and ma-turing squid throughout the year, as well as at least two distinct, fully mature, spawning groups: one composed of small-sized males and females present year-round on the shelf-break/ upper slope (La explotación comercial del calamar argentino (Illex argentinus no existía en aguas brasilenas hasta el año 2000, cuando buques extranjeros iniciaron sus operaciones en el talud como parte de un programa gubernamental de arrendamiento. Desde entonces la especie forma parte de un conjunto de recursos que han motivado el desarrollo de una pesquería de arrastre en el talud del sur y sureste de Brasil. Se colectaron muestras biológicas de las capturas comerciales de 25 buques arrastreros nacionales y siete extranjeros entre los paralelos 23°-33°S y en profundidades de 170 a 740 m. Estas muestras representaron dos periodos de la explotación comercial de I. argentinus en Brasil: 2001-2003, cuando buques nacionales y extranjeros operaron simultáneamente, y 2006-2007 cuando sólo buques nacionales permanecieron explotando el calamar argentino en conjunto con otros recursos del talud. Las capturas estuvieron

  17. Recrutamento do peixe-rei, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae, na margem continental da Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Recruitament of the silverside, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae, in continental margin of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André Luiz Machado Pessanha

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverside, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824, a resident species of the shallows of bays, estuaries and coastal lagoons, was studied during two annual cycles, using beach seines (July 1996 to June 1998, in the continental margin of the Sepetiba Bay, aiming to assess recruitment and distribution patterns. A wide recruitment period, with young-of-the-year appearing from early spring to early autumn, was shown, with peaks of juveniles (Total Length-LT = 10-30 mm being recorded in two periods of the year; one in November and another in March. The highest abundances, of both juvenile and adults, were recorded in Coroa Grande and Itacuruçá, sites located in the outer Bay, during the whole summer, with significant differences were found. In spite of not having been found any statistically significant relationship between the environmental factors and the occurrence of this species, a trend of higher abundance in colder and more saline waters was detected. High values of growth coefficient (K = 0.93 and low asymptotic lenght (L∞ = 11.6 cm indicated that this species shows a high growth rate and short life cycle, with life span of 3.09 years, in this system.

  18. Uso do manguezal de Guaratiba, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, pelo peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae The use of the Guaratiba magrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, by the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae

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    Leonardo M. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coletas padronizadas de peixes e tomadas de variáveis ambientais foram realizadas em uma região de mangue na Baía de Sepetiba visando avaliar o papel deste sistema no ciclo de vida do peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824. Um programa de amostragens mensais de arrastos de praia foi realizado, em cinco locais em uma área de mangue, entre agosto de 2002 e julho de 2003 nos períodos diurno e noturno, com variáveis ambientais tendo sido tomadas em cada local. As maiores abundâncias numéricas foram registradas no local da zona intermediária do canal principal, e as menores no local mais interno. As maiores contribuições em peso ocorreram no local mais externo e próximo da conexão com o mar. A abundância numérica foi diretamente correlacionada com a temperatura e salinidade, e o peso, com a salinidade e oxigênio dissolvido (p Fish and environmental variables were sampled in a mangrove area from Sepetiba bay to assess the role of this system in life cycle of the silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824. Standardized monthly sampling using beach seines were conducted at five sites, between August, 2002 and July, 2003 in daily (day/night basis, with environmental variables being taken at each site. The highest numerical abundance was recorded in the intermediate sample area in the mangrove channel and the lowest in the innermost site. The highest weight occurred in the outermost site near to the sea connection. Numerical abundance was directly correlated with temperature and salinity, and weight with salinity and dissolved oxygen (p < 0.05. Size ranged from 10 to 160 mm TL, with modes of 40-50 mm TL occurring all over the year in all sites. Recruitment occurred all year round but peaks (TL = 30 mm in October-December, 2002 and July, 2003 were recorded afterwards the records of larger fishes (September, 2002 and June, 2003 mainly in the outermost site. The largest fishes concentrated in the sandy

  19. Modelos nulos en interacciones biológicas, una propuesta: depredación en chirostoma riojai-zooplancton

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    Octavio M. Vilchis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra una propuesta de construcción rápida y confiable de los modelos, a partir de una prueba de bondad de ajuste y una de "G" con el fin de apreciar diferencias significativas. Se analiza un estudio de caso que presenta un patrón ecológico (depredación conocido, entre un pez y sus presas.

  20. Stocks of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus support the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    was conducted at room temperature (15–20°C). The. Cephalopod Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution. Payne, A. I. L. ... A video-image-analysis system (RATOC otolith daily ring measurement system), consisting of a high-resolution and .... Red pigmentation in retina. Hoyle's organ is first visible on the dorsal mantle. Funnel.

  1. Surfing among species, populations and morphotypes: Inferring boundaries between two species of new world silversides (Atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Mariano; Rosso, Juan José; Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín

    2016-01-01

    Atherinopsidae are widespread freshwater and shallow marine fish with singular economic importance. Morphological, genetical and life cycles differences between marine and estuarine populations were already reported in this family, suggesting ongoing speciation. Also, coexistence and interbreeding between closely related species were documented. The aim of this study was to infer boundaries among: (A) Odontesthes bonariensis and O. argentinensis at species level, and intermediate morphs; (B) the population of O. argentinensis of Mar Chiquita Lagoon and its marine conspecifics. To achieve this, we integrated, meristic, Geometrics Morphometrics and DNA Barcode approaches. Four groups were discriminated and subsequently characterized according to their morphological traits, shape and meristic characters. No shared haplotypes between O. bonariensis and O. argentinensis were found. Significative-meristic and body shape differences between the Mar Chiquita and marine individuals of O. argentinensis were found, suggesting they behave as well differentiated populations, or even incipient ecological species. The fact that the Odontesthes morphotypes shared haplotypes with both, O. argentinensis and O. bonariensis, but also possess meristic and morphometric distinctive traits open new questions related to the origin of this morphogroup. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Male Reproductive Features as Maturity Indices for Short-finned Squid (IIlex illecebrosus)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, M. L.; Mallet, M. D.; O'Dor, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of maturation in male IIlex illecebrosus were examined in an attempt to find evidence for a more realistic maturity scale than that currently in use. Simple indices, based on morphology of the hectocotylized arm, failed to provide satisfactory relationships, but the observed variation in hectocotylus measurements may provide useful insights into the population ecology of the species. The earlier maturation of males than females and the observed premature release of spermato...

  3. Understanding the Foraging Ecology of Beaked and Short-Finned Pilot Whales in Hawaiian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Understanding the Foraging Ecology of Beaked and Short...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Understanding the Foraging Ecology of Beaked and Short...and Hildebrand, J. (2008). “Temporal pattern in the acoustic signals of beaked whales at Cross Seamount .” Biol. Lett. 4, 208-211. Lammers, M.O

  4. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) anguillae sp. n. (Camallanidae) and some other nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Taraschewski, H.; Thairungroj Anantaphruti, M.; Maipanich, W.; Laoprasert, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-75 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Procamallanus * Anguilla * Thailand Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  5. Diet and trophic ecomorphology of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, of the Salto Caxias reservoir, rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida da Silva Cassemiro

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the diet and trophic ecomorphology of Odontesthes bonariensis, relating these features with species' abundance in the natural environment and in the Salto Caxias reservoir (at Iguaçu river after the reservoir's formation. The samples were carried out before (from March 1997 to February 1998- pre and after (from October 1998 to February 2001 - post 1 and 2 the damming. The stomach contents of 218 individuals were analyzed by occurrence and volumetric methods. O. bonariensis' diet is based on insects, scales, plants and detritus. Microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda were the main items, allowing the characterization of the species as zooplanktivore. The species has a superior position and protractible mouth, with small teeth, creating a serrated pattern, uniformly lined side by side. There are many gill rakers, that are long and close together (typical of filtering fishes; the stomach is ill defined and the intestine is short. There was a gradual increase of O. bonariensis' abundance during the period of field study, mainly after the second year of damming. This fact seems to be closely related with the high abundance and availability of zooplankton in the dammed environment, and also with the ability of the species to exploit this resource.

  6. Consecutive repetition of lordosis-kyphosis in silverside Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 collected from a wild population in Homa Lagoon, Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Laith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of severe consecutive repetition of lordosis-kyphosis involving three flexions was reported in a specimen of the atherinid fish Atherina boyeri Risso. The values for the angles lay between the lines passing through the sides of the vertebral column and enclosing the curvatures, and the depth of the curvatures of the angles was obtained. Also, the ratio of the vertebral column to the fish total length of deformed and normal specimens of this species was calculated. Possible causes for these anomalies are discussed.

  7. Observations on nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland in India, including a revalidation of Heliconema ahiri Karve, 1941 (Physalopteridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, S.; Kumar, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2013), s. 496-503 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Heliconema * Procamallanus * Spirocamallanus * freshwater eel * Anguilla bicolor bicolor * Kerala * India Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2013

  8. The impact of environmental gradients on the early life inshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of environmental gradients on the early life inshore migration of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus. JAA Perez, Rk O'dor. Abstract. Recruitment of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus to adult feeding grounds on the shelf off eastern Canada constitutes an important transition from warm food-limited Gulf ...

  9. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  10. Progress in the development of short term chronic toxicity testing methods for crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Bidwell, J.R.; Yeager, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The specific concerns addressed by this research are the use of unweathered Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil instead of the more expensive, less environmentally realistic distillate ANS-521, and the appropriate laboratory preparation methodology for the water soluble fraction (WSF) used in testing. Seven-day chronic tests exposing the inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) and estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) to the water soluble fraction of unweathered ANS and ANS-521 showed that mysids responded similarly to the two types of oils while silversides were more sensitive to unweathered ANS. In the presence of a CBA and WSF, the mortality of the organisms and the mysid growth were similar in both types of oil. The NOEC for silverside growth, however, was lower in the combined exposure of a CBA with ANS-521 WSF than it was in the CBA-WSF unweathered ANS. Testing is underway to determine if the stirring time length effects the toxicity of the WSF, or the WSF and CBA combination. In chronic tests using both the silverside and mysid there were no differences in growth and mortality of the organisms tested in WSF prepared from 10 and 20 hours of stirring, however, the 5 hour stirring exposure is less toxic to both organisms

  11. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    This is seemingly due to the irregular fishing effort and catch during the winter as dictated by the vagaries of the weather. To substantially increase...Agri. Exp. Stat. Bull. 477. 21 pp. Echelle, A. A., and J. B. Mense . 1968. Forage value of Mississippi silverside in Lake Texoma. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of Nemesis Risso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nemesi s is one of 12 genera in the family Eudactylinidae and includes about nine species. In this study, we investigated whether there is any population structure among Nemesis lamna individuals infecting the white shark Carcharodon carcharias and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus according to host species or ...

  13. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... and 635 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule... and 635 [Docket No. 080519678-0217-02] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark... available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin mako sharks, consistent...

  14. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang

    2011-01-01

    ; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines...

  15. Susceptibility of pike-perch Sander lucioperca to a panel of ranavirus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Holopainen, Riikka; Tapiovaara, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    The host range of ranaviruses was investigated by challenging pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) with the following ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), short-finned eel virus...

  16. Trematodiasis en algunos peces del lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In September, 1995 and January, 1996, six species of fishes from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacan, Mexico, were collected (Alloophorus robustus n=30, Goodea atripinnis n=30, Xenotoca variata n=41, Chirostoma jordani n=30, Carassius auratus n=30 and Oreochromis aureus n=30, to establish the infection levels reached by Posthodiplostomum minimum, Clinostomum complanatum and Diplostomum (Tylodelphys sp., in their hosts. Infection caused by P. minimum metacercariae was the most important helminthiasis considering the number of hosts they parasite (five of six, and the high levels of abundance of the infection; we suggest that fish preferences and the generalist character of the trematode are the causes that determine this infection. Finally, the role of goodeids and atherinids in transmission of infections in the lake is confirmed; the former being the main group mantaining such infections.

  17. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  18. Biotransferencia de fluor a distintos tejidos de pejerreyes (Odontesthes bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Volpedo, Alejandra; Puntoriero, María Laura; Fernandez Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The presence of fluorine (F), toxic trace element, has relevance in the trophic chain because it can biotrasfer to different levels. It can come from water as food, being chronic ingestion harmful to human beings. Fluorine was found in different water bodies of southwest of Buenos Aires. Chasicó Lake has the highest fluorine concentration. This water body is the most important for commercial and recreational fishing silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) of the area. The aim of this paper is to...

  19. Biotransferencia de flúor de agua a diferentes tejidos de pejerrey (Odontotesthes bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Puntoriero, María Laura; Volpedo, Alejandra; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The presence of fluorine (F), toxic trace element, has relevance in the trophic chain because it can biotrasfer to different levels. It can come from water as food, being chronic ingestion harmful to human beings. Fluorine was found in different water bodies of southwest of Buenos Aires. Chasicó Lake has the highest fluorine concentration. This water body is the most important for commercial and recreational fishing silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) of the area. The aim of this paper is to...

  20. Ventricle morphology in pelagic elasmobranch fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S H; Mangano, C; Randazzo, V

    1985-01-01

    Ventricle weights of the warm-bodied great white shark, Atlantic shortfin mako, and the common thresher shark (the latter presumed to be warm-bodied) are similar to those of ectothermic blue sharks, sandbar sharks, dusky sharks, tiger sharks and scalloped hammerhead sharks. Ventricle muscularity, as estimated by the ratio of cortical to spongy layer thickness, is almost twice as great in the former three species than in the latter elasmobranchs. Measurements of ventricular volumes suggest that the ventricles of the great white, Atlantic shortfin mako and common thresher sharks are better adapted to respond to demands for increases in cardiac output via increased heartbeat frequency in comparison with ectothermic species of shark.

  1. Acoustic Behaviour of Bottlenose Dolphins and Pilot Whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand

    2011-01-01

    and review for the topics addressed in the subsequent chapters, with discussions of these chapters where appropriate. In this thesis, I have undertaken a series of acoustic studies on two species of toothed whales, the bottlenose dolphin and the short-finned pilot whale. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.......) is one of the best known toothed whales due to studies in captivity over the last 50 years. In contrast, the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a larger, deep-diving toothed whale that has been studied rather little, in part because their deep-diving ecology regularly takes them out...... their vocal behaviour and sound production to their different ecological niches and habitats. Toothed whales find and capture prey using a sophisticated biosonar system. Little is known about how toothed whales use their biosonar during a complex three-dimensional task of locating and capturing prey...

  2. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  3. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  4. Impact of biology knowledge on the conservation and management of large pelagic sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Ijima, Hirotaka; Ohshimo, Seiji; Yokawa, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    Population growth rate, which depends on several biological parameters, is valuable information for the conservation and management of pelagic sharks, such as blue and shortfin mako sharks. However, reported biological parameters for estimating the population growth rates of these sharks differ by sex and display large variability. To estimate the appropriate population growth rate and clarify relationships between growth rate and relevant biological parameters, we developed a two-sex age-str...

  5. Impact of biology knowledge on the conservation and management of large pelagic sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Ijima, Hirotaka; Ohshimo, Seiji; Yokawa, Kotaro

    2017-09-06

    Population growth rate, which depends on several biological parameters, is valuable information for the conservation and management of pelagic sharks, such as blue and shortfin mako sharks. However, reported biological parameters for estimating the population growth rates of these sharks differ by sex and display large variability. To estimate the appropriate population growth rate and clarify relationships between growth rate and relevant biological parameters, we developed a two-sex age-structured matrix population model and estimated the population growth rate using combinations of biological parameters. We addressed elasticity analysis and clarified the population growth rate sensitivity. For the blue shark, the estimated median population growth rate was 0.384 with a range of minimum and maximum values of 0.195-0.533, whereas those values of the shortfin mako shark were 0.102 and 0.007-0.318, respectively. The maturity age of male sharks had the largest impact for blue sharks, whereas that of female sharks had the largest impact for shortfin mako sharks. Hypotheses for the survival process of sharks also had a large impact on the population growth rate estimation. Both shark maturity age and survival rate were based on ageing validation data, indicating the importance of validating the quality of these data for the conservation and management of large pelagic sharks.

  6. Estado De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Yubi Armendáriz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones de los organismos en la naturaleza se basan en dos ciclos, uno de materia y el otro de energía, dichos ciclos dan origen a las cadenas tróficas las cuales dan origen a los tres niveles tróficos; autótrofos, herbívoros y carnívoros. Para el caso de los peces de agua dulce, los organismos jóvenes viven y se alimentan en la orilla y superficie del agua, para conocer lo que comen se analiza el tracto digestivo. Por lo cual el presente trabajo pretende determinar la trama trófica de los peces del embalse San Miguel Arco. Se capturaron los peces del embalse con un chinchorro de 30 metros de largo y 1/3 de pulgada, los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %, los peces se identificaron al igual que el alimento que consumieron, con claves especializadas, a la abundancia de los grupos alimenticios se les aplicó el índice de Simpson. Se encontró que Chirostoma humboldtianum, es zooplanctófago especialista, Cyprinus carpio, y Carassius auratus son planctófagos generalistas y Poeciliopsis infans es planctófago especialista. La trama trófica se basa en zooplancton (Bosmina y Mastigodiaptomus además de zoobentos (Corixidae.

  7. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  8. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  9. Prey fish returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster's terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available habitat.

  10. Prey fish returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, C. Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster’s terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available

  11. Effect of ageing time in vacuum package on veal longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris physical and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study evaluated the effects of vacuum ageing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 days on veal loin (longissimus dorsi; LD and silverside (biceps femoris; BF physical and sensory characteristics. Ageing did not affect cooking loss, increased LD pH and L*, a* and b* in both muscles. Shear force (SF decreased until day 6 in LD and day 10 in BF. Aroma, flavor and taste were not affected, while texturetraits were improved. SF was negative correlated with tenderness and juiciness and positive correlated with BF fibrousness and stringy sensation. Ageing improved texture properties withoutaltering other sensory traits.

  12. Feeding of Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 and Oligosarcus robustus Menezes, 1969 in a lagoon under estuarine influence, Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Corrêa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to study the diets of Hoplias aff. malabaricus and Oligosarcus robust in “Pequena Lagoon” and evaluate the importance of estuarine organisms in the feeding of freshwater fish. A total of twelve food categories were identified and it was established that the fish resource was the most frequent in the diet of both species. Euryhaline fish such as Mugil platanus mullets and Odontesthes argentinensis silversides were common items in the diets of these two species, which included not only freshwater fish but also euryhaline fish from the adjacent estuarine zone, integrating both resources in the food chain.

  13. A new species of Limnoderetrema (Trematoda, Digenea from the freshwater Atherinid fish Basilichthys australis Eigenmann, 1927 from the south of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.

  14. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  15. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  16. Age and growth of three Odontesthes species from Southern Brazil (Atherinopsidae, with reference to phylogenetic constraints in their life-history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker F. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The age and growth of three silverside species are described, and a discussion on possible phylogenetic constraints on life-history characteristics is presented. Samples were collected monthly between March 1992 and February 1993 in three freshwater coastal lakes. Standard length-total length (Ls-Lt and weight-length (Wt-Lt relationships studied showed interspecific differences in comparisons between juveniles and adults, males and females. Age was determined by scales. The three species presented a life-cycle duration of 4 to 5 years, with growth coefficients values (K between 0.37 and 0.63, and asymptotic lengths between 211 and 257 mm. Some interspecific differences may be useful for distinguishing between species (sexual and life-stage related patterns in Ls-Lt and Wt-Lt. The observed life-cycle ranges and maximum sizes were compared to those of other silversides and revealed a pattern coherent with available phylogenetic hypotheses at the supra-generic level, indicating that some life-history characteristics may be subject to phylogenetic constraints.

  17. Simulating the indirect effects of power plant entrainment losses on an estuarine ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, J.K. (Versar, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Entrainment caused by the operation of the Chalk Point Steam Electric Station has been shown to be a major source of mortality to the early life stages of forage fish populations in the Patuxent River, MD, USA. While direct losses to these populations are important as a source of reduction for population abundance, these losses also represent decreases in estuarine forage supplies and potential reductions in the abundances of estuarine predators. A simple estuarine trophic dynamics model was constructed to determine the magnitude of the potential losses to major estuarine consumers in the Patuxent River ecosystem due to the power plant-related losses of forage fish. Simulations were completed using two sets of feeding assumptions: feeding proportional to forage abundance, and feeding based on dietary preferences. The model demonstrates that striped bass, bluefish, and weakfish could experience significant losses (> 25%) to overall population production levels if they prefer to prey upon bay anchovy and silversides and entrainment losses to these forage populations is {>=} 70% of juvenile recruitment. The model also shows that indirect predator losses would be expected to be low (> 5%) if the majority of their diets consisted of forage other than bay anchovy and silversides. 2 figs., 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Mortality in captive wild-caught horned puffin chicks (Fratercula corniculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocidlowski, M E; Cornish, T E; Loomis, M R; Stoskopf, M K

    1997-09-01

    Sixteen horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) and six parakeet auklet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula) chicks of various prefledging ages were caught in Alaska and transported to the North Carolina Zoological Park (USA) in August 1995. Six of the 16 puffin chicks died within a 5-day period beginning 2 days after their arrival into quarantine at the zoo. The birds that died were collected at a young age, weighed 45.4-65.7 g, and had been fed a diet of thawed frozen ocean silversides (Atherinidae) that was not supplemented with vitamins. Clinical signs were nonspecific, and gross necropsies, insecticide toxicology screens, and bacterial cultures were unremarkable. Microscopic examination of tissues from five of the six birds showed myocardial necrosis and degeneration suggestive of vitamin E deficiency and intestinal protozoa resembling Microsporidia. The mortality pattern and histopathologic lesions observed in this case support the use of selective age capture and vitamin supplementation for wild alcid chick collection.

  20. Natural growth, otolith shape and diet analyses of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Atherinopsidae) from southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuca, M. E.; Lozano, I. E.; Brown, D. R.; Renzi, M.; Luizon, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Age and growth, otolith shape and diet of Odontesthes nigricans were analysed in order to provide an insight into the life history of the species and furthermore, to assess their possible use as a tool for discriminating silverside populations from the South Atlantic Ocean (Punta María) and Beagle Channel waters (Varela Bay). The age and growth analysis was performed by counting daily increments and annual marks in sagittae otoliths. Length-at-age data of individuals Otolith shape variation was also explored using elliptical Fourier analysis and it showed significant differences between Varela Bay and Punta María populations. Furthermore, gut content analysis characterized O. nigricans as an invertebrate predator, being benthic organisms the most important components of its diet, which also showed significant site dependence. The use of all these analyses contributed to a holistic approach which maximized the likelihood of correctly identifying both O. nigricans populations in the southernmost limit of the species distribution.

  1. The role of P450 metabolism in the estrogenic activity of bifenthrin in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Breanna C; Brander, Susanne M

    2014-11-01

    Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid pesticide, is estrogenic in vivo in fishes. However, bifenthrin is documented to be anti-estrogenic in vitro, in the ER-CALUX (estrogen receptor) cell line. We investigated whether metabolite formation is the reason for this incongruity. We exposed Menidia beryllina (inland silversides) to 10ng/l bifenthrin, 10ng/l 4-hydroxy bifenthrin, and 10ng/l bifenthrin with 25μg/l piperonyl butoxide (PBO) - a P450 inhibitor. Metabolite-exposed juveniles had significantly higher estrogen-mediated protein levels (choriogenin) than bifenthrin/PBO-exposed, while bifenthrin alone was intermediate (not significantly different from either). This suggests that metabolites are the main contributors to bifenthrin's in vivo estrogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Reproductive Investment Decrease Telomere Length in Menidia menidia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gao

    Full Text Available Given finite resources, intense investment in one life history trait is expected to reduce investment in others. Although telomere length appears to be strongly tied to age in many taxa, telomere maintenance requires energy. We therefore hypothesize that telomere maintenance may trade off against other life history characters. We used natural variation in laboratory populations of Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia to study the relationship between growth, fecundity, life expectancy, and relative telomere length. In keeping with several other studies on fishes, we found no clear dependence of telomere length on age. However, we did find that more fecund fish tended to have both reduced life expectancy and shorter telomeres. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between telomere maintenance and reproductive output.

  3. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  4. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken.

  5. Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musyl, Michael K.; Brill, Richard W.; Curran, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    ]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports......From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus...... and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15% (95% CI, 8.5-25.1%) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed...

  6. Characterisation (δ13C and δ15N isotopes) of the food webs in a New Zealand stream in the Waitakere Ranges, with emphasis on the trophic level of the endemic frog Leiopelma hochstetteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera-Hillman, E.; Alfaro, A.C.; Breen, B.B.; O'Shea, S.

    2009-01-01

    Leiopelma hochstetteri, the most widespread of New Zealand's native frogs, is recognised as threatened, and is fully protected by legislation. As a first step to characterise the diet and trophic level of L. hochstetteri within streams in the Waitakere Ranges, Auckland, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were undertaken on a variety of sympatric terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal species, including adult frogs. These results show that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial food webs are linked by terrestrial inputs into the stream; (2) invertebrate and vertebrate predators separate well into distinct trophic groups, and (3) L. hochstetteri occupies an intermediate trophic position among predators, with a diet, at least as an adult, comprising terrestrial invertebrates. Shortfin eels and banded kokopu are identified as potential predators of L. hochstetteri, but data for rats are inconclusive. These results have important implications for the conservation of New Zealand native frog species and riparian stream habitat. (author). 75 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Propagation and isolation of ranaviruses in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    2009-01-01

    The optimal in vitro propagation procedure for a panel of ranavirus isolates and the best method for isolation of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) from organ material in cell-culture were investigated. The panel of ranavirus isolates included: Frog virus 3 (FV3), Bohle iridovirus (BIV......), Pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), European catfish virus (ECV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), EHNV, Doctor fish virus (DFV), Guppy virus 6 (GF6), short-finned eel virus (SERV) and Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/102 (REV 282/102). Each isolate was titrated in five cell lines: bluegill fry (BF-2......), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) and fathead minnow (FHM), and incubated at 10, 15, 20, 24 and 28 °C for two weeks. BF-2, EPC and CHSE-214 cells performed well and titers obtained in the three cell lines were similar, whereas FHM and RTG-2 cells...

  8. Selectividad del zooplancton y solapamiento trófico entre tallas del pez Menidia humboldtiana (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae en el embalse Danxhó, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sánchez Merino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El charal Menidia humboldtiana es considerado como una de las especies de gran importancia en la industria pesquera de algunos estados de México. Es necesario conocer el efecto que esta especie ejerce sobre su alimento para saber si seleccionan las presas de mayor talla, si hay competencia por el alimento entre especies nativas e introducidas, y para comprender el comportamiento del zooplancton ante peces zooplanctófagos. Se determinó si M. humboldtiana selecciona su alimento, sobre qué géneros lo hace, y si existe traslape en la dieta entre las diferentes tallas. Los peces se recolectaron por medio de un chinchorro de 88 mm de abertura de malla, en seis estaciones de muestreo durante un año, en el embalse Danxhó, y una muestra de zooplancton fue recolectada por filtrado con una red de 125 µm. El análisis de los contenidos estomacales se realizó en peces agrupados en intervalos de longitud estándar para cada época del año, por medio del método volumétrico. Para evaluar el traslape trófico entre los diferentes intervalos de longitud, se utilizó el índice de Morisita modificado por Horn. El zooplancton estuvo representado por doce géneros: Mastigodiaptomus y Cyclops (Copepoda; Bosmina, Diaphanosoma, Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Moina, Alonopsis y Camptocercus (Cladocera; Asplanchna, Conochillus y Filinia (Rotifera. Durante la primavera, los charales de 3-8.9 cm presentaron un marcado traslape, para el verano fueron los grandes (7-10.9 cm, en otoño el traslape fue en todas las tallas, y en invierno solo las tallas intermedias (5-8.9 cm lo presentaron.Selectivity of zooplankton and trophic overlap between size Menidia humboldtiana fish (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae in the reservoir Danxhó, Mexico. The Menidia humboldtiana silverside is considered one of the most important species in fisheries in some states of Mexico. Knowing the choice that this species exercises over its food gives us an understanding of the behavior of

  9. Diversity of dermal denticle structure in sharks: Skin surface roughness and three-dimensional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankhelyi, Madeleine V; Wainwright, Dylan K; Lauder, George V

    2018-05-29

    Shark skin is covered with numerous placoid scales or dermal denticles. While previous research has used scanning electron microscopy and histology to demonstrate that denticles vary both around the body of a shark and among species, no previous study has quantified three-dimensional (3D) denticle structure and surface roughness to provide a quantitative analysis of skin surface texture. We quantified differences in denticle shape and size on the skin of three individual smooth dogfish sharks (Mustelus canis) using micro-CT scanning, gel-based surface profilometry, and histology. On each smooth dogfish, we imaged between 8 and 20 distinct areas on the body and fins, and obtained further comparative skin surface data from leopard, Atlantic sharpnose, shortfin mako, spiny dogfish, gulper, angel, and white sharks. We generated 3D images of individual denticles and measured denticle volume, surface area, and crown angle from the micro-CT scans. Surface profilometry was used to quantify metrology variables such as roughness, skew, kurtosis, and the height and spacing of surface features. These measurements confirmed that denticles on different body areas of smooth dogfish varied widely in size, shape, and spacing. Denticles near the snout are smooth, paver-like, and large relative to denticles on the body. Body denticles on smooth dogfish generally have between one and three distinct ridges, a diamond-like surface shape, and a dorsoventral gradient in spacing and roughness. Ridges were spaced on average 56 µm apart, and had a mean height of 6.5 µm, comparable to denticles from shortfin mako sharks, and with narrower spacing and lower heights than other species measured. We observed considerable variation in denticle structure among regions on the pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins, including a leading-to-trailing edge gradient in roughness for each region. Surface roughness in smooth dogfish varied around the body from 3 to 42 microns. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Introgression between ecologically distinct species following increased salinity in the Colorado Delta- Worldwide implications for impacted estuary diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive L.F. Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate hybridization and introgression between ecologically distinct sister species of silverside fish in the Gulf of California through combined analysis of morphological, sequence, and genotypic data. Water diversions in the past century turned the Colorado River Delta from a normal estuary to a hypersaline inverse estuary, raising concerns for the local fauna, much of which is endangered. Salinity differences are known to generate ecological species pairs and we anticipated that loss of the fresher-water historic salinity regime could alter the adaptive factors maintaining distinction between the broadly distributed Gulf-endemic Colpichthys regis and the narrowly restricted Delta-endemic Colpichthys hubbsi, the species that experienced dramatic environmental change. In this altered environmental context, these long-isolated species (as revealed by Cytochrome b sequences show genotypic (RAG1, microsatellites evidence of active hybridization where the species ranges abut, as well as directional introgression from C. regis into the range center of C. hubbsi. Bayesian group assignment (STRUCTURE on six microsatellite loci and multivariate analyses (DAPC on both microsatellites and phenotypic data further support substantial recent admixture between the sister species. Although we find no evidence for recent population decline in C. hubbsi based on mitochondrial sequence, introgression may be placing an ancient ecological species at risk of extinction. Such introgressive extinction risk should also pertain to other ecological species historically sustained by the now changing Delta environment. More broadly, salinity gradient associated ecological speciation is evident in silverside species pairs in many estuarine systems around the world. Ecological species pairs among other taxa in such systems are likely poorly understood or cryptic. As water extraction accelerates in river systems worldwide, salinity gradients will necessarily be

  11. Introgression between ecologically distinct species following increased salinity in the Colorado Delta- Worldwide implications for impacted estuary diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Clive L F; Jacobs, David K

    2017-01-01

    We investigate hybridization and introgression between ecologically distinct sister species of silverside fish in the Gulf of California through combined analysis of morphological, sequence, and genotypic data. Water diversions in the past century turned the Colorado River Delta from a normal estuary to a hypersaline inverse estuary, raising concerns for the local fauna, much of which is endangered. Salinity differences are known to generate ecological species pairs and we anticipated that loss of the fresher-water historic salinity regime could alter the adaptive factors maintaining distinction between the broadly distributed Gulf-endemic Colpichthys regis and the narrowly restricted Delta-endemic Colpichthys hubbsi , the species that experienced dramatic environmental change. In this altered environmental context, these long-isolated species (as revealed by Cytochrome b sequences) show genotypic (RAG1, microsatellites) evidence of active hybridization where the species ranges abut, as well as directional introgression from C. regis into the range center of C. hubbsi . Bayesian group assignment (STRUCTURE) on six microsatellite loci and multivariate analyses (DAPC) on both microsatellites and phenotypic data further support substantial recent admixture between the sister species. Although we find no evidence for recent population decline in C. hubbsi based on mitochondrial sequence, introgression may be placing an ancient ecological species at risk of extinction. Such introgressive extinction risk should also pertain to other ecological species historically sustained by the now changing Delta environment. More broadly, salinity gradient associated ecological speciation is evident in silverside species pairs in many estuarine systems around the world. Ecological species pairs among other taxa in such systems are likely poorly understood or cryptic. As water extraction accelerates in river systems worldwide, salinity gradients will necessarily be altered, impacting

  12. Trophic interactions between native and introduced fish species in a littoral fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, M; Maceda-Veiga, A; Caiola, N; De Sostoa, A

    2014-11-01

    The trophic interactions between 15 native and two introduced fish species, silverside Odontesthes bonariensis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, collected in a major fishery area at Lake Titicaca were explored by integrating traditional ecological knowledge and stable-isotope analyses (SIA). SIA suggested the existence of six trophic groups in this fish community based on δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures. This was supported by ecological evidence illustrating marked spatial segregation between groups, but a similar trophic level for most of the native groups. Based on Bayesian ellipse analyses, niche overlap appeared to occur between small O. bonariensis (<90 mm) and benthopelagic native species (31.6%), and between the native pelagic killifish Orestias ispi and large O. bonariensis (39%) or O. mykiss (19.7%). In addition, Bayesian mixing models suggested that O. ispi and epipelagic species are likely to be the main prey items for the two introduced fish species. This study reveals a trophic link between native and introduced fish species, and demonstrates the utility of combining both SIA and traditional ecological knowledge to understand trophic relationships between fish species with similar feeding habits. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Fish kairomones induce spine elongation and reduce predation in marine crab larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Corie L; Wright, Alexander J; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2017-08-01

    Specialized defense strategies are induced in zooplankton upon detection of predator chemical cues or kairomones. These defenses are well-described for freshwater zooplankters, with morphological defenses being particularly striking, but few studies have reported kairomone-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton. Here, we compare morphological responses to kairomones in the larvae of two marine crab species, estuarine mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) and Asian shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sanguineus). When reared in the presence of fish kairomones, spine length increased by 2-3% in larval R. harrisii, while no morphological changes were identified in H. sanguineus. In subsequent feeding assays with a co-occurring fish predator (Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia), consumption of R. harrisii was lower on larvae that had been reared with kairomones. In addition, we found that broods with smaller larvae are more likely to exhibit increases in spine length after kairomone exposure. Hence, the observed morphological response is likely influenced by larval size. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Arsenic, Fluoride and Vanadium in surface water (Chasicó Lake, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria laura ePuntoriero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chasicó Lake is the main water body in the southwest of the Chaco-Pampean plain. It shows some differences from the typical Pampean shallow lakes, such as high salinity and high arsenic and fluoride levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trace elements [arsenic (As, fluoride (F- and vanadium (V] present in Chasicó Lake. Surface and groundwater were sampled in dry and wet periods, during 2010 and 2011. Fluoride was determined with a selective electrode. As and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Significant correlation in surface water was only found for As and F- (r=0.978, p<0.01. The As, F- and V concentration values were higher and more widely dispersed in surface water than in groundwater, as a consequence of evaporation. The fact that these elements do not correlate in surface water may also indicates that groundwater would not be the main source of origin of As, F- and V in surface water. The origin of these trace elements is from volcanic glass from Pampean loess. As, F- and V concentration were higher than in national and international guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota. Hence, this issue is relevant since the silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important commercial species in Chasicó Lake. This fish is both consumed locally and exported to other South-American countries through commercial and sport fishing.

  15. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  16. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-10-01

    Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). Acute toxicity tests were conducted using combinations of natural or artificial sunlight and low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Studies were also conducted to compare the phototoxicity resulting from natural and artificial sunlight. Fresh Macondo crude oil was more phototoxic than weathered crude oils, both in the presence and in the absence of UV light. Differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered crude oils were likely attributed to lighter-ringed PAHs in fresh crude oils. Phototoxic PAHs were relatively resistant to weathering compared with lighter-ringed PAHs. The addition of Corexit 9500 to crude oil increased toxicity compared with tests with crude oil alone, by increasing phototoxic PAH concentrations in WAFs. Macondo crude oils had the potential to be phototoxic to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms if specific light conditions and PAH concentrations were present during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2640-2650. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  18. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Malvezzi, Alex J.

    2015-02-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (~2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection.

  19. Composition and diversity of ichthyofauna in La Viña reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mancini

    Full Text Available Several dams have been built in central and north Argentina. There are more than 20 reservoirs in Córdoba province, with a total estimated surface area of around 15,000 ha. Although construction of dams continues, some aspects about the richness, abundance and diversity of ichthyofauna in many of these environments are unknown, which prevents adequate management of fish resources. The goal of this work was to evaluate specific richness and diversity of ichthyofauna in La Viña reservoir (31° 47' S and 65° 01' W, 1,050 ha, 846 m asl, one of the major reservoirs in Córdoba. Fifteen seasonal samplings were made in 1999-2002 using trawl nets and gillnets. A total of 3,242 specimens belonging to 7 species distributed in 5 orders and 5 families were caught. The tetra Astyanax eigenmanniorum (52.9% and the silverside Odontesthes bonariensis (29.3% were the most abundant species; the latter is the main target species for lake fishing and had greatest biomass (63.8%. Average diversity for all samples was H'T = 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.49 to 1.77. Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indexes values were generally intermediate. Specific richness of La Viña reservoir was moderate compared with other impoundments in central and north Argentina.

  20. A three year study of metal levels in skin biopsies of whales in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Walter, Ron; Boswell, Mikki; Zhu, Cairong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Perkins, Christopher; Wise, John Pierce

    2018-02-01

    In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered. Several metals have been reported in the MC252 oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the nonessential metals aluminum, arsenic, chromium, nickel, and lead; genotoxic metals, such as these are able to damage DNA and can bioaccumulate in organisms resulting in persistent exposure. In the Gulf of Mexico, whales are the apex species; hence we collected skin biopsies from sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The results from our three-year study of monitoring metal levels in whale skin show (1) genotoxic metals at concentrations higher than global averages previously reported and (2) patterns for MC252-relevant metal concentrations decreasing with time from the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversing flow causes passive shark scale actuation in a separating turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Gemmell, Bradford; Motta, Phil; Habegger, Laura; Du Clos, Kevin; Devey, Sean; Stanley, Caleb; Santos, Leo

    2017-11-01

    Control of flow separation by shortfin mako skin in experiments has been demonstrated, but the mechanism is still poorly understood yet must be to some extent Re independent. The hypothesized mechanisms inherent in the shark skin for controlling flow separation are: (1) the scales, which are capable of being bristled only by reversing flow, inhibit flow reversal events from further development into larger-scale separation and (2) the cavities formed when scales bristle induces mixing of high momentum flow towards the wall thus energizing the flow close to the surface. Two studies were carried out to measure passive scale actuation caused by reversing flow. A small flow channel induced an unsteady, wake flow over the scales prompting reversing flow events and scale actuation. To resolve the flow and scale movements simultaneously we used specialized optics at high magnification (1 mm field of view) at 50,000 fps. In another study, 3D printed models of shark scales, or microflaps (bristling capability up to 50 degrees), were set into a flat plate. Using a tripped, turbulent boundary layer grown over the long flat plate and a localized adverse pressure gradient, a separation bubble was generated within which the microflaps were placed. Passive flow actuation of both shark scales and microflaps by reversing flow was observed. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant.

  2. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.

  3. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  4. Movable shark scales act as a passive dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Amy W; Bradshaw, Michael T; Smith, Jonathon A; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Motta, Philip J; Habegger, Maria L; Hueter, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Shark scales on fast-swimming sharks have been shown to be movable to angles in excess of 50°, and we hypothesize that this characteristic gives this shark skin a preferred flow direction. During the onset of separation, flow reversal is initiated close to the surface. However, the movable scales would be actuated by the reversed flow thereby causing a greater resistance to any further flow reversal and this mechanism would disrupt the process leading to eventual flow separation. Here we report for the first time experimental evidence of the separation control capability of real shark skin through water tunnel testing. Using skin samples from a shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, we tested a pectoral fin and flank skin attached to a NACA 4412 hydrofoil and separation control was observed in the presence of movable shark scales under certain conditions in both cases. We hypothesize that the scales provide a passive, flow-actuated mechanism acting as a dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation. (paper)

  5. [Trophic niche partitioning of pelagic sharks in Central Eastern Pacific inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun Kai; Gao, Xiao di; Wang, Lin Yu; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem. The results exhibited significant differences in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values among the shark species. The trophic levels ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 in the Central Eastern Pacific shark community. The trophic niche of blue sharks and shortfin mako sharks showed no overlap with the other shark species, exhibiting unique ecological roles in the open ocean food web. These data highlighted the diverse roles among pelagic sharks, supporting previous findings that this species is not trophically redundant and the trophic niche of pelagic sharks can not be simply replaced by those of other top predator species.

  6. Trace elements in two odontocete species (Kogia breviceps and Globicephala macrorhynchus) stranded in New Caledonia (South Pacific)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, P.; Garrigue, C.; Breau, L.; Caurant, F.; Dabin, W.; Greaves, J.; Dodemont, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in whales on New Caledonia beaches are below levels for concern. - Liver, muscle and blubber tissues of two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and two pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) stranded on the coast of New Caledonia have been analysed for 12 trace elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, organic and total Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn). Liver was shown to be the most important accumulating organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Se, and Zn in both species, G. macrorhynchus having the highest Cd, Hg, Se and Zn levels. In this species, concentrations of total Hg are particularly elevated, reaching up to 1452 μg g -1 dry wt. Only a very low percentage of the total Hg was organic. In both species, the levels of Hg are directly related to Se in liver. Thus, a molar ratio of Hg:Se close to 1.0 was found for all specimens, except for the youngest K. breviceps. Our results suggest that G. macrorhynchus have a physiology promoting the accumulation of high levels of naturally occurring toxic elements. Furthermore, concentrations of Ni, Cr and Co are close to or below the detection limit in the liver and muscles of all specimens. This suggests that mining activity in New Caledonia, which typically elevates the levels of these contaminants in the marine environment, does not seem to be a significant source of contamination for these pelagic marine mammals

  7. Trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes in a natural creek and several agricultural drains flowing into the Salton Sea, and their potential, effects on the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Saiki, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes and to determine if predation by these fishes contributes to the decline of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered cyprinodont on the verge of extinction. We sampled 403 hybrid Mozambique tilapias (Oreochromis mossambica by O. urolepis), 107 redbelly tilapias (Tilapia zillii), 32 longjaw mudsuckers (Gillkhthys mirabilis), 182 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 222 sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), 63 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), and 235 porthole livebearers (Poecilurpsis gracilis) from a natural creek and four agricultural drains during September 1999- December 2001. Evidence of piscivory was in gastrointestinal contents of 14 hybrid Mozambique tilapias, 3 redbelly tilapias, 10 longjaw mudsuckers, 8 western mosquitofish, 2 sailfin mollies, and 8 porthole livebearers. Although digestion often was too advanced for identification of fishes consumed by nonnative fishes, remains of desert pupfish were in gastrointestinal contents of a longjaw mudsucker. Our findings, along with Field evidence from other studies that inverse relationships exist between abundances of desert pupfish and nonnative species, are consistent with the hypothesis that predation by nonnative species is contributing to decline of desert pupfish. We suspect that competitive interactions with nonnative fishes might also adversely affect abundance of desert pupfish.

  8. Efeito in vitro de químicos no crescimento micelial de Saprolegnia spp. In vitro effect of chemical on hyphal growth of Saprolegnia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ferraz Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    agents that are "environmentally friendly". The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of 12 isolates of Saprolegnia spp. from the silversides Odontesthes bonariensis and O. humensis. Susceptibility tests evaluating inhibition of mycelial growth of Saprolegnia spp. were performed using six chemicals (sodium chloride, formaldehyde, potassium permanganate, povidone-iodine, sea salt and iodized sea salt in concentrations from 0 to 10,000ppm. The results displayed that formaldehyde at the concentration of 10ppm, and potassium permanganate at concentrations above 100ppm, were able to inhibit the mycelial growth of isolates of Saprolegnia spp. However, povidone-iodine and saline compounds exhibited no antimicrobial activity on Saprolegnia spp. Although the in vitro results showed that formaldehyde and potassium permanganate could be promising in controlling saprolegniosis, further studies should be performed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of these compounds as well as to verify the toxicity of the chemicals to the silversides O. bonariensis and O. humensis.

  9. Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Y Chen

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine. MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides. Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column.

  10. Patterns in the Use of a Restored California Floodplain by Native and Alien Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Moyle

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishes were sampled on the restored floodplain of the Cosumnes River in Central California in order to determine patterns of floodplain use. The floodplain was sampled for seven years (1998-2002, 2004-2005 during the winter-spring flooding season. The fishes fell into five groups: (1 floodplain spawners, (2 river spawners, (3 floodplain foragers, (4 floodplain pond fishes, and (5 inadvertent users. Eight of the 18 abundant species were natives, while the rest were aliens. There was a consistent pattern of floodplain use, modified by timing and extent of flooding. The first fishes to appear were floodplain foragers, inadvertent users, and juvenile Chinook salmon (river spawners. Next were floodplain spawners, principally Sacramento splittail and common carp. At the end of the season, in ponds of residual water, non-native annual fishes, mainly inland silverside and western mosquitofish, became abundant. Adult spawners left when inflow decreased; their juveniles persisted as long as flood pulses kept water levels up and temperatures low. Juvenile splittail and carp quickly grew large enough to dominate floodplain fish samples, along with smaller numbers of juvenile Sacramento sucker and pikeminnow (river spawners. Such juveniles left the Relatively few fishes that used the floodplain for spawning or rearing became stranded, except late season alien fishes. Most alien fishes had resident populations in adjacent river, sloughs, and ditches and were not dependent on the floodplain for persistence. This indicates that Central Valley floodplains managed to favor native fishes should have the following char- acteristics: (1 extensive early season flooding, (2 complete drainage by the end of the flooding season, (3 few areas with permanent water, (4 a mosaic of physical habitats, (5 regular annual flooding but with high variability in flood regime.

  11. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  12. Agricultural wetlands as potential hotspots for mercury bioaccumulation: Experimental evidence using caged fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production and export. Rice agricultural wetlands in particular may be important sites for MeHg bioaccumulation due to their worldwide ubiquity, periodic flooding schedules, and high use by wildlife. We assessed MeHg bioaccumulation within agricultural and perennial wetlands common to California's Central Valley during summer, when the majority of wetland habitats are shallowly flooded rice fields. We introduced caged western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) within white rice (Oryza sativa), wild rice (Zizania palustris), and permanent wetlands at water inlets, centers, and outlets. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and body burdens in caged mosquitofish increased rapidly, exceeding baseline values at introduction by 135% to 1197% and 29% to 1566% among sites, respectively, after only 60 days. Mercury bioaccumulation in caged mosquitofish was greater in rice fields than in permanent wetlands, with THg concentrations at wetland outlets increasing by 12.1, 5.8, and 2.9 times over initial concentrations in white rice, wild rice, and permanent wetlands, respectively. In fact, mosquitofish caged at white rice outlets accumulated 721 ng Hg/fish in just 60 days. Mercury in wild mosquito fish and Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) concurrently sampled at wetland outlets also were greater in white rice and wild rice than permanent wetlands. Within wetlands, THg concentrations and body burdens of both caged and wild fish increased from water inlets to outlets in white rice fields, and tended to not vary among sites in permanent wetlands. Fish THg concentrations in agricultural wetlands were high, exceeding 0.2 ??g/g ww in 82% of caged fish and 59% of wild fish. Our results indicate that shallowly flooded rice fields are potential hotspots for MeHg bioaccumulation and, due to their global prevalence, suggest that agricultural wetlands may be important contributors to Me

  13. From 'omics to otoliths: responses of an estuarine fish to endocrine disrupting compounds across biological scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Connon, Richard E; He, Guochun; Hobbs, James A; Smalling, Kelly L; Teh, Swee J; White, J Wilson; Werner, Inge; Denison, Michael S; Cherr, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) cause physiological abnormalities and population decline in fishes. However, few studies have linked environmental EDC exposures with responses at multiple tiers of the biological hierarchy, including population-level effects. To this end, we undertook a four-tiered investigation in the impacted San Francisco Bay estuary with the Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens), a small pelagic fish. This approach demonstrated links between different EDC sources and fish responses at different levels of biological organization. First we determined that water from a study site primarily impacted by ranch run-off had only estrogenic activity in vitro, while water sampled from a site receiving a combination of urban, limited ranch run-off, and treated wastewater effluent had both estrogenic and androgenic activity. Secondly, at the molecular level we found that fish had higher mRNA levels for estrogen-responsive genes at the site where only estrogenic activity was detected but relatively lower expression levels where both estrogenic and androgenic EDCs were detected. Thirdly, at the organism level, males at the site exposed to both estrogens and androgens had significantly lower mean gonadal somatic indices, significantly higher incidence of severe testicular necrosis and altered somatic growth relative to the site where only estrogens were detected. Finally, at the population level, the sex ratio was significantly skewed towards males at the site with measured androgenic and estrogenic activity. Our results suggest that mixtures of androgenic and estrogenic EDCs have antagonistic and potentially additive effects depending on the biological scale being assessed, and that mixtures containing androgens and estrogens may produce unexpected effects. In summary, evaluating EDC response at multiple tiers is necessary to determine the source of disruption (lowest scale, i.e. cell line) and what the ecological impact will be (largest scale, i

  14. Genetic parameters of Visual Image Analysis primal cut carcass traits of commercial prime beef slaughter animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P

    2017-10-01

    Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.

  15. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Species composition of the international shark fin trade assessed through a retail-market survey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Fischer, Gunter A; Shea, Stanley K H; Zhang, Huarong; Abercrombie, Debra L; Feldheim, Kevin A; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Demian D

    2018-04-01

    The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade. We used nonparametric species estimators to determine that at least 76 species of sharks, batoids, and chimaeras supplied the fin trade and a Bayesian model to determine their relative proportion in the market. The diversity of traded species suggests species substitution could mask depletion of vulnerable species; one-third of identified species are threatened with extinction. The Bayesian model suggested that 8 species each comprised >1% of the fin trimmings (34.1-64.2% for blue [Prionace glauca], 0.2-1.2% for bull [Carcharhinus leucas] and shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]); thus, trade was skewed to a few globally distributed species. Several other coastal sharks, batoids, and chimaeras are in the trade but poorly managed. Fewer than 10 of the species we modeled have sustainably managed fisheries anywhere in their range, and the most common species in trade, the blue shark, was not among them. Our study and approach serve as a baseline to track changes in composition of species in the fin trade over time to better understand patterns of exploitation and assess the effects of emerging management actions for these animals. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Plasticity of trophic interactions among sharks from the oceanic south-western Indian Ocean revealed by stable isotope and mercury analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Aubail, Aurore; Hussey, Nigel E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Caurant, Florence; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    Sharks are a major component of the top predator guild in oceanic ecosystems, but the trophic relationships of many populations remain poorly understood. We examined chemical tracers of diet and habitat (δ15N and δ13C, respectively) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle tissue of seven pelagic sharks: blue shark (Prionace glauca), short-fin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus), scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus), crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), from the data poor south-western tropical Indian Ocean. Minimal interspecific variation in mean δ15N values and a large degree of isotopic niche overlap - driven by high intraspecific variation in δ15N values - was observed among pelagic sharks. Similarly, δ13C values of sharks overlapped considerably for all species with the exception of P. glauca, which had more 13C-depleted values indicating possibly longer residence times in purely pelagic waters. Geographic variation in δ13C, δ15N and Hg were observed for P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus. Mean Hg levels were similar among species with the exception of P. kamoharai which had significantly higher Hg concentrations likely related to mesopelagic feeding. Hg concentrations increased with body size in I. oxyrinchus, P. glauca and C. longimanus. Values of δ15N and δ13C varied with size only in P. glauca, suggesting ontogenetic shifts in diets or habitats. Together, isotopic data indicate that - with few exceptions - variance within species in trophic interactions or foraging habitats is greater than differentiation among pelagic sharks in the south-western Indian Ocean. Therefore, it is possible that this group exhibits some level of trophic redundancy, but further studies of diets and fine-scale habitat use are needed to fully test this hypothesis.

  18. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark (Prionace glauca, shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus, smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena, common thresher (Alopias vulpinus, smooth-hound (Mustelus whitneyi and angel shark (Squatina californica. Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done.

  19. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ' and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax, age at maturity (Tm, annual fecundity (f/Rc, size at birth (Lb, size at maturity (Lm, and asymptotic length (L∞. Group (1 included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr(-1 < k < 0.103 yr(-1 and extended longevity (26 yr < Tmax < 81 yr, e.g., shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, etc.; Group (2 included species with fast growth rates (0.103 yr(-1 < k < 0.358 yr(-1 and short longevity (9 yr < Tmax < 26 yr, e.g., starspotted smoothhound Mustelus manazo, gray smoothhound M. californicus, etc.; Group (3 included late maturing species (Lm/L∞ ≧ 0.75 with moderate longevity (Tmax < 29 yr, e.g., pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ' values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures.

  1. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J., Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done. PMID:27635216

  2. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are a class of insecticides found to have endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates such as fishes and in human cell lines. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants that mimic or alter the process of hormone signaling. In particular, EDCs that alter estrogen and androgen signaling pathways are of major concern for fishes because these EDCs may alter reproductive physiology, behavior, and ultimately sex ratio. Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid with escalating usage, is confirmed to disrupt estrogen signaling in several species of fish, including Menidia beryllina (inland silverside), an Atherinid recently established as a euryhaline model. Our main objective was to broadly assess the molecular and physiological responses of M. beryllina to the ng/L concentrations of bifenthrin typically found in the environment, with a focus on endocrine-related effects, and to discern links between different tiers of the biological hierarchy. As such, we evaluated the response of juvenile Menidia to bifenthrin using a Menidia-specific microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on specific endocrine-related genes of interest, and a Menidia-specific ELISA to the egg-coat protein choriogenin, to evaluate a multitude of molecular-level responses that would inform mechanisms of toxicity and any underlying causes of change at higher biological levels of organization. The sublethal nominal concentrations tested (0.5, 5 and 50ng/L) were chosen to represent the range of concentrations observed in the environment and to provide coverage of a variety of potential responses. We then employed a 21-day reproductive assay to evaluate reproductive responses to bifenthrin (at 0.5ng/L) in a separate group of adult M. beryllina. The microarray analysis indicated that bifenthrin influences a diverse suite of molecular pathways, from baseline metabolic processes to carcinogenesis. A more targeted examination of gene expression via q

  3. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Howe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh channels, and relate these patterns to environmental conditions. We also describe spatial and temporal variation in diets of marsh-associated inland silverside, yellowfin goby, and western mosquitofish. Fish and invertebrates were sampled quarterly from October 2003 to June 2005 at six marsh sites located in three river systems of the northern estuary: Petaluma River, Napa River, and  the west Delta. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates and neuston responded to environmental variables related to seasonal changes (i.e., temperature, salinity, as well as those related to marsh structure (i.e., vegetation, channel edge. The greatest variation in abundance occurred seasonally for neuston and spatially for benthic–epibenthic organisms, suggesting that each community responds to different environmental drivers. Benthic/epibenthic invertebrate abundance and diversity was lowest in the west Delta, and increased with increasing salinity. Insect abundance increased during the spring and summer, while Collembolan (springtail abundance increased during the winter. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates dominated fish diets, supplemented by insects, with zooplankton playing a minor role. Diet compositions of the three fish species overlapped considerably, with strong selection indicated for epibenthic crustaceans—a surprising result given the typical classification of Menidia beryllina as a planktivore, Acanthogobius flavimanus as a benthic predator, and Gambusia

  4. Habitat and hydrology: assessing biological resources of the Suwannee River Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Edwards, Randy E.; McIvor, Carole C.; Grubbs, Jack W.; Dennis, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot integrated-science study during 2002 and 2003 to map, describe, and evaluate benthic and emergent habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Categories of aquatic, emergent, and terrestrial habitats were determined from hyperspectral imagery and integrated with hydrologic data to identify estuarine fish habitats. Maps of intertidal and benthic habitat were derived from 12-band, 4-m resolution hyperspectral imagery acquired in September 2002. Hydrologic data were collected from tidal creeks during the winter of 2002-03 and the summer-fall of 2003. Fish were sampled from tidal creeks during March 2003 using rivulet nets, throw traps, and seine nets. Habitat characteristics, hydrologic data, and fish assemblages were compared for tidal creeks north and south of the Suwannee River. Tidal creeks north of the river had more shoreline edge and shallow habitat than creeks to the south. Tidal creeks south of the river were generally of lower salinity (fresher) and supported more freshwater marsh and submerged aquatic vegetation. The southern creeks tended to be deeper but less sinuous than the northern creeks. Water quality and inundation were evaluated with hydrologic monitoring in the creeks. In-situ gauges, recording pressure and temperature, documented a net discharge of brackish to saline groundwater into the tidal creeks with pronounced flow during low tide. Groundwater flow into the creeks was most prominent north of the river. Combined fish-sampling results showed an overall greater abundance of organisms and greater species richness in the southern creeks, nominally attributed a greater range in water quality. Fish samples were dominated by juvenile spot, grass shrimp, bay anchovy, and silverside. The short time frame for hydrologic monitoring and the one-time fish-sampling effort were insufficient for forming definitive conclusions. However, the combination of hyperspectral imagery and

  5. Habitat selection and quality for multiple cohorts of young-of-the-year bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix): Comparisons between estuarine and ocean beaches in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Nichols, Ryan S.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, seasonal and annual variability in the use of estuarine and ocean beaches by young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was evaluated by indices of abundance in coastal areas of southern New Jersey (1998-2000). Biological and physical factors measured at specific sites were correlated with bluefish abundance to determine the mechanisms underlying habitat selection. In addition, integrative and discrete indicators of bluefish growth were used to examine spatio-temporal dynamics in habitat quality and its effect on habitat selection by multiple cohorts of bluefish. Intra-annual recruitment to coastal areas of southern New Jersey was episodic, and resulted from the ingress of spring-spawned bluefish (hatch-date ˜April) to estuarine beaches in late May to early June, followed by the recruitment of summer-spawned fish (hatch-date ˜early July) to ocean beaches from July to October. Bluefish utilized estuarine and ocean beaches in a facultative manner that was responsive to dynamics in prey composition and temperature conditions. The recruitment and residency of bluefish in the estuary (1998-1999) and ocean beaches (1998), for example, was coincidental with the presence of the Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia and bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, the principal prey species for bluefish occupying these respective habitat-types. Bluefish abundance in the estuary (2000) and ocean beaches (1999-2000) was also correlated with water temperature, with the greatest catches of juveniles coinciding with their optimal growth temperature (24 °C). Bluefish growth, estimated as the slope of age-length relationships and daily specific growth rates, equaled 1.27-2.63 mm fork length (FL) d -1 and 3.8-8.7% body length increase d -1, respectively. The growth of sagittal otoliths was also used as a proxy for changes in bluefish size during and shortly before their time of capture. Accordingly, otolith growth rates of summer-spawned bluefish were greater at ocean

  6. Ontogenetic patterns in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) feeding ecology and the effect on mercury biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczebak, Joseph T; Taylor, David L

    2011-06-01

    In this study, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix; age 0-7, n = 632) and their prey (forage fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton; n = 2,005) were collected from the Narragansett Bay estuary (RI, USA), and total Hg concentration was measured in white muscle and whole-body tissues, respectively. Bluefish Hg concentrations were analyzed relative to fish length, prey Hg content, and ontogenetic shifts in habitat use and foraging ecology, the latter assessed using stomach content analysis (n = 711) and stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) isotope measurements (n = 360). Diet and δ(13)C analysis showed that age 0 bluefish consumed both benthic and pelagic prey (silversides, sand shrimp, planktonic crustaceans; δ(13)C = - 16.52‰), whereas age 1 + bluefish fed almost exclusively on pelagic forage fish (Atlantic menhaden, herring; δ(13)C = - 17.33‰). Bluefish total Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with length (mean Hg = 0.041 and 0.254 ppm wet wt for age 0 and age 1 + bluefish, respectively). Furthermore, Hg biomagnification rates were maximal during bluefish early life stages and decelerated over time, resulting in relatively high Hg concentrations in age 0 fish. Rapid Hg accumulation in age 0 bluefish is attributed to these individuals occupying a comparable trophic level to age 1 + bluefish (δ(15)N = 15.58 and 16.09‰; trophic level = 3.55 and 3.71 for age 0 and age 1 + bluefish, respectively), as well as juveniles having greater standardized consumption rates of Hg-contaminated prey. Finally, bluefish larger than 30 cm total length consistently had Hg levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.3 ppm. As such, frequent consumption of bluefish could pose a human health risk, and preferentially consuming smaller bluefish may be an inadequate strategy for minimizing human dietary exposure to Hg. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  8. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  9. Mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi, E-mail: sakamoto@nimd.go.jp [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Itai, Takaaki [Ehime University, Bunkyo 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8755 (Japan); Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshihide [Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, 25-259 Shimomekurakubo, Aomori 031-0841 (Japan); Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro [Institute of Cetacean Research, 4-5 Toyomi, Tokyo 104-0055 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaaki [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Akita University School of Medicine, Hondo 1-1-1, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Man Chan, Hing [University of Ottawa, Marie-Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada KIN 6N5 (Canada); Domingo, José L. [School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat “Rovira i Virgili”, Reus (Spain); Marumoto, Masumi [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. However, its speciation is poorly understood. The main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (Se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. The concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (I-Hg) and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), Risso's dolphins (n=30), striped dolphins (n=29), and short-finned pilot whales (n=30). In each species, the MeHg concentration increased with increasing T-Hg concentration, tending to reach a plateau. In contrast, the proportion of MeHg in T-Hg decreased from 90–100% to 20–40%. The levels of T-Hg and Se showed strong positive correlations. Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with the increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1 in all species. These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg immediately formed Se/I-Hg equimolar complex of mercury selenide (HgSe) in their muscles. In addition, an X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS) of a bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that the dominant chemical form of the Se/I-Hg equimolar complex was HgSe. HgSe was mainly localized in cells near the endomysium using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg finally deposits within muscle cells of bottlenose dolphin as an inert HgSe. - Highlights: • T-Hg, MeHg, I-Hg and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whales. • MeHg increased with increasing T-Hg and tended to reach a plateau in all species. • Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1. • XAFS of bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that HgSe was dominant chemical form. • EPMA of bottlenose dolphin muscle showed that HgSe deposited in muscle cells.

  10. Mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Itai, Takaaki; Yasutake, Akira; Iwasaki, Toshihide; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Murata, Katsuyuki; Man Chan, Hing; Domingo, José L.; Marumoto, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. However, its speciation is poorly understood. The main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (Se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. The concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (I-Hg) and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), Risso's dolphins (n=30), striped dolphins (n=29), and short-finned pilot whales (n=30). In each species, the MeHg concentration increased with increasing T-Hg concentration, tending to reach a plateau. In contrast, the proportion of MeHg in T-Hg decreased from 90–100% to 20–40%. The levels of T-Hg and Se showed strong positive correlations. Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with the increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1 in all species. These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg immediately formed Se/I-Hg equimolar complex of mercury selenide (HgSe) in their muscles. In addition, an X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS) of a bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that the dominant chemical form of the Se/I-Hg equimolar complex was HgSe. HgSe was mainly localized in cells near the endomysium using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg finally deposits within muscle cells of bottlenose dolphin as an inert HgSe. - Highlights: • T-Hg, MeHg, I-Hg and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whales. • MeHg increased with increasing T-Hg and tended to reach a plateau in all species. • Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1. • XAFS of bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that HgSe was dominant chemical form. • EPMA of bottlenose dolphin muscle showed that HgSe deposited in muscle cells.

  11. By the Light of the Moon: North Pacific Dolphins Optimize Foraging with the Lunar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Anne Elizabeth

    The influence of the lunar cycle on dolphin foraging behavior was investigated in the productive, southern California Current Ecosystem and the oligotrophic Hawaiian Archipelago. Passive acoustic recordings from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to document the presence of echolocation from four dolphin species that demonstrate distinct foraging preferences and diving abilities. Visual observations of dolphins, cloud coverage, commercial landings of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) and acoustic backscatter of fish were also considered in the Southern California Bight. The temporal variability of echolocation is described from daily to annual timescales, with emphasis on the lunar cycle as an established behavioral driver for potential dolphin prey. For dolphins that foraged at night, the presence of echolocation was reduced during nights of the full moon and during times of night that the moon was present in the night sky. In the Southern California Bight, echolocation activity was reduced for both shallow- diving common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and deeper-diving Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) during times of increased illumination. Seasonal differences in acoustic behavior for both species suggest a geographic shift in dolphin populations, shoaling scattering layers or prey switching behavior during warm months, whereby dolphins target prey that do not vertically migrate. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, deep-diving short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and shallow-diving false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) also showed reduced echolocation behavior during periods of increased lunar illumination. In contrast to nocturnal foraging in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales in the main Hawaiian Islands mainly foraged during the day and the lunar cycle showed little influence on their nocturnal acoustic behavior. Different temporal patterns in false killer whale acoustic behavior between the main and northwestern Hawaiian

  12. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Dudley, Sheldon F.J.; Zungu, M. Philip; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH_3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg"−"1 dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg"−"1 dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ"1"5N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ"1"3C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local emissions. • Length and

  13. Diet Composition and Trophic Ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Smith, Wade D; Cortés, Enric

    Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids. Several large, pelagic apex predator species occur in the ENP, but the largest species (i.e., Basking Shark, Whale Shark) consume zooplankton or small nekton. Size-based dietary variability is substantial for many species, and segregation of juvenile and adult foraging habitats also is common (e.g., Horn Shark, Shortfin Mako). Temporal dietary differences are most pronounced for temperate, nearshore species with wide size ranges, and least pronounced for smaller species in extreme latitudes and deep-water regions. Sympatric sharks often occupy various trophic positions, with resource overlap differing by space and time and some sharks serving as prey to other species. Most coastal species remain in the same general region over time and feed opportunistically on variable prey inputs (e.g., season migrations, spawning, or recruitment events), whereas pelagic, oceanic species actively seek hot spots of prey abundance that are spatiotemporally variable. The influence of sharks on ecosystem structure and regulation has been downplayed compared to that of large teleosts species with higher per capita consumption rates (e.g., tunas, billfishes). However, sharks also exert indirect influences on prey populations by causing behavioural changes that may result in restricted ranges and reduced fitness. Except for food web modelling

  14. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutrients and Fatty Acids of Mongolian Horsemeat%蒙古马肉常规营养素和脂肪酸分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉敏; 郭军; 木其尔; 张晶; 张鑫; 张晓儒

    2017-01-01

    以蒙古马后腿、肋部、里脊和皮下脂肪为研究对象,兼顾内蒙地区驴、牛、绵羊和双峰驼肉,共采集130份样品,系统测定其常规营养素和脂肪酸,并进行物种、部位、产地和季节等分类比较.蒙古马后腿、肋部和里脊肉三个部位常规营养素均值(均值±SD):水分、脂肪、蛋白质、灰分分别为75.65±2.29、2.22±1.43、20.34±1.30、1.23±0.23g/100g;水分和蛋白质显著高于牛、绵羊和驼肉,脂肪显著低.蒙古马肉饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)和多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)(均值±SD)分别为42.18±5.49、28.28±6.81、26.83±7.58g/100脂肪,其中PUFA显著高于其他物种,MUFA显著低.蒙古马肉α-亚麻酸(α-C18∶3n3)、亚油酸(C18∶2n6c)和软脂酸(C16∶0)显著高于牛羊驼肉,硬脂酸(C18∶0)、棕榈烯酸(C16∶1)和油酸(C18∶1n9c)显著低于三者.蒙古马肉皮下脂肪中α-C18∶3n3显著高于其他部位,C18∶2n6c显著低;青草季α-C18∶3n3高于干草季,C18∶1n9c和C16∶1与其相反,差异均极显著;呼伦贝尔蒙古马肉α-C18∶3n3、C18∶2n6c和C18∶0均显著高于达茂旗马肉.蒙古马肉具有高蛋白、低脂肪的特点,且脂肪营养价值优于牛羊驼等反刍类动物.%A total of 130 Mongolian horse,donkey,cattle,sheep and bactrian camel meat samples were collected,the body cuts included silverside,rib cut,loin and subcutaneous fat,and routine nutrients and fatty acids were determined.The nutrients profiles were compared systematically according to classifications/categories such as species,body parts/cuts,geographical origin and between hay and pasture/grazing season.Results showed the routine nutrients,total means of silverside,rib and loin of Mongolian horsemeat were moisture 75.65 ±2.29,fat 2.22 ± 1.43,protein 20.34 ± 1.30 and ash 1.23 ±0.23 respectively ((x) ±SD,g/100g).The moisture and protein significantly higher than those of the three ruminants,while fat was

  16. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    de la pesquería sobre conservación de la biodiversidad de peces de la cuenca.The aim of this contribution is to consider different issues derived from fish captures from artisanal-commercial fisheries in the Paraná Basin in Argentina. We identify certain impacts related to fishing practices on the involved natural populations and its compromises in ichtiofaunal biodiversity conservation. We consider 17 years of information based on data of fisheries exports for different inland species between 1994-2010. These data includes valuable commercial big sized native fishes like sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, boga (Leporinus obtusidens, tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., dorado (Salminus brasiliensis and patí (Luciopimelodus pati, together with several catfish species and minor species as silversides. Freshwater fish exports show a major rise resulting in 331517 ton for these years. The target species is sábalo (88.77 %, other accompanying species are tararira (4.16 %, boga (3.7 % and Patí (1.35 % whereas the remainig catches belong to other species. There is a strong rise in the catches of these other species in certain years while there is not a clear legislation for these fish species that allow implementing a proper fishery management along the basin. The importing countries are Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Nigeria among others. Since 2003 Colombia buy an average of 50% of inland fisheries exports from Argentina. The analysis historical data (1994-2010 reveals the need to implement measures to control and management of fisheries and its effects on fish biodiversity conservation in the basin.

  17. Efecto de las condiciones de crecimiento y composición del medio de cultivo sobre la producción de bacteriocina de Enterococcus mundtii Tw56

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    Marisol Vallejo

    2014-07-01

    intestinal content of silverside (Odontesthes sp.. The aim of the present work was to determine physicochemical factors and culture medium composition for higher yield of viable cells and bacteriocin production. No changes were observed in the antimicrobial production when glucose was replaced by fructose or maltose in the MRS medium formulation. On the other hand, highest bacteriocin activity was obtained when meat extract was used as a sole nitrogen source. While the maximun biomass was achieved at35 ºC, the optimal temperatures for bacteriocin production were observed at 25 and30 ºC. The optimal initial pH for cell growth and bioactivity was 6.5, both parameters dropped when the experience started at pH 6.0 or 5.5. Biomass formation and bacteriocin production decreased in the presence of sodium chloride. The strain started producing the bacteriocin at the late exponential phase. The activity increased as a function of the cell mass and reached the maximun at the end of exponential phase (12 h. A decrease of antimicrobial activity was observed in the stationary phase (16 h, possibly due to degradation by proteolitic enzimes.  Key words: Enterococcus mundtii Tw56, bacteriocin, physicochemical factors, culture medium.  Recibido: noviembre 18 de 2013 Aprobado: septiembre 18 de 2014

  18. Desarrollo de la sagitta en juveniles y adultos de Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835 y O. bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835 de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Teleostei: Atheriniformes Development of the sagitta in young and adults of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835 and Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835 from Buenos Aires province, Argentina (Teleostei: Atheriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA D TOMBARI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el desarrollo del otolito Sagitta de juveniles y adultos de Odontesthes argentinensis procedentes de Punta Rasa (36°22' S y Miramar (38°16' S y de Odontesthes bonariensis de la Laguna de Chascomús (35° 36' S. Se estudió, la morfología de las sagittae de ambas especies, analizando cuatro grupos morfológicos para O. argentinensis (I: 75-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm, III: 230-270 y IV: 280-320 mm y tres grupos morfológicos para O. bonariensis (I: 80-120 mm, II: 130-220 y III: 230-320 mm. Las características morfológicas comunes a la sagitta, de ambas especies, en los grupos estudiados son: presencia de sulcus, depresión areal dorsal en la cara medial, cara lateral con estrías y la presencia de un punto culminante en el borde dorsal. En la sagitta de O. argentinensis, la depresión areal dorsal se inicia ligada a la cauda, característica que permitió distinguir claramente entre otolitos de juveniles de ambas especies. A partir del estado adulto, la depresión areal dorsal se halla separada de la cauda en las dos especies y el análisis estadístico evidenció un crecimiento discontinuo. Se hallaron diferencias morfológicas entre pares de sagitta de un mismo individuo en cuanto a la forma del ostium, presencia de cisura, rostro y punto culminante, aunque no se halló significancia morfométricaThe development of the otolith sagitta was described in young and adults of two silverside species. Odontesthes argentinensis was collected from Punta Rasa (36°22' S and Miramar (38°16' S and, Odontesthes bonariensis collected from Laguna de Chascomús (35°36' S. Sagitta morphology was studied in both species, analyzing four morphological groups of O. argentinensis (I: 75-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm, III: 230-270 mm and IV: 280-320 mm and three morphological groups of O. bonariensis (I: 80-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm and III: 230-320 mm. The morphological features of the sagitta shared by both species are: sulcus present, dorsal areal depression

  19. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

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    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en

  20. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

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    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of deep-water fisheries off Brazil is reviewed from biological, eco-nomic, and political perspectives. This process has been centered in the southeastem and southern sectors of the Brazilian coast (19°-34°S and was motivated by the overfishing of the main coastal resources and a government-induced vessel-chartering program. Shelf break (100-250 m operations by national hook-and-line and trawl vessels intensified in the 1990s. Around 2000-2001, however, foreign-chartered longliners, gillnetters, potters, and trawlers started to operate in Brazilian waters, leading the occupation of the upper slope (250-500 m, mostly targeting monkfish (Lophyus gastrophysus, the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi, the Brazilian codling (Urophycis mystacea, the wreckfish (Polyprion americanus, the Argentine short-fin squid (Illex argentinus, the red crab (Chaceon notialis, and the royal crab (Chaceon ramosae. Between 2004 and 2007, chartered trawlers established a valuable fishery on deep-water shrimps (family Aristeidae, heavily exploiting the lower slope (500-1000 m. Total catches of deep-water resources varied annually from 5,756 ton in 2000 to a maximum of 19,923 ton in 2002, decreasing to nearly 11,000 ton in 2006. Despite intensive data collection, the availability of timely stock assessments, and a formal participatory process for the discussion of management plans, deep-water stocks are already considered to be overexploited due to limitations of governance. .El reciente desarrollo de la pesca profunda en Brasil fue revisado desde perspectivas biológicas, econômicas y políticas. Este proceso se ha centrado en los sectores sureste y sur de la costa de Brasil (19°-34°S y fue motivado por la sobrepesca de los principales recursos costeros en conjunto con una política gubernamental de arriendo de buques pesqueros. Las operaciones de pesca sobre el borde de la plataforma (100-250 m por buques palangreros y arrastreros se

  1. РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ЕВРОПЕЙСКОГО ОБЩЕСТВА КАРДИОЛОГОВ ПО ЛЕЧЕНИЮ СЕРДЕЧНО-СОСУДИСТЫХ ЗАБОЛЕВАНИЙ У БЕРЕМЕННЫХ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Члены комитета по практическим рекомендациям: J.J. Bax (председатель, Нидерланды, A. Auricchio (Швейцария, H. Baumgartner (Германия, C. Ceconi (Италия, V. Dean (Франция, C. Deaton (Великобритания, R. Fagard (Бельгия, C. Funck-Brentano (Франция, D. Has-dai (Израиль, A. Hoes (Нидерланды, J. Knuuti (Финляндия, P . Kolh (Бельгия, T. McDonagh (Великобритания, C. Moulin (Франция, D. Poldermans (Нидерланды, B.A. Popescu (Румыния, Z. Reiner (Хорватия, U. Sechtem (Германия, P .A. Sirnes (Норвегия, A. Torbicki (Польша, A. Vahanian (Франция, S. Windecker (Швейцария Рецензенты: H. Baumgartner (координатор, Германия, C. Deaton (координатор, Великобритания, C. Aguiar (Португалия, N. Al-Attar (Франция, A.A. Garcia (Испания, A. Antoniou (Греция, I. Coman (Румыния, U. Elkayam (США, M.A. Gomez-Sanchez (Испания, N. Gotcheva (Болгария, D. Hilfiker-Kleiner (Германия, R.G. Kiss (Венгрия, A. Kitsiou (Греция, K.T.S. Konings (Нидерланды, G.Y.H. Lip (Великобритания, A. Manolis (Греция, A. Mebaaza (Франция, I. Mintale (Латвия, M-C. Morice (Франция, B.J. Mulder (Нидерланды, A. Pasquet (Бельгия, S. Price (Великобритания, S.G. Priori (Италия, M.J. Salvador (Испания, A. Shotan (Израиль, C.K. Silversides (Канада, S.O. Skouby† (Дания, J-I. Stein¤ (Австрия, P . Tornos (Испания, N. Vejlstrup (Дания, F . Walker (Великобритания, C. Warnes (США

  2. Distribuição, dominância e estrutura de tamanhos da assembleia de peixes da lagoa Mangueira, sul do Brasil Distribution, dominance and sizes structure of the fish assemblage in the Mangueira lake, southern Brazil

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    Luiz G. S Artioli

    2009-12-01

    écies entre as porções norte e sul da lagoa. As 52 espécies registradas neste estudo representam uma alta riqueza de peixes na lagoa Mangueira, sobretudo quando comparada a outras lagoas costeiras do RS. Padrões diferenciados de composição e abundância de espécies parecem refletir características distintas dos habitats litorâneos amostrados.This study presents the composition of species, the distribution and dominance patterns, and the structure of sizes of the assemblage of fish in distinct habitats (littoral, deeper and near shore limnetic zone of the Mangueira lake, in the southern Brazil. Samples were taken in the north, south and central regions of the lake from 2001 to 2007 using a multi-gear approach (gillnet, cast net, beach seine, dip net and bottom trawling. A total of 52 species were identified, 46 in the littoral zone, 33 in the near shore limnetic zone and 26 in the deep zone, distributed in 17 families, of the which, Characidae, Cichlidae, Loricariidae, and Atherinopsidae were the most diverse. The dominant species summed up 91.1 %, 92.9 % and 82.7 % of the all individuals caught in the littoral, deeper and limnetic zone, respectively. The littoral zone was comprised of small fishes, nearly 70 % between 25 and 50 TL mm. The dominance patterns showed that, in this zone, 19,5 % of the species were dominant, although four of those also prevailed in the other zones. In the deep zone, 7,6% of the captured species were dominant, with similar sizes to the littoral zone. For the other species, the sizes resemble to the near shore limnetic zone. The near shore limnetic zone was comprised of larger fishes, the major part between 150 and 200 TL mm, such as the great characins, the toothless characin and the silverside fishes. A larger difference was observed in the composition of species between the littoral and limnetic zones, with the species Jenynsia multidentata, Bryconamericus iheringii, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii and Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys dominating

  3. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Haimovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance and fishing potential of the commercially valuable fishes and cephalopods with marketable size was assessed using two seasonal bottom trawl surveys performed in 2001 and 2002 on the outer shelf and upper slope (100-600 m depth off the coast of southern Brazil. These surveys were part of REVIZEE, a national program designed to assess the fishery potential within the Economic Exclusive Zone. Of the 228 fish and cephalopod species caught during the surveys, only 27 species and genera were considered to be of commercial interest. Commercial-sized individuals of these species made up 52.3% of the total catch. The total biomass was estimated to be 167,193 ton (± 22% and 165,460 ton (± 25% in the winter-spring and summer-autumn surveys, respectively. The most abundant species were the Argentine short-fin squid Illex argentinas, a species with highly variable recruitment, followed by the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi, the gulf-hake Urophycis mystacea, and the monkfish Lophius gastrophysus. The latter three were intensively fished prior to the surveys, as well as the beardfish Polymixia lowei and silvery John dory Zenopsis conchifera, both relatively abundant but with a very low market value. The potential yield of the demersal fish species, not considering Illex argentinus, estimated with the Gulland equation for a mean natural mortality of M = 0.31, was 20,460 ton. When considering only Merluccius hubbsi, Urophycis mystacea, and Lophius gastrophysus, the potential yield decreased to 6,625 ton. The surveys showed that the fishery potential of the outer shelf and upper slope was substantially lower than that of the inner shelf. Therefore, this environment should be carefully monitored to avoid overfishing and fast depletion.Se evaluó la abundancia relativa y el potencial pesquero de peces y cefalópodos de especies y tamaños de valor comercial en dos muéstreos estacionales con redes de arrastre de fondo realizados en los a

  4. Spatially explicit habitat models for 28 fishes from the Upper Mississippi River System (AHAG 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, J.S.; Richards, N.; Bowler, M.; Schlifer, B.

    2014-01-01

    perhaps why). Our goal was to develop regionalized models, and to assess and describe circumstances when a good fit was not possible. Seven fish species composed the Lentic guild. Good fits were achieved for six Upper Reach models. In the Lower Reach, no model produced good fits for the Lentic guild. This was due to (1) lentic species being much less prominent in the Lower Reach study areas, and (2) those that do express greater prominence principally do so only in the La Grange reach of the Illinois River. Thus, developing Lower Reach models for Lentic species will require parsing La Grange from the other two Lower Reach study areas and fitting separate models. We did not do that as part of this study, but it could be done at a later time. Nine species comprised the Lotic guild. Good fits were achieved for seven Upper Reach models and six Lower Reach models. Four species had good fits for both regions (flathead catfish, blue sucker, sauger, and shorthead redhorse). Three species showed zoogeographic zonation, with a good model fit in one of the regions, but not in the region in which they were absent or rarely occurred (blue catfish, rock bass, and skipjack herring). Twelve species comprised the Generalist guild. Good fits were achieved for five Upper Reach models and eight Lower Reach models. Six species had good fits for both regions (brook silverside, emerald shiner, freshwater drum, logperch, longnose gar, and white bass). Two species showed zoogeographic zonation, with a good model fit in one of the regions, but not in the region in which they were absent or rarely occurred (red shiner and blackstripe topminnow). Poorly fit models were almost always due to the diagnostic variable “field station,” a surrogate for river mile. In these circumstances, the residuals for “field station” were non-randomly distributed and often strongly ordered. This indicates either fitting “pool scale” models for these species and regions, or explicitly model covariances