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Sample records for shorter training time

  1. The risk of shorter fasting time for pediatric deep sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mathew; Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan E; Anliker, Christina M; Bryant, Micheal A; Downs, Craig; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications. This is a prospective observational study that included children 2 months to 18 years of age and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II, who underwent deep sedation for elective procedures, performed by pediatric critical care providers. Procedures included radiologic imaging studies, electroencephalograms, auditory brainstem response, echocardiograms, Botox injections, and other minor surgical procedures. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on the length of their fasting time (4-6 h and >6 h). Complication rates were calculated and compared between the three groups. In the studied group of 2487 subjects, 1007 (40.5%) had fasting time of 4-6 h and the remaining 1480 (59.5%) subjects had fasted for >6 h. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied complications between the two groups. This study found no difference in complication rate in regard to the fasting time among our subjects cohort, which included only healthy children receiving elective procedures performed by sedation trained pediatric critical care providers. This suggests that using shorter fasting time may be safe for procedures performed outside of the operating theater that does not involve high-risk patients or airway manipulation.

  2. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  3. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  4. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  5. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  6. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  7. How do shorter working hours affect employee wellbeing? : Shortening working time in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdenperä, Netta

    2017-01-01

    The way work is done is dramatically changing due to digital breakthroughs. Generation Y is entering the workforce with a changed attitude towards work as organizations are increasing their focus towards employee wellbeing. Organizations who adopt the new model of work and understand the importance of the wellbeing of their staff are leading the transition to a more efficient business, better working life and a healthier planet. The thesis explores the numerous effects of shorter working...

  8. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lejay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1 and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase. CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p < 0.001; CRC = 7.01 ± 0.97 vs. 11.96 ± 0.92 microM/mg dw, p < 0.001, respectively. Moderate exercise reduced tissue damages, improved functional scores, and restored mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively. Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  9. Shorter Perceived Outpatient MRI Wait Times Associated With Higher Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Glenn, Harold; Mahmood, Rabia; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Duszak, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in perceived versus actual wait times among patients undergoing outpatient MRI examinations and to correlate those times with patient satisfaction. Over 15 weeks, 190 patients presenting for outpatient MR in a radiology department in which "patient experience" is one of the stated strategic priorities were asked to (1) estimate their wait times for various stages in the imaging process and (2) state their satisfaction with their imaging experience. Perceived times were compared with actual electronic time stamps. Perceived and actual times were compared and correlated with standardized satisfaction scores using Kendall τ correlation. The mean actual wait time between patient arrival and examination start was 53.4 ± 33.8 min, whereas patients perceived a mean wait time of 27.8 ± 23.1 min, a statistically significant underestimation of 25.6 min (P perceived wait times at all points during patient encounters were correlated with higher satisfaction scores (P perceived and actual wait times were both correlated with higher satisfaction scores. As satisfaction surveys play a larger role in an environment of metric transparency and value-based payments, better understanding of such factors will be increasingly important. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Why shorter half-times of repair lead to greater damage in pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed brachytherapy consists of replacing continuous irradiation at low dose-rate with a series of medium dose-rate fractions in the same overall time and to the same total dose. For example, pulses of 1 Gy given every 2 hr or 2 Gy given every 4 hr would deliver the same 70 Gy in 140 hr as continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. If higher dose-rates are used, even with gaps between the pulses, the biological effects are always greater. Provided that dose rates in the pulse do not exceed 3 Gy/hr, and provided that pulses are given as often as every 2 hr, the inevitable increases of biological effect are no larger than a few percent (of biologically effective dose or extrapolated response dose). However, these increases are more likely to exceed 10% (and thus become clinically significant) if the half-time of repair of sublethal damage is short (less than 1 hr) rather than long. This somewhat unexpected finding is explained in detail here. The rise and fall of Biologically Effective Dose (and hence of Relative Effectiveness, for a constant dose in each pulse) is calculated during and after single pulses, assuming a range of values of T 1/2 , the half-time of sublethal damage repair. The area under each curve is proportional to Biologically Effective Dose and therefore to log cell kill. Pulses at 3 Gy/hr do yield greater biological effect (dose x integrated Relative Effectiveness) than lower dose-rate pulses or continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. The contrast is greater for the short T 1/2 of 0.5 hr than for the longer T 1/2 of 1.5 hr. More biological damage will be done (compared with traditional low dose rate brachytherapy) in tissues with short T 1/2 (0.1-1 hr) than in tissues with longer T 1/2 values. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-01-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  12. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-03-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  13. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan mean SUV max of three lesions using the current fixed-acquisition and two proposed variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30-90

  15. Time Use on Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The passengers create a travel space in which they make dynamic shifts in different kinds of activities: media use, media non-use, social interactions and non-social interactions. Passengers expect the train operator to provide the travel space for different activities (including the possibility of mobile......This study explores how travel time is used and how passengers conceptualise travel time in Danish intercity trains and intercity fast trains. The new contribution to the literature this study can offer is in the inclusion of all kinds of passengers in the different compartments to understand train...... travel as a dynamic act of moving with shifts in activities. A mixed-method approach is used with self-completed questionnaires, frequency observations, shadowing observations and interviews. The findings reveal that the train passengers’ acts on the move are framed by both macro- and microstructures...

  16. The Change of the Family Life Affected by the Shorter Working Time : From the Point of View of the Home Management

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 道憲

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the working time has been decreasing. However, Japanese working people spend more hours per year to work than those in Western countries. The policy of the shorter working time is conducted by the Japanese Government in order that the working people get more free time. This paper examines whether the shorter working time of working members in the family enrich the time use of the other members of the family. Especially, the effect of the shorter working time of husbands to wives...

  17. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  19. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  20. Shorter daily dwelling time in peritoneal dialysis attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is known to induce morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. Long-term exposure to conventional bio-incompatible dialysate and peritonitis is the main etiology of inflammation. Consequently, the peritoneal membrane undergoes structural changes, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and hyalinizing vasculopathy, which ultimately results in technique failure. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs) plays an important role during the above process; however, the clinical parameters associated with the EMT process of MCs remain to be explored. Methods To investigate the parameters impacting EMT during PD therapy, 53 clinical stable PD patients were enrolled. EMT assessments were conducted through human peritoneal MCs cultured from dialysate effluent with one consistent standard criterion (MC morphology and the expression of an epithelial marker, cytokeratin 18). The factors potentially associated with EMT were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Primary MCs derived from the omentum were isolated for the in vitro study. Results Forty-seven percent of the patients presented with EMT, 28% with non-EMT, and 15% with a mixed presentation. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients who received persistent PD therapy (dwelling time of 24 h/day) had significantly higher EMT tendency. These results were consistent in vitro. Conclusions Dwelling time had a significant effect on the occurrence of EMT on MCs. PMID:24555732

  1. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  2. Time integration of tensor trains

    OpenAIRE

    Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart

    2014-01-01

    A robust and efficient time integrator for dynamical tensor approximation in the tensor train or matrix product state format is presented. The method is based on splitting the projector onto the tangent space of the tensor manifold. The algorithm can be used for updating time-dependent tensors in the given data-sparse tensor train / matrix product state format and for computing an approximate solution to high-dimensional tensor differential equations within this data-sparse format. The formul...

  3. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  4. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  6. In Vitro Comparison of Holmium Lasers: Evidence for Shorter Fragmentation Time and Decreased Retropulsion Using a Modern Variable-pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Roger; Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance of variable- and fixed-pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. Seven-millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear polyvinyl chloride tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable-pulse laser was tested on both long- and short-pulse settings and was compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed-pulse laser; 5 trials were conducted for each trial arm. Fragmentation was accomplished with the use of a flexible ureteroscope and a 273-micron holmium laser fiber using settings of 1 J × 12 Hz. The treatment time (in minute) for complete fragmentation was recorded as was the total retropulsion distance (in centimeter) during treatment. Laser fibers were standardized for all repetitions. The treatment time was significantly shorter with the H-30 vs the H-20 laser (14.3 ± 2.5 vs 33.1 ± 8.9 minutes, P = .008). There was no difference between the treatment times using the long vs short pulse widths of the H-30 laser (14.4 ± 3.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 minutes, P = .93). Retropulsion differed by laser type and pulse width, H-30 long pulse (15.8 ± 5.7 cm), H-30 short pulse (54.8 ± 7.1 cm), and H-20 (33.2 ± 12.5 cm) (P laser fragmented stone phantoms in half the time of the H-20 laser regardless of the pulse width. Retropulsion effects differed between the lasers, with the H-30 causing the least retropulsion. Longer pulse widths result in less stone retropulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 29 CFR 553.226 - Training time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training time. 553.226 Section 553.226 Labor Regulations... time. (a) The general rules for determining the compensability of training time under the FLSA are set forth in §§ 785.27 through 785.32 of this title. (b) While time spent in attending training required by...

  8. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Leon; Goode, Grahame; Wold, Johan F H; Beck, Lionel; Martin, Georgina; Perings, Christian; Stolt, Pelle; Baggerman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines. Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1) Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2) Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3) Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four. With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048) and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007). There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests. Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  9. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Martens

    Full Text Available To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines.Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1 Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2 Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3 Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four.With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048 and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007. There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests.Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  10. Procrastination at work and time management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerde, Wendelien

    2003-09-01

    The author examined the impact of time management training on self-reported procrastination. In an intervention study, 37 employees attended a 1 1/2-day time management training seminar. A control group of employees (n = 14) who were awaiting training also participated in the study to control for expectancy effects. One month after undergoing time management training, trainees reported a significant decrease in avoidance behavior and worry and an increase in their ability to manage time. The results suggest that time management training is helpful in lessening worry and procrastination at work.

  11. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...

  12. Do Japanese Work Shorter Hours than before?: Measuring Trends in Market Work and Leisure Using 1976-2006 Japanese Time-Use Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Using Japanese time-use data from the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (STULA), this paper measures trends in average hours worked (market work) and leisure for Japanese over the past three decades. OECD reports at least a 15 percent decline in market work for Japan since the 1970s. However, holding demographic changes constant, we found that market work per week increased from the 1970s until mid 1980s, and has been relatively stable for the last two decades for both male and female...

  13. 3D Vision Provides Shorter Operative Time and More Accurate Intraoperative Surgical Performance in Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair Compared With 2D Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Piera; Rivellini, Roberta; Giudici, Fabiola; Sciuto, Antonio; Pirozzi, Felice; Corcione, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if 3-dimensional high-definition (3D) vision in laparoscopy can prompt advantages over conventional 2D high-definition vision in hiatal hernia (HH) repair. Between September 2012 and September 2015, we randomized 36 patients affected by symptomatic HH to undergo surgery; 17 patients underwent 2D laparoscopic HH repair, whereas 19 patients underwent the same operation in 3D vision. No conversion to open surgery occurred. Overall operative time was significantly reduced in the 3D laparoscopic group compared with the 2D one (69.9 vs 90.1 minutes, P = .006). Operative time to perform laparoscopic crura closure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. We observed a tendency to a faster crura closure in the 3D group in the subgroup of patients with mesh positioning (7.5 vs 8.9 minutes, P = .09). Nissen fundoplication was faster in the 3D group without mesh positioning ( P = .07). 3D vision in laparoscopic HH repair helps surgeon's visualization and seems to lead to operative time reduction. Advantages can result from the enhanced spatial perception of narrow spaces. Less operative time and more accurate surgery translate to benefit for patients and cost savings, compensating the high costs of the 3D technology. However, more data from larger series are needed to firmly assess the advantages of 3D over 2D vision in laparoscopic HH repair.

  14. Time management training and perceived control of time at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of time management training, which was based on psychological theory and research, on perceived control of time, perceived stress, and performance at work. The authors randomly assigned 71 employees to a training group (n = 35) or a waiting-list control group (n = 36). As hypothesized, time management training led to an increase in perceived control of time and a decrease in perceived stress. Time management training had no impact on different performance indicators. In particular, the authors explored the use and the perceived usefulness of the techniques taught. Participants judged the taught techniques as useful, but there were large differences concerning the actual use of the various techniques.

  15. Time matters – Realism in resuscitation training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Østergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    -based resuscitation training, the recommended 2-min CPR cycles are often deliberately decreased in order to increase the number of scenarios. The aim of this study was to test if keeping 2-min CPR cycles during resuscitation training ensures better adherence to time during resuscitation in a simulated setting......Background: The advanced life support guidelines recommend 2 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and minimal hands-off time to ensure sufficient cardiac and cerebral perfusion. We have observed doctors who shorten the CPR intervals during resuscitation attempts. During simulation....... Methods: This study was designed as a randomised control trial. Fifty-four 4th-year medical students with no prior advanced resuscitation training participated in an extra-curricular one-day advanced life support course. Participants were either randomised to simulation-based training using real-time (120...

  16. Using teaching resources to help students develop team and project skills pays off, both in terms of employability and shorter study time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter

    Since Aalborg University in Denmark was started in 1974 it has been using a special educational model, where Problem Based Learning is the turning point. Each semester the students on the Engineering Educations form groups of approximately 6 persons, which uses half of the study time within...... of the university many students had difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. An important aspect of the basic part of the education (first year), has therefore been the development of a course where the students gets tools and tricks for good communication...... report documenting the results of their project, but also an analysis of the working process getting there. Since year 1998 the teachers giving the CLP course have focused very much on these process analyses and as they are a part of the examination the students also have focused more on how they work...

  17. Using teaching resources to help students develop team and project skills pays off, both in terms of employability and shorter study time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since Aalborg University in Denmark was started in 1974 it has been using a special educational model, where Problem Based Learning is the turning point. Each semester the students on the Engineering Educations form groups of approximately 6 persons, which uses half of the study time within...... of the university many students had difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. An important aspect of the basic part of the education (first year), has therefore been the development of a course where the students gets tools and tricks for good communication...... report documenting the results of their project, but also an analysis of the working process getting there. Since year 1998 the teachers giving the CLP course have focused very much on these process analyses and as they are a part of the examination the students also have focused more on how they work...

  18. Time matters--realism in resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Kristian B; Høyer, Christian B; Ostergaard, Doris; Eika, Berit

    2014-08-01

    The advanced life support guidelines recommend 2min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and minimal hands-off time to ensure sufficient cardiac and cerebral perfusion. We have observed doctors who shorten the CPR intervals during resuscitation attempts. During simulation-based resuscitation training, the recommended 2-min CPR cycles are often deliberately decreased in order to increase the number of scenarios. The aim of this study was to test if keeping 2-min CPR cycles during resuscitation training ensures better adherence to time during resuscitation in a simulated setting. This study was designed as a randomised control trial. Fifty-four 4th-year medical students with no prior advanced resuscitation training participated in an extra-curricular one-day advanced life support course. Participants were either randomised to simulation-based training using real-time (120s) or shortened CPR cycles (30-45s instead of 120s) in the scenarios. Adherence to time was measured using the European Resuscitation Council's Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) in retention tests conducted one and 12 weeks after the course. The real-time group adhered significantly better to the recommended 2-min CPR cycles (time-120s) (mean 13; standard derivation (SD) 8) than the shortened CPR cycle group (mean 45; SD 19) when tested (ptraining to optimise outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Part-time residency training in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, Dana; Levi, Baruch; Borow, Malke; Ashkenazi, Shai; Lindner, Arie

    2012-08-01

    Full-time work has long been perceived as a cornerstone of medical residency, the consensus being that a resident must apply the bulk of his time and attention to his professional training. Demographic and cultural changes that have taken place over the last several years, specifically the rise in the number of female doctors and the importance of leisure time to the younger generation, have intensified the need to find new and innovative ways to deal with the plight of the resident population. One idea, already in effect in many Western countries, is the institution of part-time residency programs. The possibility of fulfilling residency requirements on a part-time basis is intended to assist medical residents in integrating their professional development with their personal and family life, without compromising the quality of their training. A number of research studies conducted over the last several years in countries that allow part-time residency, among them the United States, England and Switzerland, aimed to examine the quality of part-time training. The various studies evinced a high level of satisfaction from the program both by the residents themselves and their supervisors, and in many aspects those doing residency part-time received higher appraisals than their full-time colleagues. Some of the residents polled noted that they would have totally foregone the practice of medicine had there not been an option to complete residency part-time. In light of the experience throughout the world and the changing landscape in Israel, the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association decided to examine the issue and its various aspects, and weighed all the considerations in favor and against part-time residency. Recently, the Scientific Council approved the launch of a pilot program to allow part-time residency in several fields that were carefully selected according to specific criteria. Once the Ministry of Health completes the LegisLation process, part-time

  20. Martial arts: time needed for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Protopapas, Marina; Bonato, Paolo; Burke, John T; Landrum, Rpbert F

    2011-03-01

    To measure the time needed to teach a series of martial arts techniques to proficiency. Fifteen volunteer subjects without any prior martial arts or self-defense experience were recruited. A panel of martial arts experts selected 21 different techniques including defensive stances, arm blocks, elbow strikes, palm strikes, thumbs to eyes, instep kicks and a carotid neck restraint. The critical elements of each technique were identified by the panel and incorporated into a teaching protocol, and then into a scoring system. Two black belt martial arts instructors directed a total of forty-five 45-minute training sessions. Videotaped proficiency testing was performed weekly. The videotapes were reviewed by the investigators to determine the proficiency levels of each subject for each technique. The techniques were rated by the average number of training sessions needed for an individual to develop proficiency in that technique. The mean number of sessions necessary to train individuals to proficiency ranged from 27 to 38.3. Using this system, the most difficult techniques seemed to be elbow strikes to the rear, striking with thumbs to the eyes and arm blocking. In this study 29 hours of training was necessary to train novice students to be proficient in 21 offensive and defensive martial arts techniques. To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to measure the learning curves involved when teaching martial arts techniques.

  1. 25 CFR 26.30 - Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.30 Does the Job Training...

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Inferring Saving in Training Time From Effect Size Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burright, Burke

    2000-01-01

    .... Students' time saving represents a major potential benefit of using them. This paper fills a methodology gap in estimating the students' timesaving benefit of asynchronous training technologies...

  4. Real Time Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    large numbers of these systems (Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2006). Future aircraft design is following current trends towards unmanned...effects of interactive immersive classroom training, eLearning , Web-based gaming and the hands-on team trainer. With the pertinent human factors skills...will be extremely valuable in making improvements to the course in the future . On a slightly less positive note, responses to questions 19-22

  5. Improving real-time train dispatching : Models, algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ariano, A.

    2008-01-01

    Traffic controllers monitor railway traffic sequencing train movements and setting routes with the aim of ensuring smooth train behaviour and limiting as much as existing delays. Due to the strict time limit available for computing a new timetable during operations, which so far is rather infeasible

  6. The effect of short-time active listening training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Asami; Sumiyoshi, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Hitomi; Sano, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    We conducted mental health training incorporating active listening for managers at a site of a general chemical company with 1,400 employees. Our purpose was to clarify the effect of active listening training of 2.5h. All subjects were managers. The mental health training was given to 229 managers, 21 times from May 2007 until March 2008. Surveys were conducted from May 2007 to September 2008. The training sessions were conducted in a company meeting room, starting at 2:00 p.m. The importance and significance of listening as a mental health measure and methods of active listening were explained in the training. Afterward, role-playing and follow-up discussions were done twice each. In summaries, participants wrote down what they noticed about listening and gave group presentations. The instructor commented on the presentations, and ended the session by passing out and explaining a paper summarizing what is important in listening. The training was evaluated with a questionnaire distributed at the completion of training, and questionnaires on implementation of what was learned were distributed 1, 3, and 6 mo later. The Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS; composed of two scales for method of listening and listening attitude) developed by Mishima et al. was also used before and 1, 3, and 6 mo after the training. In questionnaires distributed on the same day after training, 60% of the 212 respondents said the training time was just right, and 30.1% felt it was too short. The difficulty level of the training was considered appropriate by 77.8%, and 79.7% intended to implement what they had learned. Overall satisfaction was high at 85.9%. In the questionnaire 6 mo after training, 81.4% of the 145 respondents remembered the content of the training and 49.7% said they were practicing what they had learned. They responded that their conversations with subordinates about non-work topics had increased, and communication and support at work had become smoother. ALAS was

  7. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  8. Does Time Management Training Work? An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter; Skinner, Denise

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive business environment, organisations have sought to increase productivity and reduce costs. The consequences of this for many employees include increased workloads, longer working hours and greater time pressures which, the evidence suggests, are linked to stress, high rates of absence and turnover. At the same time…

  9. European Working Time Directive: implications for surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, C L

    2010-02-01

    The forthcoming implementation of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) for non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) poses a number of challenges in the areas of patient care, training, service provision and quality of life for workers. Surgery, as a craft-based speciality, will face a greater impact on training of future surgeons as operating time could be lost to service provision. The EWTD acts a stimulus for reform of current working practices and re-configuration of services. It will necessitate transformation of the way in which surgeons are trained, if current standards are to be maintained.

  10. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  11. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  12. Timing, methods and prospective in citizenship training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Carta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The current models of development are changing the balance between human activity and Nature on a local ands global level and the urgent need to establish a new relationship between Man and the environment is increasingly apparent. The move towards a more caring approach to the planet introducing concepts such as limits, impact on future generations, regeneration of resources, social and environmental justice and the right to citizenship should make us consider (aside from international undertakings by governments exactly how we can promote a culture of sustainability in schools in terms of methods, time scales, and location. Schools are directly involved in these processes of change however it is necessary to plan carefully and establish situations that will result in greater attention being paid to the interaction between man and the environment, and highlighting the lifestyles and attitudes that are currently incompatible with a sustainable future. These solutions, although based on technical-scientific knowledge, cannot be brought about without the involvement of the individual and local agencies working together. However we have chosen to concentrate on the links between educational policies and local areas interpreting declarations made by international bodies such as UNESCO and suggestions aimed at bringing sustainability to the centre of specific policies. Bringing about these aims requires great educational effort that goes well beyond simple environmental education since it requires a permanent process for educating adults. Looking at stages of the history of the theories regarding the development and education of adults shows how the topic of sustainability made its entry into the debate about permanent education and how in the last ten years it has taken on an unrivalled importance as a point of reference for educational policies and pedagogical reflection. The origin of the concept of sustainability, although belonging to natural

  13. Incidence and Time to Return to Training for Stress Fractures during Military Basic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Wood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, little is known about the length of time required to rehabilitate patients from stress fractures and their return to preinjury level of physical activity. Previous studies have looked at the return to sport in athletes, in a general population, where rehabilitation is not as controlled as within a captive military population. In this study, a longitudinal prospective epidemiological database was assessed to determine the incidence of stress fractures and the time taken to rehabilitate recruits to preinjury stage of training. Findings demonstrated a background prevalence of 5% stress fractures in Royal Marine training; femoral and tibial stress fractures take 21.1 weeks to return to training with metatarsal stress fractures being the most common injury taking 12.2 weeks. Rehabilitation from stress fractures accounts for 814 weeks of recruit rehabilitation time per annum. Stress fracture incidence is still common in military training; despite this stress fracture recovery times remain constant and represent a significant interruption in training. It takes on average 5 weeks after exercise specific training has restarted to reenter training at a preinjury level, regardless of which bone has a stress fracture. Further research into their prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation is required to help reduce these burdens.

  14. A real-time uncertainty-knowledge and training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Santabarbara, J.M.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes an experimentally obtained database for training of uncertainties and data interpretation in connection with local scale accidental atmospheric dispersion scenarios. Based on remote measurement techniques using lidars, sequential 'snapshots', or movies. of the fluctuating...... concentration profiles during several full scale diffusion experiments has been obtained. The aim has been to establish data sets suitable tor comparison and training with the real-time atmospheric dispersion models in decision support systems, such as the RODOS system under development within the CEC....

  15. Implications of shorter cells in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Further studies on the beam-stay-clear requirements in PEP led to the conclusion that the vertical aperture needed to be enlarged. There are two main reasons for that: Observations at SPEAR indicate that the aperture should be large enough for a fully coupled beam. Full coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations occurs not only occasionally when the energy, tune or betatron function at the interaction point is changed but also due to the beam/endash/beam effect of two strong colliding beams. The second reason for an increased aperture requirement is the nonlinear perturbation of the particle trajectories by the sextupoles. This perturbation increases a fully coupled beam by another 50% to 80%. Both effects together with a +-5 mm allowance for closed orbit perturbation result in a vertical beam-stay-clear in the bending magnets of +-4.8 to +-5.6 cm, compared to the present +-2.0 cm. This beam-stay-clear, together with additional space for vacuum chamber, etc., leads to very costly bending magnets. In this note, a shorter cell length is proposed which would reduce considerably the vertical beam-stay-clear requirements in the bending magnets. 7 figs

  16. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    Real-time simulation of marine accidents and representation in a realistic, virtual environment may be an efficient way to train emergency procedures for ship?s crews and thus improve safety at sea. However, although various fast, simplified methods have been presented over the past decades...

  17. Pre-hospital electrocardiogram triage with tele-cardiology support is associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely reperfusion even in rural areas: data from the Bari- Barletta/Andria/Trani public emergency medical service 118 registry on primary angioplasty in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Di Pietro, Gaetano; Aquilino, Ambrogio; Bruno, Angela I; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Di Giuseppe, Giuseppe; Lopriore, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luisa; Lanzone, Saverio; Caldarola, Pasquale; Antonelli, Gianfranco; Di Biase, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    We report the preliminary data from a regional registry on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary angioplasty in Apulia, Italy; the region is covered by a single public health-care service, a single public emergency medical service (EMS), and a single tele-medicine service provider. Two hundred and ninety-seven consecutive patients with STEMI transferred by regional free public EMS 1-1-8 for primary-PCI were enrolled in the study; 123 underwent pre-hospital electrocardiograms (ECGs) triage by tele-cardiology support and directly referred for primary-PCI, those remaining were just transferred by 1-1-8 ambulances for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (diagnosis not based on tele-medicine ECG; already hospitalised patients, emergency-room without tele-medicine support). Time from first ECG diagnostic for STEMI to balloon was recorded; a time-to-balloon primary-PCI). Pre-hospital triage with tele-cardiology ECG in an EMS registry from an area with more than one and a half million inhabitants was associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely treated patients, even in 'rural' areas. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. A real-time uncertainty-knowledge and training database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, H.E.; Santabarbara, J.M.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes an experimentally obtained database for training of uncertainties and data interpretation in connection with local scale accidental atmospheric dispersion scenarios. Based on remote measurement techniques using lidars, sequential 'snapshots', or movies, of the fluctuating concentration, profiles during several full scale diffusion experiments have been obtained. The aim has been to establish data sets suitable for comparison and training with the real-time atmospheric dispersion models in decision support systems, such as the RODOS system under development within the CEC. (author)

  19. Productions of invisible: considerations about time and training of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dalmaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach, even though in a briefly way, the subject of invention in the training of teachers. In order to do this, we will make a brief overview on Virgínia Kastrup contributions about this issue. One of the questions is the time - through Henri Bergson’s duration concept and its using in training theme. From this point, we will try to deconstruct a view about the identity reference in contemporaneity toward to multiple and open ways of existence. In the inventive movements of the processuality, the time is considered as an expression of human being individuation. It means to last refer to an immediacy of being, of being time, which are modulable and mutant, always in a creation process. In a movement of building a body which leaves an identity reference – that is opposite of self-transformation – necessarily we report us to the relation between the idea of time as duration and the individuation principle by Gilberto Simondon. With these concepts and their possible resonance in the discussion about formative politics, we can develop a view over the invisible to training of teachers and over the learners and another ways of operating in the world. The invention as a lever direct us to a field of possibilities to conceive and experience another time (and space which is producer of subjectivity, singularities and differences.

  20. Real-time individualized training vectors for experiential learning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Matt; Tucker, Eilish Marie; Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Glickman, Matthew R.; Fabian, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Military training utilizing serious games or virtual worlds potentially generate data that can be mined to better understand how trainees learn in experiential exercises. Few data mining approaches for deployed military training games exist. Opportunities exist to collect and analyze these data, as well as to construct a full-history learner model. Outcomes discussed in the present document include results from a quasi-experimental research study on military game-based experiential learning, the deployment of an online game for training evidence collection, and results from a proof-of-concept pilot study on the development of individualized training vectors. This Lab Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project leveraged products within projects, such as Titan (Network Grand Challenge), Real-Time Feedback and Evaluation System, (America's Army Adaptive Thinking and Leadership, DARWARS Ambush! NK), and Dynamic Bayesian Networks to investigate whether machine learning capabilities could perform real-time, in-game similarity vectors of learner performance, toward adaptation of content delivery, and quantitative measurement of experiential learning.

  1. 30 CFR 48.23 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed... Surface Mines and Surface Areas of Underground Mines § 48.23 Training plans; time of submission; where... surface mine shall have an MSHA-approved plan containing programs for training new miners, training...

  2. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Betel nut (or areca) is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for ob...

  3. Time course of recovery following resistance training leading or not to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pérez, Carlos E; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; de la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; González-Badillo, Juan José; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2017-12-01

    To describe the acute and delayed time course of recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) out of the maximum possible number (P). Ten resistance-trained men undertook three RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and (3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ) exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables were assessed at seven time points (from - 12 h to + 72 h post-exercise). Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1 m s -1 mean propulsive velocity (V1) and 75% 1RM in the BP and SQ were used as mechanical indicators of neuromuscular performance. Training to muscle failure in each set [3 × 10(10)], even when compared to completing the same total exercise volume [6 × 5(10)], resulted in a significantly higher acute decline of CMJ and velocity against the V1 and 75% 1RM loads in both BP and SQ. In contrast, recovery from the 3 × 5(10) and 6 × 5(10) protocols was significantly faster between 24 and 48 h post-exercise compared to 3 × 10(10). Markers of acute (ammonia, growth hormone) and delayed (creatine kinase) fatigue showed a markedly different course of recovery between protocols, suggesting that training to failure slows down recovery up to 24-48 h post-exercise. RT leading to failure considerably increases the time needed for the recovery of neuromuscular function and metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. Avoiding failure would allow athletes to be in a better neuromuscular condition to undertake a new training session or competition in a shorter period of time.

  4. Analysis of the time in virtual training environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel GARCÍA DEL DUJO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the character of time on virtual training environments, meaning, to see whether in these environments is present or not the sense, the sensation, the notion of time; if so, it aims, secondly, to rebuilt the forms how this notion is generated and their senses on different environments, meaning, to identify the mechanisms used to generate this timing notion and the processes and transformations that are produced. we assume that, if the Network has a sense in the education field, besides being an information tool and a training space, it is also because the individuals and social groups move, coexist, have relations and communicate among them, building and destroying, creating multiple and complex identities, being all this possible only if its activity answer to timing-space traditional coordinates. The article present the data of a study conducted with a sample of 93 individuals among 20 and 30 years old. The results support the thesis of timing perception and show diverse timing mechanism in different virtual environments.

  5. ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 2002/03: TIME TO VOTE!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Each year at this time the Academic Training Committee makes a selection of possible topics for inclusion in next year's programme. But before a final decision is taken, everyone is given the opportunity to provide their input by selecting the subjects that are particularly relevant for them by filling in a questionnaire. As usual the questionnaire is divided into three sections: high energy physics, postgraduate lectures, applied physics and other topics. There is also space for making suggestions for subjects not listed and for giving comments and feedback on the programme in general. This year's questionnaire is available on the web. Please take the time to study it and choose the sets of lectures that will meet your academic training requirements from September 2002 through June 2003. THE DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION IS APRIL 26. The committee relies on you to make your carefully considered selection and to help it sustain a long standing CERN tradition of providing a high quality Academic Training Programme c...

  6. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  7. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed....3 Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method... training plan shall be filed with the District Manager for the area in which the mine is located. (c) Each...

  8. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroni, P; Pifferi, A; Torricelli, A; Spinelli, L; Danesini, G M; Cubeddu, R

    2004-01-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (<1.5 cm diameter). For cysts either a progressive increase or decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images

  9. LEISURE TIME OF TEACHERS’ TRAINING FACULTY STUDENTS IN SUBOTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lepeš

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity contributes to physical, mental and social health and improves the quality of life of people of all ages. Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are a public health problems in Serbia. The purpose of study was to collect a data from students of Teachers’ Training Faculty on Hungarian (TTFH in Subotica about behaving at their free time, focusing on physical activities and sedentary behavior.The TTFH carried out a survey to assess the leisure time habits of their students in academic year 2013/2014. This study included a total of 116 voluntary undergraduated students (male:23, female:93. The questionnaire included 31 items, distributed in 5 blocks: descriptive data (3 items, healthy habits (5 items, feeding habits (5 items, sedentary behavior (14 items and unhealthy behaviors (4 items. The anthropometric measures body mass and body height were taken using standard procedures and instruments, and accordingly, BMI (height/weight2 values were calculated. Surveyed male students reported greater participation in healthy habits than did female students, and they also spent more time with sedentary behavior, but the difference weren’t significant. Students spent little time on physical activities in their free time and a lot of time with sedentary behaviour. It has to be changed, because by time they will become teachers and if they are bad examples to children we can’t expect from the society to be healthier

  10. FLIPPED CLASSROOM TECHNOLOGY IN DISTANCE AND FULL-TIME TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Volnevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there are considered some aspects of the application of new technology of learning process «flipped classroom» formation on the basis of dynamic video lectures in full-time and distance learning. The considered technology is aimed at enhancing the value of students’ independent work, primarily — through creative approach to creation of the lecture material conspectus. Reallocation of learning hours in the direction of increasing time of practical work contributes to the development of students' skills in applying the acquired knowledge. It is presented brief information about the implementation of this technology: definition of screencast, which is actually the base for creation of dynamic video lectures, the main characteristics of the existing software designed for the implementation of training video courses.

  11. Impact of reduced working time on surgical training in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) 48 h working week has been law in European countries since 1998. A phased approach to implementation was agreed for doctors in training, which steadily brought down working hours to 58 in 2004, 56 in 2007 and 48 in 2009. Medical trainees can "opt out" to a 54 h working week but this has to be voluntary and rotas cannot be constructed that assume an opt out is taking place. A key component of the working week arrangements is that the maximum period of work for a resident doctor without rest is 13 h. Shorter sessions of work have led to complex rotas, frequent handovers with difficulties maintaining continuity of care with implications for patient safety. Although there has been over 10 years notice of the changes to the working week and progress has up to now been reasonable (helped, in part by a steady increase in consultant numbers) this latest reduction from 56 h to 48 h seems to have been the most difficult to manage. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  13. The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training effects in healthy participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.K.J.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Denissen, A.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training (NFT) was investigated in 18 healthy participants who received 15 sessions of training (eyes open), each consisting of three training periods (data are from Van Boxtel et al., 2012). Here we report on the within- and between-session training effects

  14. Supply and demand mismatch for flexible (part-time) surgical training in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rachel E; Jeeves, Amy E; Vasey, Carolyn E; Wright, Deborah M; O'Grady, Gregory

    2013-05-06

    To define current patterns of flexible (part-time) surgical training in Australasia, determine supply and demand for part-time positions, and identify work-related factors motivating interest in flexible training. All Royal Australasian College of Surgeons trainees (n = 1191) were surveyed in 2010. Questions assessed demographic characteristics and working patterns, interest in flexible training, work-related fatigue and work-life balance preferences. Interest in part-time training, and work-related factors motivating this interest. Of the 1191 trainees, 659 responded (response rate, 55.3%). Respondents were representative of all trainees in terms of specialty and sex. The median age of respondents was 32 2013s, and 187 (28.4%) were female. Most of the 659 respondents (627, 95.1%) were in full-time clinical training; only two (0.3%) were in part-time clinical training, and 30 (4.6%) were not in active clinical training. An interest in part-time training was reported by 208 respondents (31.6%; 54.3% of women v 25.9% of men; P work and limited their social or family life, and that they had insufficient time in life for things outside surgical training, including study or research (P flexible surgical training and the number of trainees currently in part-time training positions in Australia and New Zealand. Efforts are needed to facilitate part-time surgical training.

  15. The Napoleon Complex: When Shorter Men Take More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jill E P; Blaker, Nancy M; Van Vugt, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by an evolutionary psychological perspective on the Napoleon complex, we hypothesized that shorter males are more likely to show indirect aggression in resource competitions with taller males. Three studies provide support for our interpretation of the Napoleon complex. Our pilot study shows that men (but not women) keep more resources for themselves when they feel small. When paired with a taller male opponent (Study 1), shorter men keep more resources to themselves in a game in which they have all the power (dictator game) versus a game in which the opponent also has some power (ultimatum game). Furthermore, shorter men are not more likely to show direct, physical aggression toward a taller opponent (Study 2). As predicted by the Napoleon complex, we conclude that (relatively) shorter men show greater behavioral flexibility in securing resources when presented with cues that they are physically less competitive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Selection for Dutch postgraduate GP training; time for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.I.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Zuithoff, N.P.; Tromp, F.; Graaf, Y. van der; Pieters, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands we select candidates for the postgraduate GP training by assessing personal qualities in interviews. Because of differences in the ratio of number of candidates and number of vacancies between the eight departments of GP training we questioned whether the risk of being

  17. Emotion Regulation Training for Training Warfighters with Combat Related PTSD Using Real Time fMRI and EEG Assisted Neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0607 TITLE: Emotion Regulation Training for Treating Warfighters with Combat-Related PTSD Using Real-Time fMRI...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emotion Regulation Training for Treating Warfighters with Combat...emphasize dysregulation of the amygdala, which is involved in the regulation of PTSD-relevant emotions . We are utilizing real-time functional magnetic

  18. The effect of time-management training on employee attitudes and behavior: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpen, C

    1994-07-01

    This field experiment tested for the effect of time-management training on 56 employees at an Australian manufacturing company, half of whom attended a 3-day training program and half of whom did not. The training group subjects rated their management of time significantly higher after the program than did the group who did not attend the training program. The diary entries of the trained subjects over a 2-week period after the training program were also rated by three superiors as exhibiting significantly better time management than the diary entries of the untrained group. Given that subjects had been randomly assigned to the two conditions, these results suggest that appropriate training can cause employees to improve how they manage their time at work.

  19. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = -0.52, P marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r (2) = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) - 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.

  20. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  1. Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villachica, Steven W.; Stepich, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    With the current economic downturn and signs of an emerging recovery, executives are trying to determine how to best use their organizations' funds and resources. This may mean downsizing human resource departments and eliminating positions for training personnel. The authors offer five strategies drawn from the professional literature to survive…

  2. Once upon a time (training for emergency situations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Taking the pretend out of the emergency is discussed in this manual on emergency response training. The following suggestions are made: (1) plan credible emergency situations, (2) select plausible locations, (3) write scenarios, (4) tailor situations to locations, (5) involve other organizations, (6) make injuries look realistic, and (7) let employees take part

  3. Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villachica, Steven W.; Stepich, Donald A.; Rist, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The business of training and performance improvement has always been cyclical, with the fortunes of human resource development (HRD) and performance improvement professionals rising and falling with the economic fortunes of the workplace. The current economic downturn and nascent recovery represent an opportunity for HRD and performance…

  4. Training student pharmacists to administer emergency pediatric influenza vaccine: A comparison of traditional vs. just-in-time training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriff, Colleen M; McKeirnan, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    This study compared traditional training (TT) and just-in-time training (JITT) of P3 student pharmacists regarding interest, confidence, and comfort pre- and post-training (primary objective); and assessment and administration competency (secondary objective) during a simulated influenza vaccination clinic. Student pharmacists were randomized 1:1 to receive either TT or JITT, completed pre- and post-training surveys assessing interest, confidence and comfort; and evaluated on performance during a simulated emergency infant vaccination. An infant manikin simulated a child <1 year of age, and an actor role-played the mother. All students received a briefing about the simulated mass vaccination prior to their performance assessment. Survey differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA. The competency assessment was analyzed by a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for individual steps and Student t-test for mean scores. Pre-training interest was high and maintained post-training. Pre-training confidence and comfort levels were low and improved in both groups. Mean competency scores were comparable between the TT and JITT groups. Comparing groups, TT students more commonly missed proper injection site selection and care; while JITT missed distracting the infant and administration documentation. JITT for student pharmacists to learn skills required to immunize infants elicits similar outcomes (interest, confidence, comfort, and administration competency) as TT for emergency pediatric influenza vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of different time schedules in training with the Da Vinci simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldner, C; Orth, A; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Walliczek-Dworschak, U

    2017-10-01

    This prospective study analyzed the effect of different time schedules in training on the main performance outcomes: overall score, time to complete, and economy of motion. The study was performed on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 to April 2016. Forty robotic novices were randomized into two groups of 20 participants, which trained in the same three exercises but with different intervals between their training sessions. Each group performed training in Peg Board 1 in their first week, Match Board 2 in their second week, and Ring and Rail 2 in their third week. On their last day, Needle Targeting and Energy Dissection 2, for which no previous training had been received, were performed. Regarding the different training intervals, group 1 trained each exercise six times in a row once a week. Group 2 performed their training once a day for 5 days. Technical performance parameters were recorded by the Mimics simulator software for further analysis. In addition, the participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the robotics training. Group 2 performed significantly better compared to group 1 in the main metrics in the more advanced exercises. For the easier exercises, the training frequency did not lead to significant differences in performance outcome. A significant skills gain was seen between the first and last training sessions for all exercises in both groups. Performance in the final exercise NT was significantly better in group 2 than group 1. Regarding ED 2, no difference was found between the two groups. As the training of group 2 led to significantly better outcomes, we suggest that, especially for advanced exercises, it seems to be more favorable to perform training every day for a short period than to train once a week six times in a row.

  6. Training for the future NHS: training junior doctors in the United Kingdom within the 48-hour European working time directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shreelatta T; Davies, Sally J

    2014-01-01

    Since August 2009, the National Health Service of the United Kingdom has faced the challenge of delivering training for junior doctors within a 48-hour working week, as stipulated by the European Working Time Directive and legislated in the UK by the Working Time Regulations 1998. Since that time, widespread concern has been expressed about the impact of restricted duty hours on the quality of postgraduate medical training in the UK, particularly in the "craft" specialties--that is, those disciplines in which trainees develop practical skills that are best learned through direct experience with patients. At the same time, specialist training in the UK has experienced considerable change since 2007 with the introduction of competency-based specialty curricula, workplace-based assessment, and the annual review of competency progression. The challenges presented by the reduction of duty hours include increased pressure on doctors-in-training to provide service during evening and overnight hours, reduced interaction with supervisors, and reduced opportunities for learning. This paper explores these challenges and proposes potential responses with respect to the reorganization of training and service provision.

  7. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  8. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun,; Knechtle,Patrizia; Klipstein,; Rüst,Christoph Alexander; Rosemann,Thomas; Lepers,Romuald

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  9. Weekly Time Course of Neuro-Muscular Adaptation to Intensive Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Niklas; Bubeck, Dieter; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Alt, Wilfried; Schmitt, Syn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed description of the time course of muscular adaptation is rarely found in literature. Thus, models of muscular adaptation are difficult to validate since no detailed data of adaptation are available. In this article, as an initial step toward a detailed description and analysis of muscular adaptation, we provide a case report of 8 weeks of intense strength training with two active, male participants. Muscular adaptations were analyzed on a morphological level with MRI scans of the right quadriceps muscle and the calculation of muscle volume, on a voluntary strength level by isometric voluntary contractions with doublet stimulation (interpolated twitch technique) and on a non-voluntary level by resting twitch torques. Further, training volume and isokinetic power were closely monitored during the training phase. Data were analyzed weekly for 1 week prior to training, pre-training, 8 weeks of training and 2 weeks of detraining (no strength training). Results show a very individual adaptation to the intense strength training protocol. While training volume and isokinetic power increased linearly during the training phase, resting twitch parameters decreased for both participants after the first week of training and stayed below baseline until de-training. Voluntary activation level showed an increase in the first 4 weeks of training, while maximum voluntary contraction showed only little increase compared to baseline. Muscle volume increased for both subjects. Especially training status seemed to influence the acute reaction to intense strength training. Fatigue had a major influence on performance and could only be overcome by one participant. The results give a first detailed insight into muscular adaptation to intense strength training on various levels, providing a basis of data for a validation of muscle fatigue and adaptation models.

  10. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  11. Innovative real time simulation training and nuclear probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Operator errors have been an area of public concern for the safe operation of nuclear power plants since the TMI2 incident. Simply stated, nuclear plants are very complex systems and the public is skeptical of the operators' ability to comprehend and deal with the vast indications and complexities of potential nuclear power plant events. Prior to the TMI2 incident, operator errors and human factors were not included as contributing factors in the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies of nuclear power plant accidents. More recent efforts in nuclear risk assessment have addressed some of the human factors affecting safe nuclear plant operations. One study found four major factors having significant impact on operator effectiveness. This paper discusses human factor PRAs, new applications in simulation training and the specific potential benefits from simulation in promoting safer operation of future power plants as well as current operating power plants

  12. Effects of Training Structure and the Passage of Time on Trained and Derived Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Christoffer; Arntzen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Conditional discriminations established using a linear series training structure were shown in a previous study to be intact when unreinforced trials assessing such performance were presented interspersed among stimulus equivalence test trials. Experimenter-defined correct performance on these trials was seen both for participants responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence and for some participants who did not. The goal of the current study was to investigate the status of previously ...

  13. Just-In-Time eTraining Applied To Emergency Medical Services

    OpenAIRE

    Vico Vela, Francisco José; Sánchez Canteli, Vicente; Lobo Fernández, Daniel; Fernández Rodríguez, Jose David; Bandera, César; Rivas, Ramón; Rosen, M.; Schlegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    While the applications of just-in-time training are more and more spread, the ubiquitous mobile technology has not found practical uses of this training strategy. As an original example of services for healthcare, we present in this work an application of eTraining that makes use of mobile telephones to transmit medical and on-site information content to emergency medical personnel that attend and emergency. The state-of-the-art in related technologies, overall architectu...

  14. Teen worker safety training: methods used, lessons taught, and time spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2015-05-01

    Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Effects of implementing time-variable postgraduate training programmes on the organization of teaching hospital departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Tiuri R; Scheele, Fedde; Sluiter, Henk E; Paternotte, Emma; Heyligers, Ide C

    2018-01-31

    As competency-based education has gained currency in postgraduate medical education, it is acknowledged that trainees, having individual learning curves, acquire the desired competencies at different paces. To accommodate their different learning needs, time-variable curricula have been introduced making training no longer time-bound. This paradigm has many consequences and will, predictably, impact the organization of teaching hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of time-variable postgraduate education on the organization of teaching hospital departments. We undertook exploratory case studies into the effects of time-variable training on teaching departments' organization. We held semi-structured interviews with clinical teachers and managers from various hospital departments. The analysis yielded six effects: (1) time-variable training requires flexible and individual planning, (2) learners must be active and engaged, (3) accelerated learning sometimes comes at the expense of clinical expertise, (4) fast-track training for gifted learners jeopardizes the continuity of care, (5) time-variable training demands more of supervisors, and hence, they need protected time for supervision, and (6) hospital boards should support time-variable training. Implementing time-variable education affects various levels within healthcare organizations, including stakeholders not directly involved in medical education. These effects must be considered when implementing time-variable curricula.

  16. Theory, training and timing: psychosocial interventions in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, William

    2006-06-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 2004 galvanised mental health and emergency agencies in a way that no other recent disaster has done. The loss of life and forced migration focused national and international agencies on the need to provide appropriate psychosocial care from the very beginning. The prior academic arguments surrounding early intervention paled into insignificance against the urgent need to reduce distress and prevent chronic mental health problems. This chapter notes that there was a major, planned and early intervention following the earthquake in Bam, exactly one year earlier. The lessons from that are only now beginning to filter through and help shape better responses to disasters. It is argued that too many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and even IGOs are following theoretical positions that have little empirical justification. There is an urgent need for training for mental health and NGO personnel alike to deliver evidence-based psychological first aid. There is no justification for mental health responses to be delayed until weeks after a disaster happens.

  17. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  18. Timing system for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Imai, T.

    2000-01-01

    A timing system has been constructed for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at KEK-ATF. The linac accelerates 20 bunches of multi-bunch with 2.8 ns spacing. The Damping Ring stores up to 5 trains of multi-bunch. The timing system is required to provide flexible operation mode and bucket selection. A personal computer is used for manipulating the timing. The performance of kicker magnets at the injection/extruction is key issue for multi-train operation. The hardware and the test results are presented. (author)

  19. Combining similarity in time and space for training set formation under concept drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.

    2011-01-01

    Concept drift is a challenge in supervised learning for sequential data. It describes a phenomenon when the data distributions change over time. In such a case accuracy of a classifier benefits from the selective sampling for training. We develop a method for training set selection, particularly

  20. Cross-training workers in dual resource constrained systems with heterogeneous processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J. A. C.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the effect of cross-training workers in Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) systems with machines having different mean processing times. By means of queuing and simulation analysis, we show that the detrimental effects of pooling (cross-training) previously found in single

  1. Structured Feedback Training for Time-Out: Efficacy and Efficiency in Comparison to a Didactic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott A; Blumberg, Sean; Browning, Megan

    2017-09-01

    Although time-out has been demonstrated to be effective across multiple settings, little research exists on effective methods for training others to implement time-out. The present set of studies is an exploratory analysis of a structured feedback method for training time-out using repeated role-plays. The three studies examined (a) a between-subjects comparison to more a traditional didactic/video modeling method of time-out training, (b) a within-subjects comparison to traditional didactic/video modeling training for another skill, and (c) the impact of structured feedback training on in-home time-out implementation. Though findings are only preliminary and more research is needed, the structured feedback method appears across studies to be an efficient, effective method that demonstrates good maintenance of skill up to 3 months post training. Findings suggest, though do not confirm, a benefit of the structured feedback method over a more traditional didactic/video training model. Implications and further research on the method are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Shoulder Plyometric Training on Amortization Time and Upper-Extremity Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanik, Kathleen A; Thomas, Stephen J; Struminger, Aaron H; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Kelly, John D; Swanik, Charles B

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training is credited with providing benefits in performance and dynamic restraint. However, limited prospective data exist quantifying kinematic adaptations such as amortization time, glenohumeral rotation, and scapulothoracic position, which may underlie the efficacy of plyometric training for upper-extremity rehabilitation or performance enhancement. To measure upper-extremity kinematics and plyometric phase times before and after an 8-wk upper-extremity strength- and plyometric-training program. Randomized pretest-posttest design. Research laboratory. 40 recreationally active men (plyometric group, age 20.43 ± 1.40 y, height 180.00 ± 8.80 cm, weight 73.07 ± 7.21 kg; strength group, age 21.95 ± 3.40 y, height 173.98 ± 11.91 cm, weight 74.79 ± 13.55 kg). Participants were randomly assigned to either a strength-training group or a strength- and plyometric-training group. Each participant performed the assigned training for 8 wk. Dynamic and static glenohumeral and scapular-rotation measurements were taken before and after the training programs. Dynamic measurement of scapular rotation and time spent in each plyometric phase (concentric, eccentric, and amortization) during a ball-toss exercise were recorded while the subjects were fitted with an electromagnetic tracking system. Static measures included scapular upward rotation at 3 different glenohumeral-abduction angles, glenohumeral internal rotation, and glenohumeral external rotation. Posttesting showed that both groups significantly decreased the time spent in the amortization, concentric, and eccentric phases of a ball-toss exercise (P plyometric-training group exhibited an increase in internal rotation that was not present in the strength-training group (P plyometrics and strength training for reducing commonly identified upper-extremity-injury risk factors and improving upper-extremity performance.

  3. New information technologies as a means of quality improvement of part-time students’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нестеренко В. В.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways and means aimed at facilitating the quality of part-time students’ training at an institution of higher education are considered in the article. The principles the conditions facilitating quality increase of adult part-time students’ training are based on as well as criteria of their effectiveness assessment are described. The definition of the notion «distance learning» has been given. Tuition by correspondence as a special form of continuous education allowing the use of elements of distance educational technologies is examined. The role of informational technologies in correspondence form of education providing essential improvement of students’ training quality is described.

  4. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups......Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...

  5. First-line intra-arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy in unilateral sporadic group D retinoblastoma: evidence of better visual outcomes, ocular survival and shorter time to success with intra-arterial delivery from retrospective review of 20 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Francis L; Mosimann, Pascal; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina; Houghton, Susan; Bergin, Ciara; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as salvage treatment has improved the prognosis for eye conservation in group D retinoblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of consecutive patients with advanced unilateral disease treated with either first-line intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) or first-line IAC. This is a retrospective mono-centric comparative review of consecutive patients. Sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma group D cases treated conservatively at Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital and CHUV between 1997 and 2014. From January 1997 to August 2008, IVC, combined with focal treatments, was the primary treatment approach. From September 2008 to October 2014, IAC replaced IVC as first-line therapy. 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, receiving only either IAC or IVC as primary treatment modality. Outcomes of 23 patients treated by IVC were compared with those of 25 treated by IAC; mean follow-up was 105.3 months (range 29.2-218.6) and 41.7 months (range 19.6-89.5), respectively. Treatment duration was significantly shorter in the IAC group (pchemotherapy treatment. Despite this, the results reported here imply that eyes treated with first-line IAC will have shorter treatment period, better ocular survival and visual acuity than first-line IVC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Reduction in training time of a deep learning model in detection of lesions in CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkinejad, Nazanin; Tajbakhsh, Nima; Zarshenas, Amin; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Suzuki, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning (DL) emerged as a powerful tool for object detection and classification in medical images. Building a well-performing DL model, however, requires a huge number of images for training, and it takes days to train a DL model even on a cutting edge high-performance computing platform. This study is aimed at developing a method for selecting a "small" number of representative samples from a large collection of training samples to train a DL model for the could be used to detect polyps in CT colonography (CTC), without compromising the classification performance. Our proposed method for representative sample selection (RSS) consists of a K-means clustering algorithm. For the performance evaluation, we applied the proposed method to select samples for the training of a massive training artificial neural network based DL model, to be used for the classification of polyps and non-polyps in CTC. Our results show that the proposed method reduce the training time by a factor of 15, while maintaining the classification performance equivalent to the model trained using the full training set. We compare the performance using area under the receiveroperating- characteristic curve (AUC).

  7. Pitch and Time Processing in Speech and Tones: The Effects of Musical Training and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares, Anastasia G.; Foster, Nicholas E. V.; Allen, Kachina; Hyde, Krista L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in…

  8. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

  10. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1% and 15 m (+4.0% were observed (P 0.05. Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: < 0.20. Based on these results we can conclude that a traditional training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  11. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Calderón, Carmen; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Tomazin, Katja; Strumbelj, Boro; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1%) and 15 m (+4.0%) were observed (P 0.05). Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  12. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  13. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  14. A novel heterogeneous training sample selection method on space-time adaptive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2018-04-01

    The performance of ground target detection about space-time adaptive processing (STAP) decreases when non-homogeneity of clutter power is caused because of training samples contaminated by target-like signals. In order to solve this problem, a novel nonhomogeneous training sample selection method based on sample similarity is proposed, which converts the training sample selection into a convex optimization problem. Firstly, the existing deficiencies on the sample selection using generalized inner product (GIP) are analyzed. Secondly, the similarities of different training samples are obtained by calculating mean-hausdorff distance so as to reject the contaminated training samples. Thirdly, cell under test (CUT) and the residual training samples are projected into the orthogonal subspace of the target in the CUT, and mean-hausdorff distances between the projected CUT and training samples are calculated. Fourthly, the distances are sorted in order of value and the training samples which have the bigger value are selective preference to realize the reduced-dimension. Finally, simulation results with Mountain-Top data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    -related quality of life in lower New York Heart Association-stage HF patients, despite less time required as well as lower energy expenditure during TRE than during AMC. Therefore, TRE might represent a time-efficient exercise modality for improving adherence to exercise in patients with class I-II HF.......PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life...

  16. Measures of spike train synchrony for data with multiple time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satuvuori, Eero; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa; Malvestio, Irene; Zeldenrust, Fleur; Lenk, Kerstin; Kreuz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Measures of spike train synchrony are widely used in both experimental and computational neuroscience. Time-scale independent and parameter-free measures, such as the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance and SPIKE-synchronization, are preferable to time scale parametric measures, since by

  17. Simulation-based multidisciplinary team training decreases time to critical operations for trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary K; Palmer, Cameron S; Hsu, Jeremy; McCloughen, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Simulation has been promoted as a platform for training trauma teams. However, it is not clear if this training has an impact on health service delivery and patient outcomes. This study evaluates the association between implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program at a metropolitan trauma centre and subsequent patient outcomes. This was a retrospective review of trauma registry data collected at an 850-bed Level 1 Adult Trauma Centre in Sydney, Australia. Two concurrent four-year periods, before and after implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program were compared for differences in time to critical operations, Emergency Department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and patient mortality. There were 2389 major trauma patients admitted to the hospital during the study, 1116 in the four years preceding trauma team training (the PREgroup) and 1273 in the subsequent 4 years (the POST group). There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, body region injured, incidence of polytrauma, and pattern of arrival to ED. The POST group was older (median age 54 versus 43 years, p team training was associated with a reduction in time to critical operation while overall ED length of stay increased. Simulation is promoted as a platform for training teams; but the complexity of trauma care challenges efforts to demonstrate direct links between multidisciplinary team training and improved outcomes. There remain considerable gaps in knowledge as to how team training impacts health service delivery and patient outcomes. Retrospective comparative therapeutic/care management study, Level III evidence. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wireless just-in-time training of mobile skilled support personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar; Marsico, Michael; Rosen, Mitchel; Schlegel, Barry

    2006-05-01

    Skilled Support Personnel (SSP) serve emergency response organizations during an emergency incident, and include laborers, operating engineers, carpenters, ironworkers, sanitation workers and utility workers. SSP called to an emergency incident rarely have recent detailed training on the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and/or explosives (CBRNE) agents or the personal protection equipment (PPE) relevant to the incident. This increases personal risk to the SSP and mission risk at the incident site. Training for SSP has been identified as a critical need by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Worker Education and Training Program. We present a system being developed to address this SSP training shortfall by exploiting a new training paradigm called just-in-time training (JITT) made possible by advances in distance learning and cellular telephony. In addition to the current conventional training at regularly scheduled instructional events, SSP called to an emergency incident will have secure access to short (technologies and wireless service providers, integration with the incident management system, and SCORM compliance.

  19. The psychological value of time: two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad; van Hagen, M.; Vos, Martijn; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  20. The psychological value of time : two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Van Hagen, Mark; Vos, Martijn Christiaan; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  1. The optimal time of day for training during Ramadan: A review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Chtourou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature concerning the effects of Ramadan fasting on sports performance presents conflicting results. In this context, some studies reported a significant impairment of sports performance during the month of Ramadan. However, other studies suggested that Ramadan fasting has no significant effect on physical performance.  The discrepancies between the studies could be explained by time-of-day variations in testing. In this regard, recent studies reported that Ramadan negatively affects the afternoon sports performance; however, the morning and the evening (after breaking the fast performances were not affected by fasting. This suggests that the optimal time of day for training during Ramadan is the morning or the evening. Therefore, coaches should schedule the training sessions in the morning or evening during the month of Ramadan. However, further studies should investigate the effect of training at a specific time of day on sports performance during Ramadan.

  2. The Optimal Time of Day for Training during Ramadan: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Chtourou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature concerning the effects of Ramadan fasting on sports performance presents conflicting results. In this context, some studies reported a significant impairment of sports performance during the month of Ramadan. However, other studies suggested that Ramadan fasting has no significant effect on physical performance. The discrepancies between the studies could be explained by time-of-day variations in testing. In this regard, recent studies reported that Ramadan negatively affects the afternoon sports performance; however, the morning and the evening (after breaking the fast performances were not affected by fasting. This suggests that the optimal time of day for training during Ramadan is the morning or the evening. Therefore, coaches should schedule the training sessions in the morning or evening during the month of Ramadan. However, further studies should investigate the effect of training at a specific time of day on sports performance during Ramadan.

  3. Time course for arm and chest muscle thickness changes following bench press training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Riki; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Loftin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of hypertrophic adaptations in both the upper arm and trunk muscles following high-intensity bench press training. Seven previously untrained young men (aged 25 ± 3 years) performed free-weight bench press training 3 days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) per week for 24 weeks. Training intensity and volume were set at 75% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) and 30 repetitions (3 sets of 10 repetitions, with 2−3 min of rest between sets), respectively. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound at three sites: the biceps and triceps brachii and the pectoralis major. Measurements were taken a week prior to the start of training, before the training session on every Monday and 3 days after the final training session. Pairwise comparisons from baseline revealed that pectoralis major MTH significantly increased after week-1 (p = 0.002), triceps MTH increased after week-5 (p = 0.001) and 1-RM strength increased after week-3 (p = 0.001) while no changes were observed in the biceps MTH from baseline. Significant muscle hypertrophy was observed earlier in the chest compared to that of the triceps. Our results indicate that the time course of the muscle hypertrophic response differs between the upper arm and chest. PMID:24265879

  4. Can Training in a Real-Time Strategy Videogame Attenuate Cognitive Decline in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R.; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. Yet, recent research indicates that videogame training of young adults may engender broad transfer to skills of visual attention. In the current study, we used a real-time strategy videogame to attempt to train executive functions in older adults, such as working memory, task switching, short-term memory, inhibition, and reasoning. Older adults were either trained in a real-time strategy videogame for 23.5 hours (RON, n=20) or not (CONTROLS, n=20). A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuo-spatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the controls in a subset of the cognitive tasks, such as task switching, working memory, visual short term memory, and mental rotation. Trends in improvement were also observed, for the video game trainees, in inhibition and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task-switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. PMID:19140648

  5. Adaptive Changes After 2 Weeks of 10-s Sprint Interval Training With Various Recovery Times

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    Robert A. Olek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of applying two different rest recovery times in a 10-s sprint interval training session on aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as skeletal muscle enzyme activities.Methods: Fourteen physically active but not highly trained male subjects (mean maximal oxygen uptake 50.5 ± 1.0 mlO2·kg−1·min−1 participated in the study. The training protocol involved a series of 10-s sprints separated by either 1-min (SIT10:1 or 4-min (SIT10:4 of recovery. The number of sprints progressed from four to six over six sessions separated by 1–2 days rest. Pre and post intervention anthropometric measurements, assessment of aerobic, anaerobic capacity and muscle biopsy were performed. In the muscle samples maximal activities of citrate synthase (CS, 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase (HADH, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, and its mitochondrial form (mMDH, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined. Analysis of variance was performed to determine changes between conditions.Results: Maximal oxygen uptake improved significantly in both training groups, by 13.6% in SIT10:1 and 11.9% in SIT10:4, with no difference between groups. Wingate anaerobic test results indicated main effect of time for total work, peak power output and mean power output, which increased significantly and similarly in both groups. Significant differences between training groups were observed for end power output, which increased by 10.8% in SIT10:1, but remained unchanged in SIT10:4. Both training protocols induced similar increase in CS activity (main effect of time p < 0.05, but no other enzymes.Conclusion: Sprint interval training protocols induce metabolic adaptation over a short period of time, and the reduced recovery between bouts may attenuate fatigue during maximal exercise.

  6. Surgical training and the European Working Time Directive: The role of informal workplace learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, James A

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of European Working Time Directive, limiting doctors' working hours to 48 per week, has caused recent controversy within the profession. The Royal College of Surgeons of England in particular has been one of the loudest critics of the legislation. One of the main concerns is regarding the negative impact on training hours for those embarking on surgical careers. Simulation technology has been suggested as a method to overcome this reduction in hospital training hours, and research suggests that this is a good substitute for operative training in a theatre. However, modern educational theory emphasises the power of informal workplace learning in postgraduate education, and the essential role of experience in training future surgeons. Copyright 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgical Simulation Training Curriculum: Transfer Reliability and Maintenance of Skill Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and

  8. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Tufekovic, G.; Zebis, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining days...

  9. A Departure Time Choice for Morning Commute Considering Train Capacity of a Rail Transit Line

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Feng; Baohua Mao; Zhijie Chen; Yun Bai; Minggao Li

    2013-01-01

    Every commuter utilizing urban rail transit decides the departure time from home to a station according to individual judgment for the biggest possibility to board a train as soon as possible after the arrival. Therefore, the departure time choice behavior of the commuters is complicated especially when the transport capacity of this transit line cannot meet the travel demands of its users in rush hour. This research first develops a travel cost function mainly considering the travel time to ...

  10. Effects of Pelvic and Core Strength Training on High School Cross-Country Race Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anne W; Goedeke, Maggie K; Cunningham, Saengchoy R; Rockwell, Derek E; Lehecka, Bryan J; Manske, Robert C; Smith, Barbara S

    2017-08-01

    Clark, AW, Goedeke, MK, Cunningham, SR, Rockwell, DE, Lehecka, BJ, Manske, RC, and Smith, BS. Effects of pelvic and core strength training on high school cross-country race times. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2289-2295, 2017-There is only limited research examining the effect of pelvic and core strength training on running performance. Pelvic and core muscle fatigue is believed to contribute to excess motion along frontal and transverse planes which decreases efficiency in normal sagittal plane running motions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program resulted in decreased race times in high school cross-country runners. Thirty-five high school cross-country runners (14-19 years old) from 2 high schools were randomly assigned to a strengthening group (experimental) or a nonstrengthening group (control). All participants completed 4 standardized isometric strength tests for hip abductors, adductors, extensors, and core musculature in a test-retest design. The experimental group performed a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program along with their normal training. Participants in the control group performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Baseline, 3-week, and 6-week race times were collected using a repeated measures design. No significant interaction between experimental and control groups regarding decreasing race times and increasing pelvic and core musculature strength occurred over the 6-week study period. Both groups increased strength and decreased overall race times. Clinically significant findings reveal a 6-week pelvic and core stability strengthening program 3 times a week in addition to coach led team training may help decrease race times.

  11. Just-in-Time Training: A Novel Approach to Quality Improvement Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allison; Park, Nesha D; Smith, Denise; Tracy, Kelly; Reed, Danielle J W; Olsen, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Just-in-time training (JITT) is accepted in medical education as a training method for newer concepts or seldom-performed procedures. Providing JITT to a large nursing staff may be an effective method to teach quality improvement (QI) initiatives. We sought to determine if JITT could increase knowledge of a specific nutrition QI initiative. Members of the nutrition QI team interviewed staff using the Frontline Contextual Inquiry to assess knowledge regarding the specific QI project. The inquiry was completed pre- and post-JITT. A JITT educational cart was created, which allowed trainers to bring the educational information to the bedside for a short, small group educational session. The results demonstrated a marked improvement in the knowledge of the frontline staff regarding our Vermont Oxford Network involvement and the specifics of the nutrition QI project. Just-in-time training can be a valuable and effective method to disseminate QI principles to a large audience of staff members.

  12. Predictors of race time in male Ironman triathletes: physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience were related to performance in recreational male Ironman triathletes using bi- and multivariate analysis. 83 male recreational triathletes who volunteered to participate in the study (M age 41.5 yr., SD = 8.9) had a mean body height of 1.80 m (SD = 0.06), mean body mass of 77.3 kg (SD = 8.9), and mean Body Mass Index of 23.7 kg/m2 (SD = 2.1) at the 2009 IRONMAN SWITZERLAND competition. Speed in running during training, personal best marathon time, and personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon were related to the Ironman race time. These three variables explained 64% of the variance in Ironman race time. Personal best marathon time was significantly and positively related to the run split time in the Ironman race. Faster running while training and both a fast personal best time in a marathon and in an Olympic distance triathlon were associated with a fast Ironman race time.

  13. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Steib, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular training effects on functional, dynamic and static balance measures. Thirty youth (14.9 ± 3 years) field hockey athletes were randomised to an intervention or control group. The intervention included a 20-min neuromuscular warm-up program performed twice weekly for 10 weeks. Balance assessments were performed at baseline, week three, week six and post-intervention. They included the star excursion balance test (SEBT), balance error scoring system (BESS), jump-landing time to stabilization (TTS) and center of pressure (COP) sway velocity during single-leg standing. No baseline differences were found between groups in demographic data and balance measures. Adherence was at 86%. All balance measures except the medial-lateral TTS improved significantly over time (p controls (31.8 ± 22.1%). There were no significant group by time interactions in the SEBT, TTS and COP sway velocity. Neuromuscular training was effective in improving postural control in youth team athletes. However, this effect was not reflected in all balance measures suggesting that the neuromuscular training did not influence all dimensions of postural control. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of specific warm-up programs to improve postural control.

  14. Exercise training can improve spatial characteristics of time-critical obstacle avoidance in elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fall prevention programs have rarely been evaluated by quantitative movement analysis methods. Quantitative movement analyses could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the effects of training. A treadmill obstacle avoidance task under time pressure has recently been used to evaluate a

  15. Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okazaki, Y.O.; Horschig, J.; Luther, L.M.; Oostenveld, R.; Murakami, I.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes

  16. Reaction time to changes in the tempo of acoustic pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. P.; Warm, J. S.; Westendorf, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the ability of human observers to detect accelerations and decelerations in the rate of presentation of pulsed stimuli, i.e., changes in the tempo of acoustic pulse trains. Response times to accelerations in tempo were faster than to decelerations. Overall speed of response was inversely related to the pulse repetition rate.

  17. Online versus Face-to-Face Training of Critical Time Intervention: A Matching Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivet, Jeffrey; Zerger, Suzanne; Greene, R. Neil; Kenney, Rachael R.; Herman, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of online education to providers who serve people experiencing homelessness, comparing online and face-to-face training of Critical Time Intervention (CTI), an evidence-based case management model. The authors recruited 184 staff from nineteen homeless service agencies to participate in one of two training…

  18. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...

  19. Training efficiency and transfer success in an extended real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor eAuer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somato-motor cortices (SMC attained by an extended functional MRI (fMRI neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line GLM analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the somato-motor cortex (SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e. the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the feedback signal. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the feedback performance showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left and right hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right hand trainings.

  20. IMPROVED MOTOR-TIMING: EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZED METRO-NOME TRAINING ON GOLF SHOT ACCURACY

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    Louise Rönnqvist

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6 in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy. However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study's results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy

  1. Optimization of time distribution for studying the course modules on advanced training of health care administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorovskaya A.l.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is rational (optimal time management in studying the course modules on Advanced Training of Health Care Administrators. Materials and methods. We conducted expert survey of 73 healthcare administrators from medical organizations of Saratov region. Branch-and-bound method was used for rescheduling the educational program. Results. Both direct and inverse problems have been solved. The direct one refers to time distribution for each module of the advanced Training of Healthcare Administrators course so that the total score is maximum and each module is marked not lower than "satisfactory". The inverse one resulted in achieving minimal time characteristics for varieties of average score. Conclusion. The offered approach allows to solve problems of managing time given for education.

  2. Effects of neuromuscular training on the reaction time and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Christena W; Hopkins, J Ty; Schulthies, Shane S; Freland, Brent; Draper, David O; Hunter, Iain

    2006-03-01

    To examine the influence of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on the electromechanical delay and reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle. A 2 x 2 pre-post factorial design. Human performance research center biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-six healthy, physically active, college-age subjects were recruited for this study and 26 completed it. There were 5 men and 8 women in the treatment group (mean age +/- standard deviation, 21.9+/-2.1 y; height, 173.7+/-11.1cm; weight, 67.4+/-17.8 kg) and 6 men and 7 women in the control group (age, 21.8+/-2.3 y; height, 173.7+/-11.9 cm; weight, 70.8+/-19.4 kg). Subjects were not currently experiencing any lower-extremity pathology and had no history of injuries requiring treatment to either lower extremity. Subjects in the treatment group completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program involving various therapeutic exercises. Subjects in the control group were asked to continue their normal physical activity during the 6-week period. The electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus was determined by the onset of force contribution after artificial activation, as measured by electromyographic and forceplate data. Reaction time was measured after a perturbation during walking. Data were analyzed using two 2 x 2 analyses of covariance (covariate pretest score). Group (treatment, control) and sex (male, female) were between-subject factors. Neuromuscular training caused a decrease in reaction time to perturbation during walking compared with controls (F=4.030, P=.029), while there was a trend toward an increase in electromechanical delay (F=4.227, P=.052). There was no significant difference between sexes or the interaction of sex and treatment in either reaction time or electromechanical delay. The 6-week training program significantly reduced reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle in healthy subjects. Neuromuscular training may have a beneficial effect on improving dynamic restraint during activity.

  3. Effect of the time-of-day of training on explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, F F; Albuquerque, F S

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown a time-of-day of training effect on long-term explicit memory with a greater effect being shown in the afternoon than in the morning. However, these studies did not control the chronotype variable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess if the time-of-day effect on explicit memory would continue if this variable were controlled, in addition to identifying the occurrence of a possible synchronic effect. A total of 68 undergraduates were classified as morning, intermediate, or afternoon types. The subjects listened to a list of 10 words during the training phase and immediately performed a recognition task, a procedure which they repeated twice. One week later, they underwent an unannounced recognition test. The target list and the distractor words were the same in all series. The subjects were allocated to two groups according to acquisition time: a morning group (N = 32), and an afternoon group (N = 36). One week later, some of the subjects in each of these groups were subjected to a test in the morning (N = 35) or in the afternoon (N = 33). The groups had similar chronotypes. Long-term explicit memory performance was not affected by test time-of-day or by chronotype. However, there was a training time-of-day effect [F (1,56) = 53.667; P = 0.009] with better performance for those who trained in the afternoon. Our data indicated that the advantage of training in the afternoon for long-term memory performance does not depend on chronotype and also that this performance is not affected by the synchronic effect.

  4. Effect of the time-of-day of training on explicit memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Barbosa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown a time-of-day of training effect on long-term explicit memory with a greater effect being shown in the afternoon than in the morning. However, these studies did not control the chronotype variable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess if the time-of-day effect on explicit memory would continue if this variable were controlled, in addition to identifying the occurrence of a possible synchronic effect. A total of 68 undergraduates were classified as morning, intermediate, or afternoon types. The subjects listened to a list of 10 words during the training phase and immediately performed a recognition task, a procedure which they repeated twice. One week later, they underwent an unannounced recognition test. The target list and the distractor words were the same in all series. The subjects were allocated to two groups according to acquisition time: a morning group (N = 32, and an afternoon group (N = 36. One week later, some of the subjects in each of these groups were subjected to a test in the morning (N = 35 or in the afternoon (N = 33. The groups had similar chronotypes. Long-term explicit memory performance was not affected by test time-of-day or by chronotype. However, there was a training time-of-day effect [F (1,56 = 53.667; P = 0.009] with better performance for those who trained in the afternoon. Our data indicated that the advantage of training in the afternoon for long-term memory performance does not depend on chronotype and also that this performance is not affected by the synchronic effect.

  5. Diagnostic instrumentation aboard ISS: just-in-time training for non-physician crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foale, C. Michael; Kaleri, Alexander Y.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed "just-in-time" training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This "just-in-time" concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete ultrasound examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). METHODS: An American and Russian ISS crewmember received 2 h of "hands on" ultrasound training 8 mo prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember 6 d prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. RESULTS: Results of the CD-ROM-based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35-min real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were adequate for clinical decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited preflight training and multimedia based in-flight review, despite a 2-s communication latency. In-flight application of multimedia proficiency enhancement software, coupled with real-time remote expert guidance, facilitates the successful performance of ultrasound examinations on orbit and may have additional terrestrial and space applications.

  6. Timing of return from altitude training for optimal sea level performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Laymon Stickford, Abigail S; Lundby, Carsten; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-04-01

    While a number of published studies exist to guide endurance athletes with the best practices regarding implementation of altitude training, a key unanswered question concerns the proper timing of return to sea level prior to major competitions. Evidence reviewed here suggests that, altogether, the deacclimatization responses of hematological, ventilatory, and biomechanical factors with return to sea level likely interact to determine the best timing for competitive performance.

  7. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson's disease

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    Charles-Etienne eBenoit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD. Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor and sensorimotor integration, auditory cueing can be expected to affect both motor and perceptual timing. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing perceptual and motor timing in 15 IPD patients before and after a four-week music training program with rhythmic auditory cueing. Long-term effects were assessed one month after the end of the training. Perceptual and motor timing was evaluated with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA and compared to that of age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Prior to training, IPD patients exhibited impaired perceptual and motor timing. Training improved patients’ performance in tasks requiring synchronization with isochronous sequences, and enhanced their ability to adapt to durational changes in a sequence in hand tapping tasks. Benefits of cueing extended to time perception (duration discrimination and detection of misaligned beats in musical excerpts. The current results demonstrate that auditory cueing leads to benefits beyond gait and support the idea that coupling gait to rhythmic auditory cues in IPD patients relies on a neuronal network engaged in both perceptual and motor timing.

  8. The role of musical training in emergent and event-based timing

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    Lawrence eBaer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical performance is thought to rely predominantly on event-based timing involving a clock-like neural process and an explicit internal representation of the time interval. Some aspects of musical performance may rely on emergent timing, which is established through the optimization of movement kinematics, and can be maintained without reference to any explicit representation of the time interval. We predicted that musical training would have its largest effect on event-based timing, supporting the dissociability of these timing processes and the dominance of event-based timing in musical performance. We compared 22 musicians and 17 non-musicians on the prototypical event-based timing task of finger tapping and on the typically emergently timed task of circle drawing. For each task, participants first responded in synchrony with a metronome (Paced and then responded at the same rate without the metronome (Unpaced. Analyses of the Unpaced phase revealed that non-musicians were more variable in their inter-response intervals for finger tapping compared to circle drawing. Musicians did not differ between the two tasks. Between groups, non-musicians were more variable than musicians for tapping but not for drawing. We were able to show that the differences were due to less timer variability in musicians on the tapping task. Correlational analyses of movement jerk and inter-response interval variability revealed a negative association for tapping and a positive association for drawing in non-musicians only. These results suggest that musical training affects temporal variability in tapping but not drawing. Additionally, musicians and non-musicians may be employing different movement strategies to maintain accurate timing in the two tasks. These findings add to our understanding of how musical training affects timing and support the dissociability of event-based and emergent timing modes.

  9. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  10. Differences by Ending Rounds and Other Rounds in Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts: Implications for Assessment and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Brito, Ciro J; Moreira, Danilo G; Amtmann, John

    2018-02-01

    Miarka, B, Brito, CJ, Moreira, DG, and Amtmann, J. Differences by ending rounds and other rounds in time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 534-544, 2018-This study aimed to support training program development through the comparison of performance analysis of professionals mixed martial art (MMA) athletes in the bouts that were not finished by points. Using digital recordings of each bout, we analyzed 1,564 rounds (678 bouts) which were separated by ending and other rounds. Our results indicated that knockout/technical knockout is the main outcome that defines the ending round (≈60%); however, there is a higher frequency of ending by submission on the first and second rounds (>30%). Bouts ending during the first or second rounds had shorter total time and standing combat with low intensity than ending in the third round (91.5 ± 71.4, 93.4 ± 67.5, and 143.2 ± 87.4; for low intensity in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively; p ≤ 0.05), whereas standing combat time with high intensity was longer in the last round in comparison to bouts that finished in the first or second rounds (7.4 ± 9.2, 9.7 ± 18.0, and 17.7 ± 29.1 for high intensity in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The lower time dedicated to low-intensity stand-up combat actions, regardless of round, and forcefulness of the actions in groundwork in the first and second rounds seem to be elements that increase the probability of success in professional MMA bouts; these factors have essential implications related to training program design.

  11. Neurogenomic signatures of spatiotemporal memories in time-trained forager honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, Nicholas L.; Van Nest, Byron N.; Johnson, Jennifer N.; Boyd, Sam D.; Southey, Bruce R.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Moore, Darrell; Robinson, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    Honey bees can form distinct spatiotemporal memories that allow them to return repeatedly to different food sources at different times of day. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that different behavioral states are associated with different profiles of brain gene expression, it is not known whether this relationship extends to states that are as dynamic and specific as those associated with foraging-related spatiotemporal memories. We tested this hypothesis by training different groups of foragers from the same colony to collect sucrose solution from one of two artificial feeders; each feeder was in a different location and had sucrose available at a different time, either in the morning or afternoon. Bees from both training groups were collected at both the morning and afternoon training times to result in one set of bees that was undergoing stereotypical food anticipatory behavior and another that was inactive for each time of day. Between the two groups with the different spatiotemporal memories, microarray analysis revealed that 1329 genes were differentially expressed in the brains of honey bees. Many of these genes also varied with time of day, time of training or state of food anticipation. Some of these genes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, including metabolism and behavior. These results indicate that distinct spatiotemporal foraging memories in honey bees are associated with distinct neurogenomic signatures, and the decomposition of these signatures into sets of genes that are also influenced by time or activity state hints at the modular composition of this complex neurogenomic phenotype. PMID:21346126

  12. Food hygiene training in the UK: time for a radical re-think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAuslan, E

    2001-12-01

    Training food handlers in the hospitality industry has been recommended by various organisations as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food for consumers. It is nearly 20 years since the first examinations for basic level food hygiene certificates were made available to food handlers in the UK. Since then little has changed in the syllabuses and in the way the questions are worded. However, the range of languages spoken by food handlers working in the UK has increased substantially since more employers are recruiting those who speak English as a second language. Training can be an unwelcome expense for managers where there is a high turnover of employees, especially amongst those for whom English is not a first language. To improve practical implementation of food hygiene theory it is time to develop a radical strategy concerning the way training is targeted and delivered in the UK, and perhaps Europe.

  13. Improvement of training set structure in fusion data cleaning using Time-Domain Global Similarity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Lan, T.; Qin, H.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional data cleaning identifies dirty data by classifying original data sequences, which is a class-imbalanced problem since the proportion of incorrect data is much less than the proportion of correct ones for most diagnostic systems in Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) devices. When using machine learning algorithms to classify diagnostic data based on class-imbalanced training set, most classifiers are biased towards the major class and show very poor classification rates on the minor class. By transforming the direct classification problem about original data sequences into a classification problem about the physical similarity between data sequences, the class-balanced effect of Time-Domain Global Similarity (TDGS) method on training set structure is investigated in this paper. Meanwhile, the impact of improved training set structure on data cleaning performance of TDGS method is demonstrated with an application example in EAST POlarimetry-INTerferometry (POINT) system.

  14. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  15. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  16. Just-in-time training of dental responders in a simulated pandemic immunization response exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Michael D; Hirst, Jeremy L; Vesper, Benjamin J; DeTella, George E; Tsagalis, Mila P; Roberg, Mary J; Peters, David E; Wallace, Jimmy D; James, James J

    2014-06-01

    The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act in 2013 incorporated the dental profession and dental professionals into the federal legislation governing public health response to pandemics and all-hazard situations. Work is now necessary to expand the processes needed to incorporate and train oral health care professionals into pandemic and all-hazard response events. A just-in-time (JIT) training exercise and immunization drill using an ex vivo porcine model system was conducted to demonstrate the rapidity to which dental professionals can respond to a pandemic influenza scenario. Medical history documentation, vaccination procedures, and patient throughput and error rates of 15 dental responders were evaluated by trained nursing staff and emergency response personnel. The average throughput (22.33/hr) and medical error rates (7 of 335; 2.08%) of the dental responders were similar to those found in analogous influenza mass vaccination clinics previously conducted using certified public health nurses. The dental responder immunization drill validated the capacity and capability of dental professionals to function as a valuable immunization resource. The ex vivo porcine model system used for JIT training can serve as a simple and inexpensive training tool to update pandemic responders' immunization techniques and procedures supporting inoculation protocols.

  17. European Working Time Directive: Implementation across -Europe and consequences upon training in obstetrics and -gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärgmäe, P; Martins, N; Rodríguez, D; Christopoulos, P; Werner, H M J

    2011-01-01

    To review the compliance of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) in different teaching hospitals across Europe and its consequences upon training. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The sample is constituted by the answers from trainees selected by the representatives of 29 European Network of Trainees in Ob/Gyn (ENTOG) member countries to a survey designed by ENTOG Executive. The survey content was based on a joint survey by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and the Royal College for Paediatrics (RCP), carried out in 2008, but adapted for use on a European level. An answer rate of 75% was obtained. Only 5 countries out of 29 were compliant with EWTD two months before the compulsory adherence. Countries needed to introduce 1 to 4 changes to the system to make the rotas -compliant. Positive effect on work and private life balance was noticed in 87% from all responses. Trainees notice the need to further improve training programmes in order to have the same quality of training and continuous care of patients. Steps forward to implement EWTD are being made. Trainees should be involved with the introduction to optimize training conditions under the EWTD. Countries that still struggle to introduce the directive may learn from countries that already are compliant. It is suggested to organize a survey on senior society level to gain additional information to further investigate the effects on training quality and patient care.

  18. Can Tai Chi training impact fractal stride time dynamics, an index of gait health, in older adults? Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Gow

    Full Text Available To determine if Tai Chi (TC has an impact on long-range correlations and fractal-like scaling in gait stride time dynamics, previously shown to be associated with aging, neurodegenerative disease, and fall risk.Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, this study evaluated the impact of TC mind-body exercise training on stride time dynamics assessed during 10 minute bouts of overground walking. A hybrid study design investigated long-term effects of TC via a cross-sectional comparison of 27 TC experts (24.5 ± 11.8 yrs experience and 60 age- and gender matched TC-naïve older adults (50-70 yrs. Shorter-term effects of TC were assessed by randomly allocating TC-naïve participants to either 6 months of TC training or to a waitlist control. The alpha (α long-range scaling coefficient derived from DFA and gait speed were evaluated as outcomes.Cross-sectional comparisons using confounder adjusted linear models suggest that TC experts exhibited significantly greater long-range scaling of gait stride time dynamics compared with TC-naïve adults. Longitudinal random-slopes with shared baseline models accounting for multiple confounders suggest that the effects of shorter-term TC training on gait dynamics were not statistically significant, but trended in the same direction as longer-term effects although effect sizes were very small. In contrast, gait speed was unaffected in both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons.These preliminary findings suggest that fractal-like measures of gait health may be sufficiently precise to capture the positive effects of exercise in the form of Tai Chi, thus warranting further investigation. These results motivate larger and longer-duration trials, in both healthy and health-challenged populations, to further evaluate the potential of Tai Chi to restore age-related declines in gait dynamics.The randomized trial component of this study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01340365.

  19. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  20. An investigation into how the European Working Time Directive has affected anaesthetic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowhay Andrew R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Working Time Directive (EWTD became law in 1993 but only applied to doctors in training in the United Kingdom in 2004. The trainees have in consequence had a reduction in their working hours but also a change to a shift pattern of working. For craft specialities, such as anaesthesia, there are concerns that a reduction in working hours has also led to a reduction in the time available for learning and that ultimately this may affect patient care. However, there is scant research on the perceptions of trainees concerning the impact of the EWTD on their training and working lives. This study investigated what the anaesthetic Specialist Registrars (SpRs on the Mersey Deanery SpR rotation perceived to be training and also what effect the EWTD has had on that training and their quality of life, both within and outside work. Methods The project was a cross sectional survey, using a quantitative questionnaire with qualitative free text comments which were aggregated into overarching themes and sub themes. Results 117 SpRs were sent questionnaires in April 2005; 73 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 62.4%. Hierarchies of training opportunities emerged with training by consultants being most valued. 71.8% (95% CI 60.7 – 81.3 of trainees believed the EWTD has had a deleterious effect on their training and experience and 74.3% (95% CI 63.2 – 83.4 thought that they will be less prepared for a consultant post. 69.9% (95% CI 58.7 – 79.5 considered that their quality of life outside work had deteriorated, with only 15% (95% CI 8.3 – 24.6 finding improvement. 38.6% (95% CI 27.8 – 50.3 felt that they were not functioning as well as doctors, only 14.3% (95% CI 7.6 – 23.9 noting improvement. The trainees were still positive about anaesthesia and 73.2% (95% CI 62.2 – 82.5 would recommend this specialty to a student. Conclusion The majority of anaesthetic SpRs in the Mersey Deanery have not welcomed

  1. An investigation into how the European Working Time Directive has affected anaesthetic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowhay, Andrew R

    2008-08-12

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) became law in 1993 but only applied to doctors in training in the United Kingdom in 2004. The trainees have in consequence had a reduction in their working hours but also a change to a shift pattern of working. For craft specialities, such as anaesthesia, there are concerns that a reduction in working hours has also led to a reduction in the time available for learning and that ultimately this may affect patient care. However, there is scant research on the perceptions of trainees concerning the impact of the EWTD on their training and working lives. This study investigated what the anaesthetic Specialist Registrars (SpRs) on the Mersey Deanery SpR rotation perceived to be training and also what effect the EWTD has had on that training and their quality of life, both within and outside work. The project was a cross sectional survey, using a quantitative questionnaire with qualitative free text comments which were aggregated into overarching themes and sub themes. 117 SpRs were sent questionnaires in April 2005; 73 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 62.4%). Hierarchies of training opportunities emerged with training by consultants being most valued. 71.8% (95% CI 60.7-81.3) of trainees believed the EWTD has had a deleterious effect on their training and experience and 74.3% (95% CI 63.2-83.4) thought that they will be less prepared for a consultant post. 69.9% (95% CI 58.7-79.5) considered that their quality of life outside work had deteriorated, with only 15% (95% CI 8.3-24.6) finding improvement. 38.6% (95% CI 27.8-50.3) felt that they were not functioning as well as doctors, only 14.3% (95% CI 7.6-23.9) noting improvement. The trainees were still positive about anaesthesia and 73.2% (95% CI 62.2-82.5) would recommend this specialty to a student. The majority of anaesthetic SpRs in the Mersey Deanery have not welcomed the changes brought by the EWTD to their training, experience and quality of life

  2. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  3. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-12-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults in a real-time strategy video game for 23.5 hr in an effort to improve their executive functions. A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuospatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video-game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in executive control functions, such as task switching, working memory, visual short-term memory, and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of three just-in-time training modalities for N-95 mask fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Stoler, Genevieve; Suyama, Joe

    2013-01-01

    To compare and contrast three different training modalities for fit testing N-95 respirator face masks. Block randomized interventional study. Urban university. Two hundred eighty-nine medical students. Students were randomly assigned to video, lecture, or slide show to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods for fit testing large groups of people. Ease of fit and success of fit for each instructional technique. Mask 1 was a Kimberly-Clark duckbill N-95 respirator mask, and mask 2 was a 3M™ carpenters N-95 respirator mask. "Ease of fit" was defined as the ability to successfully don a mask in less than 30 seconds. "Success of fit" was defined as the ability to correctly don a mask in one try. There were no statistical differences by training modality for either mask regarding ease of fit or success of fit. There were no differences among video presentation, small group demonstration, and self-directed slide show just-in-time training modalities for ease of fit or success of fit N-95 respirator mask fitting. Further study is needed to explore more effective fit training modalities.

  5. [How timely are the methods taught in psychotherapy training and practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Subic-Wrana, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Even though many psychotherapists consider themselves to be eclectic or integrative, training and reimbursement in the modern healthcare system are clearly oriented toward the model of distinct psychotherapy approaches. Prompted by the proposition to favor general, disorder-oriented psychotherapy, we investigate how timely distinctive methods are that are taught in training and practice. We reviewed the pertinent literature regarding general and specific factors, the effectiveness of integrative and eclectic treatments, orientation toward specific disorders, manualization and psychotherapeutic training. There is a lack of systematic studies on the efficacy of combining therapy methods from different approaches. The first empirical findings reveal that a superiority of combined versus single treatmentmethods has yet to be demonstrated. The development of transnosological manuals shows the limits of disorder-specific treatment.General factors such as therapeutic alliance or education about the model of disease and treatment rationale require specific definitions. Taking reference to a specific treatment approach provides important consistency of theory, training therapy and supervision, though this does not preclude an openness toward other therapy concepts. Current manualized examples show that methods and techniques can indeed be integrated from other approaches. Integrating different methods can also be seen as a developmental task for practitioners and researchers which may be mastered increasingly better with more experience.

  6. The need for time management training is universal: evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Adnan; Ersoy, Korkut

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, healthcare administrators are currently facing challenges that are representative of those in the United States. Most healthcare administrators here are physicians with no formal training in healthcare administration, and this is perhaps most apparent in their difficulties with time management. The authors' purpose in this study was to characterize the time management difficulties of administrators working in primary healthcare facilities of the Ministry of Healthcare. In the study, 67 healthcare administrators each completed a 31-item time management questionnaire. Of the participants, 79.1% reported that they have never attended time management courses or workshops. Although 76.1% said they were free to choose the priority of their daily tasks, only 44.8% felt they knew how much time they should allow for each activity in their daily life. These and other findings in the study suggest that the need for time management education is a well-defined target for intervention, both in university-based programs for future healthcare administrators and in workplace-based programs, such as in-service training for healthcare administrators who are already working.

  7. Teaching Splinting Techniques Using a Just-in-Time Training Instructional Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Deborah R; Wang, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Splinting is a multistep procedure that is seldom performed by primary care physicians. Just-in-time training (JITT) is an emerging teaching modality and can be an invaluable asset for infrequently performed procedures or in locations where teaching resources and trained professionals are limited. Our objective was to determine the utility of JITT for teaching medical students the short-arm (SA) volar splinting technique. This was a prospective randomized controlled pilot study. An instructional video on SA volar splinting was produced. Students viewed the video or had access to standard medical textbooks (control group) immediately before applying an SA volar splint. The students were assessed for the quality of the splint via a standard 6-point skills checklist. The times required for presplinting preparation and for completion of the splint were also measured. Just-in-time training group students scored higher on the splint checklist (mean [SD], 5.45 [1.06]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.99-5.92 vs mean [SD], 1.58 [1.12]; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P < 0.0001), had higher pass rates (73%; 95% CI, 53%-93% vs 0%; P < 0.0001), and required less time (minutes) for presplinting preparation (mean [SD], 7.86 [2.45]; 95% CI, 6.78-8.94 vs mean [SD], 9.89 [0.46]; 95% CI, 9.67-10.12; P < 0.0001) compared with the control group. No difference was seen in the time required to complete a splint, successful or not. In comparison with reading standard textbooks, watching a brief JITT instructional video before splinting yielded faster learning times combined with more successful procedural skills. The use of a JITT instructional video may have potential applications, including globally, as an alternative resource for teaching and disseminating procedural skills, such as SA volar splinting.

  8. Training and evaluation of neural networks for multi-variate time series processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Torben L.; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1995-01-01

    We study the training and generalization for multi-variate time series processing. It is suggested to used a quasi-maximum likelihood approach rather than the standard sum of squared errors, thus taking dependencies among the errors of the individual time series into account. This may lead...... to improved generalization performance. Further, we extend the optimal brain damage pruning technique to the multi-variate case. A key ingredient is an algebraic expression for the generalization ability of a multi-variate model. The variability of the suggested techniques are successfully demonstrated...

  9. Feasibility of a shorter Goal Attainment Scaling method for a pediatric spasticity clinic - The 3-milestones GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, A; Pauly, F; Hiebel, J; Godon, S; Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Chevignard, M

    2017-07-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method for writing personalized evaluation scales to quantify progress toward defined goals. It is useful in rehabilitation but is hampered by the experience required to adequately "predict" the possible outcomes relating to a particular goal before treatment and the time needed to describe all 5 levels of the scale. Here we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using GAS in a clinical setting of a pediatric spasticity clinic with a shorter method, the "3-milestones" GAS (goal setting with 3 levels and goal rating with the classical 5 levels). Secondary aims were to (1) analyze the types of goals children's therapists set for botulinum toxin treatment and (2) compare the score distribution (and therefore the ability to predict outcome) by goal type. Therapists were trained in GAS writing and prepared GAS scales in the regional spasticity-management clinic they attended with their patients and families. The study included all GAS scales written during a 2-year period. GAS score distribution across the 5 GAS levels was examined to assess whether the therapist could reliably predict outcome and whether the 3-milestones GAS yielded similar distributions as the original GAS method. In total, 541 GAS scales were written and showed the expected score distribution. Most scales (55%) referred to movement quality goals and fewer (29%) to family goals and activity domains. The 3-milestones GAS method was feasible within the time constraints of the spasticity clinic and could be used by local therapists in cooperation with the hospital team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Motion perception and driving: predicting performance through testing and shortening braking reaction times through training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Luke; Gray, Rob; Gaska, James; Winterbottom, Marc

    2013-12-30

    A driving simulator was used to examine the relationship between motion perception and driving performance. Although motion perception test scores have been shown to be related to driving safety, it is not clear which combination of tests are the best predictors and whether motion perception training can improve driving performance. In experiment 1, 60 younger drivers (22.4 ± 2.5 years) completed three motion perception tests (2-dimensional [2D] motion-defined letter [MDL] identification, 3D motion in depth sensitivity [MID], and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]) followed by two driving tests (emergency braking [EB] and hazard perception [HP]). In experiment 2, 20 drivers (21.6 ± 2.1 years) completed 6 weeks of motion perception training (using the MDL, MID, and DVA tests), while 20 control drivers (22.0 ± 2.7 years) completed an online driving safety course. The EB performance was measured before and after training. In experiment 1, MDL (r = 0.34) and MID (r = 0.46) significantly correlated with EB score. The change in DVA score as a function of target speed (i.e., "velocity susceptibility") was correlated most strongly with HP score (r = -0.61). In experiment 2, the motion perception training group had a significant decrease in brake reaction time on the EB test from pre- to posttreatment, while there was no significant change for the control group: t(38) = 2.24, P = 0.03. Tests of 3D motion perception are the best predictor of EB, while DVA velocity susceptibility is the best predictor of hazard perception. Motion perception training appears to result in faster braking responses.

  11. Hereditary angioedema attacks resolve faster and are shorter after early icatibant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. METHODS: The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009-February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. RESULTS: Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥ 1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]. Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥ 2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001] and <5 hours versus ≥ 5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]. Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]. Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. CONCLUSION: Early blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution.

  12. Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

    2013-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter?

  13.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Barandun U; Knechtle B; Knechtle P; Klipstein A; Rust CA; Rosemann T; Lepers R

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  14. Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

  15. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  16. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Glass

    Full Text Available Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  17. Sipa, a real time system for post-accident training and studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, J.; Poizat, F.

    1990-06-01

    The SIPA simulator, now under development, is designed to study in real time PWR behaviour under normal and accidental conditions. The commissioning of the version for EDF, called SIPA 1, and of the CEA version called SIPA 2 is planned in 1991. Its objectives are Shift Safety Advisors training, studies and safety analysis. Its software workshop will allow flexibility and portability. Most of the models are developed using code generators. The primary circuit is described by CATHARE-SIMU, a speeded-up version of the French advanced code CATHARE. It will be completed by about 35 connected systems developed by THOMSON-CSF and SEMA-GROUP. The computational power will be supplied by a CRAY processor that will be linked to a training network and an engineering network constituted of some independent workstations

  18. New Clinical Faculty Training Program: Transforming Practicing Dentists into Part-Time Dental Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brooke N; Kirkup, Michele L; Willis, Lisa H; Reifeis, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    At Indiana University School of Dentistry, a New Clinical Faculty Training (NCFT) program was created with the primary goals of informing new part-time faculty members of clinical policies and assessment guidelines and thus developing qualified and satisfied faculty members. The aim of this study was to determine if participation in the training program improved the participants' satisfaction and competence in comparison to their colleagues who did not participate in the program. Two cohorts were compared: a control group of part-time faculty members who did not receive formal training when they were hired (n=21; response rate 58.3%); and the intervention group, who had participated in the NCFT program (n=12; response rate 80%). A survey of faculty members in the control group gathered information on their experiences when initially hired, and a pretest was administered to measure their knowledge of clinical policies. After the control group was given an overview of the program, their feedback was collected through post surveys, and a posttest identical to the pretest was given that found statistically significant increases on questions one (p=0.003) and four (p=0.025). In February 2014, 15 new faculty members participated in the pilot implementation of the NCFT program. Of those 15, 12 (the intervention group) completed follow-up surveys identical to the pre survey used with the control group. Statistically significant differences were found for the factors clinical teaching (p=0.005) and assessment training (p=0.008) with better responses for the NCFT group. These results suggest that participation in the program was associated with improved clinical teaching knowledge and job satisfaction.

  19. Reliability of Interaural Time Difference-Based Localization Training in Elderly Individuals with Speech-in-Noise Perception Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delphi, Maryam; Lotfi, M-Yones; Moossavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Banimostafa, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that interaural-time-difference (ITD) training can improve localization ability. Surprisingly little is, however, known about localization training vis-à-vis speech perception in noise based on interaural time difference in the envelope (ITD ENV). We sought to investigate the reliability of an ITD ENV-based training program in speech-in-noise perception among elderly individuals with normal hearing and speech-in-noise disorder. The present interventional study was performed during 2016. Sixteen elderly men between 55 and 65 years of age with the clinical diagnosis of normal hearing up to 2000 Hz and speech-in-noise perception disorder participated in this study. The training localization program was based on changes in ITD ENV. In order to evaluate the reliability of the training program, we performed speech-in-noise tests before the training program, immediately afterward, and then at 2 months' follow-up. The reliability of the training program was analyzed using the Friedman test and the SPSS software. Significant statistical differences were shown in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 3 time points (P=0.001). The results also indicated no difference in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 2 time points of immediately after the training program and 2 months' follow-up (P=0.212). The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder.

  20. Timing-dependent modulation of the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor cortex pathway by sensorimotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Joutsen, Atte

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and at four time points (0, 30, 60, and 180 min) after training. For EEG, task-related power and coherence were calculated for early and late training phases. The conditioned MEP was facilitated at a 2-ms conditioning-test interval before training. However, facilitation was abolished immediately...... following training, but returned to baseline at subsequent time points. Regional EEG activity and interregional connectivity between PPC and M1 showed an initial increase during early training followed by a significant decrease in the late phases. The findings indicate that parietal-motor interactions......Interplay between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) is crucial during execution of movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether functional PPC-M1 connectivity in humans can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Seventeen participants...

  1.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barandun U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results: After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β=-0.52, P<0.0001 and percent body fat (β=0.27, P <0.0001 were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44: race time (minutes = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, % – 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours. Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r=0.33, P=0.0002. The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics.Conclusion: The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.Keywords: body fat, skinfold thickness, anthropometry, endurance, athlete

  2. A combined teamwork training and work standardisation intervention in operating theatres: controlled interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lauren; Pickering, Sharon P; Hadi, Mohammed; Robertson, Eleanor; New, Steve; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Teamwork training and system standardisation have both been proposed to reduce error and harm in surgery. Since the approaches differ markedly, there is potential for synergy between them. Controlled interrupted time series with a 3 month intervention and observation phases before and after. Operating theatres conducting elective orthopaedic surgery in a single hospital system (UK Hospital Trust). Teamwork training based on crew resource management plus training and follow-up support in developing standardised operating procedures. Focus of subsequent standardisation efforts decided by theatre staff. Paired observers watched whole procedures together. We assessed non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using glitch rate and compliance with WHO checklist using a simple quality tool. We measured complication and readmission rates and hospital stay using hospital administrative records. Before/after change was compared in the active and control groups using two-way ANOVA and regression models. 1121 patients were operated on before and 1100 after intervention. 44 operations were observed before and 50 afterwards. Non-technical skills (p=0.002) and WHO compliance (pteamwork and system improvement causes marked improvements in team behaviour and WHO performance, but not technical performance or outcome. These findings are consistent with the synergistic hypothesis, but larger controlled studies with a strong implementation strategy are required to test potential outcome effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A developmental study of the effect of music training on timed movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenille eBraun Janzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When people clap to music, sing, play a musical instrument, or dance, they engage in temporal entrainment. We examined the effect of music training on the precision of temporal entrainment in 57 children aged 10 to 14 years (31 musicians, 26 nonmusicians. Performance was examined for two tasks: self-paced finger tapping (discrete movements and circle drawing (continuous movements. For each task, participants synchronized their movements with a steady pacing signal and then continued the movement at the same rate in the absence of the pacing signal. Analysis of movements during the continuation phase revealed that musicians were more accurate than nonmusicians at finger tapping and, to a lesser extent, circle drawing. Performance on the finger-tapping task was positively associated with the number of years of formal music training, whereas performance on the circle-drawing task was positively associated with the age of participants. These results indicate that music training and maturation of the motor system reinforce distinct skills of timed movement.

  4. Real-time fMRI feedback training may improve chronic tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland); Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics, Geneva University Hospital, Institute of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Birbaumer, Niels [University of Tuebingen, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Ospedale San Camillo, Venezia (Italy); Veit, Ralf [University of Tuebingen, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Tinnitus consists of a more or less constant aversive tone or noise and is associated with excess auditory activation. Transient distortion of this activation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS) may improve tinnitus. Recently proposed operant training in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback allows voluntary modification of specific circumscribed neuronal activations. Combining these observations, we investigated whether patients suffering from tinnitus can (1) learn to voluntarily reduce activation of the auditory system by rtfMRI neurofeedback and whether (2) successful learning improves tinnitus symptoms. Six participants with chronic tinnitus were included. First, location of the individual auditory cortex was determined in a standard fMRI auditory block-design localizer. Then, participants were trained to voluntarily reduce the auditory activation (rtfMRI) with visual biofeedback of the current auditory activation. Auditory activation significantly decreased after rtfMRI neurofeedback. This reduced the subjective tinnitus in two of six participants. These preliminary results suggest that tinnitus patients learn to voluntarily reduce spatially specific auditory activations by rtfMRI neurofeedback and that this may reduce tinnitus symptoms. Optimized training protocols (frequency, duration, etc.) may further improve the results. (orig.)

  5. Real-time fMRI feedback training may improve chronic tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels; Veit, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Tinnitus consists of a more or less constant aversive tone or noise and is associated with excess auditory activation. Transient distortion of this activation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS) may improve tinnitus. Recently proposed operant training in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback allows voluntary modification of specific circumscribed neuronal activations. Combining these observations, we investigated whether patients suffering from tinnitus can (1) learn to voluntarily reduce activation of the auditory system by rtfMRI neurofeedback and whether (2) successful learning improves tinnitus symptoms. Six participants with chronic tinnitus were included. First, location of the individual auditory cortex was determined in a standard fMRI auditory block-design localizer. Then, participants were trained to voluntarily reduce the auditory activation (rtfMRI) with visual biofeedback of the current auditory activation. Auditory activation significantly decreased after rtfMRI neurofeedback. This reduced the subjective tinnitus in two of six participants. These preliminary results suggest that tinnitus patients learn to voluntarily reduce spatially specific auditory activations by rtfMRI neurofeedback and that this may reduce tinnitus symptoms. Optimized training protocols (frequency, duration, etc.) may further improve the results. (orig.)

  6. Optimal retraining time for regaining functional fitness using multicomponent training after long-term detraining in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minyoung; Lim, Taehyun; Lee, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kimyeong; Yoon, BumChul

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about the optimal retraining time for regaining functional fitness through multicomponent training following long-term detraining in older adults. This study first investigated the time course of functional fitness changes during 12-month multicomponent training, 12-month detraining, and 9-month retraining in 18 older adults (68.33±3.46) and then determined the optimal retraining time for regaining the post-training functional fitness level after a 12-month detraining period. Functional fitness, including lower and upper limb strength, lower and upper limb flexibility, aerobic endurance, and dynamic balance, was assessed at baseline, 12 months post-training, 12 months post-detraining, and 3, 6, and 9 months post-retraining. There were significant increases in all of the functional fitness components except upper limb flexibility at post-training and no significant decreases at post-detraining. For lower and upper limb strength and lower limb flexibility, a 3-month period was required to regain the post-training condition. For aerobic endurance and dynamic balance, a retraining period ≥9months was necessary to regain the post-training functional fitness condition. To regain the post-training condition of all functional fitness components, a retraining period ≥9months was required. This information might be useful for health professionals to encourage older adults not to interrupt retraining until they regain their post-training functional fitness condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aging and Network Properties: Stability Over Time and Links with Learning during Working Memory Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D. Iordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that healthy aging affects the configuration of large-scale functional brain networks. This includes reducing network modularity and local efficiency. However, the stability of these effects over time and their potential role in learning remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to further clarify previously reported age effects on “resting-state” networks, to test their reliability over time, and to assess their relation to subsequent learning during training. Resting-state fMRI data from 23 young (YA and 20 older adults (OA were acquired in 2 sessions 2 weeks apart. Graph-theoretic analyses identified both consistencies in network structure and differences in module composition between YA and OA, suggesting topological changes and less stability of functional network configuration with aging. Brain-wide, OA showed lower modularity and local efficiency compared to YA, consistent with the idea of age-related functional dedifferentiation, and these effects were replicable over time. At the level of individual networks, OA consistently showed greater participation and lower local efficiency and within-network connectivity in the cingulo-opercular network, as well as lower intra-network connectivity in the default-mode network and greater participation of the somato-sensorimotor network, suggesting age-related differential effects at the level of specialized brain modules. Finally, brain-wide network properties showed associations, albeit limited, with learning rates, as assessed with 10 days of computerized working memory training administered after the resting-state sessions, suggesting that baseline network configuration may influence subsequent learning outcomes. Identification of neural mechanisms associated with learning-induced plasticity is important for further clarifying whether and how such changes predict the magnitude and maintenance of training gains, as well as the extent and limits of

  8. Time course of the hemoglobin mass response to natural altitude training in elite endurance cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican, L; Martin, D; Quod, M; Stephens, B; Sassi, A; Gore, C

    2012-02-01

    To determine the time course of hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) to natural altitude training, Hb(mass), erythropoietin [EPO], reticulocytes, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in 13 elite cyclists during, and 10 days after, 3 weeks of sea level (n=5) or altitude (n=8, 2760 m) training. Mean Hb(mass), with a typical error of ∼2%, increased during the first 11 days at altitude (mean ± standard deviation 2.9 ± 2.0%) and was 3.5 ± 2.5% higher than baseline after 19 days. [EPO] increased 64.2 ± 18.8% after 2 nights at altitude but was not different from baseline after 12 nights. Hb(mass) and [EPO] did not increase in sea level. Reticulocytes (%) were slightly elevated in altitude at Days 5 and 12 (18.9 ± 17.7% and 20.4 ± 25.3%), sTfR was elevated at Day 12 (18.9 ± 15.0%), but both returned to baseline by Day 20. Hb(mass) and [EPO] decreased on descent to sea level while ferritin increased. The mean increase in Hb(mass) observed after 11 days (∼300 h) of altitude training was beyond the measurement error and consitent with the mean increase after 300 h of simulated live high:train low altitude. Our results suggest that in elite cyclists, Hb(mass) increases progressively with 3 weeks of natural altitude exposure, with greater increases expected as exposure persists. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Susceptibility of optimal train schedules to stochastic disturbances of process times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rune; Pranzo, Marco; D’Ariano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    study, an advanced branch and bound algorithm, on average, outperforms a First In First Out scheduling rule both in deterministic and stochastic traffic scenarios. However, the characteristic of the stochastic processes and the way a stochastic instance is handled turn out to have a serious impact...... and dwell times). In fact, the objective of railway traffic management is to reduce delay propagation and to increase disturbance robustness of train schedules at a network scale. We present a quantitative study of traffic disturbances and their effects on the schedules computed by simple and advanced...

  10. Real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index for gait training of toe-walking children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fan, Xiaoya; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index (DFPI) could be used to correct toe-walking gait in spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus. Thirteen spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus were asked to wear a monitoring device to record their ambulation during daily gait, conventional training gait, and feedback training gait. Parameters based on their DFPI and stride duration were compared among the three test conditions. The results with feedback training were significantly better for all DFPI parameters in comparison to patients' daily gait and showed significant improvements in DFPI for toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to conventional training methods. Moreover, stride duration under two training gaits was longer than patient's daily gait, but there was no significant difference between the two training gaits. Although the stride duration for the two training gaits was similar, gait training with real-time feedback of DFPI did produce noticeably superior results by increasing heel-loading impulse of toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to convention training methods. However, its effectiveness was still impacted by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Implications for Rehabilitation The DFPI-based gait training feedback system introduced in this study was shown to be more effective at toe-walking gait rehabilitation training over conventional training methods. The feedback system accomplished superior improvement in correcting toe-walking gait, but its effectiveness in an increasing heel-loading impulse in normal gait was still limited by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Stride duration of normal gait and toe-walking gait was similar under conventional and feedback gait training.

  11. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  12. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  13. Changing patterns of working time in Germany - from shorter working hours to more flexible work schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    La reducción del tiempo de trabajo promete sustanciales efectos sobre el empleo. La reducción del tiempo de trabajo, combinada con la flexibilización del tiempo de trabajo se ha mostrado como una buena experiencia porque permite reducir los costes laborales, mejorar la productividad y mantener el empleo. Los incentivos sobre las contribuciones sociales pueden contribuir no sólo a la mejora del empleo, sino también a reducir la carga del gasto público por desempleo. Sin embar...

  14. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  15. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP. The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96, which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality

  16. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matendo, Richard; Engmann, Cyril; Ditekemena, John; Gado, Justin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Kinoshita, Rinko; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moore, Janet; Wallace, Dennis; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Bose, Carl

    2011-08-04

    In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs. This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no demonstrable effect on early

  17. In search of work/life balance: trainee perspectives on part-time obstetrics and gynaecology specialist training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Part-time training (PTT is accessed by approximately 10% of Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees, a small but increasing minority which reflects the growing demand for improved work/life balance amongst the Australian medical workforce. This survey reports the attitudes and experiences of both full-time and part-time trainees to PTT. Methods An email-based anonymous survey was sent to all Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in April 2009, collecting demographic and training status data, data on personal experiences of PTT and/or trainees, and attitudes towards PTT. Results 105 responses were received (20% response rate. These indicated strong support (90% from both full-time (FT and part-time (PT trainees for the availability of PTT. PT trainees were significantly more likely than FT trainees to be female with children. Improved morale was seen as a particular advantage of PTT; decreased continuity of care as a disadvantage. Conclusions Although limited by poor response rate, both PT and FT Australian obstetric trainees were supportive of part-time training. Both groups recognised important advantages and disadvantages of this mode of training. Currently, part-time training is accessed primarily by female trainees with family responsibilities, with many more trainees considering part-time training than the number that access it.

  18. In search of work/life balance: trainee perspectives on part-time obstetrics and gynaecology specialist training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda; Clements, Sarah; Kingston, Ashley; Abbott, Jason

    2012-01-10

    Part-time training (PTT) is accessed by approximately 10% of Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees, a small but increasing minority which reflects the growing demand for improved work/life balance amongst the Australian medical workforce. This survey reports the attitudes and experiences of both full-time and part-time trainees to PTT. An email-based anonymous survey was sent to all Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in April 2009, collecting demographic and training status data, data on personal experiences of PTT and/or trainees, and attitudes towards PTT. 105 responses were received (20% response rate). These indicated strong support (90%) from both full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) trainees for the availability of PTT. PT trainees were significantly more likely than FT trainees to be female with children. Improved morale was seen as a particular advantage of PTT; decreased continuity of care as a disadvantage. Although limited by poor response rate, both PT and FT Australian obstetric trainees were supportive of part-time training. Both groups recognised important advantages and disadvantages of this mode of training. Currently, part-time training is accessed primarily by female trainees with family responsibilities, with many more trainees considering part-time training than the number that access it.

  19. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A comparison of maximal squat strength and 5-, 10-, and 20-meter sprint times, in athletes and recreationally trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; Bullock, Nathan; Pearson, Stephen J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether there was a relationship between relative strength during a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat and 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint performances in both trained athletes and recreationally trained individuals. Professional rugby league players (n = 24) and recreationally trained individuals (n = 20) participated in this investigation. Twenty-meter sprint time and 1RM back squat strength, using free weights, were assessed on different days. There were no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences between the well-trained and recreationally trained groups for 5-m sprint times. In contrast, the well-trained group's 10- and 20-m sprint times were significantly quicker (p = 0.004; p = 0.002) (1.78 + 0.06 seconds; 3.03 + 0.09 seconds) compared with the recreationally trained group (1.84 + 0.07 seconds; 3.13 + 0.11 seconds). The athletes were significantly stronger (170.63 + 21.43 kg) than the recreationally trained individuals (135.45 + 30.07 kg) (p = 0.01); however, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in relative strength between groups (1.78 + 0.27 kg/kg; 1.78 + 0.33 kg/kg, respectively). Significant negative correlations were found between 5-m sprint time and relative squat strength (r = -0.613, power = 0.96, p = 0.004) and between relative squat strength and 10- and 20-m sprint times in the recreationally trained group (r = -0.621, power = 0.51, p = 0.003; r = -0.604, power = 0.53, p = 0.005, respectively). These results, indicating that relative strength, are important for initial sprint acceleration in all athletes but more strongly related to sprint performance over greater distances in recreationally trained individuals.

  1. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A shorter and more specific oral sensitization-based experimental model of food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Elvira; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Utrilla, Pilar; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Judith; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; Comalada, Mònica

    2012-07-31

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trauma teams and time to early management during in situ trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Jacobsson, Maritha; Brulin, Christine; Hultin, Magnus

    2016-01-29

    To investigate the association between the time taken to make a decision to go to surgery and gender, ethnicity, years in profession, experience of trauma team training, experience of structured trauma courses and trauma in the trauma team, as well as use of closed-loop communication and leadership styles during trauma team training. In situ trauma team training. The patient simulator was preprogrammed to represent a severely injured patient (injury severity score: 25) suffering from hypovolemia due to external trauma. An emergency room in an urban Scandinavian level one trauma centre. A total of 96 participants were divided into 16 trauma teams. Each team consisted of six team members: one surgeon/emergency physician (designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one registered nurse anaesthetist, one registered nurse from the emergency department, one enrolled nurse from the emergency department and one enrolled nurse from the operating theatre. HRs with CIs (95% CI) for the time taken to make a decision to go to surgery was computed from a Cox proportional hazards model. Three variables remained significant in the final model. Closed-loop communication initiated by the team leader increased the chance of a decision to go to surgery (HR: 3.88; CI 1.02 to 14.69). Only 8 of the 16 teams made the decision to go to surgery within the timeframe of the trauma team training. Conversely, call-outs and closed-loop communication initiated by the team members significantly decreased the chance of a decision to go to surgery, (HR: 0.82; CI 0.71 to 0.96, and HR: 0.23; CI 0.08 to 0.71, respectively). Closed-loop communication initiated by the leader appears to be beneficial for teamwork. In contrast, a high number of call-outs and closed-loop communication initiated by team members might lead to a communication overload. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Real-time knee adduction moment feedback training using an elliptical trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    The external knee adduction moment (EKAM) is associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in many aspects including presence, progression, and severity of knee OA. Despite of its importance, there is a lack of EKAM estimation methods that can provide patients with knee OA real-time EKAM biofeedback for training and clinical evaluations without using a motion analysis laboratory. A practical real-time EKAM estimation method, which utilizes kinematics measured by a simple six degree-of-freedom goniometer and kinetics measured by a multi-axis force sensor underneath the foot, was developed to provide real-time feedback of the EKAM to the patients during stepping on an elliptical trainer, which can potentially be used to control and alter the EKAM. High reliability (ICC(2,1): 0.9580) of the real-time EKAM estimation method was verified through stepping trials of seven subjects without musculoskeletal disorders. Combined with advantages of elliptical trainers including functional weight-bearing stepping and mitigation of impulsive forces, the real-time EKAM estimation method is expected to help patients with knee OA better control frontal plane knee loading and reduce knee OA development and progression.

  5. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotvitska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  6. Overcoming the barriers to patient-centred care: time, tools and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth; Barron, David N; Reeves, Rachel

    2005-04-01

    To investigate whether nurses experience barriers to delivering high quality care in areas that are of particular concern to patients and to describe which aspects of care are most affected when nurses lack the required resources, such as time, tools and training to do their job. Patient surveys conducted in the National Health Service of the United Kingdom tend to show there is variation in the extent to which they are satisfied with care in a number of important areas, such as physical comfort, emotional support and the coordination of care. A sample of nurses working in 20 acute London hospitals was asked to complete a postal questionnaire based on a prototype employee survey developed in the United States and adapted by the authors for use in the United Kingdom. Staff in the human resources departments of participating hospitals mailed the questionnaires to nurses' home addresses. After two reminders, 2880 (out of 6160) useable responses were returned, giving a response rate of 47%. Nurses are aware that there are deficits in standards of care in areas that are particularly important to patients. The majority feel overworked (64%) and report that they do not have enough time to perform essential nursing tasks, such as addressing patients' anxieties, fears and concerns and giving patients and relatives information. Their work is often made more difficult by the lack of staff, space, equipment and cleanliness. They are often unable to control noise and temperature in clinical areas. Nurses in acute London hospitals are subject to high levels of aggressive behaviour, mainly from patients and their relatives, but also from other members of staff. More positively, high proportions of the nurses in our survey expressed the desire for further training, particularly in social and interpersonal aspects of care. This paper goes beyond reporting problems with the quality and safety of care to try to understand why patients do not always receive optimum care in areas that

  7. Sensorimotor synchronization and perception of timing: effects of music training and task experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2010-04-01

    To assess individual differences in basic synchronization skills and in perceptual sensitivity to timing deviations, brief tests made up of isochronous auditory sequences containing phase shifts or tempo changes were administered to 31 college students (most of them with little or no music training) and nine highly trained musicians (graduate students of music performance). Musicians showed smaller asynchronies, lower tapping variability, and greater perceptual sensitivity than college students, on average. They also showed faster phase correction following a tempo change in the pacing sequence. Unexpectedly, however, phase correction following a simple phase shift was unusually quick in both groups, especially in college students. It emerged that some of the musicians, who had previous experience with laboratory synchronization tasks, showed a much slower corrective response to phase shifts than did the other musicians. When these others were retested after having gained some task experience, their phase correction was slower than previously. These results show (1) that instantaneous phase correction in response to phase perturbations is more common than was previously believed, and suggest that (2) gradual phase correction is not a shortcoming but reflects a reduction in the strength of sensorimotor coupling afforded by practice.

  8. Effects of adding whole body vibration to squat training on isometric force/time characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Resistance training interventions aimed at increasing lower-body power and rates of force development have produced varying results. Recent studies have suggested that whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV) may elicit an acute postactivation potentiation response, leading to acute improvements in power and force development. Potentially, the use of WBLFV between sets of resistance training rather than during training itself may lead to increased recruitment and synchronization of high-threshold motor units, minimize fatigue potential, and facilitate the chronic adaptation to resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of applying TriPlaner, WBLFV, prior to and then intermittently between sets of Smith machine squats on short-term adaptations in explosive isometric force expression. Thirty recreationally resistance trained men aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: resistance training only (SQT, n = 11), resistance plus whole-body vibration (SQTV, n = 13), or active control (CON, n = 6). An isometric squat test was performed prior to and following a 6-week periodized Smith machine squat program. Whole-body low-frequency vibration was applied 180 seconds prior to the first work set (50 Hz, 2-4 mm, 30 seconds) and intermittently (50 Hz, 4-6 mm, 3 x 10 seconds, 60 seconds between exposures) within a 240-second interset rest period. Subjects were instructed to assume a quarter squat posture while positioning their feet directly under their center of mass, which was modified using a handheld goniometer to a knee angle of 135 +/- 5 degrees . Instructions were given to subjects to apply force as fast and as hard as possible for 3.5 seconds. Isometric force (N) and rates of force development (N.s(-1)) were recorded from the onset of contraction (F(0)) to time points corresponding to 30, 50, 80, 100, 150, and 250 milliseconds, as well as the peak isometric rate of force development (PISORFD), and rate of force development to

  9. Time of Day Does Not Modulate Improvements in Motor Performance following a Repetitive Ballistic Motor Training Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V.; Ridding, Michael C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM) and once in the evening (8 PM) on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions. PMID:23577271

  10. Time of Day Does Not Modulate Improvements in Motor Performance following a Repetitive Ballistic Motor Training Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V. Sale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM and once in the evening (8 PM on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  11. Reliability of Interaural Time Difference-Based Localization Training in Elderly Individuals with Speech-in-Noise Perception Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delphi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that interaural-time-difference (ITD training can improve localization ability. Surprisingly little is, however, known about localization training vis-à-vis speech perception in noise based on interaural time difference in the envelope (ITD ENV. We sought to investigate the reliability of an ITD ENV-based training program in speech-in-noise perception among elderly individuals with normal hearing and speech-in-noise disorder. Methods: The present interventional study was performed during 2016. Sixteen elderly men between 55 and 65 years of age with the clinical diagnosis of normal hearing up to 2000 Hz and speech-in-noise perception disorder participated in this study. The training localization program was based on changes in ITD ENV. In order to evaluate the reliability of the training program, we performed speech-in-noise tests before the training program, immediately afterward, and then at 2 months’ follow-up. The reliability of the training program was analyzed using the Friedman test and the SPSS software. Results: Significant statistical differences were shown in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 3 time points (P=0.001. The results also indicated no difference in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 2 time points of immediately after the training program and 2 months’ follow-up (P=0.212. Conclusion: The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder.

  12. Optimal Training for Time-Selective Wireless Fading Channels Using Cutoff Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal allocation of resources—power and bandwidth—between training and data transmissions for single-user time-selective Rayleigh flat-fading channels under the cutoff rate criterion. The transmitter exploits statistical channel state information (CSI in the form of the channel Doppler spectrum to embed pilot symbols into the transmission stream. At the receiver, instantaneous, though imperfect, CSI is acquired through minimum mean-square estimation of the channel based on some set of pilot observations. We compute the ergodic cutoff rate for this scenario. Assuming estimator-based interleaving and -PSK inputs, we study two special cases in-depth. First, we derive the optimal resource allocation for the Gauss-Markov correlation model. Next, we validate and refine these insights by studying resource allocation for the Jakes model.

  13. [Real-time Gait Training System with Embedded Functional Electrical Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linyan; Ruan, Zhaomin; Jia, Guifeng; Xla, Jing; Qiu, Lijian; Wu, Changwang; Jin, Xiaoqing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-07-01

    To solve the problem that mostly gait analysis is independent from the treatment, this work proposes a system that integrates the functions of gait training and assessment for foot drop treatment. The system uses a set of sensors to collect gait parameters and designes multi-mode functional electrical stimulators as actuator. Body area network technology is introduced to coordinate the data communication and execution of the sensors and stimulators, synchronize the gait analysis and foot drop treatment. Bluetooth 4.0 is applied to low the power consumption of the system. The system realizes the synchronization of treatment and gait analysis. It is able to acquire and analyze the dynamic parameters of ankle, knee and hip in real-time, and treat patients by guiding functional electrical stimulation delivery to the specific body locations of patients.

  14. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  15. Real-time animation software for customized training to use motor prosthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Rahman; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-03-01

    Research on control of human movement and development of tools for restoration and rehabilitation of movement after spinal cord injury and amputation can benefit greatly from software tools for creating precisely timed animation sequences of human movement. Despite their ability to create sophisticated animation and high quality rendering, existing animation software are not adapted for application to neural prostheses and rehabilitation of human movement. We have developed a software tool known as MSMS (MusculoSkeletal Modeling Software) that can be used to develop models of human or prosthetic limbs and the objects with which they interact and to animate their movement using motion data from a variety of offline and online sources. The motion data can be read from a motion file containing synthesized motion data or recordings from a motion capture system. Alternatively, motion data can be streamed online from a real-time motion capture system, a physics-based simulation program, or any program that can produce real-time motion data. Further, animation sequences of daily life activities can be constructed using the intuitive user interface of Microsoft's PowerPoint software. The latter allows expert and nonexpert users alike to assemble primitive movements into a complex motion sequence with precise timing by simply arranging the order of the slides and editing their properties in PowerPoint. The resulting motion sequence can be played back in an open-loop manner for demonstration and training or in closed-loop virtual reality environments where the timing and speed of animation depends on user inputs. These versatile animation utilities can be used in any application that requires precisely timed animations but they are particularly suited for research and rehabilitation of movement disorders. MSMS's modeling and animation tools are routinely used in a number of research laboratories around the country to study the control of movement and to develop and test

  16. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  17. Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Kosuke; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nouchi, Rui; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakaki, Kohei; Sasaki, Yukako; Magistro, Daniele; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant differences in change of performance of measures of cognitive functions or second language skills after training with TCSSL compared with that of the active control group. However, compared with the active control group, training with TCSSL was associated with increased fALFF, RSFC, and FA and decreased rGMV involving areas in the left STG. These results lacked evidence of a far transfer effect of time-compressed speech training on a wide range of cognitive functions and second language skills in young adults. However, these results demonstrated effects of time-compressed speech training on gray and white matter structures as well as on resting-state intrinsic activity and connectivity involving the left STG, which plays a key role in listening comprehension.

  18. Training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: A systematic comparison of pre- and post-training cases treated by one therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; Strupp, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study systematically compared cases treated by the same therapist in order to understand the group comparison findings of a larger study on training of experienced therapists (the "Vanderbilt II" psychotherapy project). The therapist, Dr C., was selected based on the therapist's overall treatment successes. His two patients were selected based on their outcomes and the relative training cohort from which they were drawn: a case with successful outcome from the pre-training cohort and a case of negligible improvement from the post-training cohort. Dr C. demonstrated a variety of interpersonal skills throughout his pre-training case, though there was also poor interpersonal process throughout. However, in the second case he had considerable difficulty in adapting his typical therapeutic approach to the requirements of the time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP) manual, even while appearing to work hard to find ways to use the manual. Dr C.'s spontaneity, and his unique set of interpersonal skills may enhanced his initial rapport and alliance building with clients and yet may not have interfaced well with TLDP. His unique interpersonal skills also may have contributed to problems of interpersonal process. Future research may benefit from examining the interaction of between therapist interpersonal skills and the implementation of the treatment manual.

  19. Effects of Self-Instructional Methods and Above Real Time Training (ARTT) for Maneuvering Tasks on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, Javed Khan; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Heath, Bruce E.; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer based flight simulators are expanding opportunities for providing low-cost pilot training. One advantage of these devices is the opportunity to incorporate instructional features into training scenarios that might not be cost effective with earlier systems. Research was conducted to evaluate the utility of different instructional features using a coordinated level turn as an aircraft maneuvering task. In study I, a comparison was made between automated computer grades of performance with certified flight instructors grades. Every one of the six student volunteers conducted a flight with level turns at two different bank angles. The automated computer grades were based on prescribed tolerances on bank angle, airspeed and altitude. Two certified flight instructors independently examined the video tapes of heads up and instrument displays of the flights and graded them. The comparison of automated grades with the instructors grades was based on correlations between them. In study II, a 2x2 between subjects factorial design was used to devise and conduct an experiment. Comparison was made between real time training and above real time training and between feedback and no feedback in training. The performance measure to monitor progress in training was based on deviations in bank angle and altitude. The performance measure was developed after completion of the experiment including the training and test flights. It was not envisaged before the experiment. The experiment did not include self- instructions as it was originally planned, although feedback by experimenter to the trainee was included in the study.

  20. Interaction of multiple networks modulated by the working memory training based on real-time fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiahui; Zhang, Gaoyan; Zhu, Chaozhe; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies of working memory training have identified the alteration of brain activity as well as the regional interactions within the functional networks such as central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN). However, how the interaction within and between these multiple networks is modulated by the training remains unclear. In this paper, we examined the interaction of three training-induced brain networks during working memory training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Thirty subjects assigned to the experimental and control group respectively participated in two times training separated by seven days. Three networks including silence network (SN), CEN and DMN were identified by the training data with the calculated function connections within each network. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to construct the directional connectivity patterns. The results showed that the causal influences from the percent signal changes of target ROI to the SN were positively changed in both two groups, as well as the causal influence from the SN to CEN was positively changed in experimental group but negatively changed in control group from the SN to DMN. Further correlation analysis of the changes in each network with the behavioral improvements showed that the changes in SN were stronger positively correlated with the behavioral improvement of letter memory task. These findings indicated that the SN was not only a switch between the target ROI and the other networks in the feedback training but also an essential factor to the behavioral improvement.

  1. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  2. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  3. Higher-order Brain Areas Associated with Real-time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somato-motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  4. Shorter exposures to harder X-rays trigger early apoptotic events in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJia Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and

  5. Breath-hold time during cold water immersion: effects of habituation with psychological training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin J; Datta, Avijit K; Thelwell, Richard C; Tipton, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    The loss of the conscious control of respiration on whole body cold water immersion (CWI) can result in the aspiration of water and drowning. Repeated CWI reduces the respiratory drive evoked by CWI and should prolong breath-hold time on CWI (BHmax(CWI)). Psychological skills training (PST) can also increase BHmax(CWI) by improving the ability of individuals to consciously suppress the drive to breathe. This study tested the hypothesis that combining PST and repeated CWI would extend BHmax(CWI) beyond that seen following only repeated CWI. There were 20 male subjects who completed two 2.5-min, head-out breath-hold CWI (BH1 and BH2) in water at 12 degrees C. Following BH1, subjects were matched on BHmax(CWI) and allocated to a habituation (HAB) group or a habituation plus PST group (H+PST). Between BH1 and BH2 both experimental groups undertook five 2.5-min CWI on separate days, during which they breathed freely. The H+PST also received psychological training to help tolerate cold and suppress the drive to breathe on immersion to extend BHmax(CWI). During BH1, mean BHmax(CWI) (+/- SD) in the HAB group was 22.00 (10.33) s and 22.38 (10.65) s in the H+PST. After the five free-breathing CWI, both groups had a longer BHmax(CWI) in BH2. The HAB group improved by 14.13 (20.21) s, an increase of 73%. H+PST improved by 26.86 (24.70) s, a 120% increase. No significant differences were identified between the groups. Habituation significantly increases BHmax on CWI, the addition of PST did not result in statistically significant improvements in BHmax(CWI), but may have practical significance.

  6. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyett, James C; Giersch, Gabrielle E W; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J; Hughey, Christine A; Daley, Hannah M; Luden, Nicholas D

    2016-10-14

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' ( n = 7) and 'untrained' ( n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, 'very likely') and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, 'likely'). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, 'likely'; 1.0% ± 1.7%, 'likely', respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, 'likely'). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Neural Network Training Methods in Real-time Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motions of body and tumor in some regions such as chest during radiotherapy treatments are one of the major concerns protecting normal tissues against high doses. By using real-time radiotherapy technique, it is possible to increase the accuracy of delivered dose to the tumor region by means of tracing markers on the body of patients. Objective: This study evaluates the accuracy of some artificial intelligence methods including neural network and those of combination with genetic algorithm as well as particle swarm optimization (PSO estimating tumor positions in real-time radiotherapy. Method: One hundred recorded signals of three external markers were used as input data. The signals from 3 markers thorough 10 breathing cycles of a patient treated via a cyber-knife for a lung tumor were used as data input. Then, neural network method and its combination with genetic or PSO algorithms were applied determining the tumor locations using MATLAB© software program. Results: The accuracies were obtained 0.8%, 12% and 14% in neural network, genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms, respectively. Conclusion: The internal target volume (ITV should be determined based on the applied neural network algorithm on training steps.

  8. A prototype percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography training simulator with real-time breathing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, P F; Vidal, F P; Hunt, C; Bello, F; John, N W; Johnson, S; Gould, D A

    2009-11-01

    We present here a simulator for interventional radiology focusing on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). This procedure consists of inserting a needle into the biliary tree using fluoroscopy for guidance. The requirements of the simulator have been driven by a task analysis. The three main components have been identified: the respiration, the real-time X-ray display (fluoroscopy) and the haptic rendering (sense of touch). The framework for modelling the respiratory motion is based on kinematics laws and on the Chainmail algorithm. The fluoroscopic simulation is performed on the graphic card and makes use of the Beer-Lambert law to compute the X-ray attenuation. Finally, the haptic rendering is integrated to the virtual environment and takes into account the soft-tissue reaction force feedback and maintenance of the initial direction of the needle during the insertion. Five training scenarios have been created using patient-specific data. Each of these provides the user with variable breathing behaviour, fluoroscopic display tuneable to any device parameters and needle force feedback. A detailed task analysis has been used to design and build the PTC simulator described in this paper. The simulator includes real-time respiratory motion with two independent parameters (rib kinematics and diaphragm action), on-line fluoroscopy implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit and haptic feedback to feel the soft-tissue behaviour of the organs during the needle insertion.

  9. What is associated with race performance in male 100-km ultra-marathoners--anthropometry, training or marathon best time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the associations of anthropometry, training, and pre-race experience with race time in 93 recreational male ultra-marathoners (mean age 44.6 years, s = 10.0; body mass 74.0 kg, s = 9.0; height 1.77 m, s = 0.06; body mass index 23.4 kg · m(-2), s = 2.0) in a 100-km ultra-marathon using bivariate and multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analysis, body mass index (r = 0.24), the sum of eight skinfolds (r = 0.55), percent body fat (r = 0.57), weekly running hours (r = -0.29), weekly running kilometres (r = -0.49), running speed during training (r = -0.50), and personal best time in a marathon (r = 0.72) were associated with race time. Results of the multiple regression analysis revealed an independent and negative association of weekly running kilometres and average speed in training with race time, as well as a significant positive association between the sum of eight skinfold thicknesses and race time. There was a significant positive association between 100-km race time and personal best time in a marathon. We conclude that both training and anthropometry were independently associated with race performance. These characteristics remained relevant even when controlling for personal best time in a marathon.

  10. Training haptic stiffness discrimination: time course of learning with or without visual information and knowledge of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Kinneret; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Korman, Maria

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the time course of haptic stiffness discrimination learning and how it was affected by two experimental factors, the addition of visual information and/or knowledge of results (KR) during training. Stiffness perception may integrate both haptic and visual modalities. However, in many tasks, the visual field is typically occluded, forcing stiffness perception to be dependent exclusively on haptic information. No studies to date addressed the time course of haptic stiffness perceptual learning. Using a virtual environment (VE) haptic interface and a two-alternative forced-choice discrimination task, the haptic stiffness discrimination ability of 48 participants was tested across 2 days. Each day included two haptic test blocks separated by a training block Additional visual information and/or KR were manipulated between participants during training blocks. Practice repetitions alone induced significant improvement in haptic stiffness discrimination. Between days, accuracy was slightly improved, but decision time performance was deteriorated. The addition of visual information and/or KR had only temporary effects on decision time, without affecting the time course of haptic discrimination learning. Learning in haptic stiffness discrimination appears to evolve through at least two distinctive phases: A single training session resulted in both immediate and latent learning. This learning was not affected by the training manipulations inspected. Training skills in VE in spaced sessions can be beneficial for tasks in which haptic perception is critical, such as surgery procedures, when the visual field is occluded. However, training protocols for such tasks should account for low impact of multisensory information and KR.

  11. A Comparison of Anthropometric and Training Characteristics between Female and Male Half-Marathoners and the Relationship to Race Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Miriam; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-03-01

    Lower limb skin-fold thicknesses have been differentially associated with sex in elite runners. Front thigh and medial calf skin-fold appear to be related to 1,500m and 10,000m time in men but 400m time in women. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric and training characteristics in recreational female and male half-marathoners. The association between both anthropometry and training characteristics and race time was investigated in 83 female and 147 male recreational half marathoners using bi- and multi-variate analyses. In men, body fat percentage (β=0.6), running speed during training (β=-3.7), and body mass index (β=1.9) were related to half-marathon race time after multi-variate analysis. After exclusion of body mass index, r (2) decreased from 0.51 to 0.49, but body fat percentage (β=0.8) and running speed during training (β=-4.1) remained predictive. In women, body fat percentage (β=0.75) and speed during training (β=-6.5) were related to race time (r (2) =0.73). For women, the exclusion of body mass index had no consequence on the predictive variables for half-marathon race time. To summarize, in both female and male recreational half-marathoners, both body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were related to half-marathon race times when corrected with co-variates after multi-variate regression analyses.

  12. Prevention of brachial plexus injury-12 years of shoulder dystocia training: an interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, J F; Lenguerrand, E; Bentham, G L; Tawfik, S; Claireaux, H A; Odd, D; Fox, R; Draycott, T J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate management and outcomes of incidences of shoulder dystocia in the 12 years following the introduction of an obstetric emergencies training programme. Interrupted time-series study comparing management and neonatal outcome of births complicated by shoulder dystocia over three 4-year periods: (i) Pre-training (1996-99), (ii) Early training (2001-04), and (iii) Late training (2009-12). Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK, with approximately 6000 births per annum. Infants and their mothers who experienced shoulder dystocia. A bi-monthly multi-professional 1-day intrapartum emergencies training course, that included a 30-minute practical session on shoulder dystocia management, commenced in 2000. Neonatal morbidity (brachial plexus injury, humeral fracture, clavicular fracture, 5-minute Apgar score dystocia (resolution manoeuvres performed, traction applied, head-to-body delivery interval). Compliance with national guidance improved with continued training. At least one recognised resolution manoeuvre was used in 99.8% (561/562) of cases of shoulder dystocia in the late training period, demonstrating a continued improvement from 46.3% (150/324, P dystocia. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Using an external surrogate for predictor model training in real-time motion management of lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Precise prediction of respiratory motion is a prerequisite for real-time motion compensation techniques such as beam, dynamic couch, or dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. Collection of tumor motion data to train the prediction model is required for most algorithms. To avoid exposure of patients to additional dose from imaging during this procedure, the feasibility of training a linear respiratory motion prediction model with an external surrogate signal is investigated and its performance benchmarked against training the model with tumor positions directly. Methods: The authors implement a lung tumor motion prediction algorithm based on linear ridge regression that is suitable to overcome system latencies up to about 300 ms. Its performance is investigated on a data set of 91 patient breathing trajectories recorded from fiducial marker tracking during radiotherapy delivery to the lung of ten patients. The expected 3D geometric error is quantified as a function of predictor lookahead time, signal sampling frequency and history vector length. Additionally, adaptive model retraining is evaluated, i.e., repeatedly updating the prediction model after initial training. Training length for this is gradually increased with incoming (internal) data availability. To assess practical feasibility model calculation times as well as various minimum data lengths for retraining are evaluated. Relative performance of model training with external surrogate motion data versus tumor motion data is evaluated. However, an internal–external motion correlation model is not utilized, i.e., prediction is solely driven by internal motion in both cases. Results: Similar prediction performance was achieved for training the model with external surrogate data versus internal (tumor motion) data. Adaptive model retraining can substantially boost performance in the case of external surrogate training while it has little impact for training with internal motion data. A minimum

  14. The Development of an Interactive Computer-Based Training Program for Timely and Humane On-Farm Pig Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Caitlyn R; Pairis-Garcia, Monique D; Campler, Magnus R; Anthony, Raymond; Johnson, Anna K; Coleman, Grahame J; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-02-05

    With extensive knowledge and training in the prevention, management, and treatment of disease conditions in animals, veterinarians play a critical role in ensuring good welfare on swine farms by training caretakers on the importance of timely euthanasia. To assist veterinarians and other industry professionals in training new and seasoned caretakers, an interactive computer-based training program was created. It consists of three modules, each containing five case studies, which cover three distinct production stages (breeding stock, piglets, and wean to grower-finisher pigs). Case study development was derived from five specific euthanasia criteria defined in the 2015 Common Swine Industry Audit, a nationally recognized auditing program used in the US. Case studies provide information regarding treatment history, clinical signs, and condition severity of the pig and prompt learners to make management decisions regarding pig treatment and care. Once a decision is made, feedback is provided so learners understand the appropriateness of their decision compared to current industry guidelines. In addition to training farm personnel, this program may also be a valuable resource if incorporated into veterinary, graduate, and continuing education curricula. This innovative tool represents the first interactive euthanasia-specific training program in the US swine industry and offers the potential to improve timely and humane on-farm pig euthanasia.

  15. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training: implications for exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil; Pedersen, Mogens T; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS) once a week. Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23) at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, Pchange in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20). Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.

  16. Training and learning robotic surgery, time for a more structured approach: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, H. W. R.; Wolswijk, R.; Zweemer, R. P.; Schijven, M. P.; Verheijen, R. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery is growing rapidly and there is an increasing need for a structured approach to train future robotic surgeons. Objectives To review the literature on training and learning strategies for robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Search strategy A

  17. Time course of training-induced microcirculatory changes and of vegf expression in skeletal muscles of spontaneously hypertensive female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amaral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced vessel changes modulate arterial pressure (AP in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is important for angiogenesis of skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the time course of VEGF and angiogenesis after short- and long-term exercise training of female SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, 8-9 weeks (200-250 g. Rats were allocated to daily training or remained sedentary for 3 days (N = 23 or 13 weeks (N = 23. After training, the carotid artery was catheterized for AP measurements. Locomotor (tibialis anterior and gracilis and non-locomotor skeletal muscles (temporalis were harvested and prepared for histologic and protein expression analyses. Training increased treadmill performance by all groups (SHR = 28%, WKY = 64%, 3 days and (SHR = 141%, WKY = 122%, 13 weeks. SHR had higher values of AP than WKY (174 ± 4 vs 111 ± 2 mmHg that were not altered by training. Three days of running increased VEGF expression (SHR = 28%, WKY = 36% simultaneously with an increase in capillary-to-fiber ratio in gracilis muscle (SHR = 19%, WKY = 15%. In contrast, 13 weeks of training increased gracilis capillary-to-fiber ratio (SHR = 18%, WKY = 19%, without simultaneous changes in VEGF expression. Training did not change VEGF expression and capillarity of temporalis muscle. We conclude that training stimulates time- and tissue-dependent VEGF protein expression, independent of pressure levels. VEGF triggers angiogenesis in locomotor skeletal muscle shortly after the exercise starts, but is not involved in the maintenance of capillarity after long-term exercise in female rats.

  18. Effect of just-in-time simulation training on tracheal intubation procedure safety in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishisaki, Akira; Donoghue, Aaron J; Colborn, Shawn; Watson, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Brown, Calvin A; Helfaer, Mark A; Walls, Ron M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2010-07-01

    Tracheal intubation-associated events (TIAEs) are common (20%) and life threatening (4%) in pediatric intensive care units. Physician trainees are required to learn tracheal intubation during intensive care unit rotations. The authors hypothesized that "just-in-time" simulation-based intubation refresher training would improve resident participation, success, and decrease TIAEs. For 14 months, one of two on-call residents, nurses, and respiratory therapists received 20-min multidisciplinary simulation-based tracheal intubation training and 10-min resident skill refresher training at the beginning of their on-call period in addition to routine residency education. The rate of first attempt and overall success between refresher-trained and concurrent non-refresher-trained residents (controls) during the intervention phase was compared. The incidence of TIAEs between preintervention and intervention phase was also compared. Four hundred one consecutive primary orotracheal intubations were evaluated: 220 preintervention and 181 intervention. During intervention phase, neither first-attempt success nor overall success rate differed between refresher-trained residents versus concurrent non-refresher-trained residents: 20 of 40 (50%) versus 15 of 24 (62.5%), P = 0.44 and 23 of 40 (57.5%) versus 18 of 24 (75.0%), P = 0.19, respectively. The resident's first attempt and overall success rate did not differ between preintervention and intervention phases. The incidence of TIAE during preintervention and intervention phases was similar: 22.0% preintervention versus 19.9% intervention, P = 0.62, whereas resident participation increased from 20.9% preintervention to 35.4% intervention, P = 0.002. Resident participation continued to be associated with TIAE even after adjusting for the phase and difficult airway condition: odds ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.28-3.87, P = 0.005). Brief just-in-time multidisciplinary simulation-based intubation refresher training did not improve the resident

  19. In search of work/life balance: trainee perspectives on part-time obstetrics and gynaecology specialist training

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Amanda; Clements Sarah; Kingston Ashley; Abbott Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Part-time training (PTT) is accessed by approximately 10% of Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees, a small but increasing minority which reflects the growing demand for improved work/life balance amongst the Australian medical workforce. This survey reports the attitudes and experiences of both full-time and part-time trainees to PTT. Methods An email-based anonymous survey was sent to all Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in April 2009, collecting d...

  20. The Educator´s Approach to Media Training and Computer Games within Leisure Time of School-children

    OpenAIRE

    MORAVCOVÁ, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes possible ways of approaching computer games playing as part of leisure time of school-children and deals with the significance of media training in leisure time. At first it specifies the concept of leisure time and its functions, then shows some positive and negative effects of the media. It further describes classical computer games, the problem of excess computer game playing and means of prevention. The paper deals with the educator's personality and the importance of ...

  1. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna B Gillen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2 performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9 or MICT (n = 10 for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6. SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W. Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W.Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both. Insulin sensitivity index (CSI, determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002 and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013 (p<0.05. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001. The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99, CSI (p = 0.63 and CS (p = 0.97.Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.

  2. Skeletal Muscle Contraction Time and Tone Decrease After 8 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubac, Damir; Šimunič, Boštjan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether an improvement in jumping performance after 8 weeks of plyometric training (PT) runs in parallel with changes in lower-limb skeletal muscle contractile properties. Using noninvasive tensiomyography (TMG), we assessed contraction time (Tc) and the maximal amplitude of radial displacement (Dm) in 20 subjects (50% men; age 22.4 ± 4.7 years of age), randomly divided in PT group (N = 10; PLYO) and a control group (N = 10; CTRL). The PLYO performed 8 weeks of PT. Tensiomyography was measured in 5 leg skeletal muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL). Additionally, we evaluated countermovement jump (CMJ) height improvement on a ground force plate. Assessments were repeated before and after PT. After 8 weeks of PT, CMJ height increased by 12.2% in PLYO (p = 0.015), but not in CRTL. Contraction time, which is related to myosin heavy-chain type 1 (MHC-1) proportion, decreased in VL (-8.7%; p muscle tone, decreased in BF (-26.5%; p = 0.032), GM (-14.9%; p = 0.017), GL (-31.5%; p = 0.017), but not in TA (-16.8%; p = 0.113) and VL (-6.0%; p = 0.654). After PT, jumping performance increased, which was paralleled by decreased Tc and decreased muscle tone. Additionally, adaptations to contractile properties were muscle specific, which is important for future studies. It seems that adjustments were dose dependent, being higher in muscles with lower habitual load.

  3. Utilization of just-in-time training for nursing education using the LA Phonospirometry asthma tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Kathryn H; Seik-Ismail, Sophia T; Chang, Todd P; Wang, Vincent J

    2017-08-28

    Just-in-time training (JITT) has been used to teach and re-teach known medical techniques, but has not been used to teach novel techniques. We aimed to assess the performance retention of JITT on a novel asthma exacerbation severity assessment technique known as Los Angeles (LA) Phonospirometry. This was a prospective cohort study using a convenience sample of pediatric emergency department registered nurses (RNs) who were asked to watch a brief instructional digital video on LA Phonospirometry, and then asked to practice the technique on a research assistant (RA). A checklist was used to evaluate proficiency with the primary outcome being the number correct on the checklist. The secondary outcome included whether or not they could identify a common error demonstrated by the RA. RNs were re-tested after 4-6 months to assess skill retention. Forty RNs were enrolled in the study and six were lost to follow-up. The mean time from the first to second testing was 5.4 months ± 0.5 months. The mean score of the first part of the checklist on the initial testing was 4.6 ± 0.7 and on second testing was 3.8 ± 1.5 (p = 0.008). This represented a drop in scores and thus minimal knowledge decay of 18% (from 91% to 73%). The mean values for number of errors picked up for the first test and second test were 1.3 and 1.5, respectively (p = 0.2). JITT demonstrated feasibility as a rapid instructional tool for RNs, with a limited decay in cognitive knowledge surrounding the LA Phonospirometry technique.

  4. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Boyett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1 were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7 and ‘untrained’ (n = 7. Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT. The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’ and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’. Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively, but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’. Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  5. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operator Using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.; Wang, Lui; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  6. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  7. Hospital management training for the Eastern Mediterranean Region: time for a change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Hashmani, Farah Naz; Mukhi, Aftab A Ali; Gul, Xaher; Pradhan, Nousheen; Hatcher, Peter; Farag, Mounir; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office has emphasized health system strengthening among the top five strategic priorities. One of the integral elements of health systems are the hospitals. The purpose of this paper is to review the need for formalized training in hospital management to improve the quality of care. Literature review and hands on experience of conducting a regional training in hospital management for Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. Majority of patients in EMR bypass Primary Health Care facilities due to inadequate quality of services and prefer seeking specialized care at a tertiary level. There is mounting evidence of mediocre to poor patient satisfaction due to inefficient health care practices in hospitals of EMR. Strengthening the management capacity of the hospitals through a formal training programme is therefore necessary for improving the performance of health care delivery and the overall health system. Hospital management encompasses hospital planning and operational activities including development and implementation of organizational strategies to ensure adequate numbers and quality of trained human resources and effective financial management, disaster management, health management information system utilization, support services, biomedical engineering, transport and waste management. Such training will prepare health care professionals with leadership skills to deliver quality hospital services. This is one of the first papers emphasizing the need for a formal structured regional training in hospital management for the countries of EMR. A modular incremental training approach developing an EMR Credit Transfer and Accumulation system is proposed.

  8. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance.

  10. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todor, D.

    2015-01-01

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  11. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  12. Impact of real-time fMRI working memory feedback training on the interactions between three core brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiushi; Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks, and WM training is a promising method for improving an individual's cognitive functions. Our previous work demonstrated that WM performance can be improved through self-regulation of dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI), which enables individuals to control local brain activities volitionally according to the neurofeedback. Furthermore, research concerning large-scale brain networks has demonstrated that WM training requires the engagement of several networks, including the central executive network (CEN), the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), and functional connectivity within the CEN and DMN can be changed by WM training. Although a switching role of the SN between the CEN and DMN has been demonstrated, it remains unclear whether WM training can affect the interactions between the three networks and whether a similar mechanism also exists during the training process. In this study, we investigated the dynamic functional connectivity between the three networks during the rtfMRI feedback training using independent component analysis (ICA) and correlation analysis. The results indicated that functional connectivity within and between the three networks were significantly enhanced by feedback training, and most of the changes were associated with the insula and correlated with behavioral improvements. These findings suggest that the insula plays a critical role in the reorganization of functional connectivity among the three networks induced by rtfMRI training and in WM performance, thus providing new insights into the mechanisms of high-level functions and the clinical treatment of related functional impairments.

  13. The timing and importance of motor skills course in knee arthroscopy training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Çetinkaya

    2017-07-01

    Conlusion: As our results revealed, residents will be able to act with a strong motivation to learn applications through basic arthroscopic information gained in early period of orthopedic training and will make more successful applications of real patients.

  14. The Effect of Inquiry Training Learning Model Based on Just in Time Teaching for Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda

    2016-01-01

    One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…

  15. The Effect of Time-Management Training on Test-Anxiety and Self-Efficacy of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam, Biook; Jenani, Shalaleh; Ahangari, Saeideh

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of time-management training on Iranian EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was carried out in Tabriz Azad University and University of Applied Sciences and Technology. Thirty-eight BA students majoring in TEFL who enrolled in the above mentioned…

  16. The effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapeutic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, E; Anderson, T; Strupp, H; Henry, W; Schacht, T; Binder, J; Butler, S

    2000-02-01

    The present study explored the effects on therapeutic outcomes of training therapists in brief manualized therapy. As part of the Vanderbilt II project, each of 16 therapists (8 psychiatrists and 8 clinical psychologists) treated 2 moderately disturbed adult patients using his or her customary short-term treatment methods; they then received a year of training in a manualized form of brief dynamic therapy, Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP); finally, they administered TLDP to 2 additional patients. It was hypothesized that training would result in improved outcomes generally and that differentially greater improvement would be seen in patients commonly considered less suitable for brief dynamic therapy. Outcome data obtained at termination failed to support either hypothesis. Measurements of interpersonal dependency obtained at a one-year follow-up were consistent with the first hypothesis, but the follow-up data were inconsistent with the second. A systematic review of the 32 posttraining cases suggested that the majority of the therapists had not achieved basic competence at TLDP. Die hier beschriebene Studie untersucht die Wirkungen eines Trainings in manualisierter Kurzzeitherapie auf das Therapierergebnis. Als Teil des Vanderbilt II Projektes behandelten jeweils 16 Therapeuten (8 Psychiater und 8 klinische Psychologen) zwei mittelgradig beeinrächtigte erwachsene Patienten mit den ihnen vertrauten Kurzzeitbehandlungsmethoden. Danach wurden sie über ein Jahr in einer manualisierten Form psychodynamischer Kurzzeittherapie ausgebildet und wandten diese Therapie auf zwei weitere Patienten an. Es wurde angenommen, dass die Ausbildung in besseren Ergebnisdaten, die bei Ende der Therapie erhoben wurden, konnten diese Hypothese nicht bestätigen. Maße für die interpersonale Abhängigkeit zu einem Einjahreskatamnesezeitpunkt waren mit der ersten Hypothese konform, aber inkonsistent mit der zweiten. Eine systematische Untersuchung der 32 nach der Ausbildung

  17. Comparison of training and competition opportunities in leisure time among people with intellectual disabilities in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Francova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leisure time activities are important for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID Table tennis (TT seems to be the most suitable and accessible activity in relation to motor skills and low financial requirements. The aim of the project was to investigate the opportunities for the TT training and competition among individuals with ID in the following European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, England, and Hungary. Those countries regularly participate in international TT events organized by Inas. The coaches of the mentioned countries were questioned about the TT training process of persons with ID during their leisure time. The survey was completed by 4 coaches (3 male and 1female, who work at various levels (from the lowest level in sports clubs to the top level in national teams in each country. The research findings showed that all of the surveyed couches practiced trainings frequency two times per week. In addition to national games, all the countries organize competitions at regional levels and par¬ti¬ci¬pa¬te in international events. The data reveal that training camps lasting from 5 to 14 days per year are organized in all the sur¬veyed countries. The survey found certain training options, which correspond more to the standard of the recreational sport than to the standard of the top-level sport. A positive finding was the possibility of training with the intact population, which may be con¬si¬de¬red as an important phenomenon of social inclusion.

  18. Operational evaluation of high-throughput community-based mass prophylaxis using Just-in-time training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, James D; Hupert, Nathaniel; Duckart, Jonathan; Xiong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Community-based mass prophylaxis is a core public health operational competency, but staffing needs may overwhelm the local trained health workforce. Just-in-time (JIT) training of emergency staff and computer modeling of workforce requirements represent two complementary approaches to address this logistical problem. Multnomah County, Oregon, conducted a high-throughput point of dispensing (POD) exercise to test JIT training and computer modeling to validate POD staffing estimates. The POD had 84% non-health-care worker staff and processed 500 patients per hour. Post-exercise modeling replicated observed staff utilization levels and queue formation, including development and amelioration of a large medical evaluation queue caused by lengthy processing times and understaffing in the first half-hour of the exercise. The exercise confirmed the feasibility of using JIT training for high-throughput antibiotic dispensing clinics staffed largely by nonmedical professionals. Patient processing times varied over the course of the exercise, with important implications for both staff reallocation and future POD modeling efforts. Overall underutilization of staff revealed the opportunity for greater efficiencies and even higher future throughputs.

  19. Hand rim wheelchair propulsion training using biomechanical real-time visual feedback based on motor learning theory principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian; Gagnon, Dany; Gallagher, Jere; Boninger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As considerable progress has been made in laboratory-based assessment of manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, the necessity to translate this knowledge into new clinical tools and treatment programs becomes imperative. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a manual wheelchair propulsion training program aimed to promote the development of an efficient propulsion technique among long-term manual wheelchair users. Motor learning theory principles were applied to the design of biomechanical feedback-based learning software, which allows for random discontinuous real-time visual presentation of key spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters. This software was used to train a long-term wheelchair user on a dynamometer during 3 low-intensity wheelchair propulsion training sessions over a 3-week period. Biomechanical measures were recorded with a SmartWheel during over ground propulsion on a 50-m level tile surface at baseline and 3 months after baseline. Training software was refined and administered to a participant who was able to improve his propulsion technique by increasing contact angle while simultaneously reducing stroke cadence, mean resultant force, peak and mean moment out of plane, and peak rate of rise of force applied to the pushrim after training. The proposed propulsion training protocol may lead to favorable changes in manual wheelchair propulsion technique. These changes could limit or prevent upper limb injuries among manual wheelchair users. In addition, many of the motor learning theory-based techniques examined in this study could be applied to training individuals in various stages of rehabilitation to optimize propulsion early on.

  20. The Case for Dual Training in Geriatric Medicine and Palliative Care: The Time is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Jennifer; McNabney, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    The majority of older adults die from chronic illnesses which are preceded by years of progressive decline and increasing symptom burden. Delivery of high-quality care cannot take place without sufficient numbers of health professionals with appropriate training and skills in both geriatric and palliative care medicine. Despite the surge in aging population and the majority of deaths being attributed to patients with multiple comorbidities, very few health-care providers undergo dual training in these areas. Thus, the nation is facing a health-care crisis as the number of geriatric patients with chronic disease increasingly outpaces the number of physicians with adequate skills to manage them. Joint training in palliative care and geriatric medicine could prepare physicians to better manage our aging population by addressing all their health-care needs irrespective of their stage of disease emphasizing patient-directed care.

  1. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  2. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  3. Breath-holding times in various phases of respiration and effect of respiratory training in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibdewal, Anil; Munshi, Anusheel; Pathak, Rima; Misra, Shagun; Daptardar, Anuradha; Singh, Vincent; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-08-01

    Breath-holding (BH) technique is used for reducing the intrafraction-tumour motion in mobile lung tumours treated with radiotherapy (RT). There is paucity of literature evaluating differences in BH times in various phases of respiration in patients with lung cancer. One hundred consecutive patients with lung cancer planned for radical RT/chemoradiation were accrued in the study. Eighty-seven patients were eligible for analysis at RT conclusion. Baseline pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed in all patients, and respiratory training was given from the day of RT planning. Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH), deep expiration breath hold (DEBH) and mid-ventilation breath hold (MVBH) were recorded manually with a stopwatch for each patient at four time points (RT planning/baseline, RT starting, during RT and RT conclusion). Median DIBH times at RT planning, RT starting, during RT and RT conclusion were 21.2, 20.6, 20.1 and 21.1 s, respectively. The corresponding median DEBH and MVBH times were 16.3, 18.2, 18.3, 18.5 s and 19.9, 20.5, 21.3, 22.1 s, respectively. Respiratory training increased MVBH time at RT conclusion compared to baseline, which was statistically significant (19.9-22.1 s, P = 0.002). DIBH or DEBH times were stable at various time points with neither a significant improvement nor decline. Among various patient and tumour factors Forced Vital Capacity pre-bronchodilation (FVCpre ) was the only factor that consistently predicted DIBH, DEBH and MVBH at all four time points with P value phases of respiration. Respiratory training improved MVBH time while consistently maintaining DIBH and DEBH times throughout the course of radiotherapy. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pCPR quality was poor for chest compression depth (0-13%), rate (5-46%) and chest compression fraction (60-63%). Perception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  6. The Development of Real-Time Physiological Monitoring and Training Software for Remote Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) is an protocol and technology developed by Dr. Patricia Cowings and her associates at NASA Ames Research Center as a means to facilitate astronaut adaptation to space and exposure to the microgravity. AFTE is a training method which involves teaching subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. As the procedures matured, the training program was expanded to determine if technology developed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to space would be valuable in treating patients suffering from autonomic and vestibular pathologies and symptomatic relief from nausea and/or blood pressure control anomalies such as hypo- or hypertension. The present study, performed in conjunction with Morehouse School of Medicine, Biomedical Engineering at The University of Akron and NASA Ames Research Center has demonstrated that this technology can be successfully applied over vast distances. The specific purpose of this research was to develop a PC based system which could handle processing of twenty channels of acquired physiological data in addition to the necessary duplex communication protocols that would, for example, permit a patient in Atlanta, GA to be trained by a clinician stationed in San Jose, CA. Sixteen channels of physiological data and 20 channels of processed data are included.

  7. Altering the Athletic Training Curriculum: A Unique Perspective on Learning over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher David; Kahanov, Leamor

    2012-01-01

    Context: The cohort athletic training curriculum features a competency-based approach that allows the student to matriculate through the program in a systematic fashion. This method is desired as it allows for efficient delivery and mastery of the educational content and associated clinical skills. The result may be an inflexible curriculum that…

  8. Lev Kuleshov and the Metrical-Spatial Web: Postmodern Body Training in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Gerry

    2000-01-01

    Explains L. Kuleshov's body-oriented theory of acting. Describes how actors begin their Kuleshov training with short etudes that are confined to a linear matrix. Proposes that these etudes help students understand how their bodies fit into a planimetric composition, to remain in control of their bodies when confronted with complex floor patterns,…

  9. Speak on time! Effects of a musical rhythmic training on children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Céline; Falk, Simone; Schön, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested. The latter group was tested twice: once after 30 min of speech therapy and once after 30 min of musical rhythmic training. Both groups of children (NH and with HL) can adjust their speech production to the rate of alternation of the virtual partner. Moreover, while children with normal hearing benefit from the temporal regularity of stress occurrences, children with HL become sensitive to this manipulation only after rhythmic training. Rhythmic training may help children with HL to structure the temporal flow of their verbal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and Assessment of a Novel Training Package for Basic Maneuvering Tasks on a Flight Simulator Using Self Instruction Methods and Above Real Time Training (ARTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Heath, Bruce e.; Crane, Peter; Ward, Marcus; Crier, Tomyka; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2007-01-01

    One result of the relatively recent advances in computing technology has been the decreasing cost of computers and increasing computational power. This has allowed high fidelity airplane simulations to be run on personal computers (PC). Thus, simulators are now used routinely by pilots to substitute real flight hours for simulated flight hours for training for an aircraft type rating thereby reducing the cost of flight training. However, FAA regulations require that such substitution training must be supervised by Certified Flight Instructors (CFI). If the CFI presence could be reduced or eliminated for certain tasks this would mean a further cost savings to the pilot. This would require that the flight simulator have a certain level of 'intelligence' in order to provide feedback on pilot performance similar to that of a CFI. The 'intelligent' flight simulator would have at least the capability to use data gathered from the flight to create a measure for the performance of the student pilot. Also, to fully utilize the advances in computational power, the simulator would be capable of interacting with the student pilot using the best possible training interventions. This thesis reports on the two studies conducted at Tuskegee University investigating the effects of interventions on the learning of two flight maneuvers on a flight simulator and the robustness and accuracy of calculated performance indices as compared to CFI evaluations of performance. The intent of these studies is to take a step in the direction of creating an 'intelligent' flight simulator. The first study deals with the comparisons of novice pilot performance trained at different levels of above real-time to execute a level S-turn. The second study examined the effect of out-of-the-window (OTW) visual cues in the form of hoops on the performance of novice pilots learning to fly a landing approach on the flight simulator. The reliability/robustness of the computed performance metrics was assessed

  11. "Just-In-Time" Simulation Training Using 3-D Printed Cardiac Models After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; Su, Lillian; Hynes, Conor F; Krieger, Axel; Alfares, Fahad A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Zurakowski, David; Marshall, M Blair; Kim, Peter C W; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S

    2016-03-01

    High-fidelity simulation using patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) models may be effective in facilitating pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) provider training for clinical management of congenital cardiac surgery patients. The 3D-printed heart models were rendered from preoperative cross-sectional cardiac imaging for 10 patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. Immediately following surgical repair, a congenital cardiac surgeon and an intensive care physician conducted a simulation training session regarding postoperative care utilizing the patient-specific 3D model for the PCICU team. After the simulation, Likert-type 0 to 10 scale questionnaire assessed participant perception of impact of the training session. Seventy clinicians participated in training sessions, including 22 physicians, 38 nurses, and 10 ancillary care providers. Average response to whether 3D models were more helpful than standard hand off was 8.4 of 10. Questions regarding enhancement of understanding and clinical ability received average responses of 9.0 or greater, and 90% of participants scored 8 of 10 or higher. Nurses scored significantly higher than other clinicians on self-reported familiarity with the surgery (7.1 vs. 5.8; P = .04), clinical management ability (8.6 vs. 7.7; P = .02), and ability enhancement (9.5 vs. 8.7; P = .02). Compared to physicians, nurses and ancillary providers were more likely to consider 3D models more helpful than standard hand off (8.7 vs. 7.7; P = .05). Higher case complexity predicted greater enhancement of understanding of surgery (P = .04). The 3D heart models can be used to enhance congenital cardiac critical care via simulation training of multidisciplinary intensive care teams. Benefit may be dependent on provider type and case complexity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, results in a substantial healthcare system burden. This retrospective observational study compared hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs for patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban versus those treated with warfarin. Hospitalizations for adult patients with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who were initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin were selected from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients treated with warfarin were matched 1:1 to patients treated with rivaroxaban using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, time from first dose to discharge, and hospitalization costs were reported descriptively and with generalized linear models (GLMs). The final study cohorts each included 1223 patients (751 with pulmonary embolism and 472 with deep vein thrombosis). Cohorts were well matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean (±SD) LOS was 3.7±3.1 days for patients taking rivaroxaban and 5.2±3.7 days for patients taking warfarin, confirmed by GLM-adjusted results (rivaroxaban 3.7 days, warfarin 5.3 days, P<0.001). Patients with provoked venous thromboembolism admissions showed longer LOSs (rivaroxaban 5.1±4.5 days, warfarin 6.5±5.6 days, P<0.001) than those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (rivaroxaban 3.3±2.4 days, warfarin 4.8±2.8 days, P<0.001). Days from first dose to discharge were 2.4±1.7 for patients treated with rivaroxaban and 3.9±3.7 for patients treated with warfarin when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001), and 2.7±1.7 and 3.7±2.1, respectively, when initiated without parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001). Patients initiated on rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower mean total hospitalization costs ($8688±$9927 versus $9823±$9319, P=0.004), confirmed by modeling (rivaroxaban $8387 [95

  13. Effect of the full implementation of the European Working Time Directive on operative training in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Sharples, Linda; Codispoti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Surgical specialties rely on practice and apprenticeship to acquire technical skills. In 2009, the final reduction in working hours to 48 per week, in accordance with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), has also led to an expansion in the number of trainees. We examined the effect of these changes on operative training in a single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Setting: A single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Design: Consecutive data were prospectively collected into a database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedures and Main Outcome Measures: Between January 2006 and August 2010, 6688 consecutive adult cardiac surgical procedures were analyzed. The proportion of cases offered for surgical training were compared for 2 non-overlapping consecutive time periods: 4504 procedures were performed before the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 1: January 2006-December 2008) and 2184 procedures after the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 2: January 2009-August 2010). Other predictors of training considered in the analysis were grade of trainee, logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE), type of surgical procedure, weekend or late procedure, and consultant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of training cases (procedure performed by trainee) and to evaluate the effect of the EWTD on operative surgical training after correcting for confounding factors. Proportion of training cases rose from 34.6% (1558/4504) during Phase 1 to 43.6% (953/2184) in Phase 2 (p hours [153 (3.4) during Phase 1 vs 116 (5.3) during Phase 2, p hours' procedures, and surgery other than coronary artery bypass grafts. Implementation of the final phase of EWTD has not decreased training in a high-volume center. The positive adjustment of trainers' attitudes and efforts to match trainees' needs allow maintenance of adequate training, despite reduction in

  14. Real-time "x-ray vision" for healthcare simulation: an interactive projective overlay system to enhance intubation training and other procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosky, Joseph T; Baillargeon, Emma; Bregman, Russell; Brown, Andrew; Chaya, Amy; Enders, Leah; Nelson, Douglas A; Robinson, Evan; Sukits, Alison L; Weaver, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a real-time, interactive projective overlay (IPO) system that creates augmented reality display of a medical procedure directly on the surface of a full-body mannequin human simulator. These images approximate the appearance of both anatomic structures and instrument activity occurring within the body. The key innovation of the current work is sensing the position and motion of an actual device (such as an endotracheal tube) inserted into the mannequin and using the sensed position to control projected video images portraying the internal appearance of the same devices and relevant anatomic structures. The images are projected in correct registration onto the surface of the simulated body. As an initial practical prototype to test this technique we have developed a system permitting real-time visualization of the intra-airway position of an endotracheal tube during simulated intubation training.

  15. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student's t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs' muscles in the 30 meters sprint.

  16. The effect of time-management training on test-anxiety and self-efficacy of Iranian intermediate EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effect of time-management training on Iranian EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was carried out in Tabriz Azad University and University of Applied Sciences and Technology. Thirty-eight BA students majoring in TEFL who enrolled in the above mentioned context in the academic year 1390-1391 participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were Time-Management Behavior Scale constructed by Macan, Shahani, Dipboye, et al. (1990, General Self-Efficacy Scale constructed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1992 and Westside Test-Anxiety Scale constructed by Driscoll (2007.The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group's test-anxiety before and after time-management training and also there was a significant difference between the mean scores of experimental group and control group's test-anxiety after intervention. These findings also apply to the mean scores of self-efficacy. Therefore, it can be concluded that time-management training affects EFL learners' test-anxiety and self-efficacy. The findings of this study have some implications for researchers, teachers, universities and institutions.

  17. Is equity confined to the shorter term projects - and if not, what does it need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryan, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are two types of equity investor generally found in shorter term energy projects: energy project developers or sponsors who view a given project as buying or building a business; and financial investors who have viewed an investment as buying a stream of cash flows. This article examines the objectives and needs of these two investor groups, and discusses the principal issues which govern their respective decision-making process. (author)

  18. A set packing inspired method for real-time junction train routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffic make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to re-schedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...

  19. A Set Packing Inspired Method for Real-Time Junction Train Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffi c make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to reschedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...

  20. Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-07-01

    Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart.

  1. Start time variability and predictability in railroad train and engine freight and passenger service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Start time variability in work schedules is often hypothesized to be a cause of railroad employee fatigue because unpredictable work start times prevent employees from planning sleep and personal activities. This report examines work start time diffe...

  2. What will it take? Pathways, time and funding: Australian medical students' perspective on clinician-scientist training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Jensen, Charmaine; Thomas, Ranjeny; Benham, Helen

    2017-12-08

    Clinician-scientists are in decline worldwide. They represent a unique niche in medicine by bridging the gap between scientific discovery and patient care. A national, integrated approach to training clinician-scientists, typically programs that comprise a comprehensive MD-PhD pathway, are customary. Such a pathway is lacking in Australia. The objective was to gather perceptions from Australian medical students on factors they perceive would influence their decision to pursue clinician-scientist training. A cross-sectional mixed methods design used quantitative and qualitative questions in an online self-report survey with medical students from a four-year MD program. Quantitative measures comprised scaled response questions regarding prior experience and current involvement in research, and short- and long-term opinions about factors that influence their decisions to undertake a research higher degree (RHD) during medical school. Qualitative questions gathered broader perceptions of what a career pathway as a clinician-scientist would include and what factors are most conducive to a medical student's commitment to MD-PhD training. Respondents (N = 418; 51% female) indicated Time, Funding and Pathway as the major themes arising from the qualitative data, highlighting negative perceptions rather than possible benefits to RHD training. The lack of an evident Pathway was inter-related to Time and Funding. Themes were supported by the quantitative data. Sixty percent of students have previous research experience of varying forms, and 90% report a current interest, mainly to improve their career prospects. The data emphasise the need for an MD-PhD pathway in Australia. A model that provides an early, integrated, and exclusive approach to research training pathways across all stages of medical education is suggested as the best way to rejuvenate the clinician-scientist. A national pathway that addresses factors influencing career decision making throughout the

  3. Training and the European Working Time Directive: a 7 year review of paediatric anaesthetic trainee caseload data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E; Williams, D G

    2009-10-01

    The implementation of the European Working Time Directive (WTD) has reduced the hours worked by trainees in the UK to a maximum of 56 h per week. With a further and final reduction to 48 h per week scheduled for August 2009, there is concern amongst doctors about the impact on training and on patient care. Paediatric anaesthesia is one of the specialist areas of anaesthesia for which the Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA) recommends a minimum caseload during the period of advanced training. We conducted a retrospective analysis of theatre logbook data from 62 Specialist Registrars (SpRs) who had completed a 12 month period of advanced training in paediatric anaesthesia in our institution between 2000 and 2007. After the implementation of the WTD 56 h week in 2004, the mean total number of cases performed by SpRs per year decreased from 441 to 336, a 24% reduction. We found a statistically significant reduction across all age groups with the largest reduction in the under 1 month of age group. The post-WTD group did not meet the RCoA recommended total minimum caseload or the minimum number of cases of <1 yr of age. Since the implementation of the WTD, there has been a significant reduction in the number of cases performed by SpRs in paediatric anaesthesia and they are no longer achieving the RCoA recommended minimum numbers for advanced training.

  4. Prefrontal control of the amygdala during real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Zotev

    Full Text Available We observed in a previous study (PLoS ONE 6:e24522 that the self-regulation of amygdala activity via real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf with positive emotion induction was associated, in healthy participants, with an enhancement in the functional connectivity between the left amygdala (LA and six regions of the prefrontal cortex. These regions included the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG, and right medial frontopolar cortex (MFPC. Together with the LA, these six prefrontal regions thus formed the functional neuroanatomical network engaged during the rtfMRI-nf procedure. Here we perform a structural vector autoregression (SVAR analysis of the effective connectivity for this network. The SVAR analysis demonstrates that the left rACC plays an important role during the rtfMRI-nf training, modulating the LA and the other network regions. According to the analysis, the rtfMRI-nf training leads to a significant enhancement in the time-lagged effect of the left rACC on the LA, potentially consistent with the ipsilateral distribution of the monosynaptic projections between these regions. The training is also accompanied by significant increases in the instantaneous (contemporaneous effects of the left rACC on four other regions - the bilateral DMPFC, the right MFPC, and the left SFG. The instantaneous effects of the LA on the bilateral DMPFC are also significantly enhanced. Our results are consistent with a broad literature supporting the role of the rACC in emotion processing and regulation. Our exploratory analysis provides, for the first time, insights into the causal relationships within the network of regions engaged during the rtfMRI-nf procedure targeting the amygdala. It suggests that the rACC may constitute a promising target for rtfMRI-nf training along with the amygdala in patients with affective disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress

  5. Optional part-time and longer GP training modules in GP practices associated with more trainees becoming GPs - a cohort study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Lara; Ahrens, Regina; Häuptle, Christian; Goeldlin, Adrian; Streit, Sven

    2018-01-05

    Switzerland, like many other countries, has a shortage of General Practitioners (GPs). Optional GP training modules in GP practices were offered during the at least 5-year GP training program to increase student and trainee interest in becoming a GP. The training modules had not yet been evaluated. We determined how many Swiss GP trainees became practicing GPs after they completed optional training modules, and if longer modules were associated with higher rates of GP specialization. In this population-based cohort study, we included GP trainees who chose an optional GP training module in GP practice, provided by the Foundation to Promote Training in General Practice (WHM) between 2006 and 2015. GP trainees were invited to complete an online survey to assess the primary outcome (becoming a practicing GP by 2016). Data on non-responders was collected via an internet search. We calculated univariate time-to-event curves to become a practicing GP, stratified by trainee's gender, length, part-time training, and number of years after graduation until training modules were completed. We used a multivariate model to adjust for characteristics of participants, training, and satisfaction with training modules. We assessed primary outcome for 351 (92.1%) of 381 former GP trainees who participated in a WHM program between 2006 and 2015. Of these 218 (57%) were practicing GPs by 2016. When focusing on the trainees who had completed training between 2006 and 2010, the rate of practicing GPs was even 73%. Longer (p = 0.018) and part-time training modules (p = 0.003) were associated with higher rates of being a practicing GP. Most (81%) practicing GPs thought their optional GP training module was (very) important in their choice of specialty. GP trainees who spent more time training in a GP practice, or who trained part-time were more likely to become practicing GPs. Most (80%) rated their training module as (very) important in their choice of career, highlighting that

  6. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    OpenAIRE

    Stark Matthew; Lukaszuk Judith; Prawitz Aimee; Salacinski Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein s...

  7. Effects of U.S. Navy Diver Training on Physiological Parameters, Time of Useful Consciousness and Cognitive Performance During Periods of Normobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    TRAINING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS, AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING PERIODS OF NORMOBARIC HYPOXIA...Sato, Y. Watanabe, "Time of Usefull Consciousness Determination in Aircrew Members with Rerference to Prior Altitude Chamber Experience and Age

  8. Predictors of race time in male ironman triathletes: physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, B; Wirth, A; Rosemann, T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience were related to performance in recreational male Ironman triathletes using bi- and multivariate analysis. 83 male recreational triathletes who volunteered to participate in the study (M age 41.5 yr., SD = 8.9) had a mean body height of 1.80 m (SD = 0.06), mean body mass of 77.3 kg (SD = 8.9), and mean Body Mass Index of 23.7 kg/m2 (SD = 2.1) at the 2009 IRONMAN SWITZERLAND competition....

  9. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.

  10. Evaluation of training activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda, Alejandro D.

    2003-01-01

    In Argentina, there are two NPPs in operation and one under construction. The personnel at the first NPP built, Atucha-1, were originally trained by the German experts, afterwards there were no serious problems while the plant was still new, but problems arose later, The training program organized locally was found to be 'frozen'. That is why experiences in evaluation of the training effectiveness will be of great help. The global training effectiveness are believed to be achieved if the following goals are reached: less number of non-planned shutdowns due to human errors; less number of correctives works in the equipment, when preventive tasks were performed on them; less dose to perform equipment maintenance; less time to perform equipment maintenance; shorter outages, with less dose; less number of personnel accidents; etc

  11. The impact of the European Working Time Regulations on Ophthalmic Specialist Training--a national trainee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, M K; Lewis, G; Mercieca, K; Moutray, T

    2013-01-01

    To assess ophthalmic trainees' perspective of the impact of the European Working Time Regulations (EWTR) on their training. All trainees in ophthalmology in the UK were emailed a link to an electronic survey asking about their experiences of the EWTR. 324 trainees (46% of those invited) responded to the survey. 44.4% of trainees reported that their posts were compliant with the EWTR. 40.7% felt that training had been adversely affected. 49.1% thought that ophthalmic trainees should opt out of the EWTR to work more than 48 h per week, with 57 the mean number of hours suggested appropriate. Many ophthalmic trainees in the United Kingdom are working in rotas which are not compliant with the European Working Time Directive. Many trainees feel that implementation of the EWTD has had a negative effect on training and feel it would be acceptable to work a higher number of hours per week. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparing emergency personnel in dialysis: a just-in-time training program for additional staffing during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Genevieve B; Johnston, James R; Stevenson, Judy A; Suyama, Joe

    2013-06-01

    There are 341 000 patients in the United States who are dependent on routine dialysis for survival. Recent large-scale disasters have emphasized the importance of disaster preparedness, including supporting dialysis units, for people with chronic disease. Contingency plans for staffing are important for providing continuity of care for a technically challenging procedure such as dialysis. PReparing Emergency Personnel in Dialysis (PREP-D) is a just-in-time training program designed to train individuals having minimum familiarity with the basic steps of dialysis to support routine dialysis staff during a disaster. A 5-module educational program was developed through a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. A pilot study testing the program was performed using 20 nontechnician dialysis facility employees and 20 clinical-year medical students as subjects. When comparing pretest and posttest scores, the entire study population showed a mean improvement of 28.9%, with dialysis facility employees and medical students showing improvements of 21.8% and 36.4%, respectively (P just-in-time training format. The knowledge gained by using the PREP-D program during a staffing shortage may allow for continuity of care for critical services such as dialysis during a disaster.

  13. Self-regulation of inter-hemispheric visual cortex balance through real-time fMRI neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, F; Rieger, S W; Mermoud, C; Pichon, S; Koush, Y; Van De Ville, D; Vuilleumier, P; Scharnowski, F

    2014-10-15

    Recent advances in neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow for learning to control spatially localized brain activity in the range of millimeters across the entire brain. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback studies have demonstrated the feasibility of self-regulating activation in specific areas that are involved in a variety of functions, such as perception, motor control, language, and emotional processing. In most of these previous studies, participants trained to control activity within one region of interest (ROI). In the present study, we extended the neurofeedback approach by now training healthy participants to control the interhemispheric balance between their left and right visual cortices. This was accomplished by providing feedback based on the difference in activity between a target visual ROI and the corresponding homologue region in the opposite hemisphere. Eight out of 14 participants learned to control the differential feedback signal over the course of 3 neurofeedback training sessions spread over 3 days, i.e., they produced consistent increases in the visual target ROI relative to the opposite visual cortex. Those who learned to control the differential feedback signal were subsequently also able to exert that control in the absence of neurofeedback. Such learning to voluntarily control the balance between cortical areas of the two hemispheres might offer promising rehabilitation approaches for neurological or psychiatric conditions associated with pathological asymmetries in brain activity patterns, such as hemispatial neglect, dyslexia, or mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Time for change: a new training programme for morpho-molecular pathologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A; Oien, Karin A; Lee, Jessica L; Jones, J Louise; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of cellular pathology as a specialty has always been driven by technological developments and the clinical relevance of incorporating novel investigations into diagnostic practice. In recent years, the molecular characterisation of cancer has become of crucial relevance in patient treatment both for predictive testing and subclassification of certain tumours. Much of this has become possible due to the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies and the whole-genome sequencing of tumours is now being rolled out into clinical practice in England via the 100 000 Genome Project. The effective integration of cellular pathology reporting and genomic characterisation is crucial to ensure the morphological and genomic data are interpreted in the relevant context, though despite this, in many UK centres molecular testing is entirely detached from cellular pathology departments. The CM-Path initiative recognises there is a genomics knowledge and skills gap within cellular pathology that needs to be bridged through an upskilling of the current workforce and a redesign of pathology training. Bridging this gap will allow the development of an integrated ‘morphomolecular pathology’ specialty, which can maintain the relevance of cellular pathology at the centre of cancer patient management and allow the pathology community to continue to be a major influence in cancer discovery as well as playing a driving role in the delivery of precision medicine approaches. Here, several alternative models of pathology training, designed to address this challenge, are presented and appraised. PMID:29113995

  15. Time to competency, reliability of flexible transnasal laryngoscopy by training level: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christopher D; Platt, Michael P; Russell, Kimberly; Grillone, Gregory A; Aliphas, Avner; Noordzij, J Pieter

    2015-05-01

    To determine the progression of flexible transnasal laryngoscopy reliability and competency in otolaryngology residency training. Prospective case control study. Academic otolaryngology department. Medical students, otolaryngology residents, and otolaryngology attending physicians. Fourteen otolaryngology residents from PGY-1 to PGY-5 and 3 attending otolaryngologists viewed 25 selected and digitally recorded flexible transnasal laryngoscopies. The evaluators were asked to rate 13 items relating to abnormalities in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and subglottis. The level of concern and level of comfort with the diagnosis were assessed. Intraclass correlations were calculated for each topic and by level of training to determine reliability within each class and compare competency versus attending interpretations. Intraclass correlation of residents compared to attending physicians demonstrated significant improvements by year for left and right vocal fold immobility, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal mass, left and right vocal cord abnormalities, and level of concern. Additionally, pooled vocal cord mobility and pooled results in categories with good attending reliability demonstrated stepwise improvement as well. For these categories, resident reliability was found to be statistically similar to attending physicians in all categories by PGY-3. There were no trends for base of tongue abnormalities, pharyngeal abnormalities, and pharyngeal and hypopharyngeal masses. Resident competency for flexible transnasal laryngoscopy progresses during residency to reliability with attending otolaryngologists by the PGY-3 year over key facets of the examination. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  17. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  18. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, D.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  19. A study on the real-time reliability of on-board equipment of train control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    Real-time reliability evaluation is conducive to establishing a condition based maintenance system for the purpose of guaranteeing continuous train operation. According to the inherent characteristics of the on-board equipment, the connotation of reliability evaluation of on-board equipment is defined and the evaluation index of real-time reliability is provided in this paper. From the perspective of methodology and practical application, the real-time reliability of the on-board equipment is discussed in detail, and the method of evaluating the realtime reliability of on-board equipment at component level based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. In this method the performance degradation data is used directly to realize the accurate perception of the hidden state transition process of on-board equipment, which can achieve a better description of the real-time reliability of the equipment.

  20. Comparison of haptic guidance and error amplification robotic trainings for the learning of a timing-based motor task by healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Amy E; Corriveau, Hélène; Milot, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    With age, a decline in the temporal aspect of movement is observed such as a longer movement execution time and a decreased timing accuracy. Robotic training can represent an interesting approach to help improve movement timing among the elderly. Two types of robotic training-haptic guidance (HG; demonstrating the correct movement for a better movement planning and improved execution of movement) and error amplification (EA; exaggerating movement errors to have a more rapid and complete learning) have been positively used in young healthy subjects to boost timing accuracy. For healthy seniors, only HG training has been used so far where significant and positive timing gains have been obtained. The goal of the study was to evaluate and compare the impact of both HG and EA robotic trainings on the improvement of seniors' movement timing. Thirty-two healthy seniors (mean age 68 ± 4 years) learned to play a pinball-like game by triggering a one-degree-of-freedom hand robot at the proper time to make a flipper move and direct a falling ball toward a randomly positioned target. During HG and EA robotic trainings, the subjects' timing errors were decreased and increased, respectively, based on the subjects' timing errors in initiating a movement. Results showed that only HG training benefited learning, but the improvement did not generalize to untrained targets. Also, age had no influence on the efficacy of HG robotic training, meaning that the oldest subjects did not benefit more from HG training than the younger senior subjects. Using HG to teach the correct timing of movement seems to be a good strategy to improve motor learning for the elderly as for younger people. However, more studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of HG robotic training on improvement in movement timing.

  1. Features of the formative educational training groups in Youth sports schools in terms of our time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Zhytnitskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the factors affecting the effective performance of the Children and Youth Sports School at the initial and preliminary stage of basic training. Material and Methods: analysis of the literary base, pedagogical research methods, statistical methods, questionnaire. Results: the understanding of the factors influencing the motor skills formation of students is displayed. The author grounded three-dimensional understanding of dissimilar conditions and factors determining the functionality of a Children and Youth Sports School taking into account the motivation of students the scope of use of the skills and other factors which don’t deal with teaching science. Conclusions: it was found that miscellaneous factors, many of which are associated with the state of material and technical base and infrastructure of the school, the region and the country as a whole affect screening the contingent of a Children and Youth Sports School

  2. The timing and importance of motor skills course in knee arthroscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Engin; Çift, Hakan; Aybar, Ahmet; Erçin, Ersin; Güler, Gamze Babür; Poyanlı, Oğuz

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the impact of the simulation training program in learning duration of arthroscopic motor skills. Furthermore, we investigated the difference between junior and experienced residents in the improvement of arthroscopic motor skills duration. We established 2 study groups according to participants' year of experience in orthopedic residency with junior group residents with three years or less than three years experience as group 1 and experienced group with over 3 years of experience as group 2. We calculated duration change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. The tools used were; auto scoring mirror tracer(ASMT), 0'Conner the tweezer dexterity test(OCTDT), etch-a-sketch with overlay(ESOT), purdue the pegboard test(PPT), two-arm coordination test(TACT) and grooved pegboard test(GPT) which were all produced by Lafayette firm. These instruments were used to practice and measure the basic motor skills. All post-course test durations for participants decreased significantly when compared to pre-course. We calculated percentage change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. All motor skill test percentage changes were similar between two groups. In comparison of participants according to their experiences, results revealed that there was no difference in test results of experienced and junior surgeons. Both groups had provided equal improvement in terms of motor skills. As our results revealed, residents will be able to act with a strong motivation to learn applications through basic arthroscopic information gained in early period of orthopedic training and will make more successful applications of real patients. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Applicability of the shorter ‘Bangladesh regimen’ in high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sotgiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB, clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as the ‘Bangladesh regimen’ proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high-dose isoniazid, and ethambutol, followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. However, recent evidence from Europe and Latin America identified prevalences of resistance to the first-line drugs in this regimen (ethambutol and pyrazinamide exceeding 60%, and of prothionamide exceeding 50%. Furthermore, the proportions of resistance to the two most important pillars of the regimen – quinolones and kanamycin – were higher than 40%. Overall, only 14 out of 348 adult patients (4.0% were susceptible to all of the drugs composing the regimen, and were therefore potentially suitable for the ‘shorter regimen’. A shorter, cheaper, and well-tolerated MDR-TB regimen is likely to impact the number of patients treated and improve adherence if prescribed to the right patients through the systematic use of rapid MTBDRsl testing.

  5. Are Shorter Versions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Doable? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a well-established assessment tool for measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia. Researchers and clinicians have been interested in the development of a short version of the PANSS that could reduce the burden of its administration for patients and raters. The author presents a comprehensive overview of existing brief PANSS measures, including their strengths and limitations, and discusses some possible next steps. There are two available scales that offer a reduced number of original PANSS items: PANSS-14 and PANSS-19; and two shorter versions that include six items: Brief PANSS and PANSS-6. The PANSS-6 has been tested quite extensively in established trials and appears to demonstrate high sensitivity to change and an established cut off definition for remission. Prospective testing in new antipsychotic treatment trials is still required for these shorter versions of PANSS. In addition, they need to be supplemented with interview guides, as well as provide conversion formulas to translate total scores from the short PANSS versions to the PANSS-30. Both short versions of the PANSS are essentially designed to evaluate response to antipsychotic treatment. Future PANSS scale development needs to address specific measurement of treatment-responsive positive symptoms by including treatment-sensitive items, as well as illness-phase specific PANSS tools.

  6. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  7. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  8. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  9. Time-place learning over a lifetime : Absence of memory loss in trained old mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cornelis K; Reckman, Gerlof A R; Gerkema, Menno P; van der Zee, Eddy A

    Time-place learning (TPL) offers the possibility to study the functional interaction between cognition and the circadian system with aging. With TPL, animals link biological significant events with the location and the time of day. This what-where-when type of memory provides animals with an

  10. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    with the approximated actual arrival and departure times. As a result, all future statistics can now either be based on track circuit data with high precision or approximated actual arrival times with a high accuracy. Consequently, performance analysis will be more accurate, punctuality statistics more correct, KPI...

  11. Training patients in Time Pressure Management, a cognitive strategy for mental slowness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, I.; Heugten, C.M. van; Wade, D.T.; Fasotti, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide clinical practitioners with a framework for teaching patients Time Pressure Management, a cognitive strategy that aims to reduce disabilities arising from mental slowness due to acquired brain injury. Time Pressure Management provides patients with compensatory strategies to deal

  12. Time-Place Learning over a Lifetime: Absence of Memory Loss in Trained Old Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis K.; Reckman, Gerlof A. R.; Gerkema, Menno P.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2015-01-01

    Time-place learning (TPL) offers the possibility to study the functional interaction between cognition and the circadian system with aging. With TPL, animals link biological significant events with the location and the time of day. This what-where-when type of memory provides animals with an experience-based daily schedule. Mice were tested for…

  13. Shorter telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older persons with sarcopenia: results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eMarzetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a major clinical correlate of sarcopenia.Methods. Analyses were conducted in 142 persons aged >/= 65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic (University Hospital. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with bioelectrical impedance analysis used for muscle mass estimation. The frailty status was determined by both the Fried’s criteria (physical frailty, PF and a modified Rockwood’s frailty index (FI. Telomere length was measured in PBMCs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction according to the Telomere/Single copy gene ratio (T/S method.Results. Among 142 outpatients (mean age 75.0 ± 6.5 years, 59.2% women, sarcopenia was diagnosed in 23 individuals (19.3%. The PF phenotype was detected in 74 participants (52.1%. The average FI score was 0.46 ± 0.17. PBMC telomeres were shorter in sarcopenic subjects (T/S = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.24 relative to non-sarcopenic individuals (T/S = 0.26; 95%: CI: 0.24 – 0.28; p = 0.01, independent of age, gender, smoking habit, or comorbidity. No significant associations were determined between telomere length and either PF or FI.Conclusion. PBMC telomere length, expressed as T/S values, is shorter in older outpatients with sarcopenia. The cross-sectional assessment of PBMC telomere length is not sufficient at capturing the complex, multidimensional syndrome of frailty.

  14. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters. In general, protein supplementation pre- and post-workout increases physical performance, training session recovery, lean body mass, muscle hypertrophy, and strength. Specific gains, differ however based on protein type and amounts. Studies on timing of consumption of milk have indicated that fat-free milk post-workout was effective in promoting increases in lean body mass, strength, muscle hypertrophy and decreases in body fat. The leucine content of a protein source has an impact on protein synthesis, and affects muscle hypertrophy. Consumption of 3–4 g of leucine is needed to promote maximum protein synthesis. An ideal supplement following resistance exercise should contain whey protein that provides at least 3 g of leucine per serving. A combination of a fast-acting carbohydrate source such as maltodextrin or glucose should be consumed with the protein source, as leucine cannot modulate protein synthesis as effectively without the presence of insulin. Such a supplement post-workout would be most effective in increasing muscle protein synthesis, resulting in greater muscle hypertrophy and strength. In contrast, the consumption of essential amino acids and dextrose appears to be most effective at evoking protein synthesis prior to rather than following resistance exercise. To further enhance muscle hypertrophy and strength, a resistance weight- training program of at least 10–12 weeks with compound movements for

  15. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters. In general, protein supplementation pre- and post-workout increases physical performance, training session recovery, lean body mass, muscle hypertrophy, and strength. Specific gains, differ however based on protein type and amounts. Studies on timing of consumption of milk have indicated that fat-free milk post-workout was effective in promoting increases in lean body mass, strength, muscle hypertrophy and decreases in body fat. The leucine content of a protein source has an impact on protein synthesis, and affects muscle hypertrophy. Consumption of 3–4 g of leucine is needed to promote maximum protein synthesis. An ideal supplement following resistance exercise should contain whey protein that provides at least 3 g of leucine per serving. A combination of a fast-acting carbohydrate source such as maltodextrin or glucose should be consumed with the protein source, as leucine cannot modulate protein synthesis as effectively without the presence of insulin. Such a supplement post-workout would be most effective in increasing muscle protein synthesis, resulting in greater muscle hypertrophy and strength. In contrast, the consumption of essential amino acids and dextrose appears to be most effective at evoking protein synthesis prior to rather than following resistance exercise. To further enhance muscle hypertrophy and strength, a resistance weight- training program of at least 10–12 weeks

  16. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  17. Just-in-Time Training for High-Risk Low-Volume Therapies: An Approach to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Stephanie; Lisanti, Amy Jo; Adams, Ann; Field, Cynthia; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    High-risk low-volume therapies are those therapies that are practiced infrequently and yet carry an increased risk to patients because of their complexity. Staff nurses are required to competently manage these therapies to treat patients' unique needs and optimize outcomes; however, maintaining competence is challenging. This article describes implementation of Just-in-Time Training, which requires validation of minimum competency of bedside nurses managing high-risk low-volume therapies through direct observation of a return-demonstration competency checklist.

  18. Part-time general surgical training in South Australia: its success and future implications (or: pinnacles, pitfalls and lessons for the future).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Susan; Igras, Emma; Fosh, Beverley; Benson, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Flexible training options are sought by an increasing number of Australasian surgical trainees. Reasons include increased participation of women in the surgical workforce, postgraduate training and changing attitudes to family responsibilities. Despite endorsement of flexible training by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and Board in General Surgery, part-time (PT) training in General Surgery in Australia and New Zealand is not well established. A permanent 'stand-alone' PT training position was established at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 2007 under the Surgical Education and Training Program. This position offered 12 months of General Surgical training on a 0.5 full-time (FT) equivalent basis with pro rata emergency and on-call commitments and was accredited for 6 months of General Surgical training. This paper reviews the PT training experience in South Australia. De-identified logbook data were obtained from the South Australian Regional Subcommittee of the Board in General Surgery with consent of each of the trainees. Totals of operative cases were compared against matched FT trainees working on the same unit. Overall, PT trainees achieved comparable operative caseloads compared with their FT colleagues. All trainees included in this review have subsequently passed the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Fellowship Examination in General Surgery and returned to FT workforce positions. This paper presents two validated models of PT training. Training, resource and regulatory requirements and individual and institutional barriers to flexible training are substantial. Successful PT models offer positive and beneficial training alternatives for General Surgical trainees and contribute to workforce flexibility. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  20. Time, timing, talking and training: findings from an exploratory action research study to improve quality of end of life care for minority ethnic kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Emma; Randhawa, Gurch; Brown, Edwina; Da Silva Gane, Maria; Stoves, John; Warwick, Graham; Mir, Tahira; Magee, Regina; Sharman, Sue; Farrington, Ken

    2017-06-01

    Background. With an ageing and increasingly diverse population at risk from rising levels of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including kidney complications, there is a need to provide quality care at all stages in the care pathway including at the end of life and to all patients. Aim . This study purposively explored South Asian patients' experiences of kidney end of life care to understand how services can be delivered in a way that meets diverse patient needs. Methods. Within an action research design 14 focus groups (45 care providers) of kidney care providers discussed the recruitment and analysis of individual interviews with 16 South Asian kidney patients (eight men, eight women). Emergent themes from the focus groups were analysed thematically. The research took place at four UK centres providing kidney care to diverse populations: West London, Luton, Leicester and Bradford. Results. Key themes related to time and the timing of discussions about end of life care and the factors that place limitations on patients and providers in talking about end of life care. Lack of time and confidence of nurses in areas of kidney care, individual attitudes and workforce composition influence whether and how patients have access to end of life care through kidney services. Conclusion. Training, team work and time to discuss overarching issues (including timing and communication about end of life) with colleagues could support service providers to facilitate access and delivery of end of life care to this group of patients.

  1. An All-Round Education: The Board of Education's Policy for the Leisure-Time Training of Girls, 1939-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that leisure-time training not only further institutionalized adolescence in mid-century Britain but also perpetuated sexual stereotypes of passivity and service for young women. In contrast to the boys' training, girls' indoctrination stressed physical appearance, femininity, and servitude. (MJP)

  2. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and shorter telomere length: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Jianghua; Huang, Pan; Li, Jiping

    2017-08-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder, which may accelerate aging. Many study have investigated the association between telomeres length and PTSD, but results from published studies are contradictory. Therefore, Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to give more precise estimate of relationship between telomere length and PTSD. We systematically reviewed the databases of PUBMED, PsycINFO, Medline(Ovid SP) and EMBASE for all articles on the association between telomere length and PTSD. Data were summarized by using random-effects in the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies were examined by using Cochrane's Q statistic and I-squared. Five eligible studies containing 3851 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Shorten telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD with mean difference of -0.19( 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01; P<0.001) with I-square of 96%. The results from subgroup analysis demonstrated that shorter telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD across all gender groups, with mean difference of -0.15( 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01; P=0.04) for female, mean difference of -0.17( 95% CI: -0.19, -0.15; P<0.001) for male. Meanwhile, shorten telomere length was significantly associated with sexual assault(mean difference =-0.15, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01), childhood trauma (mean difference =-0.08, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.07), but not combat (mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.05). Compared to the individuals without PTSD, individuals with PTSD have shorter telomere length, which has implications for early intervention and timely treatment to prevent future adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Surgical skills simulation in trauma and orthopaedic training

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Euan RB; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in orde...

  4. Travel time and concurrent-schedule choice: retrospective versus prospective control.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, M; Elliffe, D

    2000-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules in which two different travel times between alternatives, 4.5 and 0.5 s, were randomly arranged. In Part 1, the next travel time was signaled while the subjects were responding on each alternative. Generalized matching analyses of performance in the presence of the two travel-time signals showed significantly higher response and time sensitivity when the longer travel time was signaled compared to when the shorter time was sig...

  5. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  6. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  7. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  8. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  9. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  10. [Timing and effectiveness of Brenner's IPT cognitive training in early psychosis. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (pattention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from ptraining, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.

  11. High-Speed Rail Train Timetabling Problem: A Time-Space Network Based Method with an Improved Branch-and-Price Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-space network based optimization method is designed for high-speed rail train timetabling problem to improve the service level of the high-speed rail. The general time-space path cost is presented which considers both the train travel time and the high-speed rail operation requirements: (1 service frequency requirement; (2 stopping plan adjustment; and (3 priority of train types. Train timetabling problem based on time-space path aims to minimize the total general time-space path cost of all trains. An improved branch-and-price algorithm is applied to solve the large scale integer programming problem. When dealing with the algorithm, a rapid branching and node selection for branch-and-price tree and a heuristic train time-space path generation for column generation are adopted to speed up the algorithm computation time. The computational results of a set of experiments on China’s high-speed rail system are presented with the discussions about the model validation, the effectiveness of the general time-space path cost, and the improved branch-and-price algorithm.

  12. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  13. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  14. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, K; Nauta, S; Stuyt, P M

    2004-02-14

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and the decline in the quality of education frequently prevent resident physicians from working part-time. Over the past two years, the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has experimented with job-sharing on clinical wards for resident physicians in internal medicine. This approach works well in practice, as long as a number of conditions, including the proper transfer of medical information and good communication, are satisfied. Job-sharing is one means of satisfying the growing demand for part-time work among resident physicians and specialists.

  15. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  16. Manual physical balance assistance of therapists during gait training of stroke survivors: characteristics and predicting the timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarman, Juliet A M; Maartens, Erik; van der Kooij, Herman; Buurke, Jaap H; Reenalda, Jasper; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-12-02

    During gait training, physical therapists continuously supervise stroke survivors and provide physical support to their pelvis when they judge that the patient is unable to keep his balance. This paper is the first in providing quantitative data about the corrective forces that therapists use during gait training. It is assumed that changes in the acceleration of a patient's COM are a good predictor for therapeutic balance assistance during the training sessions Therefore, this paper provides a method that predicts the timing of therapeutic balance assistance, based on acceleration data of the sacrum. Eight sub-acute stroke survivors and seven therapists were included in this study. Patients were asked to perform straight line walking as well as slalom walking in a conventional training setting. Acceleration of the sacrum was captured by an Inertial Magnetic Measurement Unit. Balance-assisting corrective forces applied by the therapist were collected from two force sensors positioned on both sides of the patient's hips. Measures to characterize the therapeutic balance assistance were the amount of force, duration, impulse and the anatomical plane in which the assistance took place. Based on the acceleration data of the sacrum, an algorithm was developed to predict therapeutic balance assistance. To validate the developed algorithm, the predicted events of balance assistance by the algorithm were compared with the actual provided therapeutic assistance. The algorithm was able to predict the actual therapeutic assistance with a Positive Predictive Value of 87% and a True Positive Rate of 81%. Assistance mainly took place over the medio-lateral axis and corrective forces of about 2% of the patient's body weight (15.9 N (11), median (IQR)) were provided by therapists in this plane. Median duration of balance assistance was 1.1 s (0.6) (median (IQR)) and median impulse was 9.4Ns (8.2) (median (IQR)). Although therapists were specifically instructed to aim for the

  17. Sodium bicarbonate improves 4 km time trial cycling performance when individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate in trained male cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Lewis A; Deb, Sanjoy K; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on 4 km cycling time trial (TT) performance when individualised to a predetermined time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). Eleven male trained cyclists volunteered for this study (height 1.82 ± 0.80 m, body mass (BM) 86.4 ± 12.9 kg, age 32 ± 9 years, peak power output (PPO) 382 ± 22 W). Two trials were initially conducted to identify time to peak HCO 3 - following both 0.2 g . kg -1 BM (SBC2) and 0.3 g . kg -1 BM (SBC3) NaHCO 3 . Thereafter, on three separate occasions using a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, participants completed a 4 km TT following ingestion of either SBC2, SBC3, or a taste-matched placebo (PLA) containing 0.07 g . kg -1 BM sodium chloride (NaCl) at the predetermined individual time to peak HCO 3 - . Both SBC2 (-8.3 ± 3.5 s; p < 0.001, d = 0.64) and SBC3 (-8.6 ± 5.4 s; p = 0.003, d = 0.66) reduced the time to complete the 4 km TT, with no difference between SBC conditions (mean difference = 0.2 ± 0.2 s; p = 0.87, d = 0.02). These findings suggest trained cyclists may benefit from individualising NaHCO 3 ingestion to time to peak HCO 3 - to enhance 4 km TT performance.

  18. MO-DE-BRA-04: Hands-On Fluoroscopy Safety Training with Real-Time Patient and Staff Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhoek, M; Bevins, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) are routinely performed across many different hospital departments. However, many involved staff members have minimal training regarding safe and optimal use of fluoroscopy systems. We developed and taught a hands-on fluoroscopy safety class incorporating real-time patient and staff dosimetry in order to promote safer and more optimal use of fluoroscopy during FGI. Methods: The hands-on fluoroscopy safety class is taught in an FGI suite, unique to each department. A patient equivalent phantom is set on the patient table with an ion chamber positioned at the x-ray beam entrance to the phantom. This provides a surrogate measure of patient entrance dose. Multiple solid state dosimeters (RaySafe i2 dosimetry systemTM) are deployed at different distances from the phantom (0.1, 1, 3 meters), which provide surrogate measures of staff dose. Instructors direct participating clinical staff to operate the fluoroscopy system as they view live fluoroscopic images, patient entrance dose, and staff doses in real-time. During class, instructors work with clinical staff to investigate how patient entrance dose, staff doses, and image quality are affected by different parameters, including pulse rate, magnification, collimation, beam angulation, imaging mode, system geometry, distance, and shielding. Results: Real-time dose visualization enables clinical staff to directly see and learn how to optimize their use of their own fluoroscopy system to minimize patient and staff dose, yet maintain sufficient image quality for FGI. As a direct result of the class, multiple hospital departments have implemented changes to their imaging protocols, including reduction of the default fluoroscopy pulse rate and increased use of collimation and lower dose fluoroscopy modes. Conclusion: Hands-on fluoroscopy safety training substantially benefits from real-time patient and staff dosimetry incorporated into the class. Real-time dose display helps

  19. MO-DE-BRA-04: Hands-On Fluoroscopy Safety Training with Real-Time Patient and Staff Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderhoek, M; Bevins, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) are routinely performed across many different hospital departments. However, many involved staff members have minimal training regarding safe and optimal use of fluoroscopy systems. We developed and taught a hands-on fluoroscopy safety class incorporating real-time patient and staff dosimetry in order to promote safer and more optimal use of fluoroscopy during FGI. Methods: The hands-on fluoroscopy safety class is taught in an FGI suite, unique to each department. A patient equivalent phantom is set on the patient table with an ion chamber positioned at the x-ray beam entrance to the phantom. This provides a surrogate measure of patient entrance dose. Multiple solid state dosimeters (RaySafe i2 dosimetry systemTM) are deployed at different distances from the phantom (0.1, 1, 3 meters), which provide surrogate measures of staff dose. Instructors direct participating clinical staff to operate the fluoroscopy system as they view live fluoroscopic images, patient entrance dose, and staff doses in real-time. During class, instructors work with clinical staff to investigate how patient entrance dose, staff doses, and image quality are affected by different parameters, including pulse rate, magnification, collimation, beam angulation, imaging mode, system geometry, distance, and shielding. Results: Real-time dose visualization enables clinical staff to directly see and learn how to optimize their use of their own fluoroscopy system to minimize patient and staff dose, yet maintain sufficient image quality for FGI. As a direct result of the class, multiple hospital departments have implemented changes to their imaging protocols, including reduction of the default fluoroscopy pulse rate and increased use of collimation and lower dose fluoroscopy modes. Conclusion: Hands-on fluoroscopy safety training substantially benefits from real-time patient and staff dosimetry incorporated into the class. Real-time dose display helps

  20. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, K.; Nauta, S.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and

  1. Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors of School Principals by Means of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more…

  2. Frequency Domain Training-Aided Channel Estimation and Equalization in Time-Varying Optical Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Msallem, Majdi; Hauske, Fabian N.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a non-weighted feed-forward equalization method with filter update by averaging channel estimations based on short CAZAC sequences. Three averaging methods are presented and tested by simulations in a time-varying 2×2 MIMO optical system....

  3. Spike-train acquisition, analysis and real-time experimental control using a graphical programming language (LabView).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, M A; Mapletoft, E A; Miles, T S

    1995-11-01

    A solution is described for the acquisition on a personal computer of standard pulses derived from neuronal discharge, measurement of neuronal discharge times, real-time control of stimulus delivery based on specified inter-pulse interval conditions in the neuronal spike train, and on-line display and analysis of the experimental data. The hardware consisted of an Apple Macintosh IIci computer and a plug-in card (National Instruments NB-MIO16) that supports A/D, D/A, digital I/O and timer functions. The software was written in the object-oriented graphical programming language LabView. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. The use of the system is demonstrated in an experiment in which the reflex responses to muscle stretch are assessed for a single motor unit in the human masseter muscle.

  4. Training Out-of-School Time Staff. Part 2 in a Series on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Out-of-School Time Programs: The Role of Frontline Staff. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Allison J. R.; Burkhauser; Mary; Bowie, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    A skilled and sustainable workforce is one of the most important markers of high-quality out-of-school time programs. Given the links between skilled staff, high-quality programs, and better youth outcomes, staff training has become an essential part of program implementation. To expand what is known about staff training, Child Trends recently…

  5. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  6. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, C.; Dalla Bella, S.; Farrugia, N.; Obrig, H.; Mainka, S.; Kotz, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor integration, auditory ...

  7. Neural Network Training by Integration of Adjoint Systems of Equations Forward in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically. it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved. but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. Tbc trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.

  8. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-I Chen,1,2 Pu-Hsi Tsai,3 Jui-Hsing Lin,4 Ning-Yuean Lee,5 Michael TC Liang61Graduate Institute of Sport Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, 2Center for Physical Education, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, 3Department of Sport and Leisure, National Quemoy University, Kinmen, 4Department of Physical Education, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, 5College of Living Technology, Tainan University of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USABackground: To examine whether short-term, ie, five daily sessions, vigorous dynamic cycling exercise and heat exposure could achieve heat acclimation in trained athletes and the effect of heat acclimation on cutaneous blood flow in the active and nonactive limb.Methods: Fourteen male badminton and table tennis athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.2 years were randomized into a heat acclimation (EXP, n = 7 or nonheat acclimation (CON, n = 7 group. For 5 consecutive days, the EXP group was trained using an upright leg cycle ergometer in a hot environment (38.4°C ± 0.4°C, while the CON group trained in a thermoneutral environment (24.1°C ± 0.3°C. For both groups, the training intensity and duration increased from a work rate of 10% below ventilatory threshold (VT and 25 minutes per session on day 1, to 10% above VT and 45 minutes per session on day 5. Subjects performed two incremental leg cycle exercise tests to exhaustion at baseline and post-training in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. Study outcome measurements include: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max; exercise heart rate (HR; O2 pulse; exercise time to exhaustion (tmax; skin blood flow in the upper arm (SkBFa and quadriceps (SkBFq; and mean skin (Tsk.Results: The significant heat-acclimated outcome measurements obtained during high-intensity leg cycling exercise in the high ambient environment are: (1 56%–100% reduction in cutaneous

  9. Trains and the Italian Unification: the Time of the Railways Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Maggi

    2011-04-01

    secondary railways, with a generalised movement to promote the branching out of the railway, as an instrument of progress. With the completion of the main lines, the outlying centers began to clamor for the trains that, in an agricultural society without for the moment the automobile, seemed the only tie with civilised life capable of bringing economic development and political and social modernisation. Italy was a country with an ancient infrastructure and numerous lively towns. These towns were often, in their municipal activity, the protagonists of the completion and management of a secondary railway system on the peninsula. The development of narrow gauge technology, that allowed narrower curves and steeper slopes thereby reducing the need for great engineering works, and the achievement of particular gripping systems like the rack railway, made it possible to link by rail the many small towns and villages located in the hills and on the slopes of mountains.

  10. Statistical and time domain signal analysis of the thermal behaviour of wind turbine drive train components under dynamic operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, K; Baltes, R; Bernet, C; Hilbert, M

    2012-01-01

    Gearboxes and generators are fundamental components of all electrical machines and the backbone of all electricity generation. Since the wind energy represents one of the key energy sources of the future, the number of wind turbines installed worldwide is rapidly increasing. Unlike in the past wind turbines are more often positioned in arctic as well as in desert like regions, and thereby exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Especially the temperature in those regions is a key factor that defines the design and choice of components and materials of the drive train. To optimize the design and health monitoring under varying temperatures it is important to understand the thermal behaviour dependent on environmental and machine parameters. This paper investigates the behaviour of the stator temperature of the double fed induction generator of a wind turbine. Therefore, different scenarios such as start of the turbine after a long period of no load, stop of the turbine after a long period of full load and others are isolated and analysed. For each scenario the dependences of the temperature on multiple wind turbine parameters such as power, speed and torque are studied. With the help of the regression analysis for multiple variables, it is pointed out which parameters have high impact on the thermal behaviour. Furthermore, an analysis was done to study the dependences in the time domain. The research conducted is based on 10 months of data of a 2 MW wind turbine using an adapted data acquisition system for high sampled data. The results appear promising, and lead to a better understanding of the thermal behaviour of a wind turbine drive train. Furthermore, the results represent the base of future research of drive trains under harsh environmental conditions, and it can be used to improve the fault diagnosis and design of electrical machines.

  11. Spike Train Auto-Structure Impacts Post-Synaptic Firing and Timing-Based Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Bertram; Castellano, Marta; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Cortical neurons are typically driven by several thousand synapses. The precise spatiotemporal pattern formed by these inputs can modulate the response of a post-synaptic cell. In this work, we explore how the temporal structure of pre-synaptic inhibitory and excitatory inputs impact the post-synaptic firing of a conductance-based integrate and fire neuron. Both the excitatory and inhibitory input was modeled by renewal gamma processes with varying shape factors for modeling regular and temporally random Poisson activity. We demonstrate that the temporal structure of mutually independent inputs affects the post-synaptic firing, while the strength of the effect depends on the firing rates of both the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. In a second step, we explore the effect of temporal structure of mutually independent inputs on a simple version of Hebbian learning, i.e., hard bound spike-timing-dependent plasticity. We explore both the equilibrium weight distribution and the speed of the transient weight dynamics for different mutually independent gamma processes. We find that both the equilibrium distribution of the synaptic weights and the speed of synaptic changes are modulated by the temporal structure of the input. Finally, we highlight that the sensitivity of both the post-synaptic firing as well as the spike-timing-dependent plasticity on the auto-structure of the input of a neuron could be used to modulate the learning rate of synaptic modification. PMID:22203800

  12. Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Gimmon, Yoav; Shapiro, Amir; Debi, Ronen; Snir, Yoram; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-03-04

    Falls are common among elderly, most of them occur while slipping or tripping during walking. We aimed to explore whether a training program that incorporates unexpected loss of balance during walking able to improve risk factors for falls. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial 53 community dwelling older adults (age 80.1±5.6 years), were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 26). The intervention group received 24 training sessions over 3 months that included unexpected perturbation of balance exercises during treadmill walking. The control group performed treadmill walking with no perturbations. The primary outcome measures were the voluntary step execution times, traditional postural sway parameters and Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis. The secondary outcome measures were the fall efficacy Scale (FES), self-reported late life function (LLFDI), and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Compared to control, participation in intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking led to faster Voluntary Step Execution Times under single (p = 0.002; effect size [ES] =0.75) and dual task (p = 0.003; [ES] = 0.89) conditions; intervention group subjects showed improvement in Short-term Effective diffusion coefficients in the mediolateral direction of the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis under eyes closed conditions (p = 0.012, [ES] = 0.92). Compared to control there were no significant changes in FES, LLFDI, and POMA. An intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking can improve voluntary stepping times and balance control, both previously reported as risk factors for falls. This however, did not transferred to a change self-reported function and FES. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439451 .

  13. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy more expensive than open despite shorter length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Anish; Dhamija, Ankit; Hancock, Jacquelyn; McCloskey, Barbara; Kim, Anthony W; Detterbeck, Frank C; Boffa, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) approach offers a number of advantages over open approaches including reduced discomfort, shorter length of stay and a faster recovery to baseline status. On the other hand, minimally invasive procedures typically are longer and consume greater disposable instrumentation, potentially resulting in a greater overall cost. The objective of this study was to compare costs associated with various oesophagectomy approaches for oesophageal cancer. An institutional Resource Information Management System (RIMS) was queried for cost data relating to hospital expenditures (as opposed to billings or collections). The RIMS was searched for patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 2003 and 2012 via minimally invasive, open transthoracic (OTT) (including Ivor Lewis, modified McKeown or thoracoabdominal) or transhiatal approaches. Patients that were converted from minimally invasive to open, or involved hybrid procedures, were excluded. A total of 160 oesophagectomies were identified, including 61 minimally invasive, 35 open transthoracic and 64 transhiatal. Costs on the day of surgery averaged higher in the MIO group ($12 476 ± 2190) compared with the open groups, OTT ($8202 ± 2512, P < 0.0001) or OTH ($5809 ± 2575, P < 0.0001). The median costs associated with the entire hospitalization also appear to be higher in the MIO group ($25 935) compared with OTT ($24 440) and OTH ($15 248). The average length of stay was lowest in the MIO group (11 ± 9 days) compared with OTT (19 ± 18 days, P = 0.006) and OTH (18 ± 28 days P = 0.07). The operative mortality was similar in the three groups (MIO = 3%, OTT = 9% and OTH = 3%). The operating theatre costs associated with minimally invasive oesophagectomy are significantly higher than OTT or OTH approaches. Unfortunately, a shorter hospital stay after MIO does not consistently offset higher surgical expense, as total hospital costs trend higher in the MIO patients. In

  14. Timing training in three children with diplegic cerebral palsy: Short- and long-term effects on upper-limb movement organization and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria eJohansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great need of interventions to maintain and improve motor functions in children with diplegic cerebral palsy (DCP, scientific evaluations of existing training methods are rare. This study aimed to explore individual effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing, spatio-temporal movement organization, and subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions in three children with DCP. All children participated in an individualized 4-week/12 session SMT training regime. Measurements before training (Pre, after training (Post1 and at 6 months post completed training (Post2 were made by the applied SMT training equipment, optoelectronic registrations of goal-directed upper-limb movements, and a questionnaire assessing subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions and usability. In general, the training regime was shown to have little effect on motor timing. However, some positive changes in spatio-temporal movement organization were found. Two children also reported substantial long-lasting positive changes in subjective experiences of hand/arm functionality in terms of increased movement control and reduced muscle tone. For these children, parallel kinematic findings also indicated smoother and faster movement trajectories that remained at Post2. Although highly individualized, the shown improvements in upper-limb kinematics and subjective experiences of improved functionality of the hands/arms for two of the cases warrant further explorations of SMT outcomes in children with DCP.

  15. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  17. Green Train. Basis for a Scandinavian high-speed train concept. Final report, Pt. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeidh, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    The Green Train (in Swedish 'Groena Taaget') is a high-speed train concept, that is economical, environmentally friendly and attractive to travellers. It is suited to specific Nordic conditions with a harsh winter climate, often varying demand and mixed passenger and freight operations on non-perfect track. The main proposal is a train for speeds up to 250 km/h equipped with carbody tilt for short travelling times on electrified mainlines. The concept is intended to be a flexible platform for long-distance and fast regional passenger trains, interoperable in Scandinavia, i.e. Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The Groena Taaget programme delivers a collection of ideas, proposals and technical solutions for rail operators, infrastructure managers and industry. This is part A of the final report, dealing with market, economy and service aspects, with an emphasis on the areas where research has been done within the Groena Taaget research and development programme. Passenger valuations and economy in train traffic exposed to competition are controlling factors in the design of the train concept. One important measure to achieve better economy in the train traffic with 15% lower total costs and the possibility to reduce fares is to use wide-bodied trains that can accommodate more seats with good comfort. Travel on some studied routes in Sweden may increase by 30% compared to today's express trains through shorter travelling times, lower fares and more direct connections, which are possible with shorter, flexible trainsets. Groena Taaget will be designed to give good punctuality even during peak load periods. Doors, interior design, luggage handling and vestibules with lifts for disabled travellers must be dimensioned for full trains. A well-considered design reduces dwell times and delays. Capacity utilisation on the lines increases with greater speed differences between express trains and slower trains in mixed traffic. Punctual stops and skip-stop operation

  18. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brandt

    Full Text Available Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  19. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods: 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results: The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions: These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas.

  1. Greater reproductive investment, but shorter lifespan, in agrosystem than in natural-habitat toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain. Mean age was lower in agrosystems than in pine groves, possibly as a consequence of increased mortality due to agrosystem environmental stressors. Remarkably, agrosystem toads were larger despite being younger, suggesting accelerated growth rate. Although we detected no differences in prey availability between habitats, artificial irrigation could shorten aestivation in agrosystems, thus increasing energy trade. Moreover, agrosystem toads exhibited increased indicators of reproductive investment. In the light of life-history theory, agrosystem toads might compensate for lesser reproductive events—due to shorter lives—with a higher reproductive investment in each attempt. Our results show that agrosystems may alter demography, which may have complex consequences on both individual fitness and population stability.

  2. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  3. Building a democratic education. The Teacher Training College Model in times of revolutionary crisis (1974-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mota

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to analyze the model and meaning of the reform of ordinary primary education, its ends and goals, and to address the ideological debate and clashes present in Teacher Training Colleges during the Ongoing Revolutionary Process (PREC. Experimental times of «pedagogical experiences», of the democratic construction of education, supported by a logic of equal opportunities and openness and intervention in the community, at a time when the educational system received the mandate to democratize success and combat social inequalities (Stoer, Stoleroff, Correia, 1990. Based on the triangulation of information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, our analysis focuses on the stakeholders’ discourses published by media specialized in education and teaching, or other, using anamnesis, oral accounts collected through interviews, and the few (still existing information sources. During the ideological debate and clash, two trends of the revolutionary process competed, that of the basic dynamics and of instrumentalisation. In the context of Teacher Training Colleges, the latter prevailed. It formed a centralised vision of the revolutionary process by fostering a mobilising dynamics, from the centre to the periphery, using the dimensions of academic knowledge, ideological principles and techniques for organising society following the ideological model established. It captured the strength and energy of the basic dynamics, either by outlining first the sense of mobilisation or assessing the propriety of the proposals arising from the mobilisation and adjusting them to its purposes. How to reference this article Mota, L., & Ferreira, A. G. (2015. La construcción de una educación democrática. Las escuelas de magisterio primario en tiempos de crisis revolucionaria (1974-1976. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 265-288. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.013

  4. Time-to-Fatigue and Intramuscular pH Measured via NIRS During Handgrip Exercise in Trained and Sedentary Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stroud, L.; Scott, P.; Hagan, R. D.; Soller, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    In exercising muscles force production and muscular endurance are impaired by a decrease in intramuscular pH. The effects of aerobic training (AT) on preventing acidosis and prolonging exercise time in muscles not specifically targeted by the training are unknown. Purpose: To compare interstitial pH, measured non-invasively with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) during rhythmic handgrip exercise in sedentary subjects and those who participate in AT activities that target the lower body. Methods: Maximal isometric force (MIF) was measured on three separate days in AT (n=5) and sedentary (n=8) subjects using a handgrip dynamometer (HGD). Isometric muscular endurance (IME) was measured during five trials, each separated by at least 48 hrs. For each IME trial subjects rhythmically squeezed (4 sec at 40% of MVC) and relaxed (2 sec) to fatigue or failure to reach the target force in three consecutive contractions or four non-consecutive contractions. Interstitial pH was derived from spectra collected using a NIRS sensor adhered to the skin over the FDP. The first four IME trials served to familiarize subjects with the protocol; the fifth trial was used for analysis. NIRS-derived pH was averaged in 30 sec increments. Between group differences in MIF and exercise time were tested using paired t-tests. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze effects of AT and exercise time on pH. Results: MIF was not different between groups (mean SD; aerobic=415.6 95.4 N vs. sedentary =505.1 107.4 N). Time to fatigue was greater in the AT than in the sedentary group (mean SD: 611 173 sec vs. 377 162 sec, p<0.05). pH was not different between groups at any time point. Average pH decreased (p<0.05) in both groups from rest (pH=7.4) through 90 sec of exercise (pH=6.9), but did not decrease further throughout the remainder of exercise. Conclusion: Although between group differences in pH were not detected, differences during the onset of exercise

  5. Forecasting method for global radiation time series without training phase: Comparison with other well-known prediction methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Motte, Fabrice; Fouilloy, Alexis; Notton, Gilles; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Integration of unpredictable renewable energy sources into electrical networks intensifies the complexity of the grid management due to their intermittent and unforeseeable nature. Because of the strong increase of solar power generation the prediction of solar yields becomes more and more important. Electrical operators need an estimation of the future production. For nowcasting and short term forecasting, the usual technics based on machine learning need large historical data sets of good quality during the training phase of predictors. However data are not always available and induce an advanced maintenance of meteorological stations, making the method inapplicable for poor instrumented or isolated sites. In this work, we propose intuitive methodologies based on the Kalman filter use (also known as linear quadratic estimation), able to predict a global radiation time series without the need of historical data. The accuracy of these methods is compared to other classical data driven methods, for different horizons of prediction and time steps. The proposed approach shows interesting capabilities allowing to improve quasi-systematically the prediction. For one to 10 h horizons Kalman model performances are competitive in comparison to more sophisticated models such as ANN which require both consistent historical data sets and computational resources. - Highlights: • Solar radiation forecasting with time series formalism. • Trainless approach compared to machine learning methods. • Very simple method dedicated to solar irradiation forecasting with high accuracy.

  6. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  7. The Effect of Shorter Treatment Regimens for Hepatitis C on Population Health and Under Fixed Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jake R; Kim, Arthur Y; Naggie, Susanna; Linas, Benjamin P

    2018-01-01

    Direct acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies are highly effective but costly. Wider adoption of an 8-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment regimen could result in significant savings, but may be less efficacious compared with a 12-week regimen. We evaluated outcomes under a constrained budget and cost-effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks of therapy in treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, genotype 1 HCV-infected black and nonblack individuals and considered scenarios of IL28B and NS5A resistance testing to determine treatment duration in sensitivity analyses. We developed a decision tree to use in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the cost-effectiveness of recommended treatment durations and the population health effect of these strategies given a constrained budget. Outcomes included the total number of individuals treated and attaining sustained virologic response (SVR) given a constrained budget and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We found that treating eligible (treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, HCV-RNA budget among both black and nonblack individuals, and our results suggested that NS5A resistance testing is cost-effective. Eight-week therapy provides good value, and wider adoption of shorter treatment could allow more individuals to attain SVR on the population level given a constrained budget. This analysis provides an evidence base to justify movement of the 8-week regimen to the preferred regimen list for appropriate patients in the HCV treatment guidelines and suggests expanding that recommendation to black patients in settings where cost and relapse trade-offs are considered.

  8. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  9. Hypermetabolism in ALS is associated with greater functional decline and shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Ioannides, Zara A; van Eijk, Ruben P A; Heggie, Susan; Thorpe, Kathryn A; Ceslis, Amelia; Heshmat, Saman; Henders, Anjali K; Wray, Naomi R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Ngo, Shyuan T

    2018-04-29

    To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; pALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Alternative promoter usage generates novel shorter MAPT mRNA transcripts in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huin, Vincent; Buée, Luc; Behal, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Sablonnière, Bernard; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie

    2017-10-03

    Alternative promoter usage is an important mechanism for transcriptome diversity and the regulation of gene expression. Indeed, this alternative usage may influence tissue/subcellular specificity, protein translation and function of the proteins. The existence of an alternative promoter for MAPT gene was considered for a long time to explain differential tissue specificity and differential response to transcription and growth factors between mRNA transcripts. The alternative promoter usage could explain partly the different tau proteins expression patterns observed in tauopathies. Here, we report on our discovery of a functional alternative promoter for MAPT, located upstream of the gene's second exon (exon 1). By analyzing genome databases and brain tissue from control individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy, we identified novel shorter transcripts derived from this alternative promoter. These transcripts are increased in patients' brain tissue as assessed by 5'RACE-PCR and qPCR. We suggest that these new MAPT isoforms can be translated into normal or amino-terminal-truncated tau proteins. We further suggest that activation of MAPT's alternative promoter under pathological conditions leads to the production of truncated proteins, changes in protein localization and function, and thus neurodegeneration.

  11. Cleavage of SNAP25 and its shorter versions by the protease domain of serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Mizanur

    Full Text Available Various substrates, catalysts, and assay methods are currently used to screen inhibitors for their effect on the proteolytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin. As a result, significant variation exists in the reported results. Recently, we found that one source of variation was the use of various catalysts, and have therefore evaluated its three forms. In this paper, we characterize three substrates under near uniform reaction conditions using the most active catalytic form of the toxin. Bovine serum albumin at varying optimum concentrations stimulated enzymatic activity with all three substrates. Sodium chloride had a stimulating effect on the full length synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25 and its 66-mer substrates but had an inhibitory effect on the 17-mer substrate. We found that under optimum conditions, full length SNAP25 was a better substrate than its shorter 66-mer or 17-mer forms both in terms of kcat, Km, and catalytic efficiency kcat/Km. Assay times greater than 15 min introduced large variations and significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency. In addition to characterizing the three substrates, our results identify potential sources of variations in previous published results, and underscore the importance of using well-defined reaction components and assay conditions.

  12. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  13. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  14. Gigahertz repetition rate, sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse train directly generated from a mode-locked Yb:KYW laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heewon; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kim, Chur; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Guang-Hoon; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-01-01

    We show that a 1.13 GHz repetition rate optical pulse train with 0.70 fs high-frequency timing jitter (integration bandwidth of 17.5 kHz-10 MHz, where the measurement instrument-limited noise floor contributes 0.41 fs in 10 MHz bandwidth) can be directly generated from a free-running, single-mode diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotube-coated mirrors. To our knowledge, this is the lowest-timing-jitter optical pulse train with gigahertz repetition rate ever measured. If this pulse train is used for direct sampling of 565 MHz signals (Nyquist frequency of the pulse train), the jitter level demonstrated would correspond to the projected effective-number-of-bit of 17.8, which is much higher than the thermal noise limit of 50 Ω load resistance (~14 bits).

  15. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Andres; Timpmann, Saima; Medijainen, Luule; Vähi, Mare; Oöpik, Vahur

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesized that during prolonged resistance training, time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement is of superior efficiency in comparison with the ingestion of the same supplement immediately before each training session. In a crossover study, 13 men aged 18 to 19 years were evaluated during 2 well-controlled, 8-week training and supplementation periods. In the time-focused supplementation regimen (TFR), the subjects consumed the supplement in the morning and in the afternoon, immediately before the training session. Time-divided supplementation regimen (TDR) included 1 morning dose, whereas the second dose was ingested in the evening, 5 hours after training. The daily dose of the supplement contained approximately 70 g of protein (82% casein) and less than 1 g of carbohydrate and fat. Body mass, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned), and one-repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and squat were determined at the beginning and at the end of both 8-week training and supplementation periods. Training produced a significant increase in 1RM strength both in the bench press (9.4% and 7.2%) and the squat exercise (10.7% and 17.8%) in the TFR and TDR, respectively, with no differences between the supplementation regimens. Fat-free mass increased from 62.4 +/- 1.2 to 63.5 +/- 1.3 kg (P = .046) with TDR, whereas no change was evident with TFR. The increase in 1RM strength in the squat exercise was related to the increase in fat-free mass in TDR (r = 0.569; P = .041). These findings may have practical implications for the timing of ingestion of protein supplements to enhance the efficacy of resistance training.

  16. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  17. Stabilization and treatment of dental avulsions and fractures by emergency physicians using just-in-time training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Mark S; Konzelmann, Jason; Smith, Jeffrey; Kalynych, Colleen J; Wears, Robert L; Schneider, Howard; Wylie, Todd; Kaminski, Anne; Matar-Joseph, Madeline

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to use a dental simulation model to compare splinting and bandaging methods for managing tooth avulsions and fractures, as measured by dentist evaluators for quality and time to complete each stabilization procedure. This was a randomized crossover study comparing 3 splinting techniques for managing a traumatically avulsed tooth (periodontal pack, wire, and bondable reinforcement ribbon) and 2 bandage techniques for managing a fractured tooth (calcium hydroxide paste and light-cured composite). After viewing a Just-in-Time training video, a convenience sample of emergency physicians performed the 5 stabilization techniques on dental models containing extracted teeth embedded in clay to simulate a segment of the human dentition. Data collected included time to complete each procedure, the evaluation of dentists about whether the procedure was performed satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily, and the ranking of dentists' and participants' preferred technique. Twenty-five emergency physicians participated in the study: 17 residents, 2 pediatric emergency medicine fellows, and 6 attending physicians. Reported median time, as well as minimum and maximum times to complete each splinting technique for an avulsed tooth, was as follows: periodontal pack 4.4 minutes (2.5 to 6.5 minutes), wire 8.6 minutes (5.8 to 12.9 minutes), and bondable reinforcement ribbon 8.9 minutes (5.6 to 15 minutes). Median time (and minimum and maximum times) to complete each protective bandaging technique for a fractured tooth was calcium hydroxide paste 4.6 minutes (3 to 9.6 minutes) and light-cured composite 7.1 minutes (5.5 to 14.1 minutes). When asked to choose a preferred splinting and bandaging technique according to the performance of the physicians, the dentists chose the bondable reinforcement ribbon 96% (24/25) and the light-cured composite 100% (25/25) of the time. Study participants had no measurable or agreeable preference for a particular splinting

  18. Quality of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during paediatric resuscitation training: time to stop the blind leading the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshid, Muhammad; Lo, Tsz-Yan Milly; Reynolds, Fiona

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence suggested that the quality of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during adult advanced life support training was suboptimal. This study aimed to assess the CPR quality of a paediatric resuscitation training programme, and to determine whether it was sufficiently addressed by the trainee team leaders during training. CPR quality of 20 consecutive resuscitation scenario training sessions was audited prospectively using a pre-designed proforma. A consultant intensivist and a senior nurse who were also Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) instructors assessed the CPR quality which included ventilation frequency, chest compression rate and depth, and any unnecessary interruption in chest compressions. Team leaders' response to CPR quality and elective change of compression rescuer during training were also recorded. Airway patency was not assessed in 13 sessions while ventilation rate was too fast in 18 sessions. Target compression rate was not achieved in only 1 session. The median chest compression rate was 115 beats/min. Chest compressions were too shallow in 10 sessions and were interrupted unnecessarily in 13 sessions. More than 50% of training sessions did not have elective change of the compression rescuer. 19 team leaders failed to address CPR quality during training despite all team leaders being certified APLS providers. The quality of CPR performance was suboptimal during paediatric resuscitation training and team leaders-in-training had little awareness of this inadequacy. Detailed CPR quality assessment and feedback should be integrated into paediatric resuscitation training to ensure optimal performance in real life resuscitations.

  19. Beta-band oscillations during passive listening to metronome sounds reflect improved timing representation after short-term musical training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with ageing, musical experts are less affected. This study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement. Behavioural performance of internal timing stability was assessed with synchronization-continuation finger-tapping paradigms. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded from older adults before and after one month of one-on-one training. For neural measures of automatic timing processing, we focused on beta oscillations (13-30 Hz) during passive listening to metronome beats. Periodic beta-band modulations in older adults before training were similar to previous findings in young listeners at a beat interval of 800 ms. After training, behavioural performance for continuation tapping was improved and accompanied by an increased range of beat-induced beta modulation, compared to participants who did not receive training. Beta changes were observed in the caudate, auditory, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, parietal lobe, cerebellum and medial prefrontal cortex, suggesting that increased resources are involved in timing processing and goal-oriented monitoring as well as reward-based sensorimotor learning. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Addition of a non-immersive virtual reality component to treadmill training to reduce fall risk in older adults (V-TIME): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Maidan, Inbal; Del Din, Silvia; Alcock, Lisa; Nieuwhof, Freek; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Pelosin, Elisa; Avanzino, Laura; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Dockx, Kim; Bekkers, Esther; Giladi, Nir; Nieuwboer, Alice; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-17

    Age-associated motor and cognitive deficits increase the risk of falls, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Because of the significant ramifications of falls, many interventions have been proposed, but few have aimed to prevent falls via an integrated approach targeting both motor and cognitive function. We aimed to test the hypothesis that an intervention combining treadmill training with non-immersive virtual reality (VR) to target both cognitive aspects of safe ambulation and mobility would lead to fewer falls than would treadmill training alone. We carried out this randomised controlled trial at five clinical centres across five countries (Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK). Adults aged 60-90 years with a high risk of falls based on a history of two or more falls in the 6 months before the study and with varied motor and cognitive deficits were randomly assigned by use of computer-based allocation to receive 6 weeks of either treadmill training plus VR or treadmill training alone. Randomisation was stratified by subgroups of patients (those with a history of idiopathic falls, those with mild cognitive impairment, and those with Parkinson's disease) and sex, with stratification per clinical site. Group allocation was done by a third party not involved in onsite study procedures. Both groups aimed to train three times per week for 6 weeks, with each session lasting about 45 min and structured training progression individualised to the participant's level of performance. The VR system consisted of a motion-capture camera and a computer-generated simulation projected on to a large screen, which was specifically designed to reduce fall risk in older adults by including real-life challenges such as obstacles, multiple pathways, and distracters that required continual adjustment of steps. The primary outcome was the incident rate of falls during the 6 months after the end of training, which was assessed in a modified intention

  1. Pulmonary Embolism Inpatients Treated With Rivaroxaban Had Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs Compared With Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Crivera, Concetta; Bookhart, Brahim; Schein, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, treatment patterns, and hospitalization costs were evaluated. Matched cohorts included 751 rivaroxaban-treated patients and 751 warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted mean LOS was 3.77 days for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, 3.66-3.87 days) and 5.48 days for warfarin patients (95% CI, 5.33-5.63 days; P < .001). Mean (SD) LOS was shorter for patients taking rivaroxaban whether admission was for provoked PE (rivaroxaban: 5.2 [5.1] days; warfarin: 7.0 [6.5] days; P < .001) or unprovoked PE (rivaroxaban: 3.4 [2.3] days; warfarin: 5.1 [2.7] days; P < .001). Mean (SD) days from first dose to discharge were 2.5 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.9) (warfarin) when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001) and 2.7 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.2) (warfarin) without parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001). The rivaroxaban cohort incurred significantly lower unadjusted mean (SD) hospitalization costs (rivaroxaban: $8473 [$9105]; warfarin: $10,291 [$9185]; P < .001), confirmed by covariate adjustment with generalized linear modeling estimating predicted mean hospitalization costs of $8266 for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, $7851-$8681) and $10,511 for warfarin patients (95% CI, $10,031-$10,992; P < .001). patients with PE treated with rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs by $2245 per admission compared with patients treated with warfarin, which was attributable to cost offsets from 1.71 fewer days of

  2. The European Working Time Directive and the effects on training of surgical specialists (doctors in training): a position paper of the surgical disciplines of the countries of the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, V

    2006-11-01

    Legislation launched with the EWTD was born as a "Protection of the clinical personnel against overwork for the benefit of Patients" (consumer protection and safety). It appeared that this legislation is in direct and severe conflict with former EU legislation to train competent surgical specialists. First experiences with the EWTD show far reaching and serious consequences on the training of surgical specialists as well as on medical care. There will be a reduction of about 30-35% of clinical and operative experience acquired during the usual 6 yrs of training, with many other negative aspects (see p. 7). All measures proposed so far to overcome the ensuing problems are unworkable. The training of competent surgical specialists as required by the Directive 93/16 EEC is no longer possible and serious problems with safe patient care will occur in the short term, if no political actions are taken. The surgical specialties, represented in the UEMS, provide a proposal for a working hour model consisting of 48 hrs working time (incl. service duties) plus additional 12 hrs reserved and protected for teaching and training. This model would adhere to the EWTD on the one hand, yet maintain the desired standard of training. This proposed exemption from the EWTD would be limited to the time of specialist training. We ask the responsible politicians to find a solution rapidly to prevent serious negative consequences. This motion is supported by the surgical specialties (neurosurgery, general surgery, orthopaedic surgery, paediatric surgery, cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, oto-rhino-laryngology, list not complete) of the member states of the EU, representing more than 80,000 surgical specialists.

  3. Position-Dependent Cardiovascular Response and Time-Motion Analysis During Training Drills and Friendly Matches in Elite Male Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Ric, Angel; Llabres-Torres, Ivan; de Las Heras, Bernat; Schelling I Del Alcazar, Xavi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the cardiovascular workload (heart rate [HR]) and time-motion demands between positional groups, during numerous basketball training drills, and compare the results with in-game competition demands. A convenience sample of 14 top-level professional basketball players from the same club (Spanish First Division, ACB) participated in the study. A total of 146 basketball exercises per player (performed over an 8-week period in 32 team training sessions throughout the competitive season) and 7 friendly matches (FM) played during the preparatory phase were analyzed. The results reveal that HRavg and HRpeak were the highest in FM (158 ± 10; 198 ± 9 b · min(-1), respectively). Time-motion analysis showed 1v1 to be the most demanding drill (53 ± 8 and 46 ± 12 movements per minute for full and half court, respectively). During FM, players performed 33 ± 7 movements per minute. Positional differences exist for both HR and time-motion demands, ranging from moderate to very large for all basketball drills compared with FM. Constraints such as number of players, court size, work-to-rest ratios, and coach intervention are key factors influencing cardiovascular responses and time-motion demands during basketball training sessions. These results demonstrate that systematic monitoring of the physical demands and physiological responses during training and competition can inform and potentially improve coaching strategy, basketball-specific training drills, and ultimately, match performance.

  4. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  5. It Is Not Just a Matter of Having the Time: Job-Related Training Participation of Hong Kong Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, May Yeuk-Mui

    2014-01-01

    Participation in job-related training as part and parcel of lifelong learning is widely advocated. While many empirical research about job-related training of employees are about advanced western economies, little is known about advanced Asian economies. To fill this void in the literature, this study applies the human capital, institutional and…

  6. The entry of women in predominantly male professions: when training supports the search of alternative ways of organizing work time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne; Santos, Marta; Cunha, Liliana; Castelhano, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Following a research carried out on the integration of women in professional areas predominantly for men, this paper intends to present and debate the project of a training course which aims the transformation of the organization of work schedules in order to improve the well-being of the workers involved. The conception of training courses with this type of objective involves the confrontation and debate between the "invested skills" of the trainers and the "constituted skills" of the trainees. But will this paradigm remain intact when applied to training courses permeated by the gender dimension? That is what one will try to realize with the effective implementation of a training course, whose reflection will allow, ultimately, to enrich our understanding on gender, work, health and training.

  7. Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Winding, Kamilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time...... composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group from 28...

  8. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  9. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  10. Instructor training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    A SAT-based Instructor Training Course was developed and implemented at NVTC. The duration of the initial course is 3 weeks and 2 weeks for annual refresher course. NVTC has had much experience with this Instructor Training Course generating the following lessons-learned: SAT implementation needs to be supported by plant management; age of instructors; developments of training materials and conducting training at the same time; knowledge and use of the PC; English language skills; social transitioning from the NPP to the TC; motivation; workplace environment and conditions

  11. Enhanced control of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurophysiology with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training and working memory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Matthew S; Kane, Jessica H; Weisend, Michael P; Parker, Jason G

    2016-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback can be used to train localized, conscious regulation of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. As a therapeutic technique, rt-fMRI neurofeedback reduces the symptoms of a variety of neurologic disorders. To date, few studies have investigated the use of self-regulation training using rt-fMRI neurofeedback to enhance cognitive performance. This work investigates the utility of rt-fMRI neurofeedback as a tool to enhance human cognition by training healthy individuals to consciously control activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A cohort of 18 healthy participants in the experimental group underwent rt-fMRI neurofeedback from the left DLPFC in five training sessions across two weeks while 7 participants in the control group underwent similar training outside the MRI and without rt-fMRI neurofeedback. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated on two testing days separated by the five rt-fMRI neurofeedback sessions using two computerized tests. We investigated the ability to control the BOLD signal across training sessions and WM performance across the two testing days. The group with rt-fMRI neurofeedback demonstrated a significant increase in the ability to self-regulate the BOLD signal in the left DLPFC across sessions. WM performance showed differential improvement between testing days one and two across the groups with the highest increases observed in the rt-fMRI neurofeedback group. These results provide evidence that individuals can quickly gain the ability to consciously control the left DLPFC, and this training results in improvements of WM performance beyond that of training alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Making time for what's important: what elements should we value when planning practice-based professional training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J C; Clements, S

    2016-08-12

    Newly qualified professional healthcare graduates, whether training to become doctors, dentists, veterinary surgeons or nurses, tend to need some support as they take their first steps along that bumpy road from university to confident, competent practice. We identify some key features of the UK programme of dental practice-based training to acknowledge its strengths - 12 months of clinical practice within a well-established dental team, one-to-one weekly meetings with the same dedicated mentor, regular peer learning with the same group of peers over 12 months and the opportunity to observe role models from the profession including training programme directors and other general dental practitioners (GDPs). This educational programme is unique to dentistry and this article outlines why we believe it is important to value these features when designing postgraduate professional training in healthcare sciences.

  13. Athletic Training Students' and Preceptors' Perceptions of Active Learning Time and Bug-in-Ear Technology during Clinical Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L.; Kasamatsu, Tricia M.; Montgomery, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Engaging clinical experiences that allow extensive active learning and patient care interactions are important for the professional development of athletic training students. Understanding students' use of clinical time is important when attempting to improve these experiences. Objective: To gain participants' perspectives on active…

  14. A pilot study of rhythm and timing training as a supplement to occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie; Dunn, Leah; Dunning, Kari; Page, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability. A need exists for an effective intervention to enhance upper extremity (UE) motor abilities and activities of daily living (ADL) performance. The objectives of this pilot study were to (1) determine the feasibility of adding Interactive Metronome (IM) to an occupational therapy (OT) program; and (2) determine changes in UE impairments, function, quality of life, and perceived physical performance ability and satisfaction using a combined IM + OT regimen compared with OT alone for adults with chronic stroke. This pilot study (n=10) used a 2-group (OT or IM+OT) pretest-posttest design. The intervention involved 60 minutes of IM + OT or OT alone, 3 days a week for 10 weeks. Outcome measures included the UE Fugl-Meyer (impairment), the Arm Motor Ability Test (function), the Box and Block Test (function), Stroke Impact Scale (quality of life), and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (perceived performance ability and satisfaction). It was feasible to add IM to OT. The IM+OT group demonstrated decreased impairment and increased quality of life. However, the OT-alone group demonstrated greater gains in function, perceived physical performance ability, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that rhythm and timing training using the IM is a feasible intervention to consider as part of therapy treatment. However, IM may fit best for prefunctional treatment, as it seemed to primarily decrease impairment. It may also serve as a supplement before or after treatment in order to maximize rehabilitation potential. Clinical implications and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  15. Models of Full-Time and Part-Time Vocational Training for School-Leavers: A Comparison between Germany and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissinger, Thomas; Smith, Erica; Pickersgill, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article explores some different ways of providing vocational qualifications, specifically for young people who do not go directly to university from school. The examples of Germany and Australia are discussed and show that historical, political, economic and social factors influence the preferred modes of training and their relative perceived…

  16. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM CITRATE INGESTION ON METABOLISM AND 1500-M RACING TIME IN TRAINED FEMALE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahur Ööpik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of sodium citrate ingestion on the metabolic response to exercise and performance in a 1500-m competitive run in trained female middle-distance runners in field conditions. Seventeen athletes (mean (± SD aged 18.6 ± 2.5 years, VO2max 55.2 ± 7.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 competed in two 1500-m races following ingestion of 0.4 g·kg-1 body mass of sodium citrate (CIT and placebo (PLC - 1.0% solution of NaCl. The two substances, CIT and PLC were administered in 800 ml of solution in a randomly assigned double-blind crossover manner. Capillary blood samples were analysed for lactate, glucose, haemoglobin and haematocrit before administering the solutions (baseline as well as before and after both 1500-m races. The athletes' times for trials CIT and PLC were 321.4 ± 26.4 and 317.4 ± 22.5 s, respectively (p > 0.05. A greater relative increase in plasma volume after administering the experimental solution, an increased body mass (by 0.4 kg; p = 0.006 immediately before the race and a restrained increase in blood glucose concentration (by 2.5 ± 1.2 mmol·l-1 vs 3.4 ± 0.8 mmol·l-1; p = 0.002 during the race were observed in the CIT trial compared to the PLC. A significant relationship was observed between body mass of the subjects immediately before the race and performance time (r = 0.374; p = 0.029. There were no between-treatment differences in heart rate in any stage of the run or in blood lactate accumulation during the race (final concentration of lactate was 14.4 ± 3.0 mmol·l-1 and 13.4 ± 2.5 mmol·l-1 (p > 0.05 in the CIT and PLC trials, respectively. The results suggest that sodium citrate induces an increase in water retention before exercise and may modify carbohydrate metabolism in high intensity running, but does not improve performance in 1500-m competitive run in female middle-distance runners

  17. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Long-Term Costs and Health Consequences of Issuing Shorter Duration Prescriptions for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Payne, Rupert; Wilson, Edward Cf

    2018-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England spends over £9 billion on prescription medicines dispensed in primary care, of which over two-thirds is accounted for by repeat prescriptions. Recently, GPs in England have been urged to limit the duration of repeat prescriptions, where clinically appropriate, to 28 days to reduce wastage and hence contain costs. However, shorter prescriptions will increase transaction costs and thus may not be cost saving. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that shorter prescriptions are associated with lower adherence, which would be expected to lead to lower clinical benefit. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 3-month versus 28-day repeat prescriptions from the perspective of the NHS. We adapted three previously developed UK policy-relevant models, incorporating transaction (dispensing fees, prescriber time) and drug wastage costs associated with 3-month and 28-day prescriptions in three case studies: antihypertensive medications for prevention of cardiovascular events; drugs to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes; and treatments for depression. In all cases, 3-month prescriptions were associated with lower costs and higher QALYs than 28-day prescriptions. This is driven by assumptions that higher adherence leads to improved disease control, lower costs and improved QALYs. Longer repeat prescriptions may be cost-effective compared with shorter ones. However, the quality of the evidence base on which this modelling is based is poor. Any policy rollout should be within the context of a trial such as a stepped-wedge cluster design.

  19. Shorter anogenital distance predicts poorer semen quality in young men in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Stahlhut, Richard W; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    count (p-values, 0.002-0.048). Men with AGD(AS) below (vs. above) the median were 7.3 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.6) to have a low sperm concentration (... percentiles of (adjusted) AGD(AS). CONCLUSIONS: In our population, AGD(AS) was a strong correlate of all semen parameters and a predictor of low sperm concentration. In animals, male AGD at birth reflects androgen levels during the masculinization programming window and predicts adult AGD and reproductive...

  20. The Mucosal Immune Function Is Not Compromised during a Period of High-Intensity Interval Training. Is It Time to Reconsider an Old Assumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90–95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70–75% of maximum heart rate for 60–80 min. The psycho-immunological stress-response was investigated with a full daily profile of salivary cortisol and immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate along with the mood state on a baseline day, the first and last day of training and at follow-up 4 days after the last day of training. Before and after the training period, each athlete's running performance and peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak) was determined with an incremental exercise test. Results: The HIIT resulted in a longer time-to-exhaustion (P = 0.02) and increased V·O2peak compared to LSD (P = 0.01). The circadian variation of sIgA secretion rate showed highest values in the morning immediately after waking up followed by a decrease throughout the day in both groups (P HIIT, the wake-up response of sIgA secretion rate was higher on the last day of training (P HIIT and LSD (P HIIT indicates no compromised mucosal immune function compared to LSD and shows the functional adaptation of the mucosal immune system in response to the increased stress and training load of nine sessions of HIIT. PMID:28744226

  1. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects.

  2. Gait Training with Real-Time Augmented Toe-Ground Clearance Information Decreases Tripping Risk in Older Adults and a Person with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul K Begg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls risk increases with ageing but is substantially higher in people with stroke. Tripping-related balance loss is the primary cause of falls, and Minimum Toe Clearance (MTC during walking is closely linked to tripping risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether real-time augmented information of toe-ground clearance at MTC can increase toe clearance, and reduce tripping risk. Nine healthy older adults (76±9 years and one 71 year old female stroke patient participated. Vertical toe displacement was displayed in real-time such that participants could adjust their toe clearance during treadmill walking. Participants undertook a session of unconstrained walking (no-feedback baseline and, in a subsequent Feedback condition, were asked to modify their swing phase trajectory to match a target increased MTC. Tripping probability (PT pre- and post-training was calculated by modelling MTC distributions. Older adults showed significantly higher mean MTC for the post-training retention session (27.7 ±3.79mm compared to the normal walking trial (14.1± 8.3 mm. The PT on a 1cm obstacle for the older adults reduced from 1 in 578 strides to 1 in 105,988 strides. With gait training the stroke patient increased MTC and reduced variability (baseline 16±12 mm, post-training 24±8 mm which reduced obstacle contact probability from 1 in 3 strides in baseline to 1 in 161 strides post-training. The findings confirm that concurrent visual feedback of a lower limb kinematic gait parameter is effective in changing foot trajectory control and reducing tripping probability in older adults. There is potential for further investigation of augmented feedback training across a range of gait-impaired populations, such as stroke.

  3. Positive impact of crisis resource management training on no-flow time and team member verbalisations during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Ezequiel; Russo, Sebastian G; Cremer, Stephan; Strack, Micha; Kaminski, Lea; Eich, Christoph; Timmermann, Arnd; Boos, Margarete

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of video-based interactive crisis resource management (CRM) training on no-flow time (NFT) and on proportions of team member verbalisations (TMV) during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Further, to investigate the link between team leader verbalisation accuracy and NFT. The randomised controlled study was embedded in the obligatory advanced life support (ALS) course for final-year medical students. Students (176; 25.35±1.03 years, 63% female) were alphabetically assigned to 44 four-person teams that were then randomly (computer-generated) assigned to either CRM intervention (n=26), receiving interactive video-based CRM-training, or to control intervention (n=18), receiving an additional ALS-training. Primary outcomes were NFT and proportions of TMV, which were subdivided into eight categories: four team leader verbalisations (TLV) with different accuracy levels and four follower verbalisation categories (FV). Measurements were made of all groups administering simulated adult CPR. NFT rates were significantly lower in the CRM-training group (31.4±6.1% vs. 36.3±6.6%, p=0.014). Proportions of all TLV categories were higher in the CRM-training group (ptraining in undergraduate medical education reduces NFT in simulated CPR and improves TLV proportions during simulated CPR. Further research will test how these results translate into clinical performance and patient outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum...

  6. Monitoring vegetation change and dynamics on U.S. Army training lands using satellite image time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutchinson, J.M.S.; Jacquin, A.; Hutchinson, S.L.; Verbesselt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant land holdings of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the importance of those lands to support a variety of inherently damaging activities, application of sound natural resource conservation principles and proactive monitoring practices are necessary to manage military training

  7. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Kiefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance.

  8. Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Sutcliffe, James S; Warren, Zachary E; Keenan, Brendan T; Potter, Melissa H; Malow, Beth A

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1221-1238. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism

  9. V-TIME: a treadmill training program augmented by virtual reality to decrease fall risk in older adults: study design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Reelick, Miriam; Nieuwhof, Freek; Pelosin, Elisa; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Dockx, Kim; Nieuwboer, Alice; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-06

    Recent work has demonstrated that fall risk can be attributed to cognitive as well as motor deficits. Indeed, everyday walking in complex environments utilizes executive function, dual tasking, planning and scanning, all while walking forward. Pilot studies suggest that a multi-modal intervention that combines treadmill training to target motor function and a virtual reality obstacle course to address the cognitive components of fall risk may be used to successfully address the motor-cognitive interactions that are fundamental for fall risk reduction. The proposed randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effects of treadmill training augmented with virtual reality on fall risk. Three hundred older adults with a history of falls will be recruited to participate in this study. This will include older adults (n=100), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n=100), and patients with Parkinson's disease (n=100). These three sub-groups will be recruited in order to evaluate the effects of the intervention in people with a range of motor and cognitive deficits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (treadmill training with virtual reality) or to the active-control group (treadmill training without virtual reality). Each person will participate in a training program set in an outpatient setting 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Assessments will take place before, after, and 1 month and 6 months after the completion of the training. A falls calendar will be kept by each participant for 6 months after completing the training to assess fall incidence (i.e., the number of falls, multiple falls and falls rate). In addition, we will measure gait under usual and dual task conditions, balance, community mobility, health related quality of life, user satisfaction and cognitive function. This randomized controlled trial will demonstrate the extent to which an intervention that combines treadmill training augmented by virtual reality reduces fall risk

  10. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  11. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H K Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C, in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table.A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT was used as a screening tool of risky drinking.Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959. Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167. The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5.Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  12. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eOttersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Training on working memory (WM improves attention and working memory in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID, the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities aged 8–13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR. The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with intellectual disabilities training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks.In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  13. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottersen, Jon; Grill, Katja M

    2015-01-01

    Training on working memory (WM) improves attention and WM in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate ID aged 8-13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR). The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with ID training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  14. Time-dependent effects of training on cardiovascular control in spontaneously hypertensive rats: role for brain oxidative stress and inflammation and baroreflex sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S Masson

    Full Text Available Baroreflex dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, important hallmarks of hypertension, are attenuated by exercise training. In this study, we investigated the relationships and time-course changes of cardiovascular parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-oxidant profiles within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Basal values and variability of arterial pressure and heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity were measured in trained (T, low-intensity treadmill training and sedentary (S SHR at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8. Paraventricular nucleus was used to determine reactive oxygen species (dihydroethidium oxidation products, HPLC, NADPH oxidase subunits and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (Real time PCR, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 expression (Western blotting, NF-κB content (electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cytokines immunofluorescence. SHR-S vs. WKY-S (Wistar Kyoto rats as time control showed increased mean arterial pressure (172±3 mmHg, pressure variability and heart rate (358±7 b/min, decreased baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability, increased p47phox and reactive oxygen species production, elevated NF-κB activity and increased TNF-α and IL-6 expression within the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. Two weeks of training reversed all hypothalamic changes, reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and normalized baroreflex sensitivity (4.04±0.31 vs. 2.31±0.19 b/min/mmHg in SHR-S. These responses were followed by increased vagal component of heart rate variability (1.9-fold and resting bradycardia (-13% at the 4th week, and, by reduced vasomotor component of pressure variability (-28% and decreased mean arterial pressure (-7% only at the 8th week of training. Our findings indicate that independent of the high pressure levels in SHR, training promptly restores baroreflex function by disrupting the positive feedback between high oxidative stress and increased pro

  15. Surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Mabrey, Jay D; Jazrawi, Laith M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2012-07-01

    Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated.

  16. Resting-state functional connectivity modulation and sustained changes after real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Young, Kymberly D; Phillips, Raquel; Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and normalize with remission. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training with the goal of upregulating amygdala activity during recall of happy autobiographical memories (AMs) has been suggested, and recently explored, as a novel therapeutic approach that resulted in improvement in self-reported mood in depressed subjects. In this study, we assessed the possibility of sustained brain changes as well as the neuromodulatory effects of rtfMRI-nf training of the amygdala during recall of positive AMs in MDD and matched healthy subjects. MDD and healthy subjects went through one visit of rtfMRI-nf training. Subjects were assigned to receive active neurofeedback from the left amygdale (LA) or from a control region putatively not modulated by AM recall or emotion regulation, that is, the left horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus. To assess lasting effects of neurofeedback in MDD, the resting-state functional connectivity before and after rtfMRI-nf in 27 depressed subjects, as well as in 27 matched healthy subjects before rtfMRI-nf was measured. Results show that abnormal hypo-connectivity with LA in MDD is reversed after rtfMRI-nf training by recalling positive AMs. Although such neuromodulatory changes are observed in both MDD groups receiving feedback from respective active and control brain regions, only in the active group are larger decreases of depression severity associated with larger increases of amygdala connectivity and a significant, positive correlation is found between the connectivity changes and the days after neurofeedback. In addition, active neurofeedback training of the amygdala enhances connectivity with temporal cortical regions, including the hippocampus. These results demonstrate lasting brain changes induced by amygdala rtfMRI-nf training and suggest the importance of reinforcement learning in

  17. Field training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, G.E.; Hadaway, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Individualized, personal training can be used to increase an employee's awareness of the HSE program. Such training can stimulate personal commitment and provide personal skills that can be utilized for the benefit of the overall HSE effort. But, providing such training within our industry can be a difficult task due to the scheduling, travel arrangements, and cost associated with bringing employees from isolated, remote locations to centrally located training facilities. One method of overcoming these obstacles involves the use of field instructors to provide the training at the many, and varied number of individuals can be reached with minimal disruption to their work scheduling or to their time off. In fact, this type of on-site training is already used by some oil companies and drilling contractors with encouraging results. This paper describes one drilling contractor's experiences with such a training program. The results after eight years how that this program not only can provide and efficient, economical means of employee training, but also can have a direct application to employee motivation regarding a company's HSE effort

  18. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  19. Just-in-Time Training of the Evidence-Based Public Health Framework, Oklahoma, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda R; Lowry, Jon P; Morgan, Latricia A

    2018-03-07

    Training of practitioners on evidence-based public health has shown to be beneficial, yet overwhelming. Chunking information and proximate practical application are effective techniques to increase retention in adult learning. Evidence-based public health training for practitioners from African American and Hispanic/Latino community agencies and tribes/tribal nations incorporated these 2 techniques. The community-level practitioners alternated attending training and implementing the steps of the evidence-based public health framework as they planned state-funded programs. One year later, survey results showed that participants reported increased confidence in skills that were reinforced by practical and practiced application as compared with posttraining survey results. In addition, at 1 year, reported confidence in skills that were not fortified by proximate application decreased when compared with posttraining confidence levels. All 7 community programs successfully created individualized evidence-based action plans that included evidence-based practices and policies across socioecological levels that fit with the unique culture and climate of their own community.

  20. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of trainee involvement on procedure and list times: A statistical analysis with discussion of current issues affecting orthopaedic training in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T; Sahu, A; Johnson, D S; Turner, P G

    2010-02-01

    Training surgeons adds time to the duration of procedures and operation lists. This is not accounted for in the finance received to perform the operation by the hospital in the Payment by Results (PbR) system. To find out: 1. The effect on the duration of a procedure and the number of procedures performed on the list when a trainee is involved. 2. The percentage of orthopaedic cases with trainee involvement. 3. The effect of European working time directive (EWTD) on the trainee involvement in cases from theatre data in 2008 versus logbook data from 2004 - 2008. Data was taken from two different sources. Firstly, the Operating Room Information System (ORMIS) and patient operation notes. The second source was a consultant's logbook comprising 227 primary total knee replacements performed between 2004 and 2008. The data produced trends suggesting trainees took longer to perform procedures than consultants. In orthopaedic operations, 92% of cases had trainees present and of these 17% of cases were performed by trainees in 2008. Before the implementation of the EWTD, trainees performed more procedures when compared with current logbook data (38% versus 17% cases). Time taken by a trainee to perform the procedure under direct consultant supervision was significantly higher in comparison to procedures performed by a consultant alone (P = < 0.0001). Analysing the ORMIS and logbook data gave similar conclusions. Hospitals should be given financial recognition for training. In this debate, we should remain focused on the provision of quality training for the next generation of surgeons.

  2. Use of 3-D HD auxiliary monitor by bedside assistant results in shorter console-time and ischemia-time in robot assisted laparoscopic partial tumor-nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alamyar, M.; Bouma, H; ; Goossens, W.J.H.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kroon, B.K.; Eendebak, P.T.; Wijburg, C.J.; Smits, G.A.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that connecting live three-dimensional (3D) monitors to all three available Da Vinci® robot (Intuitive) generations improved the impression of shared perception for the whole surgical team. Standardized dry lab experiments revealed that delicate teamwork was faster (up to

  3. Robust nonhomogeneous training samples detection method for space-time adaptive processing radar using sparse-recovery with knowledge-aided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Liu, Hanwei; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2017-10-01

    The performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) may degrade significantly when some of the training samples are contaminated by the signal-like components (outliers) in nonhomogeneous clutter environments. To remove the training samples contaminated by outliers in nonhomogeneous clutter environments, a robust nonhomogeneous training samples detection method using the sparse-recovery (SR) with knowledge-aided (KA) is proposed. First, the reduced-dimension (RD) overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is designed with the prior knowledge of system parameters and the possible target region. Then, the clutter covariance matrix (CCM) of cell under test is efficiently estimated using a modified focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm, where a RD overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is applied. Third, the proposed statistics are formed by combining the estimated CCM with the generalized inner products (GIP) method, and the contaminated training samples can be detected and removed. Finally, several simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed KA-SR-GIP method.

  4. Impact of laparoscopic surgery training laboratory on surgeon's performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio C M; Barbosa, Joao Arthur B A; Marchini, Giovanni S

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been replacing the open standard technique in several procedures. Similar or even better postoperative outcomes have been described in laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures when compared to open surgery. Moreover, minimally invasive surgery has been providing less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and thus a faster return to daily activities. However, the learning curve required to obtain laparoscopic expertise has been a barrier in laparoscopic spreading. Laparoscopic surgery training laboratory has been developed to aid surgeons to overcome the challenging learning curve. It may include tutorials, inanimate model skills training (box models and virtual reality simulators), animal laboratory, and operating room observation. Several different laparoscopic courses are available with specific characteristics and goals. Herein, we aim to describe the activities performed in a dry and animal-model training laboratory and to evaluate the impact of different kinds of laparoscopic surgery training courses on surgeon’s performance. Several tasks are performed in dry and animal laboratory to reproduce a real surgery. A short period of training can improve laparoscopic surgical skills, although most of times it is not enough to confer laparoscopic expertise for participants. Nevertheless, this short period of training is able to increase the laparoscopic practice of surgeons in their communities. Full laparoscopic training in medical residence or fellowship programs is the best way of stimulating laparoscopic dissemination. PMID:27933135

  5. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  6. An evaluation of combat application tourniquets on training military personnel: changes in application times and success rates in three successive phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Aytekin; Kaya, E; Guvenc, I; Kaymak, S; Cetinkaya, R A; Lapsekili, E O; Ozer, M T; Guler, A; Yildiz, R; Petrone, P; Harlak, A; Kilic, S

    2015-12-01

    Haemorrhage from the injured extremity is a significant cause of preventable death in military settings. This study evaluated the effect of training on the efficacy of the combat application tourniquet (CAT) and to define standards for military personnel. Participants from a training tank battalion were randomised. Data collected included age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, hand dominance, femoral artery diameter and skin thickness. The study involved tourniquet application times (AT) and application success rates in basic, after-training and eyes-closed phases. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify the presence or absence of popliteal, radial and ulnar artery pulses. A total of 102 trainees participated. In the after-training phase, the left and right upper extremity ATs were 35 ± 13.1 s, and 34.8 ± 13.5 s and the right and left lower extremity ATs were 20.6 ± 6.0 s and 20.5 ± 5.5 s, respectively. The overall tourniquet success rates in three successive study phases were 69.6%, 82.4% and 91.2%, respectively. A negative significant relationship was found between extremity circumference and tourniquet success. The results show that the efficacy of CAT application increases with training. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons underlying application failures. This single group prospective randomised study involves level of evidence 4. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Validation of a method for real time foot position and orientation tracking with Microsoft Kinect technology for use in virtual reality and treadmill based gait training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Gabriele; Peruzzi, Agnese; Mirelman, Anat; Cereatti, Andrea; Gaukrodger, Stephen; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Della Croce, Ugo

    2014-09-01

    The use of virtual reality for the provision of motor-cognitive gait training has been shown to be effective for a variety of patient populations. The interaction between the user and the virtual environment is achieved by tracking the motion of the body parts and replicating it in the virtual environment in real time. In this paper, we present the validation of a novel method for tracking foot position and orientation in real time, based on the Microsoft Kinect technology, to be used for gait training combined with virtual reality. The validation of the motion tracking method was performed by comparing the tracking performance of the new system against a stereo-photogrammetric system used as gold standard. Foot position errors were in the order of a few millimeters (average RMSD from 4.9 to 12.1 mm in the medio-lateral and vertical directions, from 19.4 to 26.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction); the foot orientation errors were also small (average %RMSD from 5.6% to 8.8% in the medio-lateral and vertical directions, from 15.5% to 18.6% in the anterior-posterior direction). The results suggest that the proposed method can be effectively used to track feet motion in virtual reality and treadmill-based gait training programs.

  8. Altered task-based and resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following real-time fMRI amygdala neurofeedback training in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Misaki, Masaya; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) trained to upregulate their amygdala hemodynamic response during positive autobiographical memory (AM) recall with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. Here, we assessed the effect of rtfMRI-nf on amygdala functional connectivity during both positive AM recall and rest. The current manuscript consists of a secondary analysis on data from our published clinical trial of neurofeedback. Patients with MDD completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdala rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf). One-week prior-to and following training participants also completed a resting-state fMRI scan. A GLM-based functional connectivity analysis was applied using a seed ROI in the left amygdala. We compared amygdala functional connectivity changes while recalling positive AMs from the baseline run to the final transfer run during rtfMRI-nf training, as well during rest from the baseline to the one-week follow-up visit. Finally, we assessed the correlation between change in depression scores and change in amygdala connectivity, as well as correlations between amygdala regulation success and connectivity changes. Following training, amygdala connectivity during positive AM recall increased with widespread regions in the frontal and limbic network. During rest, amygdala connectivity increased following training within the fronto-temporal-limbic network. During both task and resting-state analyses, amygdala-temporal pole connectivity decreased. We identified increased amygdala-precuneus and amygdala-inferior frontal gyrus connectivity during positive memory recall and increased amygdala-precuneus and amygdala-thalamus connectivity during rest as functional connectivity changes that explained significant variance in symptom improvement. Amygdala-precuneus connectivity changes also explain a significant amount of variance in neurofeedback

  9. Point-of-care ultrasonography as a training milestone for internal medicine residents: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Bruce F; Singh, Gurkeerat

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography is considered fundamental in emergency medicine training and recently has become a milestone in critical care fellowship programs as well. Currently, there is no such standard requirement for internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We present a new case and briefly review another case at our institution - a community hospital - in which internal medicine house staff trained in ultrasonography were able to uncover unexpected and critical diagnoses that significantly changed patient care and outcomes. We also review the growing evidence of the application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a myriad of conditions encountered in general internal medicine as well as the mounting data on the ability of internal medicine residents to apply this technology accurately at the bedside. We advocate that the literature has sufficiently established the role of POC ultrasonography in general internal medicine that there should no longer be any delay in giving this an official place in the development of internal medicine trainees. This may be particularly useful in the community hospital setting where 24-h echocardiography or other sonography may not be readily available.

  10. TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10min or shorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan Tolvanen, A; Tatlisumak, E; Pedrono, E; Abo-Ramadan, U; Tatlisumak, T

    2017-05-15

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30min, n=6-8pergroup) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10min of ischemia followed up to 1week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  12. Use of a novel shorter minimum caliber needle for creating endoscopic tattoos for preoperative localization: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ito, Sayo; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kawakami, Takeshi; Wada, Takuya; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In colorectal cancer surgery, inadvertent deep injections during endoscopic tattooing can cause India ink leakage into the peritoneum, leading to complications or to poor visualization of the surgical plane. This ex vivo animal study compared the use of novel shorter, minimum caliber needles versus conventional injection needles for endoscopic tattooing. Four endoscopists used the novel needles and conventional needles to make ten endoscopic tattoos (five tattoos/needle type/endoscopist) in harvested porcine rectum using a saline test-injection method. India ink leakage and the success of the tattoo (i. e. visible, tattoos but for none of the novel needle tattoos ( P  = 0.02). Tattoos created using the novel needles were more successful than those made with the conventional needles: 18/20 (90 %) vs. 11/20 (55 %); P  = 0.01. The use of novel shorter minimum caliber needles may be safe and effective for endoscopic tattooing for preoperative localization prior to colorectal cancer surgery.

  13. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance. Competition, especially between participants, appeared to encourage staff to practice and this study suggests that competition might have a useful role to help motivate staff to perform CPR training.

  14. Mathematics training for the teaching of basic knowledge in times of teaching school reform of Parana (Year 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara da Silva França

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article discusses the mathematical training of primary teachers in Paraná and aims to understand how elementary mathematical knowledge was included in the reform carried out by Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa, in the 1920’s and directed by Prieto Martinez for the modernization of the state’s primary education. Supported by theoretical and methodological framework of cultural history, this study is guided by the question: Considering the Reform of teaching school and thinking about the mathematics education of Paraná teachers, what has changed, why has it changed and what for? With the reform subjects more focused on practical teaching in primary school were introduced, and that favored the renewal of teaching methods and teaching resources, curriculum reorganization which reflected in the quality of Math education of future teachers in the state’s primary education. Keywords: Mathematics Teaching. Primary Education Teacher. History of Education.

  15. A Step Toward Timely Referral and Early Diagnosis of Cancer: Implementation and Impact on Knowledge of a Primary Care-Based Training Program in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neo M. Tapela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHealth system delays in diagnosis of cancer contribute to the glaring disparities in cancer mortality between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. In Botswana, approximately 70% of cancers are diagnosed at late stage and median time from first health facility visit for cancer-related symptoms to specialty cancer care was 160 days (IQR 59–653. We describe the implementation and early outcomes of training targeting primary care providers, which is a part of a multi-component implementation study in Kweneng-East district aiming to enhance timely diagnosis of cancers.MethodsHealth-care providers from all public facilities within the district were invited to participate in an 8-h intensive short-course program developed by a multidisciplinary team and adapted to the Botswana health system context. Participants’ performance was assessed using a 25-multiple choice question tool, with pre- and post-assessments paired by anonymous identifier. Statistical analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare performance at the two time points across eight sub-domains (pathophysiology, epidemiology, social context, symptoms, evaluation, treatment, documentation, follow-up. Linear regression and negative binomial modeling were used to determine change in performance. Participants’ satisfaction with the program was measured on a separate survey using a 5-point Likert scale.Results176 participants attended the training over 5 days in April 2016. Pooled linear regression controlling for test version showed an overall performance increase of 16.8% after participation (95% CI 15.2–18.4. Statistically significant improvement was observed for seven out of eight subdomains on test A and all eight subdomains on test B. Overall, 71 (40.3% trainees achieved a score greater than 70% on the pretest, and 161 (91.5% did so on the posttest. Participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the training program’s content

  16. Passenger arrival and waiting time distributions dependent on train service frequency and station characteristics: A smart card data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Raveau, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    Waiting time at public transport stops is perceived by passengers to be more onerous than in-vehicle time, hence it strongly influences the attractiveness and use of public transport. Transport models traditionally assume that average waiting times are half the service headway by assuming random...... Copenhagen Area covering metro, suburban, and regional rail stations thereby giving a range of service headways from 2 to 60 min. It was shown that the proposed mixture distribution is superior to other distributions proposed in the literature. This can improve waiting time estimations in public transport...

  17. At least 10% shorter C–H bonds in cryogenic protein crystal structures than in current AMBER forcefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2015-03-06

    High resolution protein crystal structures resolved with X-ray diffraction data at cryogenic temperature are commonly used as experimental data to refine forcefields and evaluate protein folding simulations. However, it has been unclear hitherto whether the C–H bond lengths in cryogenic protein structures are significantly different from those defined in forcefields to affect protein folding simulations. This article reports the finding that the C–H bonds in high resolution cryogenic protein structures are 10–14% shorter than those defined in current AMBER forcefields, according to 3709 C–H bonds in the cryogenic protein structures with resolutions of 0.62–0.79 Å. Also, 20 all-atom, isothermal–isobaric, 0.5-μs molecular dynamics simulations showed that chignolin folded from a fully-extended backbone formation to the native β-hairpin conformation in the simulations using AMBER forcefield FF12SB at 300 K with an aggregated native state population including standard error of 10 ± 4%. However, the aggregated native state population with standard error reduced to 3 ± 2% in the same simulations except that C–H bonds were shortened by 10–14%. Furthermore, the aggregated native state populations with standard errors increased to 35 ± 3% and 26 ± 3% when using FF12MC, which is based on AMBER forcefield FF99, with and without the shortened C–H bonds, respectively. These results show that the 10–14% bond length differences can significantly affect protein folding simulations and suggest that re-parameterization of C–H bonds according to the cryogenic structures could improve the ability of a forcefield to fold proteins in molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Cryogenic crystal structures are commonly used in computational studies of proteins. • C–H bonds in the cryogenic structures are shorter than those defined in forcefields. • A survey of 3709 C–H bonds shows that the cryogenic bonds are 10–14% shorter. • The

  18. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  19. Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hohenfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive decline is characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and also for healthy ageing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examined whether this decline can be counteracted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback training. Visuospatial memory and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG were targeted.MethodsSixteen healthy elderly subjects (mean age 63.5 years, SD = 6.663 and 10 patients with prodromal AD (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 8.930 completed the experiment. Four additional healthy subjects formed a sham-feedback condition to validate the paradigm. The protocol spanned five examination days (T1–T5. T1 contained a neuropsychological pre-test, the encoding of a real-world footpath, and an anatomical MRI scan of the brain. T2–T4 included the fMRI neurofeedback training paradigm, in which subjects learned to enhance activation of the left PHG while recalling the path encoded on T1. At T5, the neuropsychological post-test and another anatomical MRI brain scan were performed. The neuropsychological battery included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; the Visual and Verbal Memory Test (VVM; subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS; the Visual Patterns Test; and Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B.ResultsHealthy elderly and patients with prodromal AD showed improved visuospatial memory performance after neurofeedback training. Healthy subjects also performed better in a working-memory task (WMS backward digit-span and in the MoCA. Both groups were able to elicit parahippocampal activation during training, but no significant changes in brain activation were found over the course of the training. However, Granger-causality-analysis revealed changes in cerebral connectivity over the course of the training, involving the parahippocampus and identifying the precuneus as main driver of activation in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry showed increases in grey matter volumes in the precuneus and frontal cortex. Neither cognitive

  20. Lessons learned from operating experience, maintenance procedures and training measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttner, K.; Gronau, D.

    2003-01-01

    Training programmes for nuclear facility personnel as a result of the developing phase of SAT have to be approved in the subsequent implementation and evaluation phases with the consequence of several feedback activities in the whole training process. The effectiveness of this procedure has to be evaluated especially with respect to an improvement of safety culture, shorter outage times or better plant performance, resulting in a smaller number of incidents due to human failures. The first two arguments are directly connected with all types of maintenance work in a nuclear power plant and the related preparatory training measures. The reduction of incidents due to human failures is the result of different influences, i.e. training of the operational as well as of the maintenance personnel together with changes of the operating procedures or system design. Though an evaluation of the training process should always be based on a clear definition of criteria by which the fulfilment of the learning objectives can be measured directly, the real effectiveness of training is proven by the behaviour and attitude of the personnel which can only be taken from indirect indicators. This is discussed in more detail for some examples being partly related to the above mentioned arguments. An excellent plant performance, representing a general objective of all activities, can be analysed by the changed number and reasons of incidents in a plant during its operation time. Two further examples are taken from the reactor service field where there is a tendency to reduce the individual dose rates by changed devices and/or procedures as an output from training experience with mockups. Finally the rationalisation of refresher training for operational personnel by the use of interactive teaching programs (Computer Based Training - CBT) is presented which integrate learning objectives together with a test module. (author)

  1. A Kinetic Model Explains Why Shorter and Less Affine Enzyme-recruiting Oligonucleotides Can Be More Potent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykke Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to RNA targets promise generality and ease of drug design. The first systemically administered antisense drug was recently approved for treatment and others are in clinical development. Chemical modifications that increase the hybridization affinity of oligonucleotides are reasoned to confer higher potency, i.e., modified oligonucleotides can be dosed at lower concentrations to achieve the same effect. Surprisingly, shorter and less affine oligonucleotides sometimes display increased potency. To explain this apparent contradiction, increased uptake or decreased propensity to form structures have been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here, we provide an alternative explanation that invokes only the kinetics behind oligonucleotide-mediated cleavage of RNA targets. A model based on the law of mass action predicts, and experiments support, the existence of an optimal binding affinity. Exaggerated affinity, and not length per se, is detrimental to potency. This finding clarifies how to optimally apply high-affinity modifications in the discovery of potent antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  2. Storage and retrieval of time-entangled soliton trains in a three-level atom system coupled to an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welakuh, Davis D. M.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-11-01

    The storage and subsequent retrieval of coherent pulse trains in the quantum memory (i.e. cavity-dark state) of three-level Λ atoms, are considered for an optical medium in which adiabatic photon transfer occurs under the condition of quantum impedance matching. The underlying mechanism is based on intracavity Electromagnetically-Induced Transparency, by which properties of a cavity filled with three-level Λ-type atoms are manipulated by an external control field. Under the impedance matching condition, we derive analytic expressions that suggest a complete transfer of an input field into the cavity-dark state by varying the mixing angle in a specific way, and its subsequent retrieval at a desired time. We illustrate the scheme by demonstrating the complete transfer and retrieval of a Gaussian, a single hyperbolic-secant and a periodic train of time-entangled hyperbolic-secant input photon pulses in the atom-cavity system. For the time-entangled hyperbolic-secant input field, a total controllability of the periodic evolution of the dark state population is made possible by changing the Rabi frequency of the classical driving field, thus allowing to alternately store and retrieve high-intensity photons from the optically dense Electromagnetically-Induced transparent medium. Such multiplexed photon states, which are expected to allow sharing quantum information among many users, are currently of very high demand for applications in long-distance and multiplexed quantum communication.

  3. Effects of Fatigue on Driving Safety: A Comparison of Brake Reaction Times in Night Float and Postcall Physicians in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talusan, Paul G; Long, Theodore; Halim, Andrea; Guliani, Laura; Carroll, Nicole; Reach, John

    2014-12-01

    Concerns about duty hour and resident safety have fostered discussion about postshift fatigue and driving impairment. We assessed how converting to a night float schedule for overnight coverage affected driving safety for trainees. Brake reaction times were measured for internal medicine and orthopaedic surgery resident volunteers after a traditional 28-hour call shift and after a night float shift. We conducted matched paired t tests of preshift and postshift reaction time means. Participants also completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale pre- and postshift. From June to July 2013, we enrolled 58 interns and residents (28 orthopaedic surgery, 30 internal medicine). We included 24 (41%) trainees on night float rotations and 34 (59%) trainees on traditional 28-hour call shifts. For all residents on night float rotations, there was no significant difference pre- and postshift. An increase in reaction times was noted among trainees on 28-hour call rotations. This included no effect on reaction times for internal medicine trainees pre- and postshift, and an increase in reaction times for orthopaedic trainees. For both night float and traditional call groups, there were significant increases in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Trainees on traditional 28-hour call rotations had significantly worse postshift brake reaction times, whereas trainees on night float rotations had no difference. Orthopaedic trainees had significant differences in brake reaction times after a traditional call shift.

  4. Spaced training rescues memory and ERK1/2 signaling in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Kathleen; Yao, Yue Qin; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2014-11-25

    Recent studies have shown that short, spaced trains of afferent stimulation produce much greater long-term potentiation (LTP) than that obtained with a single, prolonged stimulation episode. The present studies demonstrate that spaced training regimens, based on these LTP timing rules, facilitate learning in wild-type (WT) mice and can offset learning and synaptic signaling impairments in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) model of fragile X syndrome. We determined that 5 min of continuous training supports object location memory (OLM) in WT but not Fmr1 KO mice. However, the same amount of training distributed across three short trials, spaced by one hour, produced robust long-term memory in the KOs. At least three training trials were needed to realize the benefit of spacing, and intertrial intervals shorter or longer than 60 min were ineffective. Multiple short training trials also rescued novel object recognition in Fmr1 KOs. The spacing effect was surprisingly potent: just 1 min of OLM training, distributed across three trials, supported robust memory in both genotypes. Spacing also rescued training-induced activation of synaptic ERK1/2 in dorsal hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice. These results show that a spaced training regimen designed to maximize synaptic potentiation facilitates recognition memory in WT mice and can offset synaptic signaling and memory impairments in a model of congenital intellectual disability.

  5. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  6. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work-home balance and the European working time directive: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-10-13

    To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work-home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Norway. Unbalanced cohort of 1300-1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46-47 h) and junior (45-46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27-35%) than junior (11-20%) doctors reported suboptimal work-home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-27

    virtual reality training versus box-trainer training. There were no trials that compared different forms of virtual reality training. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Operating time and operative performance were the only outcomes reported in the trials. The remaining outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, quality of life (the primary outcomes of this review) and hospital stay (a secondary outcome) were not reported. Virtual reality training versus no supplementary training: The operating time was significantly shorter in the virtual reality group than in the no supplementary training group (3 trials; 49 participants; MD -11.76 minutes; 95% CI -15.23 to -8.30). Two trials that could not be included in the meta-analysis also showed a reduction in operating time (statistically significant in one trial). The numerical values for operating time were not reported in these two trials. The operative performance was significantly better in the virtual reality group than the no supplementary training group using the fixed-effect model (2 trials; 33 participants; SMD 1.65; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.58). The results became non-significant when the random-effects model was used (2 trials; 33 participants; SMD 2.14; 95% CI -1.29 to 5.57). One trial could not be included in the meta-analysis as it did not report the numerical values. The authors stated that the operative performance of virtual reality group was significantly better than the control group. Virtual reality training versus box-trainer training: The only trial that reported operating time did not report the numerical values. In this trial, the operating time in the virtual reality group was significantly shorter than in the box-trainer group. Of the two trials that reported operative performance, only one trial reported the numerical values. The operative performance was significantly better in the virtual reality group than in the box-trainer group (1 trial; 19 participants; SMD 1.46; 95% CI 0.42 to 2.50). In the other

  8. Two-dimensional time dependent calculations for the training reactor of Budapest University of Technology and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.S.; Szatmary, Z.

    2005-01-01

    An iterative method was developed for the numerical solution of the coupled two-dimensional time dependent multigroup diffusion equation and delayed precursor equations. Both forward (Explicit) and backward (Implicit) schemes were used. The second scheme was found to be numerically stable, while the first scheme requires that Δt -10 sec. for stability. An example is given for the second method. (authors)

  9. Design, Development and Evaluation of Collaborative Team Training Method in Virtual Worlds for Time-Critical Medical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabal

    2014-01-01

    Medical students acquire and enhance their clinical skills using various available techniques and resources. As the health care profession has move towards team-based practice, students and trainees need to practice team-based procedures that involve timely management of clinical tasks and adequate communication with other members of the team.…

  10. The Time Line and the "Why Now?" Question: A Technique and Rationale for Therapy, Training, Organizational Consultation and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M. Duncan

    1992-01-01

    Presents method for quickly and graphically clarifying relationship between life cycle events and the onset of problems in families. Describes how to laterally organize events in terms of points in time at which they occurred and explains structural version, expressed into formats, that elucidates interaction between nodal events and changes in…

  11. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Language Training Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  12. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  13. Effect of Eight Weekly Aerobic Training Program on Auditory Reaction Time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine the effect of eight weekly aerobic exercises on auditory reaction time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in visual impairments. Forty visual impairment children that have blind 3 classification from the Turkey, experimental group; (age = 15.60 ± 1.10 years; height = 164.15 ± 4.88 cm; weight = 66.60 ± 4.77 kg) for twenty…

  14. Dynamic Structural Flexible-Beam Response to a Moving Barge Train Impact Force Time-History Using Impact_Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    White, Mohamed and Barker, 2010). The engineering formulation for Impact_Force uses the impulse momentum principle to convert the linear momentum of a...flexure the plane cross-section of a beam remains plane, i.e., the Bernoulli -Euler theory. That is, shear deformations are negligible for a slender...observation that the magnitude of the impulse is equal to the change in momentum . This allows for the introduc- tion of the force time-history into the

  15. Strength testing and training of rowers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82-0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.57-0.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r = -0.54 to -0.68; p training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio training may be counterproductive to strength development over the shorter term (i.e. training within the sequence of training units should be considered, particularly over the non-competition phase (e.g. 2-6 sets × 4-12 repetitions, three sessions a week). Maximal strength was sustained when infrequent (e.g. one or two sessions a week) but intense (e.g. 73-79% of maximum) strength training units were scheduled; however, it was unclear whether training adaptations should emphasize maximal strength, endurance or power in order to enhance

  16. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  17. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  18. Head, withers and pelvic movement asymmetry and their relative timing in trot in racing Thoroughbreds in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, T; Noordwijk, K; Sepulveda Caviedes, M F; Persson-Sjodin, E; Barstow, A; Forbes, B; Rhodin, M

    2018-01-01

    Horses show compensatory head movement in hindlimb lameness and compensatory pelvis movement in forelimb lameness but little is known about the relationship of withers movement symmetry with head and pelvic asymmetry in horses with naturally occurring gait asymmetries. To document head, withers and pelvic movement asymmetry and timing differences in horses with naturally occurring gait asymmetries. Retrospective analysis of gait data. Head, withers and pelvic movement asymmetry and timing of displacement minima and maxima were quantified from inertial sensors in 163 Thoroughbreds during trot-ups on hard ground. Horses were divided into 4 subgroups using the direction of head and withers movement asymmetry. Scatter plots of head vs. pelvic movement asymmetry illustrated how the head-withers relationship distinguishes between contralateral and ipsilateral head-pelvic movement asymmetry. Independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test (Pmovement asymmetry and timing differences between groups. The relationship between head and withers asymmetry (i.e. same sided or opposite sided asymmetry) predicts the relationship between head and pelvic asymmetry in 69-77% of horses. Pelvic movement symmetry was significantly different between horses with same sign vs. opposite sign of head-withers asymmetry (Pmovement asymmetry identifies the majority of horses with ipsilateral and contralateral head and pelvic movement asymmetries. Withers movement should be further investigated for differentiating between forelimb and hindlimb lame horses. Horses with opposite sided head and withers asymmetry significantly delay the upward movement of the head after 'sound' forelimb stance. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  19. Elevated CD147 expression is associated with shorter overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Changting; Fang, Xiangqun

    2017-06-06

    A number of studies have reported on the prognostic role of CD147 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the results remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the impact of CD147 on the prognosis of NSCLC by means of a meta-analysis. A literature search was performed for relevant studies published before October 29, 2016. The hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as effective measures. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias examination were also conducted. Ten eligible studies with a total of 1605 patients were included in this meta-analysis. CD147 overexpression was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.32-1.91, pCD147 expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (OR=2.31, 95% CI=1.74-3.07, pCD147 and sex, age, differentiation, or histology was found. No evidence of significant publication bias was identified. This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of CD147 was associated with shorter OS, the presence of lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in NSCLC. Therefore, CD147 could serve as a potential prognostic marker for NSCLC.

  20. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. The Time Is Up: Compression of Visual Time Interval Estimations of Bimodal Aperiodic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fabiola; Lemus, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The ability to estimate time intervals subserves many of our behaviors and perceptual experiences. However, it is not clear how aperiodic (AP) stimuli affect our perception of time intervals across sensory modalities. To address this question, we evaluated the human capacity to discriminate between two acoustic (A), visual (V) or audiovisual (AV) time intervals of trains of scattered pulses. We first measured the periodicity of those stimuli and then sought for correlations with the accuracy and reaction times (RTs) of the subjects. We found that, for all time intervals tested in our experiment, the visual system consistently perceived AP stimuli as being shorter than the periodic (P) ones. In contrast, such a compression phenomenon was not apparent during auditory trials. Our conclusions are: first, the subjects exposed to P stimuli are more likely to measure their durations accurately. Second, perceptual time compression occurs for AP visual stimuli. Lastly, AV discriminations are determined by A dominance rather than by AV enhancement. PMID:28848406

  2. Shorter Versus Longer Shift Durations to Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-Related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Related Shift Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups. Methods: Six databases (e....

  3. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  4. Occupational dosimetry in real time hemodynamic rooms. utility of the system Dose-aware as a training tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Pifarre Martinez, X.; Ruiz Martin, J.; Barros Candelero, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Diaz Blaires, G.; Garcia Lunar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study in a real time dosimetry system used in the catheter laboratory room of our center. The objective was to know the occupational doses per procedure, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to evaluate its utility as a learning tool for radiation protection purposes with the simultaneous video recording of the interventions. 83 diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed, and an average dose per procedure of 0,37 μSv and 0,10 μSv for the main cardiologist and nurse were obtained, respectively. 36 of these interventions were also recorded and the images were synchronized with the dosimetric information stored and the dosimetry system. The findings were presented to the interventional cardiology team in a learning session. They showed a high level of satisfaction with this new method of optimizing the occupational doses through a customized learning session. (Author)

  5. Multiple Feature Fusion Based on Co-Training Approach and Time Regularization for Place Classification in Wearable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavs Dovgalecs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of video acquired with a wearable camera is a challenge that multimedia community is facing with the proliferation of such sensors in various applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic visual place recognition in a weakly constrained environment, targeting the indexing of video streams by topological place recognition. We propose to combine several machine learning approaches in a time regularized framework for image-based place recognition indoors. The framework combines the power of multiple visual cues and integrates the temporal continuity information of video. We extend it with computationally efficient semisupervised method leveraging unlabeled video sequences for an improved indexing performance. The proposed approach was applied on challenging video corpora. Experiments on a public and a real-world video sequence databases show the gain brought by the different stages of the method.

  6. OpenNFT: An open-source Python/Matlab framework for real-time fMRI neurofeedback training based on activity, connectivity and multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koush, Yury; Ashburner, John; Prilepin, Evgeny; Sladky, Ronald; Zeidman, Peter; Bibikov, Sergei; Scharnowski, Frank; Nikonorov, Artem; De Ville, Dimitri Van

    2017-08-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is a novel and rapidly developing research field. It allows for training of voluntary control over localized brain activity and connectivity and has demonstrated promising clinical applications. Because of the rapid technical developments of MRI techniques and the availability of high-performance computing, new methodological advances in rt-fMRI neurofeedback become possible. Here we outline the core components of a novel open-source neurofeedback framework, termed Open NeuroFeedback Training (OpenNFT), which efficiently integrates these new developments. This framework is implemented using Python and Matlab source code to allow for diverse functionality, high modularity, and rapid extendibility of the software depending on the user's needs. In addition, it provides an easy interface to the functionality of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) that is also open-source and one of the most widely used fMRI data analysis software. We demonstrate the functionality of our new framework by describing case studies that include neurofeedback protocols based on brain activity levels, effective connectivity models, and pattern classification approaches. This open-source initiative provides a suitable framework to actively engage in the development of novel neurofeedback approaches, so that local methodological developments can be easily made accessible to a wider range of users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of test method and participant musical training on preference ratings of stimuli with different reverberation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Martin S; Vigeant, Michelle C

    2017-10-01

    Selecting an appropriate listening test design for concert hall research depends on several factors, including listening test method and participant critical-listening experience. Although expert listeners afford more reliable data, their perceptions may not be broadly representative. The present paper contains two studies that examined the validity and reliability of the data obtained from two listening test methods, a successive and a comparative method, and two types of participants, musicians and non-musicians. Participants rated their overall preference of auralizations generated from eight concert hall conditions with a range of reverberation times (0.0-7.2 s). Study 1, with 34 participants, assessed the two methods. The comparative method yielded similar results and reliability as the successive method. Additionally, the comparative method was rated as less difficult and more preferable. For study 2, an additional 37 participants rated the stimuli using the comparative method only. An analysis of variance of the responses from both studies revealed that musicians are better than non-musicians at discerning their preferences across stimuli. This result was confirmed with a k-means clustering analysis on the entire dataset that revealed five preference groups. Four groups exhibited clear preferences to the stimuli, while the fifth group, predominantly comprising non-musicians, demonstrated no clear preference.

  8. Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, W; Grimard, B

    2018-05-01

    Synchronization programs using progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices that allow for fixed time artificial insemination are still finding increasing application in bovine reproduction. This practice is useful for rationalizing livestock management because an increased number of cows can be inseminated in one session without the need for estrus detection. Although much of the innovation related to the design and development of intravaginal devices for use in cattle took place in the previous century, progress in understanding the physiology of the bovine estrous cycle resulted in shorter treatment durations, a trend which is still continuing. In this competitive market, with little functional differentiation between the existing devices, the shorter treatment duration prompted for optimization of the progesterone content in the device, as the cost of the drug significantly contributes to the price per unit. For CIDR ® a reduction of the progesterone content of about 30 per cent was realized. Price reduction remained an important target for further device development. Next to reduction of progesterone content, cheaper and easier to process materials like polyethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers have been explored to replace the commonly used silicone elastomers. The reengineering effort of CIDR ® demonstrated that knowledge of release kinetics and insight into gradual depletion patterns in the device is critical for optimization of drug content without compromising performance (blood levels). More recent publications related to the use of alternative polymers like EVA and polyisoprene (IP) indicated encouraging results regarding further reduction of progesterone content. The use of EVA seems most promising, because it is in principle a low-cost polymer available in many grades and this thermoplastic polymer can be processed easily by means of commonly used techniques like injection molding and extrusion. The use of thermoplastic polymers, however, requires

  9. Guilds as in medieval times. Trade associations turn against standardized advanced training for solar electricians; Zuenfte wie im Mittelalter. Handwerksverbaende bremsen eine bundesweit einheitliche Fortbildung fuer Solartechniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, J.

    2000-12-01

    Solar engineering is an interdisciplinary activity. Electricians, fitters and heating technicians, roofers, metal workers and even carpenters may cooperate in the construction and installation of a solar system. So far, the German trade associations were unable to agree on a standardized training procedure for solar engineering. But time is getting short as this is not an age of medieval guilds. [German] Solartechnik durchbricht die traditionell eng gesteckten Grenzen der Fachhandwerker: Elektrotechniker, Installateure und Heizungsbauer, Dachdecker, Glaser, Metallbauer und sogar Tischler koennen am Bau einer Solaranlage beteiligt sein. Bislang einigten sich die zentralen Fachverbaende des Handwerks in Deutschland jedoch nicht auf eine gemeinsame Basis in Sachen Fortbildung. Viel Zeit bleibt ihnen allerdings nicht: Die Tage der alten Zuenfte sind eindeutig gezaehlt. (orig.)

  10. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Geacintov, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 μg/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm 2 UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; ≥ 5.5 log 10 ) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter (≤ 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author)

  11. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  12. myTIPreport and Training for Independent Practice: A Tool for Real-Time Workplace Feedback for Milestones and Procedural Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, AnnaMarie; Goepfert, Alice; Blanchard, Anita; Buys, Elizabeth; Donnellan, Nicole; Amundsen, Cindy L; Galvin, Shelley L; Kenton, Kimberly

    2018-02-01

    Few tools currently exist for effective, accessible delivery of real-time, workplace feedback in the clinical setting. We developed and implemented a real-time, web-based tool for performance-based feedback in the clinical environment. The tool (myTIPreport) was designed for performance-based feedback to learners on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Milestones and procedural skills. "TIP" stands for "Training for Independent Practice." We implemented myTIPreport in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) and female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery (FPMRS) programs between November 2014 and May 2015. Residents, fellows, teachers, and program directors completed preimplementation and postimplementation surveys on their perceptions of feedback. Preimplementation surveys were completed by 656 participants of a total of 980 learners and teachers in 19 programs (12 Ob-Gyn and 7 FPMRS). This represented 72% (273 of 378) of learners and 64% (383 of 602) of teachers. Seventy percent of participants (381 of 546) reported having their own individual processes for real-time feedback; the majority (79%, 340 of 430) described these processes as informal discussions . Over 6 months, one-third of teachers and two-thirds of learners used the myTIPreport tool a total of 4311 times. Milestone feedback was recorded 944 times, and procedural feedback was recorded 3367 times. Feedback addressed all ACGME Milestones and procedures programmed into myTIPreport. Most program directors reported that tool implementation was successful. The majority of learners successfully received workplace feedback using myTIPreport. This web-based tool, incorporating procedures and ACGME Milestones, may be an important transition from other feedback formats.

  13. Training Recurrent Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With

    1997-01-01

    Training recurrent networks is generally believed to be a difficult task. Excessive training times and lack of convergence to an acceptable solution are frequently reported. In this paper we seek to explain the reason for this from a numerical point of view and show how to avoid problems when...... training. In particular we investigate ill-conditioning, the need for and effect of regularization and illustrate the superiority of second-order methods for training...

  14. Long-term retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after shortened chest compression-only training and conventional training: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ando, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Marukawa, Seishiro; Kawamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how much the length of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program can be reduced without ruining its effectiveness. The authors aimed to compare CPR skills 6 months and 1 year after training between shortened chest compression-only CPR training and conventional CPR training. Participants were randomly assigned to either the compression-only CPR group, which underwent a 45-minute training program consisting of chest compressions and automated external defibrillator (AED) use with personal training manikins, or the conventional CPR group, which underwent a 180-minute training program with chest compressions, rescue breathing, and AED use. Participants' resuscitation skills were evaluated 6 months and 1 year after the training. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of appropriate chest compressions 1 year after the training. A total of 146 persons were enrolled, and 63 (87.5%) in the compression-only CPR group and 56 (75.7%) in the conventional CPR group completed the 1-year evaluation. The compression-only CPR group was superior to the conventional CPR group regarding the proportion of appropriate chest compression (mean ± SD = 59.8% ± 40.0% vs. 46.3% ± 28.6%; p = 0.036) and the number of appropriate chest compressions (mean ± SD = 119.5 ± 80.0 vs. 77.2 ± 47.8; p = 0.001). Time without chest compression in the compression-only CPR group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional CPR group (mean ± SD = 11.8 ± 21.1 seconds vs. 52.9 ± 14.9 seconds; p CPR training program appears to help the general public retain CPR skills better than the conventional CPR training program. UMIN-CTR UMIN000001675. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. SU-D-BRF-06: A Brachytherapy Simulator with Realistic Haptic Force Feedback and Real-Time Ultrasounds Image Simulation for Training and Teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, L; Carette, A; Comtois, S; Lavigueur, M; Cardou, P; Laurendeau, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical procedures require dexterity, expertise and repetition to reach optimal patient outcomes. However, efficient training opportunities are usually limited. This work presents a simulator system with realistic haptic force-feedback and full, real-time ultrasounds image simulation. Methods: The simulator is composed of a custom-made Linear-DELTA force-feedback robotic platform. The needle tip is mounted on a force gauge at the end effector of the robot, which responds to needle insertion by providing reaction forces. 3D geometry of the tissue is using a tetrahedral finite element mesh (FEM) mimicking tissue properties. As the needle is inserted/retracted, tissue deformation is computed using a mass-tensor nonlinear visco-elastic FEM. The real-time deformation is fed to the L-DELTA to take into account the force imparted to the needle, providing feedback to the end-user when crossing tissue boundaries or needle bending. Real-time 2D US image is also generated synchronously showing anatomy, needle insertion and tissue deformation. The simulator is running on an Intel I7 6- core CPU at 3.26 MHz. 3D tissue rendering and ultrasound display are performed on a Windows 7 computer; the FEM computation and L-DELTA control are executed on a similar PC using the Neutrino real-time OS. Both machines communicate through an Ethernet link. Results: The system runs at 500 Hz for a 8333-tetrahedron tissue mesh and a 100-node angular spring needle model. This frame rate ensures a relatively smooth displacement of the needle when pushed or retracted (±20 N in all directions at speeds of up to 2 m/s). Unlike commercially-available haptic platforms, the oblong workspace of the L-DELTA robot complies with that required for brachytherapy needle displacements of 0.1m by 0.1m by 0.25m. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a real-life, realistic brachytherapy simulator developed for prostate implants (LDR/HDR). The platform could be adapted to other sites or training for other