WorldWideScience

Sample records for shorter run times

  1. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  2. The risk of shorter fasting time for pediatric deep sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mathew; Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan E; Anliker, Christina M; Bryant, Micheal A; Downs, Craig; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications. This is a prospective observational study that included children 2 months to 18 years of age and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II, who underwent deep sedation for elective procedures, performed by pediatric critical care providers. Procedures included radiologic imaging studies, electroencephalograms, auditory brainstem response, echocardiograms, Botox injections, and other minor surgical procedures. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on the length of their fasting time (4-6 h and >6 h). Complication rates were calculated and compared between the three groups. In the studied group of 2487 subjects, 1007 (40.5%) had fasting time of 4-6 h and the remaining 1480 (59.5%) subjects had fasted for >6 h. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied complications between the two groups. This study found no difference in complication rate in regard to the fasting time among our subjects cohort, which included only healthy children receiving elective procedures performed by sedation trained pediatric critical care providers. This suggests that using shorter fasting time may be safe for procedures performed outside of the operating theater that does not involve high-risk patients or airway manipulation.

  3. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  4. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  5. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  6. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  7. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-01-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  8. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-03-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  9. How do shorter working hours affect employee wellbeing? : Shortening working time in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdenperä, Netta

    2017-01-01

    The way work is done is dramatically changing due to digital breakthroughs. Generation Y is entering the workforce with a changed attitude towards work as organizations are increasing their focus towards employee wellbeing. Organizations who adopt the new model of work and understand the importance of the wellbeing of their staff are leading the transition to a more efficient business, better working life and a healthier planet. The thesis explores the numerous effects of shorter working...

  10. Shorter Perceived Outpatient MRI Wait Times Associated With Higher Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Glenn, Harold; Mahmood, Rabia; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Duszak, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in perceived versus actual wait times among patients undergoing outpatient MRI examinations and to correlate those times with patient satisfaction. Over 15 weeks, 190 patients presenting for outpatient MR in a radiology department in which "patient experience" is one of the stated strategic priorities were asked to (1) estimate their wait times for various stages in the imaging process and (2) state their satisfaction with their imaging experience. Perceived times were compared with actual electronic time stamps. Perceived and actual times were compared and correlated with standardized satisfaction scores using Kendall τ correlation. The mean actual wait time between patient arrival and examination start was 53.4 ± 33.8 min, whereas patients perceived a mean wait time of 27.8 ± 23.1 min, a statistically significant underestimation of 25.6 min (P perceived wait times at all points during patient encounters were correlated with higher satisfaction scores (P perceived and actual wait times were both correlated with higher satisfaction scores. As satisfaction surveys play a larger role in an environment of metric transparency and value-based payments, better understanding of such factors will be increasingly important. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Why shorter half-times of repair lead to greater damage in pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed brachytherapy consists of replacing continuous irradiation at low dose-rate with a series of medium dose-rate fractions in the same overall time and to the same total dose. For example, pulses of 1 Gy given every 2 hr or 2 Gy given every 4 hr would deliver the same 70 Gy in 140 hr as continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. If higher dose-rates are used, even with gaps between the pulses, the biological effects are always greater. Provided that dose rates in the pulse do not exceed 3 Gy/hr, and provided that pulses are given as often as every 2 hr, the inevitable increases of biological effect are no larger than a few percent (of biologically effective dose or extrapolated response dose). However, these increases are more likely to exceed 10% (and thus become clinically significant) if the half-time of repair of sublethal damage is short (less than 1 hr) rather than long. This somewhat unexpected finding is explained in detail here. The rise and fall of Biologically Effective Dose (and hence of Relative Effectiveness, for a constant dose in each pulse) is calculated during and after single pulses, assuming a range of values of T 1/2 , the half-time of sublethal damage repair. The area under each curve is proportional to Biologically Effective Dose and therefore to log cell kill. Pulses at 3 Gy/hr do yield greater biological effect (dose x integrated Relative Effectiveness) than lower dose-rate pulses or continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. The contrast is greater for the short T 1/2 of 0.5 hr than for the longer T 1/2 of 1.5 hr. More biological damage will be done (compared with traditional low dose rate brachytherapy) in tissues with short T 1/2 (0.1-1 hr) than in tissues with longer T 1/2 values. 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lejay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1 and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase. CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p < 0.001; CRC = 7.01 ± 0.97 vs. 11.96 ± 0.92 microM/mg dw, p < 0.001, respectively. Moderate exercise reduced tissue damages, improved functional scores, and restored mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively. Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  14. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan mean SUV max of three lesions using the current fixed-acquisition and two proposed variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30-90

  15. The Change of the Family Life Affected by the Shorter Working Time : From the Point of View of the Home Management

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 道憲

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the working time has been decreasing. However, Japanese working people spend more hours per year to work than those in Western countries. The policy of the shorter working time is conducted by the Japanese Government in order that the working people get more free time. This paper examines whether the shorter working time of working members in the family enrich the time use of the other members of the family. Especially, the effect of the shorter working time of husbands to wives...

  16. Implementing Run-Time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in a Real-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing run-time evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time environments......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing run-time evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time environments...

  17. Combining Compile-Time and Run-Time Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungdo Moon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that significant improvements to automatic parallelization technology require that existing systems be extended in two ways: (1 they must combine high‐quality compile‐time analysis with low‐cost run‐time testing; and (2 they must take control flow into account during analysis. We support this claim with the results of an experiment that measures the safety of parallelization at run time for loops left unparallelized by the Stanford SUIF compiler’s automatic parallelization system. We present results of measurements on programs from two benchmark suites – SPECFP95 and NAS sample benchmarks – which identify inherently parallel loops in these programs that are missed by the compiler. We characterize remaining parallelization opportunities, and find that most of the loops require run‐time testing, analysis of control flow, or some combination of the two. We present a new compile‐time analysis technique that can be used to parallelize most of these remaining loops. This technique is designed to not only improve the results of compile‐time parallelization, but also to produce low‐cost, directed run‐time tests that allow the system to defer binding of parallelization until run‐time when safety cannot be proven statically. We call this approach predicated array data‐flow analysis. We augment array data‐flow analysis, which the compiler uses to identify independent and privatizable arrays, by associating predicates with array data‐flow values. Predicated array data‐flow analysis allows the compiler to derive “optimistic” data‐flow values guarded by predicates; these predicates can be used to derive a run‐time test guaranteeing the safety of parallelization.

  18. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time. (a...

  20. Aspects for Run-time Component Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter

    2000-01-01

    Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted...... to dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware systems new services that support non-functional aspects such as security, transactions, real-time....

  1. Time Optimal Run-time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.; Kristensen, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers run-time evaluation of an important class of constraints; Timing constraints. These appear extensively in process control systems. Timing constraints are considered in distributed systems, i.e. systems consisting of multiple autonomous nodes......

  2. Optimal Infinite Runs in One-Clock Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Ejsing-Duun, Daniel; Fontani, Lisa

    We address the problem of finding an infinite run with the optimal cost-time ratio in a one-clock priced timed automaton and pro- vide an algorithmic solution. Through refinements of the quotient graph obtained by strong time-abstracting bisimulation partitioning, we con- struct a graph with time...

  3. Accuracy versus run time in an adiabatic quantum search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhani, A. T.; Pimachev, A. K.; Lidar, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: The error decreases exponentially for short times and then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well-known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.

  4. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  5. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  6. Combining monitoring with run-time assertion checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, Stijn de

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new technique for Run-time Checking for two object-oriented languages: Java and the Abstract Behavioral Specification language ABS. In object-oriented languages, objects communicate by sending each other messages. Assuming encapsulation, the behavior of objects is completely

  7. LHCb's Time-Real Alignment in RunII

    CERN Multimedia

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configur...

  8. Thermally-aware composite run-time CPU power models

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Matthew J.; Diestelhorst, Stephan; Hansson, Andreas; Balsamo, Domenico; Merrett, Geoff V.; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and stable CPU power modelling is fundamental in modern system-on-chips (SoCs) for two main reasons: 1) they enable significant online energy savings by providing a run-time manager with reliable power consumption data for controlling CPU energy-saving techniques; 2) they can be used as accurate and trusted reference models for system design and exploration. We begin by showing the limitations in typical performance monitoring counter (PMC) based power modelling approaches and illust...

  9. Shorter daily dwelling time in peritoneal dialysis attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is known to induce morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. Long-term exposure to conventional bio-incompatible dialysate and peritonitis is the main etiology of inflammation. Consequently, the peritoneal membrane undergoes structural changes, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and hyalinizing vasculopathy, which ultimately results in technique failure. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs) plays an important role during the above process; however, the clinical parameters associated with the EMT process of MCs remain to be explored. Methods To investigate the parameters impacting EMT during PD therapy, 53 clinical stable PD patients were enrolled. EMT assessments were conducted through human peritoneal MCs cultured from dialysate effluent with one consistent standard criterion (MC morphology and the expression of an epithelial marker, cytokeratin 18). The factors potentially associated with EMT were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Primary MCs derived from the omentum were isolated for the in vitro study. Results Forty-seven percent of the patients presented with EMT, 28% with non-EMT, and 15% with a mixed presentation. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients who received persistent PD therapy (dwelling time of 24 h/day) had significantly higher EMT tendency. These results were consistent in vitro. Conclusions Dwelling time had a significant effect on the occurrence of EMT on MCs. PMID:24555732

  10. LHCb's Real-Time Alignment in Run2

    CERN Multimedia

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    Stable, precise spatial alignment and PID calibration are necessary to achieve optimal detector performances. During Run2, LHCb will have a new real-time detector alignment and calibration to reach equivalent performances in the online and offline reconstruction. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection by applying stronger constraints as well as hadronic particle identification at the trigger level. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger.

  11. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  12. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building

  13. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems

  14. Preventing Run-Time Bugs at Compile-Time Using Advanced C++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neswold, Richard [Fermilab

    2018-01-01

    When writing software, we develop algorithms that tell the computer what to do at run-time. Our solutions are easier to understand and debug when they are properly modeled using class hierarchies, enumerations, and a well-factored API. Unfortunately, even with these design tools, we end up having to debug our programs at run-time. Worse still, debugging an embedded system changes its dynamics, making it tough to find and fix concurrency issues. This paper describes techniques using C++ to detect run-time bugs *at compile time*. A concurrency library, developed at Fermilab, is used for examples in illustrating these techniques.

  15. SASD and the CERN/SPS run-time coordinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SASD) provides us with a handy way of specifying the flow of data between the different modules (functional units) of a system. But the formalism loses its immediacy when the control flow has to be taken into account as well. Moreover, due to the lack of appropriate software infrastructure, very often the actual implementation of the system does not reflect the module decoupling and independence so much emphasized at the design stage. In this paper the run-time coordinator, a complete software infrastructure to support a real decoupling of the functional units, is described. Special attention is given to the complementarity of our approach and the SASD methodology. (orig.)

  16. Success Run Waiting Times and Fuss-Catalan Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Dilworth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present power series expressions for all the roots of the auxiliary equation of the recurrence relation for the distribution of the waiting time for the first run of k consecutive successes in a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, that is, the geometric distribution of order k. We show that the series coefficients are Fuss-Catalan numbers and write the roots in terms of the generating function of the Fuss-Catalan numbers. Our main result is a new exact expression for the distribution, which is more concise than previously published formulas. Our work extends the analysis by Feller, who gave asymptotic results. We obtain quantitative improvements of the error estimates obtained by Feller.

  17. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  18. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; van Oeveren, B.; Francke, A.; Zijlstra, P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby

  19. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk-run-rest mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leroy L; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2013-04-06

    On a treadmill, humans switch from walking to running beyond a characteristic transition speed. Here, we study human choice between walking and running in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground in a given allowed time duration. During this task, the subjects carried, and could look at, a stopwatch that counted down to zero. As expected, if the total time available were large, humans walk the whole distance. If the time available were small, humans mostly run. For an intermediate total time, humans often use a mixture of walking at a slow speed and running at a higher speed. With analytical and computational optimization, we show that using a walk-run mixture at intermediate speeds and a walk-rest mixture at the lowest average speeds is predicted by metabolic energy minimization, even with costs for transients-a consequence of non-convex energy curves. Thus, sometimes, steady locomotion may not be energy optimal, and not preferred, even in the absence of fatigue. Assuming similar non-convex energy curves, we conjecture that similar walk-run mixtures may be energetically beneficial to children following a parent and animals on long leashes. Humans and other animals might also benefit energetically from alternating between moving forward and standing still on a slow and sufficiently long treadmill.

  20. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Compilation time analysis to minimize run-time overhead in preemptive scheduling on multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Piet; Lauwereins, Rudy; Peperstraete, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a scheduling method for hard real-time Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications, implemented on a multi-processor. Due to the very high operating frequencies of DSP applications (typically hundreds of kHz) runtime overhead should be kept as small as possible. Because static scheduling introduces very little run-time overhead it is used as much as possible. Dynamic pre-emption of tasks is allowed if and only if it leads to better performance in spite of the extra run-time overhead. We essentially combine static scheduling with dynamic pre-emption using static priorities. Since we are dealing with hard real-time applications we must be able to guarantee at compile-time that all timing requirements will be satisfied at run-time. We will show that our method performs at least as good as any static scheduling method. It also reduces the total amount of dynamic pre-emptions compared with run time methods like deadline monotonic scheduling.

  2. Run-time middleware to support real-time system scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.; Koedam, M.; Sinha, S.; Nelson, A.; Geilen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Systems on Chip (SOC) are powerful multiprocessor systems capable of running multiple independent applications, often with both real-time and non-real-time requirements. Scenarios exist at two levels: first, combinations of independent applications, and second, different states of a single

  3. How Many Times Should One Run a Computational Simulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seri, Raffaello; Secchi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is an attempt to answer the question “how many runs of a computational simulation should one do,” and it gives an answer by means of statistical analysis. After defining the nature of the problem and which types of simulation are mostly affected by it, the article introduces statisti......This chapter is an attempt to answer the question “how many runs of a computational simulation should one do,” and it gives an answer by means of statistical analysis. After defining the nature of the problem and which types of simulation are mostly affected by it, the article introduces...

  4. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Holmium Lasers: Evidence for Shorter Fragmentation Time and Decreased Retropulsion Using a Modern Variable-pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Roger; Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance of variable- and fixed-pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. Seven-millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear polyvinyl chloride tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable-pulse laser was tested on both long- and short-pulse settings and was compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed-pulse laser; 5 trials were conducted for each trial arm. Fragmentation was accomplished with the use of a flexible ureteroscope and a 273-micron holmium laser fiber using settings of 1 J × 12 Hz. The treatment time (in minute) for complete fragmentation was recorded as was the total retropulsion distance (in centimeter) during treatment. Laser fibers were standardized for all repetitions. The treatment time was significantly shorter with the H-30 vs the H-20 laser (14.3 ± 2.5 vs 33.1 ± 8.9 minutes, P = .008). There was no difference between the treatment times using the long vs short pulse widths of the H-30 laser (14.4 ± 3.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 minutes, P = .93). Retropulsion differed by laser type and pulse width, H-30 long pulse (15.8 ± 5.7 cm), H-30 short pulse (54.8 ± 7.1 cm), and H-20 (33.2 ± 12.5 cm) (P laser fragmented stone phantoms in half the time of the H-20 laser regardless of the pulse width. Retropulsion effects differed between the lasers, with the H-30 causing the least retropulsion. Longer pulse widths result in less stone retropulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  7. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-10-01

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length

  8. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-10-01

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length.

  9. Run-time verification of behavioural conformance for conversational web services

    OpenAIRE

    Dranidis, Dimitris; Ramollari, Ervin; Kourtesis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Web services exposing run-time behaviour that deviates from their behavioural specifications represent a major threat to the sustainability of a service-oriented ecosystem. It is therefore critical to verify the behavioural conformance of services during run-time. This paper discusses a novel approach for run-time verification of Web services. It proposes the utilisation of Stream X-machines for constructing formal behavioural specifications of Web services which can be exploited for verifyin...

  10. Time limit and time at VO2max' during a continuous and an intermittent run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarie, S; Koralsztein, J P; Billat, V

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify, by track field tests, whether sub-elite runners (n=15) could (i) reach their VO2max while running at v50%delta, i.e. midway between the speed associated with lactate threshold (vLAT) and that associated with maximal aerobic power (vVO2max), and (ii) if an intermittent exercise provokes a maximal and/or supra maximal oxygen consumption longer than a continuous one. Within three days, subjects underwent a multistage incremental test during which their vVO2max and vLAT were determined; they then performed two additional testing sessions, where continuous and intermittent running exercises at v50%delta were performed up to exhaustion. Subject's gas exchange and heart rate were continuously recorded by means of a telemetric apparatus. Blood samples were taken from fingertip and analysed for blood lactate concentration. In the continuous and the intermittent tests peak VO2 exceeded VO2max values, as determined during the incremental test. However in the intermittent exercise, peak VO2, time to exhaustion and time at VO2max reached significantly higher values, while blood lactate accumulation showed significantly lower values than in the continuous one. The v50%delta is sufficient to stimulate VO2max in both intermittent and continuous running. The intermittent exercise results better than the continuous one in increasing maximal aerobic power, allowing longer time at VO2max and obtaining higher peak VO2 with lower lactate accumulation.

  11. Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyedali; Newman, Cassidy; Cortes, Daniel H

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition. A custom implementation of Focused Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (F-CUSE) method was used to evaluate shear modulus in runners before and after a race. Twenty-two healthy individuals (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited using convenience sampling and split into three race categories: short distance (nine subjects, 3-5 miles), middle distance (10 subjects, 10-13 miles), and long distance (three subjects, 26+ miles). Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) measurements were taken on both legs of each subject on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), soleus, lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Recovery time had a significant effect on the soleus ( p  = 0.05), while running distance had considerable effect on the biceps femoris ( p  = 0.02), vastus lateralis ( p  trend from before competition to immediately after competition. The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners.

  12. Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedali Sadeghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition. A custom implementation of Focused Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (F-CUSE method was used to evaluate shear modulus in runners before and after a race. Twenty-two healthy individuals (age: 23 ± 5 years were recruited using convenience sampling and split into three race categories: short distance (nine subjects, 3–5 miles, middle distance (10 subjects, 10–13 miles, and long distance (three subjects, 26+ miles. Shear Wave Elastography (SWE measurements were taken on both legs of each subject on the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, soleus, lateral gastrocnemius (LG, medial gastrocnemius (MG, biceps femoris (BF and semitendinosus (ST muscles. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Recovery time had a significant effect on the soleus (p = 0.05, while running distance had considerable effect on the biceps femoris (p = 0.02, vastus lateralis (p < 0.01 and semitendinosus muscles (p = 0.02. Sixty-seven percent of muscles exhibited a decreasing stiffness trend from before competition to immediately after competition. The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners.

  13. Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Chul; Pate, Russell R; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2014-08-05

    Although running is a popular leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the long-term effects of running on mortality. The dose-response relations between running, as well as the change in running behaviors over time, and mortality remain uncertain. We examined the associations of running with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in 55,137 adults, 18 to 100 years of age (mean age 44 years). Running was assessed on a medical history questionnaire by leisure-time activity. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 3,413 all-cause and 1,217 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Approximately 24% of adults participated in running in this population. Compared with nonrunners, runners had 30% and 45% lower adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, with a 3-year life expectancy benefit. In dose-response analyses, the mortality benefits in runners were similar across quintiles of running time, distance, frequency, amount, and speed, compared with nonrunners. Weekly running even benefits, with 29% and 50% lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with never-runners. Running, even 5 to 10 min/day and at slow speeds benefits. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Time Series Analysis Based on Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive and objective time series analysis method based on the calculation of Mann Whitney U statistics is described. This method samples data rankings over moving time windows, converts those samples to Mann-Whitney U statistics, and then normalizes the U statistics to Z statistics using Monte-...

  15. An Empirical Derivation of the Run Time of the Bubble Sort Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a moving pictorial tool to help teach principles in the bubble sort algorithm. Develops such a tool applied to an unsorted list of numbers and describes a method to derive the run time of the algorithm. The method can be modified to run the times of various other algorithms. (JN)

  16. Lower bounds on the run time of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm on OneMax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejca, Martin S.; Witt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA), a popular estimation of distribution algorithm, is studied from a run time perspective. On the classical OneMax benchmark function, a lower bound of Ω(μ√n + n log n), where μ is the population size, on its expected run time is proved...... values maintained by the algorithm, including carefully designed potential functions. These techniques may prove useful in advancing the field of run time analysis for estimation of distribution algorithms in general........ This is the first direct lower bound on the run time of the UMDA. It is stronger than the bounds that follow from general black-box complexity theory and is matched by the run time of many evolutionary algorithms. The results are obtained through advanced analyses of the stochastic change of the frequencies of bit...

  17. Discount-Optimal Infinite Runs in Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new discounting semantics for priced timed automata. Discounting provides a way to model optimal-cost problems for infinite traces and has applications in optimal scheduling and other areas. In the discounting semantics, prices decrease exponentially, so that the contribution...

  18. Design-time application mapping and platform exploration for MP-SoC customised run-time management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ykman-Couvreur, Ch.; Nollet, V.; Marescaux, T.M.; Brockmeyer, E.; Catthoor, F.; Corporaal, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In an Multi-Processor system-on-Chip (MP-SoC) environment, a customized run-time management layer should be incorporated on top of the basic Operating System services to alleviate the run-time decision-making and to globally optimise costs (e.g. energy consumption) across all active

  19. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  20. On the Use of Running Trends as Summary Statistics for Univariate Time Series and Time Series Association

    OpenAIRE

    Trottini, Mario; Vigo, Isabel; Belda, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Given a time series, running trends analysis (RTA) involves evaluating least squares trends over overlapping time windows of L consecutive time points, with overlap by all but one observation. This produces a new series called the “running trends series,” which is used as summary statistics of the original series for further analysis. In recent years, RTA has been widely used in climate applied research as summary statistics for time series and time series association. There is no doubt that ...

  1. Effect of treadmill versus overground running on the structure of variability of stride timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Noakes, Timothy D; McGregor, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Gait timing dynamics of treadmill and overground running were compared. Nine trained runners ran treadmill and track trials at 80, 100, and 120% of preferred pace for 8 min. each. Stride time series were generated for each trial. To each series, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), power spectral density (PSD), and multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis were applied to infer the regime of control along the randomness-regularity axis. Compared to overground running, treadmill running exhibited a higher DFA and PSD scaling exponent, as well as lower entropy at non-preferred speeds. This indicates a more ordered control for treadmill running, especially at non-preferred speeds. The results suggest that the treadmill itself brings about greater constraints and requires increased voluntary control. Thus, the quantification of treadmill running gait dynamics does not necessarily reflect movement in overground settings.

  2. Estimation Accuracy on Execution Time of Run-Time Tasks in a Heterogeneous Distributed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Computing has achieved tremendous development since cloud computing was proposed in 2006, and played a vital role promoting rapid growth of data collecting and analysis models, e.g., Internet of things, Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data Analytics, etc. Hadoop has become a data convergence platform for sensor networks. As one of the core components, MapReduce facilitates allocating, processing and mining of collected large-scale data, where speculative execution strategies help solve straggler problems. However, there is still no efficient solution for accurate estimation on execution time of run-time tasks, which can affect task allocation and distribution in MapReduce. In this paper, task execution data have been collected and employed for the estimation. A two-phase regression (TPR method is proposed to predict the finishing time of each task accurately. Detailed data of each task have drawn interests with detailed analysis report being made. According to the results, the prediction accuracy of concurrent tasks’ execution time can be improved, in particular for some regular jobs.

  3. System and Component Software Specification, Run-time Verification and Automatic Test Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following background technology is described in Part 5: Run-time Verification (RV), White Box Automatic Test Generation (WBATG). Part 5 also describes how WBATG...

  4. Strong normalization by type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  5. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITY TO AVOID A RUNNING-DOW ACCIDENT TIMELY BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarayev, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Such circumstances under which the drive can stop the vehicle by applying timely braking before reaching the pedestrian crossing or decrease the speed to the safe limit to avoid a running-down accident is considered.

  6. Strong Normalization by Type-Directed Partial Evaluation and Run-Time Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  7. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M

    2006-11-01

    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  8. Design Flow Instantiation for Run-Time Reconfigurable Systems: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable system is a promising alternative to deliver both flexibility and performance at the same time. New reconfigurable technologies and technology-dependent tools have been developed, but a complete overview of the whole design flow for run-time reconfigurable systems is missing. In this work, we present a design flow instantiation for such systems using a real-life application. The design flow is roughly divided into two parts: system level and implementation. At system level, our supports for hardware resource estimation and performance evaluation are applied. At implementation level, technology-dependent tools are used to realize the run-time reconfiguration. The design case is part of a WCDMA decoder on a commercially available reconfigurable platform. The results show that using run-time reconfiguration can save over 40% area when compared to a functionally equivalent fixed system and achieve 30 times speedup in processing time when compared to a functionally equivalent pure software design.

  9. Do Japanese Work Shorter Hours than before?: Measuring Trends in Market Work and Leisure Using 1976-2006 Japanese Time-Use Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Using Japanese time-use data from the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (STULA), this paper measures trends in average hours worked (market work) and leisure for Japanese over the past three decades. OECD reports at least a 15 percent decline in market work for Japan since the 1970s. However, holding demographic changes constant, we found that market work per week increased from the 1970s until mid 1980s, and has been relatively stable for the last two decades for both male and female...

  10. 3D Vision Provides Shorter Operative Time and More Accurate Intraoperative Surgical Performance in Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair Compared With 2D Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Piera; Rivellini, Roberta; Giudici, Fabiola; Sciuto, Antonio; Pirozzi, Felice; Corcione, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if 3-dimensional high-definition (3D) vision in laparoscopy can prompt advantages over conventional 2D high-definition vision in hiatal hernia (HH) repair. Between September 2012 and September 2015, we randomized 36 patients affected by symptomatic HH to undergo surgery; 17 patients underwent 2D laparoscopic HH repair, whereas 19 patients underwent the same operation in 3D vision. No conversion to open surgery occurred. Overall operative time was significantly reduced in the 3D laparoscopic group compared with the 2D one (69.9 vs 90.1 minutes, P = .006). Operative time to perform laparoscopic crura closure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. We observed a tendency to a faster crura closure in the 3D group in the subgroup of patients with mesh positioning (7.5 vs 8.9 minutes, P = .09). Nissen fundoplication was faster in the 3D group without mesh positioning ( P = .07). 3D vision in laparoscopic HH repair helps surgeon's visualization and seems to lead to operative time reduction. Advantages can result from the enhanced spatial perception of narrow spaces. Less operative time and more accurate surgery translate to benefit for patients and cost savings, compensating the high costs of the 3D technology. However, more data from larger series are needed to firmly assess the advantages of 3D over 2D vision in laparoscopic HH repair.

  11. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = -0.52, P marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r (2) = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) - 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.

  12. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Leon; Goode, Grahame; Wold, Johan F H; Beck, Lionel; Martin, Georgina; Perings, Christian; Stolt, Pelle; Baggerman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines. Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1) Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2) Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3) Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four. With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048) and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007). There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests. Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  13. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Martens

    Full Text Available To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines.Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1 Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2 Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3 Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four.With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048 and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007. There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests.Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  14. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation......In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...

  15. Run-Time and Compiler Support for Programming in Adaptive Parallel Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edjlali

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available For better utilization of computing resources, it is important to consider parallel programming environments in which the number of available processors varies at run-time. In this article, we discuss run-time support for data-parallel programming in such an adaptive environment. Executing programs in an adaptive environment requires redistributing data when the number of processors changes, and also requires determining new loop bounds and communication patterns for the new set of processors. We have developed a run-time library to provide this support. We discuss how the run-time library can be used by compilers of high-performance Fortran (HPF-like languages to generate code for an adaptive environment. We present performance results for a Navier-Stokes solver and a multigrid template run on a network of workstations and an IBM SP-2. Our experiments show that if the number of processors is not varied frequently, the cost of data redistribution is not significant compared to the time required for the actual computation. Overall, our work establishes the feasibility of compiling HPF for a network of nondedicated workstations, which are likely to be an important resource for parallel programming in the future.

  16. Relationship between running kinematic changes and time limit at vVO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Lucca

    2012-06-01

    Exhaustive running at maximal oxygen uptake velocity (vVO2max can alter running kinematic parameters and increase energy cost along the time. The aims of the present study were to compare characteristics of ankle and knee kinematics during running at vVO2max and to verify the relationship between changes in kinematic variables and time limit (Tlim. Eleven male volunteers, recreational players of team sports, performed an incremental running test until volitional exhaustion to determine vVO2max and a constant velocity test at vVO2max. Subjects were filmed continuously from the left sagittal plane at 210 Hz for further kinematic analysis. The maximal plantar flexion during swing (p<0.01 was the only variable that increased significantly from beginning to end of the run. Increase in ankle angle at contact was the only variable related to Tlim (r=0.64; p=0.035 and explained 34% of the performance in the test. These findings suggest that the individuals under study maintained a stable running style at vVO2max and that increase in plantar flexion explained the performance in this test when it was applied in non-runners.

  17. Using teaching resources to help students develop team and project skills pays off, both in terms of employability and shorter study time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter

    Since Aalborg University in Denmark was started in 1974 it has been using a special educational model, where Problem Based Learning is the turning point. Each semester the students on the Engineering Educations form groups of approximately 6 persons, which uses half of the study time within...... of the university many students had difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. An important aspect of the basic part of the education (first year), has therefore been the development of a course where the students gets tools and tricks for good communication...... report documenting the results of their project, but also an analysis of the working process getting there. Since year 1998 the teachers giving the CLP course have focused very much on these process analyses and as they are a part of the examination the students also have focused more on how they work...

  18. Using teaching resources to help students develop team and project skills pays off, both in terms of employability and shorter study time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since Aalborg University in Denmark was started in 1974 it has been using a special educational model, where Problem Based Learning is the turning point. Each semester the students on the Engineering Educations form groups of approximately 6 persons, which uses half of the study time within...... of the university many students had difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. An important aspect of the basic part of the education (first year), has therefore been the development of a course where the students gets tools and tricks for good communication...... report documenting the results of their project, but also an analysis of the working process getting there. Since year 1998 the teachers giving the CLP course have focused very much on these process analyses and as they are a part of the examination the students also have focused more on how they work...

  19. Adaptive Embedded Systems – Challenges of Run-Time Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Understanding and efficiently controlling the dynamic behavior of adaptive embedded systems is a challenging endavor. The challenges come from the often very complicated interplay between the application, the application mapping, and the underlying hardware architecture. With MPSoC, we have...... the technology to design and fabricate dynamically reconfigurable hardware platforms. However, such platforms will pose new challenges to tools and methods to efficiently explore these platforms at run-time. This talk will address some of the challenges of run-time resource management in adaptive embedded...... systems....

  20. Comparing internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djunaedy, E.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software. Internal coupling can be seen as the "traditional" way of developing software, i.e. the capabilities of existing software are expanded by merging codes. With external

  1. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  2. Differences in ground contact time explain the less efficient running economy in north african runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, J; Granados, C; Irazusta, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Zabala-Lili, J; Tam, N; Gil, S M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between biomechanical variables and running economy in North African and European runners. Eight North African and 13 European male runners of the same athletic level ran 4-minute stages on a treadmill at varying set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as ground contact time, swing time, stride length, stride frequency, stride angle and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. Additionally, oxygen uptake was measured to calculate running economy. The European runners were more economical than the North African runners at 19.5 km · h(-1), presented lower ground contact time at 18 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) and experienced later propulsion sub-phase at 10.5 km · h(-1),12 km · h(-1), 15 km · h(-1), 16.5 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) than the European runners (P Running economy at 19.5 km · h(-1) was negatively correlated with swing time (r = -0.53) and stride angle (r = -0.52), whereas it was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = 0.53). Within the constraints of extrapolating these findings, the less efficient running economy in North African runners may imply that their outstanding performance at international athletic events appears not to be linked to running efficiency. Further, the differences in metabolic demand seem to be associated with differing biomechanical characteristics during ground contact, including longer contact times.

  3. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  4. Integrating software testing and run-time checking in an assertion verification framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, E.; López García, Pedro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a framework that unifies unit testing and run-time verification (as well as static verification and static debugging). A key contribution of our approach is that a unified assertion language is used for all of these tasks. We first propose methods for compiling runtime checks for (parts of) assertions which cannot be verified at compile-time via program transformation. This transformation allows checking preconditions and postconditions, including conditional...

  5. A Formal Approach to Run-Time Evaluation of Real-Time Behaviour in Distributed Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.

    This thesis advocates a formal approach to run-time evaluation of real-time behaviour in distributed process sontrol systems, motivated by a growing interest in applying the increasingly popular formal methods in the application area of distributed process control systems. We propose to evaluate...... because the real-time aspects of distributed process control systems are considered to be among the hardest and most interesting to handle....

  6. Novel Real-time Calibration and Alignment Procedure for LHCb Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Prouve, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve optimal detector performance the LHCb experiment has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II of the LHC. For the alignment tasks, data is collected and processed at the beginning of each fill while the calibrations are performed for each run. This real time alignment and calibration allows the same constants being used in both the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. Additionally the newly computed alignment and calibration constants can be instantly used in the trigger, making it more efficient. The online alignment and calibration of the RICH detectors also enable the use of hadronic particle identification in the trigger. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the LHCb trigger. An overview of all alignment and calibration tasks is presented and their performance is shown.

  7. Implementering Run-time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in a Micro Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    In the present paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems......In the present paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems...

  8. A Modular Environment for Geophysical Inversion and Run-time Autotuning using Heterogeneous Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Joseph M.

    Heterogeneous computing systems have recently come to the forefront of the High-Performance Computing (HPC) community's interest. HPC computer systems that incorporate special purpose accelerators, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), are said to be heterogeneous. Large scale heterogeneous computing systems have consistently ranked highly on the Top500 list since the beginning of the heterogeneous computing trend. By using heterogeneous computing systems that consist of both general purpose processors and special- purpose accelerators, the speed and problem size of many simulations could be dramatically increased. Ultimately this results in enhanced simulation capabilities that allows, in some cases for the first time, the execution of parameter space and uncertainty analyses, model optimizations, and other inverse modeling techniques that are critical for scientific discovery and engineering analysis. However, simplifying the usage and optimization of codes for heterogeneous computing systems remains a challenge. This is particularly true for scientists and engineers for whom understanding HPC architectures and undertaking performance analysis may not be primary research objectives. To enable scientists and engineers to remain focused on their primary research objectives, a modular environment for geophysical inversion and run-time autotuning on heterogeneous computing systems is presented. This environment is composed of three major components: 1) CUSH---a framework for reducing the complexity of programming heterogeneous computer systems, 2) geophysical inversion routines which can be used to characterize physical systems, and 3) run-time autotuning routines designed to determine configurations of heterogeneous computing systems in an attempt to maximize the performance of scientific and engineering codes. Using three case studies, a lattice-Boltzmann method, a non-negative least squares inversion, and a finite-difference fluid flow method, it is shown that

  9. Rapid Large Earthquake and Run-up Characterization in Quasi Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, F. J.; Riquelme, S.; Koch, P.; Cararo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Several test in quasi real time have been conducted by the rapid response group at CSN (National Seismological Center) to characterize earthquakes in Real Time. These methods are known for its robustness and realibility to create Finite Fault Models. The W-phase FFM Inversion, The Wavelet Domain FFM and The Body Wave and FFM have been implemented in real time at CSN, all these algorithms are running automatically and triggered by the W-phase Point Source Inversion. Dimensions (Large and Width ) are predefined by adopting scaling laws for earthquakes in subduction zones. We tested the last four major earthquakes occurred in Chile using this scheme: The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, The 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake, The 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel Earthquake and The 7.6 Melinka Earthquake. We obtain many solutions as time elapses, for each one of those we calculate the run-up using an analytical formula. Our results are in agreements with some FFM already accepted by the sicentific comunnity aswell as run-up observations in the field.

  10. Operating Security System Support for Run-Time Security with a Trusted Execution Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    Software services have become an integral part of our daily life. Cyber-attacks have thus become a problem of increasing importance not only for the IT industry, but for society at large. A way to contain cyber-attacks is to guarantee the integrity of IT systems at run-time. Put differently......, it is safe to assume that any complex software is compromised. The problem is then to monitor and contain it when it executes in order to protect sensitive data and other sensitive assets. To really have an impact, any solution to this problem should be integrated in commodity operating systems...... sensitive assets at run-time that we denote split-enforcement, and provide an implementation for ARM-powered devices using ARM TrustZone security extensions. We design, build, and evaluate a prototype Trusted Cell that provides trusted services. We also present the first generic TrustZone driver...

  11. LHCb : Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb Detector in Run2

    CERN Multimedia

    Tobin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam collisions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new realtime alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the RICH detectors at the trigger level. T...

  12. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z., E-mail: zhirui.xu@epfl.ch; Tobin, M.

    2016-07-11

    An automatic real-time alignment and calibration strategy of the LHCb detector was developed for the Run II. Thanks to the online calibration, tighter event selection criteria can be used in the trigger. Furthermore, the online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors at the trigger level. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  13. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086132; Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An automatic real-time alignment and calibration strategy of the LHCb detector was developed for the Run II. Thanks to the online calibration, tighter event selection criteria can be used in the trigger. Furthermore, the online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors at the trigger level. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  14. Novel Real-time Alignment and Calibration of the LHCb detector in Run2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Maurizio; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run2. Data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment parameters, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This procedure improves the quality of the online reconstruction. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam conditions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline-selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  15. Run-Time HW/SW Scheduling of Data Flow Applications on Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Fakhreddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient dynamic and run-time Hardware/Software scheduling approach. This scheduling heuristic consists in mapping online the different tasks of a highly dynamic application in such a way that the total execution time is minimized. We consider soft real-time data flow graph oriented applications for which the execution time is function of the input data nature. The target architecture is composed of two processors connected to a dynamically reconfigurable hardware accelerator. Our approach takes advantage of the reconfiguration property of the considered architecture to adapt the treatment to the system dynamics. We compare our heuristic with another similar approach. We present the results of our scheduling method on several image processing applications. Our experiments include simulation and synthesis results on a Virtex V-based platform. These results show a better performance against existing methods.

  16. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00144085

    2017-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run2. Data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment parameters, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This procedure improves the quality of the online reconstruction. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam conditions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline-selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructur...

  17. Real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb Detector in Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Dujany, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Stable, precise spatial alignment and PID calibration are necessary to achieve optimal detector performance. During Run2, LHCb has a new real-time detector alignment and calibration to allow equivalent performance in the online and offline reconstruction to be reached. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection by applying stronger constraints, and to use hadronic particle identification at the trigger level. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from the operative and physics performance point of view. Specific challenges of this configuration are discussed, as well as the designed framework and its performance.

  18. Real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb Detector in Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Dujany, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Stable, precise spatial alignment and PID calibration are necessary to achieve optimal detector performance. During Run2, LHCb will have a new real-time detector alignment and calibration to allow equivalent performance in the online and offline reconstruction to be reached. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection by applying stronger constraints, and to use hadronic particle identification at the trigger level. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from the operative and physics performance point of view. Specific challenges of this configuration are discussed, as well as the designed framework and its performance.

  19. Real time data analysis with the ATLAS Trigger at the LHC in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The trigger selection capabilities of the ATLAS detector have been significantly enhanced for the LHC Run- 2 in order to cope with the higher event rates and with the large number of simultaneous interactions (pile-up) per protonproton bunch crossing. A new hardware system, designed to analyse real time event-topologies at Level-1 came to full use in 2017. A hardware-based track reconstruction system, expected to be used real-time in 2018, is designed to provide track information to the high-level software trigger at its full input rate. The high-level trigger selections are largely relying on offline-like reconstruction techniques, and in some cases multivariate analysis methods. Despite the sudden change in LHC operations during the second half of 2017, which caused an increase in pile-up and therefore also in CPU usage of the trigger algorithms, the set of triggers (so called trigger menu) running online has undergone only minor modifications thanks to the robustness and redundancy of the trigger system, a...

  20. Real time data analysis with the ATLAS trigger at the LHC in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The trigger selection capabilities of the ATLAS detector have been significantly enhanced for the LHC Run-2 in order to cope with the higher event rates and with the large number of simultaneous interactions (pile-up) per proton-proton bunch crossing. A new hardware system, designed to analyse real time event-topologies at Level-1 came to full use in 2017. A hardware-based track reconstruction system, expected to be used real-time in 2018, is designed to provide track information to the high-level software trigger at its full input rate. The high-level trigger selections are largely relying on offline-like reconstruction techniques, and in some cases multi-variate analysis methods. Despite the sudden change in LHC operations during the second half of 2017, which caused an increase in pile-up and therefore also in CPU usage of the trigger algorithms, the set of triggers (so called trigger menu) running online has undergone only minor modifications thanks to the robustness and redundancy of the trigger system, ...

  1. Reinforcement of drinking by running: effect of fixed ratio and reinforcement time1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premack, David; Schaeffer, Robert W.; Hundt, Alan

    1964-01-01

    Rats were required to complete varying numbers of licks (FR), ranging from 10 to 300, in order to free an activity wheel for predetermined times (CT) ranging from 2 to 20 sec. The reinforcement of drinking by running was shown both by an increased frequency of licking, and by changes in length of the burst of licking relative to operant-level burst length. In log-log coordinates, instrumental licking tended to be a linear increasing function of FR for the range tested, a linear decreasing function of CT for the range tested. Pause time was implicated in both of the above relations, being a generally increasing function of both FR and CT. PMID:14120150

  2. REINFORCEMENT OF DRINKING BY RUNNING: EFFECT OF FIXED RATIO AND REINFORCEMENT TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PREMACK, D; SCHAEFFER, R W; HUNDT, A

    1964-01-01

    Rats were required to complete varying numbers of licks (FR), ranging from 10 to 300, in order to free an activity wheel for predetermined times (CT) ranging from 2 to 20 sec. The reinforcement of drinking by running was shown both by an increased frequency of licking, and by changes in length of the burst of licking relative to operant-level burst length. In log-log coordinates, instrumental licking tended to be a linear increasing function of FR for the range tested, a linear decreasing function of CT for the range tested. Pause time was implicated in both of the above relations, being a generally increasing function of both FR and CT.

  3. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...... of error detection methods includes a high level software specification. this has the purpose of illustrating that the designed can be used in practice....

  4. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  5. Run-time Phenomena in Dynamic Software Updating: Causes and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Allan Raundahl; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    The development of a dynamic software updating system for statically-typed object-oriented programming languages has turned out to be a challenging task. Despite the fact that the present state of the art in dynamic updating systems, like JRebel, Dynamic Code Evolution VM, JVolve and Javeleon, all...... written in statically-typed object-oriented programming languages. In this paper, we present our experience from developing dynamically updatable applications using a state-of-the-art dynamic updating system for Java. We believe that the findings presented in this paper provide an important step towards...... provide very transparent and flexible technical solutions to dynamic updating, case studies have shown that designing dynamically updatable applications still remains a challenging task. This challenge has its roots in a number of run-time phenomena that are inherent to dynamic updating of applications...

  6. The Trick Simulation Toolkit: A NASA/Opensource Framework for Running Time Based Physics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Trick Simulation Toolkit is a simulation development environment used to create high fidelity training and engineering simulations at the NASA Johnson Space Center and many other NASA facilities. Its purpose is to generate a simulation executable from a collection of user-supplied models and a simulation definition file. For each Trick-based simulation, Trick automatically provides job scheduling, numerical integration, the ability to write and restore human readable checkpoints, data recording, interactive variable manipulation, a run-time interpreter, and many other commonly needed capabilities. This allows simulation developers to concentrate on their domain expertise and the algorithms and equations of their models. Also included in Trick are tools for plotting recorded data and various other supporting utilities and libraries. Trick is written in C/C++ and Java and supports both Linux and MacOSX computer operating systems. This paper describes Trick's design and use at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  7. Novel time-dependent alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require an unbiased and high resolution measurement of the charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and the quality of the alignment of its components. For the LHC Run 2, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). ATLAS Inner Detector alignment framework has been adapted and upgraded to correct very short time scale movements of the sub-detectors. In particular, a mechanical distortion of the IBL staves up to 20 μm and a vertical displacement of the Pixel detector of ~6 μm have been observed during data-taking. The techniques used to correct for these effects and to match the required Inner Detector performance will be presented.

  8. Operating Security System Support for Run-Time Security with a Trusted Execution Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    , it is safe to assume that any complex software is compromised. The problem is then to monitor and contain it when it executes in order to protect sensitive data and other sensitive assets. To really have an impact, any solution to this problem should be integrated in commodity operating systems...... in the Linux operating system. We are in the process of making this driver part of the mainline Linux kernel.......Software services have become an integral part of our daily life. Cyber-attacks have thus become a problem of increasing importance not only for the IT industry, but for society at large. A way to contain cyber-attacks is to guarantee the integrity of IT systems at run-time. Put differently...

  9. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    The current version of the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) specification defines three compliance levels. Level 0 targets single processor programs while Level 1 and 2 can support multiprocessor platforms. Level 1 programs must be fully partitioned but Level 2 programs can also be more globally...... scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...

  10. Running vacuum in the Universe and the time variation of the fundamental constants of Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Munich (Germany); Sola, Joan [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona (ICCUB), Institute of Cosmos Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Dept. de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    We compute the time variation of the fundamental constants (such as the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass, the strong coupling constant, the fine-structure constant and Newton's constant) within the context of the so-called running vacuum models (RVMs) of the cosmic evolution. Recently, compelling evidence has been provided that these models are able to fit the main cosmological data (SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB) significantly better than the concordance ΛCDM model. Specifically, the vacuum parameters of the RVM (i.e. those responsible for the dynamics of the vacuum energy) prove to be nonzero at a confidence level >or similar 3σ. Here we use such remarkable status of the RVMs to make definite predictions on the cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. It turns out that the predicted variations are close to the present observational limits. Furthermore, we find that the time evolution of the dark matter particle masses should be crucially involved in the total mass variation of our Universe. A positive measurement of this kind of effects could be interpreted as strong support to the ''micro-macro connection'' (viz. the dynamical feedback between the evolution of the cosmological parameters and the time variation of the fundamental constants of the microscopic world), previously proposed by two of us (HF and JS). (orig.)

  11. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  12. Effect of Light/Dark Cycle on Wheel Running and Responding Reinforced by the Opportunity to Run Depends on Postsession Feeding Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T. W.; Mondona, A. R.; Conrad, K. M.; Poirier, K. F.; Pickering, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during…

  13. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk–run–rest mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leroy L.; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    On a treadmill, humans switch from walking to running beyond a characteristic transition speed. Here, we study human choice between walking and running in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground in a given allowed time duration. During this task, the subjects carried, and could look at, a stopwatch that counted down to zero. As expected, if the total time available were large, humans walk the whole distance. If the time available were small, humans mostly run. For an intermediate total time, humans often use a mixture of walking at a slow speed and running at a higher speed. With analytical and computational optimization, we show that using a walk–run mixture at intermediate speeds and a walk–rest mixture at the lowest average speeds is predicted by metabolic energy minimization, even with costs for transients—a consequence of non-convex energy curves. Thus, sometimes, steady locomotion may not be energy optimal, and not preferred, even in the absence of fatigue. Assuming similar non-convex energy curves, we conjecture that similar walk–run mixtures may be energetically beneficial to children following a parent and animals on long leashes. Humans and other animals might also benefit energetically from alternating between moving forward and standing still on a slow and sufficiently long treadmill. PMID:23365192

  14. Real time analysis with the upgraded LHCb trigger in Run III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to 1.1 MHz, a rate at which the entire detector is read out. A second level, implemented in a farm of around 20k parallel processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to around 12.5 kHz. The LHCb experiment plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC long shutdown II (2018-2019). In this upgrade, a purely software based trigger system is being developed and it will have to process the full 30 MHz of bunch crossings with inelastic collisions. LHCb will also receive a factor of 5 increase in the instantaneous luminosity, which further contributes to the challenge of reconstructing and selecting events in real time with the CPU farm. We discuss the plans and progress towards achieving efficient reconstruction and selection with a 30 MHz throughput. Another challenge is to exploit the increased signal rate that results from removing the 1.1 MHz readout bottleneck, combined with the higher instantaneous luminosity. Many charm hadron signals can be recorded at up to 50 times higher rate. LHCb is implementing a new paradigm in the form of real time data analysis, in which abundant signals are recorded in a reduced event format that can be fed directly to the physics analyses. These data do not need any further offline event reconstruction, which allows a larger fraction of the grid computing resources to be devoted to Monte Carlo productions. We discuss how this real-time analysis model is absolutely critical to the LHCb upgrade, and how it will evolve during Run-II.

  15. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance.

  16. A new view of responses to first-time barefoot running.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Mick; Caplan, Nick; Akenhead, Richard; Hayes, Phil

    2015-01-01

    We examined acute alterations in gait and oxygen cost from shod-to-barefoot running in habitually-shod well-trained runners with no prior experience of running barefoot. Thirteen runners completed six-minute treadmill runs shod and barefoot on separate days at a mean speed of 12.5 km·h-1. Steady-state oxygen cost in the final minute was recorded. Kinematic data were captured from 30-consecutive strides. Mean differences between conditions were estimated with 90% confidence intervals. When bar...

  17. The optimal production-run time for a stock-dependent imperfect production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Divya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an inventory model for a hypothesized volume flexible manufacturing system in which the production rate is stock-dependent and the system produces both perfect and imperfect quality items. The demand rate of perfect quality items is known and constant, whereas the demand rate of imperfect (non-conforming to specifications quality items is a function of discount offered in the selling price. In this paper, we determine an optimal production-run time and the optimal discount that should be offered in the selling price to influence the sale of imperfect quality items produced by the manufacturing system. The considered model aims to maximize the net profit obtained through the sales of both perfect and imperfect quality items subject to certain constraints of the system. The solution procedure suggests the use of ‘Interior Penalty Function Method’ to solve the associated constrained maximization problem. Finally, a numerical example demonstrating the applicability of proposed model has been included.

  18. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  19. A Test Run of the EGSIEM Near Real-Time Service Based on GRACE Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A.; Gruber, C.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Guntner, A.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Flechtner, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    To enable the use of GRACE and GRACE-FO data for rapid monitoring applications, the EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 Framework Program for Research and Innovation of the European Union, has implemented a demonstrator for a near real-time (NRT) gravity field service. The goal of this service is to provide daily gravity field solutions with a maximum latency of five days. For this purpose, two independent approaches were developed at the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and Graz University of Technology (TUG). Based on these daily gravity field solutions, statistical flood and drought indicators are derived by the EGSIEM Hydrological Service, developed at GFZ. The NRT products are subsequently provided to the Center for Satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI) at the German Aerospace Center as well as the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission. In the first part of this contribution, the performance of the service based on a statistical analysis of historical flood events during the GRACE period is evaluated. Then, results from the six month long operational test run of the service which started on April 1st 2017 are presented and a comparison between historical and operational gravity products and flood indicators is made.

  20. A Run-Time Verification Framework for Smart Grid Applications Implemented on Simulation Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2013-05-18

    Smart grid applications are implemented and tested with simulation frameworks as the developers usually do not have access to large sensor networks to be used as a test bed. The developers are forced to map the implementation onto these frameworks which results in a deviation between the architecture and the code. On its turn this deviation makes it hard to verify behavioral constraints that are de- scribed at the architectural level. We have developed the ConArch toolset to support the automated verification of architecture-level behavioral constraints. A key feature of ConArch is programmable mapping for architecture to the implementation. Here, developers implement queries to identify the points in the target program that correspond to architectural interactions. ConArch generates run- time observers that monitor the flow of execution between these points and verifies whether this flow conforms to the behavioral constraints. We illustrate how the programmable mappings can be exploited for verifying behavioral constraints of a smart grid appli- cation that is implemented with two simulation frameworks.

  1. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of LHCb detector for Run II and tracking for the upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091576

    2016-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run II. Data collected at the start of the fill is processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. The procedure aims to improve the quality of the online selection and performance stability. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. A similar scheme is planned to be used for Run III foreseen to start in 2020. At that time LHCb will run at an instantaneous luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{33}$ cm$^2$ s$^1$ and a fully software based trigger strategy will be used. The new running conditions and the tighter timing constraints in the software trigger (only 13 ms per event are available) represent a big challenge for track reconstruction. The new software based trigger strategy implies a full detector read-out at the collision rate of 40 MHz. High performance ...

  2. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  3. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  4. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  5. Concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement: choice between different durations of opportunity to run in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-02-01

    How do animals choose between opportunities to run of different durations? Are longer durations preferred over shorter durations because they permit a greater number of revolutions? Are shorter durations preferred because they engender higher rates of running? Will longer durations be chosen because running is less constrained? The present study reports on three experiments that attempted to address these questions. In the first experiment, five male Wistar rats chose between 10-sec and 50-sec opportunities to run on modified concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Across conditions, the durations associated with the alternatives were reversed. Response, time, and reinforcer proportions did not vary from indifference. In a second experiment, eight female Long-Evans rats chose between opportunities to run of equal (30 sec) and unequal durations (10 sec and 50 sec) on concurrent variable-ratio (VR) schedules. As in Experiment 1, between presentations of equal duration conditions, 10-sec and 50-sec durations were reversed. Results showed that response, time, and reinforcer proportions on an alternative did not vary with reinforcer duration. In a third experiment, using concurrent VR schedules, durations were systematically varied to decrease the shorter duration toward 0 sec. As the shorter duration decreased, response, time, and reinforcer proportions shifted toward the longer duration. In summary, differences in durations of opportunities to run did not affect choice behavior in a manner consistent with the assumption that a longer reinforcer is a larger reinforcer.

  6. Primary and secondary effects of real-time feedback to reduce vertical loading rate during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, M; Willy, R W; Meardon, S A

    2017-05-01

    Gait modifications are often proposed to reduce average loading rate (AVLR) during running. While many modifications may reduce AVLR, little work has investigated secondary gait changes. Thirty-two rearfoot runners [16M, 16F, 24.7 (3.3) years, 22.72 (3.01) kg/m 2 , >16 km/week] ran at a self-selected speed (2.9 ± 0.3 m/s) on an instrumented treadmill, while 3D mechanics were calculated via real-time data acquisition. Real-time visual feedback was provided in a randomized order to cue a forefoot strike (FFS), a minimum 7.5% decrease in step length, or a minimum 15% reduction in AVLR. AVLR was reduced by FFS (mean difference = 26.4 BW/s; 95% CI = 20.1, 32.7; P < 0.001), shortened step length (8.4 BW/s; 95% CI = 2.9, 14.0; P = 0.004), and cues to reduce AVLR (14.9 BW/s; 95% CI = 10.2, 19.6; P < 0.001). FFS, shortened step length, and cues to reduce AVLR all reduced eccentric knee joint work per km [(-48.2 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -58.1, -38.3; P < 0.001), (-35.5 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -42.4, 28.6; P < 0.001), (-23.1 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -33.3, -12.9; P < 0.001)]. However, FFS and cues to reduce AVLR also increased eccentric ankle joint work per km [(54.49 J/kg*m; 95% CI = 45.3, 63.7; P < 0.001), (9.20 J/kg*m; 95% CI = 1.7, 16.7; P = 0.035)]. Potentially injurious secondary effects associated with FFS and cues to reduce AVLR may undermine their clinical utility. Alternatively, a shortened step length resulted in small reductions in AVLR, without any potentially injurious secondary effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  8. Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Jernej; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles' contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children's development.

  9. Mapping real-life applications on run-time reconfigurable NoC-based MPSoC on FPGA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Srikanthan, Th.; Ha, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoC) are required to fulfill the performance demand of modern real-life embedded applications. These MPSoCs are employing Network-on-Chip (NoC) for reasons of efficiency and scalability. Additionally, these systems need to support run-time reconfiguration of their

  10. An investigation of the relation between the 30 meter running time and the femoral volume fraction in the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Tasmektepligil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg components are thought to be a related to speed. Only a limited number of studies have, however, examined the interaction between speed and bone size. In this study, we examined the relationship between the time taken by football players to run thirty meters and the fraction which the femur forms compared to the entire thigh region. Data collected from thirty male football players of average age 17.3 (between 16-19 years old were analyzed. First we detected the thirty meter running times and then we estimated the volume fraction of the femur to the entire thigh region using stereological methods on magnetic resonance images. Our data showed that there was a highly negative relationship between the 30 meter running times and the volume fraction of the bone to the thigh region. Thus, 30 meter running time decreases as the fraction of the bone to the thigh region increases. In other words, speed increases as the fraction of bone volume increases. Our data indicate that selecting sportsman whose femoral volume fractions are high will provide a significant benefit to enhancing performance in those branches of sports which require speed. Moreover, we concluded that training which can increase the bone volume fraction should be practiced when an increase in speed is desired and that the changes in the fraction of thigh region components should be monitored during these trainings.

  11.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barandun U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results: After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β=-0.52, P<0.0001 and percent body fat (β=0.27, P <0.0001 were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44: race time (minutes = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, % – 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours. Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r=0.33, P=0.0002. The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics.Conclusion: The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.Keywords: body fat, skinfold thickness, anthropometry, endurance, athlete

  12. Long-run sectoral development time series evidence for the German economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Andreas; Krüger, Jens J.

    2008-01-01

    In economic development, long-run structural change among the three main sectors of an economy follows a typical pattern with the primary sector (agriculture, mining) first dominating, followed by the secondary sector (manufacturing) and finally by the tertiary sector (services) in terms of employment and value added. We reconsider the verbal theoretical work of Fourastié and build a simple model encompassing its main features, most notably the macroeconomic influences on the sectoral develop...

  13. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  14. Optimal design and real time control of the integrated urban run-off system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Rauch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Traditional design of urban run-off systems is based on fixed rules with respect to the points of demarcation between the three systems involved: the sewer system, the treatment plant and the receiving water. An alternative to fixed rules is to model the total system. There is still uncertainty...... and evaluation of competing alternatives for design. However, the complexity of these systems is such that the parameters associated with pollution are hardly identifiable on the basis of reasonable monitoring programmes. The empirical-iterative approach: structures are built on simplified assumptions...

  15. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P  0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy.

  16. Safety, Liveness and Run-time Refinement for Modular Process-Aware Information Systems with Dynamic Sub Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    and verification of flexible, run-time adaptable process-aware information systems, moved into practice via the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs notation co-developed with our industrial partner. Our key contributions are: (1) A formal theory of dynamic sub-process instantiation for declarative, event......We study modularity, run-time adaptation and refinement under safety and liveness constraints in event-based process models with dynamic sub-process instantiation. The study is part of a larger programme to provide semantically well-founded technologies for modelling, implementation......-based processes under safety and liveness constraints, given as the DCR* process language, equipped with a compositional operational semantics and conservatively extending the DCR Graphs notation; (2) an expressiveness analysis revealing that the DCR* process language is Turing-complete, while the fragment cor...

  17. Design and Implementation of a New Run-time Life-cycle for Interactive Public Display Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Jorge C. S.; Perpétua, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Public display systems are becoming increasingly complex. They are moving from passive closed systems to open interactive systems that are able to accommodate applications from several independent sources. This shift needs to be accompanied by a more flexible and powerful application management. In this paper, we propose a run-time life-cycle model for interactive public display applications that addresses several shortcomings of current display systems. Our mo...

  18. Effect of injection timing on combustion and performance of a direct injection diesel engine running on Jatropha methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Technology & Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313001 (India)

    2011-07-01

    The present study aims at evaluation of effect of injection timing on the combustion, performance and emissions of a small power diesel engine, commonly used for agriculture purpose, running on pure biodiesel, prepared from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) vegetable oil. The effect of varying injection timing was evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, power and mean effective pressure, exhaust temperature, cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. It was found that retarding the injection timing by 3 degrees enhances the thermal efficiency by about 8 percent.

  19. Species interactions and response time to climate change: ice-cover and terrestrial run-off shaping Arctic char and brown trout competitive asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, A. G.; Palm Helland, I.; Jonsson, B.; Forseth, T.; Foldvik, A.; Hessen, D. O.; Hendrichsen, D. K.; Berg, O. K.; Ulvan, E.; Ugedal, O.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a growing recognition that single species responses to climate change often mainly are driven by interaction with other organisms and single species studies therefore not are sufficient to recognize and project ecological climate change impacts. Here, we study how performance, relative abundance and the distribution of two common Arctic and sub-Arctic freshwater fishes (brown trout and Arctic char) are driven by competitive interactions. The interactions are modified both by direct climatic effects on temperature and ice-cover, and indirectly through climate forcing of terrestrial vegetation pattern and associated carbon and nutrient run-off. We first use laboratory studies to show that Arctic char, which is the world's most northernmost distributed freshwater fish, outperform trout under low light levels and also have comparable higher growth efficiency. Corresponding to this, a combination of time series and time-for-space analyses show that ice-cover duration and carbon and nutrient load mediated by catchment vegetation properties strongly affected the outcome of the competition and likely drive the species distribution pattern through competitive exclusion. In brief, while shorter ice-cover period and decreased carbon load favored brown trout, increased ice-cover period and increased carbon load favored Arctic char. Length of ice-covered period and export of allochthonous material from catchments are major, but contrasting, climatic drivers of competitive interaction between these two freshwater lake top-predators. While projected climate change lead to decreased ice-cover, corresponding increase in forest and shrub cover amplify carbon and nutrient run-off. Although a likely outcome of future Arctic and sub-arctic climate scenarios are retractions of the Arctic char distribution area caused by competitive exclusion, the main drivers will act on different time scales. While ice-cover will change instantaneously with increasing temperature

  20. Upper Bounds Prediction of the Execution Time of Programs Running on ARM Cortex-A Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova , Irina; Krause , Bernd; Siemens , Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Embedded and Real Time Systems; International audience; This paper describes the application of statistical analysis of the timing behavior for a generic real-time task model. Using specific processor of ARM Cortex-A series and an empirical approach of time values retrieval, the algorithm to predict the upper bounds for the task of the time acquisition operation has been formulated. For the experimental verification of the algorithm, we have used the robust Measurement-Based Probabili...

  1. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun,; Knechtle,Patrizia; Klipstein,; Rüst,Christoph Alexander; Rosemann,Thomas; Lepers,Romuald

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  2. Run-time anomaly detection and mitigation in information-rich cyber-physical systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation space missions require autonomous systems to operate without human intervention for long periods of times in highly dynamic environments. Such...

  3. Temporal analysis and scheduling of hard real-time radios running on a multi-processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, O.

    2012-01-01

    On a multi-radio baseband system, multiple independent transceivers must share the resources of a multi-processor, while meeting each its own hard real-time requirements. Not all possible combinations of transceivers are known at compile time, so a solution must be found that either allows for

  4. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    with the approximated actual arrival and departure times. As a result, all future statistics can now either be based on track circuit data with high precision or approximated actual arrival times with a high accuracy. Consequently, performance analysis will be more accurate, punctuality statistics more correct, KPI...

  5. Effect of advanced injection timing on emission characteristics of diesel engine running on natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwafor, O.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State (Nigeria)

    2007-11-15

    There has been a growing concern on the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, whose consequence is global warming. The sources of greenhouse gases have been identified, of which the major contributor is the combustion of fossil fuel. Researchers have intensified efforts towards identifying greener alternative fuel substitutes for the present fossil fuel. Natural gas is now being investigated as potential alternative fuel for diesel engines. Natural gas appears more attractive due to its high octane number and perhaps, due to its environmental friendly nature. The test results showed that alternative fuels exhibit longer ignition delay, with slow burning rates. Longer delays will lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock. This work examines the effect of advanced injection timing on the emission characteristics of dual-fuel engine. The engine has standard injection timing of 30 BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5 and given injection timing of 35.5 BTDC. The engine performance was erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5 . The engine performance was smooth on this timing especially at low loading conditions. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection timing but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. The CO and CO{sub 2} emissions were reduced through advanced injection timing. (author)

  6. QRTEngine: An easy solution for running online reaction time experiments using Qualtrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S; Haasnoot, Erwin; Bocanegra, Bruno R; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2015-12-01

    Performing online behavioral research is gaining increased popularity among researchers in psychological and cognitive science. However, the currently available methods for conducting online reaction time experiments are often complicated and typically require advanced technical skills. In this article, we introduce the Qualtrics Reaction Time Engine (QRTEngine), an open-source JavaScript engine that can be embedded in the online survey development environment Qualtrics. The QRTEngine can be used to easily develop browser-based online reaction time experiments with accurate timing within current browser capabilities, and it requires only minimal programming skills. After introducing the QRTEngine, we briefly discuss how to create and distribute a Stroop task. Next, we describe a study in which we investigated the timing accuracy of the engine under different processor loads using external chronometry. Finally, we show that the QRTEngine can be used to reproduce classic behavioral effects in three reaction time paradigms: a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a masked-priming task. These findings demonstrate that QRTEngine can be used as a tool for conducting online behavioral research even when this requires accurate stimulus presentation times.

  7. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  8. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Carling

    Full Text Available This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship.Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd and event coding (Opta Pro®.Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1% participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5% in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches, comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches.These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter. These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and intervention strategies during

  9. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher J.; Flanagan, Eamon; O’Doherty, Pearse; Piscione, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship. Method Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®). Results Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5%) in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play) showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches), comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches) reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches. Conclusions These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter). These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and

  10. QRTEngine: An easy solution for running online reaction time experiments using Qualtrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Haasnoot, Erwin; Bocanegra, Bruno R.; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Performing online behavioral research is gaining increased popularity among researchers in psychological and cognitive science. However, the currently available methods for conducting online reaction time experiments are often complicated and typically require advanced technical skills. In this

  11. Implications of shorter cells in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Further studies on the beam-stay-clear requirements in PEP led to the conclusion that the vertical aperture needed to be enlarged. There are two main reasons for that: Observations at SPEAR indicate that the aperture should be large enough for a fully coupled beam. Full coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations occurs not only occasionally when the energy, tune or betatron function at the interaction point is changed but also due to the beam/endash/beam effect of two strong colliding beams. The second reason for an increased aperture requirement is the nonlinear perturbation of the particle trajectories by the sextupoles. This perturbation increases a fully coupled beam by another 50% to 80%. Both effects together with a +-5 mm allowance for closed orbit perturbation result in a vertical beam-stay-clear in the bending magnets of +-4.8 to +-5.6 cm, compared to the present +-2.0 cm. This beam-stay-clear, together with additional space for vacuum chamber, etc., leads to very costly bending magnets. In this note, a shorter cell length is proposed which would reduce considerably the vertical beam-stay-clear requirements in the bending magnets. 7 figs

  12. A free-running, time-based readout method for particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, A; Ritman, J; Stockmanns, T; Bugalho, R; Francesco, A Di; Gastón, C; Gonçalves, F; Rolo, M D; Silva, J C da; Silva, R; Varela, J; Veckalns, V; Mazza, G; Mignone, M; Pietro, V Di; Riccardi, A; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R

    2014-01-01

    For the EndoTOFPET-US experiment, the TOFPET ASIC has been developed as a front-end chip to read out data from silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) [1]. It introduces a time of flight information into the measurement of a PET scanner and hence reduces radiation exposure of the patient [2]. The chip is designed to work with a high event rate up to 100 kHz and a time resolution of 50 ps LSB. Using two threshold levels, it can measure the leading edge of the event pulse precisely while successfully suppressing dark counts from the SiPM. This also enables a time over threshold determination, leading to a charge measurement of the signal's pulse. The same, time-based concept is chosen for the PASTA chip used in the PANDA experiment. This high-energy particle detector contains sub-systems for specific measurement goals. The innermost of these is the Micro Vertex Detector, a silicon-based tracking system. The PASTA chip's approach is much like the TOFPET ASIC with some differences. The most significant ones are a changed amplifying part for different input signals as well as protection for radiation effects of the high-radiation environment. Apart from that, the simple and general concept combined with a small area and low power consumption support the choice for using this approach

  13. A free-running, time-based readout method for particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerres, A.; Bugalho, R.; Di Francesco, A.; Gastón, C.; Gonçalves, F.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Di Pietro, V.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; da Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Stockmanns, T.; Varela, J.; Veckalns, V.; Wheadon, R.

    2014-03-01

    For the EndoTOFPET-US experiment, the TOFPET ASIC has been developed as a front-end chip to read out data from silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) [1]. It introduces a time of flight information into the measurement of a PET scanner and hence reduces radiation exposure of the patient [2]. The chip is designed to work with a high event rate up to 100 kHz and a time resolution of 50 ps LSB. Using two threshold levels, it can measure the leading edge of the event pulse precisely while successfully suppressing dark counts from the SiPM. This also enables a time over threshold determination, leading to a charge measurement of the signal's pulse. The same, time-based concept is chosen for the PASTA chip used in the PANDA experiment. This high-energy particle detector contains sub-systems for specific measurement goals. The innermost of these is the Micro Vertex Detector, a silicon-based tracking system. The PASTA chip's approach is much like the TOFPET ASIC with some differences. The most significant ones are a changed amplifying part for different input signals as well as protection for radiation effects of the high-radiation environment. Apart from that, the simple and general concept combined with a small area and low power consumption support the choice for using this approach.

  14. Run-time Adaptable VLIW Processors : Resources, Performance, Power Consumption, and Reliability Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjam, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, we propose to combine programmability with reconfigurability by implementing an adaptable programmable VLIW processor in a reconfigurable hardware. The approach allows applications to be developed at high-level (C language level), while at the same time, the processor

  15. Deriving Tools from Real-time Runs: A New CCMC Support for SEC and AFWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Rastatter, Lutz; MacNeice, Peter; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2008-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions. the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second focus of CCMC activities is on validation and verification of space weather models. and on the transition of appropriate models to space weather forecast centers. As part of the latter activity. the CCMC develops real-time simulation systems that stress models through routine execution. A by-product of these real-time calculations is the ability to derive model products, which may be useful for space weather operators. After consultations with NOA/SEC and with AFWA, CCMC has developed a set of tools as a first step to make real-time model output useful to forecast centers. In this presentation, we will discuss the motivation for this activity, the actions taken so far, and options for future tools from model output.

  16. Running into trouble with the time-dependent propagation of a wavepacket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriz, Abel E; Sztrajman, Alejandro; Mitnik, DarIo

    2010-01-01

    The propagation in time of a wavepacket is a conceptually rich problem suitable to be studied in any introductory quantum mechanics course. This subject is covered analytically in most of the standard textbooks. Computer simulations have become a widespread pedagogical tool, easily implemented in computer labs and in classroom demonstrations. However, we have detected issues raising difficulties in the practical effectuation of these codes which are especially evident when discrete grid methods are used. One issue-relatively well known-appears at high incident energies, producing a wavepacket slower than expected theoretically. The other issue, which appears at low wavepacket energies, does not affect the time evolution of the propagating wavepacket proper, but produces dramatic effects on its spectral decomposition. The origin of the troubles is investigated, and different ways to deal with these issues are proposed. Finally, we show how this problem is manifested and solved in the practical case of the electronic spectra of a metal surface ionized by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  17. Running into trouble with the time-dependent propagation of a wavepacket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriz, Abel E; Sztrajman, Alejandro; Mitnik, DarIo, E-mail: dmitnik@df.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The propagation in time of a wavepacket is a conceptually rich problem suitable to be studied in any introductory quantum mechanics course. This subject is covered analytically in most of the standard textbooks. Computer simulations have become a widespread pedagogical tool, easily implemented in computer labs and in classroom demonstrations. However, we have detected issues raising difficulties in the practical effectuation of these codes which are especially evident when discrete grid methods are used. One issue-relatively well known-appears at high incident energies, producing a wavepacket slower than expected theoretically. The other issue, which appears at low wavepacket energies, does not affect the time evolution of the propagating wavepacket proper, but produces dramatic effects on its spectral decomposition. The origin of the troubles is investigated, and different ways to deal with these issues are proposed. Finally, we show how this problem is manifested and solved in the practical case of the electronic spectra of a metal surface ionized by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  18. Pre-hospital electrocardiogram triage with tele-cardiology support is associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely reperfusion even in rural areas: data from the Bari- Barletta/Andria/Trani public emergency medical service 118 registry on primary angioplasty in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Di Pietro, Gaetano; Aquilino, Ambrogio; Bruno, Angela I; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Di Giuseppe, Giuseppe; Lopriore, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luisa; Lanzone, Saverio; Caldarola, Pasquale; Antonelli, Gianfranco; Di Biase, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    We report the preliminary data from a regional registry on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary angioplasty in Apulia, Italy; the region is covered by a single public health-care service, a single public emergency medical service (EMS), and a single tele-medicine service provider. Two hundred and ninety-seven consecutive patients with STEMI transferred by regional free public EMS 1-1-8 for primary-PCI were enrolled in the study; 123 underwent pre-hospital electrocardiograms (ECGs) triage by tele-cardiology support and directly referred for primary-PCI, those remaining were just transferred by 1-1-8 ambulances for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (diagnosis not based on tele-medicine ECG; already hospitalised patients, emergency-room without tele-medicine support). Time from first ECG diagnostic for STEMI to balloon was recorded; a time-to-balloon primary-PCI). Pre-hospital triage with tele-cardiology ECG in an EMS registry from an area with more than one and a half million inhabitants was associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely treated patients, even in 'rural' areas. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  19. Design and development of a run-time monitor for multi-core architectures in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mikyung; Kang, Dong-In; Crago, Stephen P; Park, Gyung-Leen; Lee, Junghoon

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources. The large-scale distributed applications on a cloud require adaptive service-based software, which has the capability of monitoring system status changes, analyzing the monitored information, and adapting its service configuration while considering tradeoffs among multiple QoS features simultaneously. In this paper, we design and develop a Run-Time Monitor (RTM) which is a system software to monitor the application behavior at run-time, analyze the collected information, and optimize cloud computing resources for multi-core architectures. RTM monitors application software through library instrumentation as well as underlying hardware through a performance counter optimizing its computing configuration based on the analyzed data.

  20. Design and Development of a Run-Time Monitor for Multi-Core Architectures in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources. The large-scale distributed applications on a cloud require adaptive service-based software, which has the capability of monitoring system status changes, analyzing the monitored information, and adapting its service configuration while considering tradeoffs among multiple QoS features simultaneously. In this paper, we design and develop a Run-Time Monitor (RTM which is a system software to monitor the application behavior at run-time, analyze the collected information, and optimize cloud computing resources for multi-core architectures. RTM monitors application software through library instrumentation as well as underlying hardware through a performance counter optimizing its computing configuration based on the analyzed data.

  1. Interface Testing for RTOS System Tasks based on the Run-Time Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju

    2006-01-01

    Safety critical embedded system requires high dependability of not only hardware but also software. It is intricate to modify embedded software once embedded. Therefore, it is necessary to have rigorous regulations to assure the quality of safety critical embedded software. IEEE V and V (Verification and Validation) process is recommended for software dependability, but a more quantitative evaluation method like software testing is necessary. In case of safety critical embedded software, it is essential to have a test that reflects unique features of the target hardware and its operating system. The safety grade PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a safety critical embedded system where hardware and software are tightly coupled. The PLC has HdS (Hardware dependent Software) and it is tightly coupled with RTOS (Real Time Operating System). Especially, system tasks that are tightly coupled with target hardware and RTOS kernel have large influence on the dependability of the entire PLC. Therefore, interface testing for system tasks that reflects the features of target hardware and RTOS kernel becomes the core of the PLC integration test. Here, we define interfaces as overlapped parts between two different layers on the system architecture. In this paper, we identify interfaces for system tasks and apply the identified interfaces to the safety grade PLC. Finally, we show the test results through the empirical study

  2. Interface Testing for RTOS System Tasks based on the Run-Time Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju [Ewha University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Safety critical embedded system requires high dependability of not only hardware but also software. It is intricate to modify embedded software once embedded. Therefore, it is necessary to have rigorous regulations to assure the quality of safety critical embedded software. IEEE V and V (Verification and Validation) process is recommended for software dependability, but a more quantitative evaluation method like software testing is necessary. In case of safety critical embedded software, it is essential to have a test that reflects unique features of the target hardware and its operating system. The safety grade PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a safety critical embedded system where hardware and software are tightly coupled. The PLC has HdS (Hardware dependent Software) and it is tightly coupled with RTOS (Real Time Operating System). Especially, system tasks that are tightly coupled with target hardware and RTOS kernel have large influence on the dependability of the entire PLC. Therefore, interface testing for system tasks that reflects the features of target hardware and RTOS kernel becomes the core of the PLC integration test. Here, we define interfaces as overlapped parts between two different layers on the system architecture. In this paper, we identify interfaces for system tasks and apply the identified interfaces to the safety grade PLC. Finally, we show the test results through the empirical study.

  3. Real time analysis with the upgraded LHCb trigger in Run-III

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to 1 MHz, a rate at which the entire detector is read out. A second level, implemented in a farm of around 20k parallel processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to around 12.5 kHz. The LHCb experiment plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC long shutdown II (2018-2019 ). In this upgrade, a purely software based trigger system is being developed and it will have to process the full 30 MHz of bunch crossings with inelastic collisions. LHCb will also receive a factor of 5 increase in the instantaneous luminosity, which further contributes to the challenge of reconstructing and selecting events in real time with the CPU farm. We discuss the plans and progress towards achieving efficient reconstruction and selection with a 30 MHz throughput. Another challenge is to exploit the increased signal rate that results from removing the 1 MHz readout bottleneck, combined with the high...

  4. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  5. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  6. Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravar, S.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.; Kieu, K.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-comb technique has enabled exciting applications in high resolution spectroscopy, precision distance measurements, and 3D imaging. Major advantages over traditional methods can be achieved with dual-comb technique. For example, dual-comb spectroscopy provides orders of magnitude improvement in acquisition speed over standard Fourier-transform spectroscopy while still preserving the high resolution capability. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for complex and expensive ultrafast laser systems. Here, we present a simple and robust dual-comb system that employs a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser operating at telecommunication wavelength. Two femtosecond frequency combs (with a small difference in repetition rates) are generated from a single laser cavity to ensure mutual coherent properties and common noise cancellation. As the result, we have achieved real-time absorption spectroscopy measurements without the need for complex servo locking with accurate frequency referencing, and relatively high signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant spring/summer yearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.L.; Yasuda, D.; Skalski, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a post-season analysis of the accuracy of the 1996 predictions from the program RealTime. Observed 1996 migration data collected at Lower Granite Dam were compared to the predictions made by RealTime for the spring outmigration of wild spring/summer chinook. Appendix A displays the graphical reports of the RealTime program that were interactively accessible via the World Wide Web during the 1996 migration season. Final reports are available at address http://www.cqs.washington.edu/crisprt/. The CRISP model incorporated the predictions of the run status to move the timing forecasts further down the Snake River to Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary Dams. An analysis of the dams below Lower Granite Dam is available separately

  8. A time-domain digitally controlled oscillator composed of a free running ring oscillator and flying-adder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Zhang Shengdong; Wang Yangyuan; Li Wei; Ren Peng; Lin Qinglong

    2009-01-01

    A time-domain digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) is proposed. The DCO is composed of a free-running ring oscillator (FRO) and a two lap-selectors integrated flying-adder (FA). With a coiled cell array which allows uniform loading capacitances of the delay cells, the FRO produces 32 outputs with consistent tap spacing for the FA as reference clocks. The FA uses the outputs from the FRO to generate the output of the DCO according to the control number, resulting in a linear dependence of the output period, instead of the frequency on the digital controlling word input. Thus the proposed DCO ensures a good conversion linearity in a time-domain, and is suitable for time-domain all-digital phase locked loop applications. The DCO was implemented in a standard 0.13 μm digital logic CMOS process. The measurement results show that the DCO has a linear and monotonic tuning curve with gain variation of less than 10%, and a very low root mean square period jitter of 9.3 ps in the output clocks. The DCO works well at supply voltages ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 V, and consumes 4 mW of power with 500 MHz frequency output at 1.2 V supply voltage.

  9. Recent run-time experience and investigation of impurities in turbines circuit of Helium plant of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key sub-systems of Steady State superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is cryogenic 1.3 kW at 4.5 K Helium refrigerator/liquefier system. The helium plant consists of 3 nos. of screw compressors, oil removal system, purifier and cold-box with 3 turbo expanders (turbines) and helium cold circulator. During the recent SST-1 plasma campaigns, we observed high pressure drop of the order of 3 bar between the wheel outlet of turbine A and the wheel inlet of turbine - B. This was significant higher values of pressures drop across turbines, which reduced the speed of turbine A and B and in turn reduced the overall plant capacity. The helium circuits in the plant have 10-micron filter at the mouth of turbine - B. Initially, major suspects of such high blockage are assumed to be air-impurity, dust particles or collapse of filter. Several breaks in plant operation have been taken to warm up the turbines circuits up to 90 K to remove condensation of air-impurities at filter. Still this exercise did not solve blockage of filter in turbine circuits. A detailed investigation exercise with air/water regeneration and rinsing of cold box as well as purification of helium gas in buffer tanks are carried out to remove air impurities from cold-box. A trial run of cold box was executed in liquefier mode with turbines up to cryogenic temperatures and solved blockage in turbine circuits. The paper describes run-time experience of helium plant with helium impurity in turbine circuits, methods to remove impurity, demonstration of turbine performance and lessons learnt during this operation. (author)

  10. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroni, P; Pifferi, A; Torricelli, A; Spinelli, L; Danesini, G M; Cubeddu, R

    2004-01-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (<1.5 cm diameter). For cysts either a progressive increase or decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images

  11. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  12. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  13. Similar Running Economy With Different Running Patterns Along the Aerial-Terrestrial Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Gimenez, Philippe; Mourot, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    No unique or ideal running pattern is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into 2 categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare the RE of aerial and terrestrial runners. Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n = 29) or terrestrial (n = 29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations. RE, muscle activity, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters of both groups were measured during a 5-min run at 12 km/h on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max) and peak treadmill speed (PTS) were assessed during an incremental running test. No differences were observed between aerial and terrestrial patterns for RE, V̇O 2 max, and PTS. However, at 12 km/h, aerial runners exhibited earlier gastrocnemius lateralis activation in preparation for contact, less dorsiflexion at ground contact, higher coactivation indexes, and greater leg stiffness during stance phase than terrestrial runners. Terrestrial runners had more pronounced semitendinosus activation at the start and end of the running cycle, shorter flight time, greater leg compression, and a more rear-foot strike. Different running patterns were associated with similar RE. Aerial runners appear to rely more on elastic energy utilization with a rapid eccentric-concentric coupling time, whereas terrestrial runners appear to propel the body more forward rather than upward to limit work against gravity. Excluding runners with a mixed running pattern from analyses did not affect study interpretation.

  14. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE MATRYOSHKA RUN. II. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENCE STATISTICS, STOCHASTIC PARTICLE ACCELERATION, AND MICROPHYSICS IMPACT IN A MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniati, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We use the Matryoshka run to study the time-dependent statistics of structure-formation-driven turbulence in the intracluster medium of a 10 15 M ☉ galaxy cluster. We investigate the turbulent cascade in the inner megaparsec for both compressional and incompressible velocity components. The flow maintains approximate conditions of fully developed turbulence, with departures thereof settling in about an eddy-turnover time. Turbulent velocity dispersion remains above 700 km s –1 even at low mass accretion rate, with the fraction of compressional energy between 10% and 40%. The normalization and the slope of the compressional turbulence are susceptible to large variations on short timescales, unlike the incompressible counterpart. A major merger occurs around redshift z ≅ 0 and is accompanied by a long period of enhanced turbulence, ascribed to temporal clustering of mass accretion related to spatial clustering of matter. We test models of stochastic acceleration by compressional modes for the origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters. The turbulence simulation model constrains an important unknown of this complex problem and brings forth its dependence on the elusive microphysics of the intracluster plasma. In particular, the specifics of the plasma collisionality and the dissipation physics of weak shocks affect the cascade of compressional modes with strong impact on the acceleration rates. In this context radio halos emerge as complex phenomena in which a hierarchy of processes acting on progressively smaller scales are at work. Stochastic acceleration by compressional modes implies statistical correlation of radio power and spectral index with merging cores distance, both testable in principle with radio surveys

  16. The Reliability and Validity of a Four-Minute Running Time-Trial in Assessing V˙O2max and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry McGawley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional graded-exercise tests to volitional exhaustion (GXTs are limited by the need to establish starting workloads, stage durations, and step increments. Short-duration time-trials (TTs may be easier to implement and more ecologically valid in terms of real-world athletic events. The purpose of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max and performance measured during a traditional GXT (STEP and a four-minute running time-trial (RunTT.Methods: Ten recreational runners (age: 32 ± 7 years; body mass: 69 ± 10 kg completed five STEP tests with a verification phase (VER and five self-paced RunTTs on a treadmill. The order of the STEP/VER and RunTT trials was alternated and counter-balanced. Performance was measured as time to exhaustion (TTE for STEP and VER and distance covered for RunTT.Results: The coefficient of variation (CV for V˙O2max was similar between STEP, VER, and RunTT (1.9 ± 1.0, 2.2 ± 1.1, and 1.8 ± 0.8%, respectively, but varied for performance between the three types of test (4.5 ± 1.9, 9.7 ± 3.5, and 1.8 ± 0.7% for STEP, VER, and RunTT, respectively. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (bias ± 95% showed V˙O2max to be 1.6 ± 3.6 mL·kg−1·min−1 higher for STEP vs. RunTT. Peak HR was also significantly higher during STEP compared with RunTT (P = 0.019.Conclusion: A four-minute running time-trial appears to provide more reliable performance data in comparison to an incremental test to exhaustion, but may underestimate V˙O2max.

  17. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von

    2010-01-01

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  18. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  19. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press strength and time to running exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Malek, Moh H; Mielke, Michelle; Hendrix, Russell

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement (SUPP) on one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and time to running exhaustion (TRE) at a velocity that corresponded to 85% of the peak oxygen uptake ([latin capital V with dot above]O2peak). The study used a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Thirty-one men (mean +/- SD age = 23.0 +/- 2.6 years) were randomly assigned to take either the SUPP or placebo (PLAC) first. The SUPP contained 201 mg of caffeine, and the PLAC was microcrystalline cellulose. All subjects were tested for 1-RM bench press strength and TRE at 45 minutes after taking either the SUPP or PLAC. After 1 week of rest, the subjects returned to the laboratory and ingested the opposite substance (SUPP or PLAC) from what was taken during the previous visit. The 1-RM bench press and TRE tests were then performed in the same manner as before. The results indicated that the SUPP had no effect on 1-RM bench press strength or TRE at 85% [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak. It is possible that the acute effects of caffeine are affected by differences in training status and/or the relative intensity of the exercise task. Future studies should examine these issues, in addition to testing the acute effects of various caffeine doses on performance during maximal strength, power, and aerobic activities. These findings do not, however, support the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in untrained to moderately trained individuals.

  20. Analysis and Design of Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter in the Extended Run Time DC UPS System Based on Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes. The deli......Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes...

  1. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  2. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  3. Changes in running kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h treadmill run (24TR). Kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass characteristics of the running step were assessed in 10 experienced ultralong-distance runners before, every 2 h, and after a 24TR using an instrumented treadmill dynamometer. These measurements were performed at 10 km·h, and mechanical parameters were sampled at 1000 Hz for 10 consecutive steps. Contact and aerial times were determined from ground reaction force (GRF) signals and used to compute step frequency. Maximal GRF, loading rate, downward displacement of the center of mass, and leg length change during the support phase were determined and used to compute both vertical and leg stiffness. Subjects' running pattern and spring-mass behavior significantly changed over the 24TR with a 4.9% higher step frequency on average (because of a significantly 4.5% shorter contact time), a lower maximal GRF (by 4.4% on average), a 13.0% lower leg length change during contact, and an increase in both leg and vertical stiffness (+9.9% and +8.6% on average, respectively). Most of these changes were significant from the early phase of the 24TR (fourth to sixth hour of running) and could be speculated as contributing to an overall limitation of the potentially harmful consequences of such a long-duration run on subjects' musculoskeletal system. During a 24TR, the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior show a clear shift toward a higher oscillating frequency and stiffness, along with lower GRF and leg length change (hence a reduced overall eccentric load) during the support phase of running. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  4. Patellofemoral Joint Loads During Running at the Time of Return to Sport in Elite Athletes With ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Alarifi, Saud; Jones, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Patellofemoral joint pain and degeneration are common in patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The presence of patellofemoral joint pain significantly affects the patient's ability to continue sport participation and may even affect participation in activities of daily living. The mechanisms behind patellofemoral joint pain and degeneration are unclear, but previous research has identified altered patellofemoral joint loading in individuals with patellofemoral joint pain when running. It is unclear whether this process occurs after ACLR. To assess the patellofemoral joint stresses during running in ACLR knees and compare the findings to the noninjured knee and matched control knees. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-four elite sports practitioners who had undergone ACLR and 34 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. The participants' running gait was assessed via 3D motion capture, and knee loads and forces were calculated by use of inverse dynamics. A significance difference was found in knee extensor moment, knee flexion angles, patellofemoral contact force (about 23% greater), and patellofemoral contact pressure (about 27% greater) between the ACLR and the noninjured limb ( P ≤ .04) and between the ACLR and the control limb ( P ≤ .04); no significant differences were found between the noninjured and control limbs ( P ≥ .44). Significantly greater levels of patellofemoral joint stress and load were found in the ACLR knee compared with the noninjured and control knees. Altered levels of patellofemoral stress in the ACLR knee during running may predispose individuals to patellofemoral joint pain.

  5. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Doornbos, M.; Garland, T.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running

  6. Just in Time - Expecting Failure: Do JIT Principles Run Counter to DoD’s Business Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Regiment. The last several years witnessed both commercial industry and the Department of Defense (DoD) logistics supply chains trending to-ward an...moving items through a production system only when needed. Equating inventory to an avoidable waste instead of adding value to a company directly...Louisiana plant for a week, Honda Motor Company to suspend orders for Japanese-built Honda and Acura models, and pro- ducers of Boeing’s 787 to run billions

  7. The Napoleon Complex: When Shorter Men Take More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jill E P; Blaker, Nancy M; Van Vugt, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by an evolutionary psychological perspective on the Napoleon complex, we hypothesized that shorter males are more likely to show indirect aggression in resource competitions with taller males. Three studies provide support for our interpretation of the Napoleon complex. Our pilot study shows that men (but not women) keep more resources for themselves when they feel small. When paired with a taller male opponent (Study 1), shorter men keep more resources to themselves in a game in which they have all the power (dictator game) versus a game in which the opponent also has some power (ultimatum game). Furthermore, shorter men are not more likely to show direct, physical aggression toward a taller opponent (Study 2). As predicted by the Napoleon complex, we conclude that (relatively) shorter men show greater behavioral flexibility in securing resources when presented with cues that they are physically less competitive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  10. [Research and implementation of a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Qian, Mingli; Li, Long; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposed a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things. In the aspect of hardware, a solution of ZigBee networks plus 470 MHz networks is proposed. In the aspect of software, graphical display of monitoring interface and real-time equipment failure alarm is implemented. The system has the function of remote equipment failure detection and wireless localization, which provides a practical and effective method for medical equipment management.

  11. Hourly Comparison of GPM-IMERG-Final-Run and IMERG-Real-Time (V-03) over a Dense Surface Network in Northeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Ehsan; Steinacker, Reinhold; Saghafian, Bahram

    2017-04-01

    Accurate quantitative daily precipitation estimation is key to meteorological and hydrological applications in hazards forecast and management. In-situ observations over mountainous areas are mostly limited, however, currently available satellite precipitation products can potentially provide the precipitation estimation needed for meteorological and hydrological applications. Over the years, blended methods that use multi-satellites and multi-sensors have been developed for estimating of global precipitation. One of the latest satellite precipitation products is GPM-IMERG (Global Precipitation Measurement with 30-minute temporal and 0.1-degree spatial resolutions) which consists of three products: Final-Run (aimed for research), Real-Time early run, and Real-Time late run. The Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products built upon the success of TRMM's Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products continue to make improvements in spatial and temporal resolutions and snowfall estimates. Recently, researchers who evaluated IMERG-Final-Run V-03 and other precipitation products indicated better performance for IMERG-Final-Run against other similar products. In this study two GPM-IMERG products, namely final run and real time-late run, were evaluated against a dense synoptic stations network (62 stations) over Northeastern Austria for mid-March 2015 to end of January 2016 period at hourly time-scale. Both products were examined against the reference data (stations) in capturing the occurrence of precipitation and statistical characteristics of precipitation intensity. Both satellite precipitation products underestimated precipitation events of 0.1 mm/hr to 0.4 mm/hr in intensity. For precipitations 0.4 mm/hr and greater, the trend was reversed and both satellite products overestimated than station recorded data. IMERG-RT outperformed IMERG-FR for precipitation intensity in the range of 0.1 mm/hr to 0.4 mm/hr while in the range of 1.1 to 1.8 mm

  12. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  13. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxa, Jan; Vendiš, Tomáš; Moláček, Jiří; Štěpánková, Lucie; Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G.; Ferda, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus

  14. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  15. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  16. Using Simulated Partial Dynamic Run-Time Reconfiguration to Share Embedded FPGA Compute and Power Resources across a Swarm of Unpiloted Airborne Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney David

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show how the limited electrical power and FPGA compute resources available in a swarm of small UAVs can be shared by moving FPGA tasks from one UAV to another. A software and hardware infrastructure that supports the mobility of embedded FPGA applications on a single FPGA chip and across a group of networked FPGA chips is an integral part of the work described here. It is shown how to allocate a single FPGA's resources at run time and to share a single device through the use of application checkpointing, a memory controller, and an on-chip run-time reconfigurable network. A prototype distributed operating system is described for managing mobile applications across the swarm based on the contents of a fuzzy rule base. It can move applications between UAVs in order to equalize power use or to enable the continuous replenishment of fully fueled planes into the swarm.

  17. Effects of cognitive stimulation with a self-modeling video on time to exhaustion while running at maximal aerobic velocity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagin, Vincent; Gonzales, Benoît R; Groslambert, Alain

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed whether video self-modeling improves running performance and influences the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate response. Twelve men (M age=26.8 yr., SD=6; M body mass index=22.1 kg.m(-2), SD=1) performed a time to exhaustion running test at 100 percent maximal aerobic velocity while focusing on a video self-modeling loop to synchronize their stride. Compared to the control condition, there was a significant increase of time to exhaustion. Perceived exertion was lower also, but there was no significant change in mean heart rate. In conclusion, the video self-modeling used as a pacer apparently increased endurance by decreasing perceived exertion without affecting the heart rate.

  18. Passenger Sharing of the High-Speed Railway from Sensitivity Analysis Caused by Price and Run-time Based on the Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments around the world are active in constructing the high-speed railway. Therefore, it is significant to make research on this increasingly prevalent transport.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we simulate the process of the passenger’s travel mode choice by adjusting the ticket fare and the run-time based on the multi-agent system (MAS.Findings: From the research we get the conclusion that increasing the run-time appropriately and reducing the ticket fare in some extent are effective ways to enhance the passenger sharing of the high-speed railway.Originality/value: We hope it can provide policy recommendations for the railway sectors in developing the long-term plan on high-speed railway in the future.

  19. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  20. Distance walked and run as improved metrics over time-based energy estimation in epidemiological studies and prevention; evidence from medication use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available The guideline physical activity levels are prescribed in terms of time, frequency, and intensity (e.g., 30 minutes brisk walking, five days a week or its energy equivalence and assume that different activities may be combined to meet targeted goals (exchangeability premise. Habitual runners and walkers may quantify exercise in terms of distance (km/day, and for them, the relationship between activity dose and health benefits may be better assessed in terms of distance rather than time. Analyses were therefore performed to test: 1 whether time-based or distance-based estimates of energy expenditure provide the best metric for relating running and walking to hypertensive, high cholesterol, and diabetes medication use (conditions known to be diminished by exercise, and 2 the exchangeability premise.Logistic regression analyses of medication use (dependent variable vs. metabolic equivalent hours per day (METhr/d of running, walking and other exercise (independent variables using cross-sectional data from the National Runners' (17,201 male, 16,173 female and Walkers' Health Studies (3,434 male, 12,384 female.Estimated METhr/d of running and walking activity were 38% and 31% greater, respectively, when calculated from self-reported time than distance in men, and 43% and 37% greater in women, respectively. Percent reductions in the odds for hypertension and high cholesterol medication use per METhr/d run or per METhr/d walked were ≥ 2-fold greater when estimated from reported distance (km/wk than from time (hr/wk. The per METhr/d odds reduction was significantly greater for the distance- than the time-based estimate for hypertension (runners: P<10(-5 for males and P=0.003 for females; walkers: P=0.03 for males and P<10(-4 for females, high cholesterol medication use in runners (P<10(-4 for males and P=0.02 for females and male walkers (P=0.01 for males and P=0.08 for females and for diabetes medication use in male runners (P<10(-3.Although causality

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  2. Effect of foot orthoses on magnitude and timing of rearfoot and tibial motions, ground reaction force and knee moment during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mansour; Begon, Mickaël; Hinse, Sébastien; Sadeghi, Heydar; Popov, Peter; Allard, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Changes in magnitude and timing of rearfoot eversion and tibial internal rotation by foot orthoses and their contributions to vertical ground reaction force and knee joint moments are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to test if orthoses modify the magnitude and time to peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, active ground reaction force and knee adduction moment and determine if rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation magnitudes are correlated to peak active ground reaction force and knee adduction moment during the first 60% stance phase of running. Eleven healthy men ran at 170 steps per minute in shod and with foot orthoses conditions. Video and force-plate data were collected simultaneously to calculate foot joint angular displacement, ground reaction forces and knee adduction moments. Results showed that wearing semi-rigid foot orthoses significantly reduced rearfoot eversion 40% (4.1 degrees ; p=0.001) and peak active ground reaction force 6% (0.96N/kg; p=0.008). No significant time differences occurred among the peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation and peak active ground reaction force in both conditions. A positive and significant correlation was observed between peak knee adduction moment and the magnitude of rearfoot eversion during shod (r=0.59; p=0.04) and shod/orthoses running (r=0.65; p=0.02). In conclusion, foot orthoses could reduce rearfoot eversion so that this can be associated with a reduction of knee adduction moment during the first 60% stance phase of running. Finding implies that modifying rearfoot and tibial motions during running could not be related to a reduction of the ground reaction force.

  3. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  4. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Barandun U; Knechtle B; Knechtle P; Klipstein A; Rust CA; Rosemann T; Lepers R

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  6. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  7. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed

    2014-08-22

    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical Alterations during 800-m Self-Paced Track Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Millet, Gregoire P; Micallef, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the time course of running mechanical alterations during an 800-m. On a 200-m indoor track, 18 physical education students performed an 800-m self-paced run. Once per lap, ground reaction forces were measured by a 5-m-long force platform system, and used to determine running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics. Compared with 100 m (19.4±1.8 km.h -1 ) running velocity progressively decreased at 300, 500 m but levelled-off at 700 m marks (-5.7±4.6, -10.4±8.3, and -9.1±13.5%, respectively; Ppush-off forces (-5.1±7.2%, P0.05) and leg compression (+2.8±3.9%; P>0.05) remained unchanged, whereas centre of mass vertical displacement (+24.0±7.0%; P0.05). During an 800 m by physical education students, highest running velocity was achieved early during the run, with a progressive decrease in the second half of the trial. While vertical ground force characteristics remained unchanged, non-specialist runners produced lower peak braking and push-off forces, in turn leading to shorter stride length. Spring-mass model characteristics changed toward lower vertical stiffness values, whereas leg stiffness did not change. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  10. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  11. Subjective time runs faster under the influence of bright rather than dim light conditions during the forenoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Fukui, Tomoe; Morofushi, Masayo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2007-05-16

    The study investigated if 6 h morning bright light exposure, compared with dim light exposure, could influence time sense (range: 5-15 s). Eight women served as participants. The participant entered a bioclimatic chamber at 10:00 h on the day before the test day, where an ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 25 degrees C and 60%RH. She sat quietly in a sofa in 50 lx until 22:00 h, retired at 22:00 h and then slept in total darkness. She rose at 07:00 h the following morning and again sat quietly in a sofa till 13:00 h, either in bright (2500 lx) or dim light (50 lx), the order of light intensities between the two occasions being randomized. The time-estimation test was performed from 13:00 to 13:10 h in 200 lx. The participant estimated the time that had elapsed between two buzzers, ranging over 5-15 s, and inputting the estimate into a computer. The test was carried out separately upon each individual. Results showed that the participants estimated higher durations of the given time intervals after previous exposure to 6 h of bright rather than dim light. The finding is discussed in terms of different load errors (difference between the actual core temperature and its thermoregulatory set-point) following 6-h exposure to bright or dim light in the morning.

  12. Draft Forecasts from Real-Time Runs of Physics-Based Models - A Road to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Rastatter, Lutz; MacNeice, Peter; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2008-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second focus of CCMC activities is on validation and verification of space weather models, and on the transition of appropriate models to space weather forecast centers. As part of the latter activity, the CCMC develops real-time simulation systems that stress models through routine execution. A by-product of these real-time calculations is the ability to derive model products, which may be useful for space weather operators. After consultations with NOAA/SEC and with AFWA, CCMC has developed a set of tools as a first step to make real-time model output useful to forecast centers. In this presentation, we will discuss the motivation for this activity, the actions taken so far, and options for future tools from model output.

  13. Transforming parts of a differential equations system to difference equations as a method for run-time savings in NONMEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, K J F; Friberg, L E; Karlsson, M O

    2010-10-01

    Computer models of biological systems grow more complex as computing power increase. Often these models are defined as differential equations and no analytical solutions exist. Numerical integration is used to approximate the solution; this can be computationally intensive, time consuming and be a large proportion of the total computer runtime. The performance of different integration methods depend on the mathematical properties of the differential equations system at hand. In this paper we investigate the possibility of runtime gains by calculating parts of or the whole differential equations system at given time intervals, outside of the differential equations solver. This approach was tested on nine models defined as differential equations with the goal to reduce runtime while maintaining model fit, based on the objective function value. The software used was NONMEM. In four models the computational runtime was successfully reduced (by 59-96%). The differences in parameter estimates, compared to using only the differential equations solver were less than 12% for all fixed effects parameters. For the variance parameters, estimates were within 10% for the majority of the parameters. Population and individual predictions were similar and the differences in OFV were between 1 and -14 units. When computational runtime seriously affects the usefulness of a model we suggest evaluating this approach for repetitive elements of model building and evaluation such as covariate inclusions or bootstraps.

  14. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6503(d)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; extension of time for payment of estate tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(d)-1 Suspension of running of... payment of any estate tax, the running of the period of limitations for collection of such tax is...

  16. Influence of running shoes and cross-trainers on Achilles tendon forces during running compared with military boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Military recruits are known to be susceptible to Achilles tendon pathology. The British Army have introduced footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), in an attempt to reduce the incidence of injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the Achilles tendon forces of the cross-trainer and running shoe in relation to conventional army boots. Ten male participants ran at 4.0 m/s in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon forces were obtained throughout the stance phase of running and compared using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The results showed that the time to peak Achilles tendon force was significantly shorter when running in conventional army boots (0.12 s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (0.13 s) and running shoe (0.13 s). Achilles tendon loading rate was shown to be significantly greater in conventional army boots (38.73 BW/s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (35.14 BW/s) and running shoe (33.57 BW/s). The results of this study suggest that the running shoes and cross-trainer footwear are associated with reductions in Achilles tendon parameters that have been linked to the aetiology of injury, and thus it can be hypothesised that these footwear could be beneficial for military recruits undertaking running exercises. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Development of econometric models for cost and time over-runs: an empirical study of major road construction projects in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is flourishing worldwide and contributes about 10% to the GDP of the world i.e. up to the tune of 4.6 Trillion US dollars. It employs almost 7% of the total employee dpersons and, consumes around 40% of the total energy. The Pakistani construction sector has displayed impressive growth in recent past years. The efficient road network is a key part of construction business and plays a significant role in the economic uplift of country. The overruns in costs and delays in completion of projects are very common phenomena and it has also been observed that the projects involving construction of roads also face problems of delays and cost over runs especially in developing countries. The causes of cost overruns and delays in road projects being undertaken by the premier road construction organization of Pakistan National Highway Authority (NHA) have been considered in this study. It has been done specifically in the context of impact of cause(s) determined from project report of a total of one hundred and thirty one (131) projects. The ten causative factors which we recognize as Design, Planning and Scheduling Related problems, Financial Constraint Related reasons, Social Problem Related reasons, Technical Reasons, Administrative Reasons, Scope Increase, Specification Changes, Cost Escalation Related reasons, Non-Availability of Equipment or Material and Force Majeure play a commanding role in determination of the cost and time over runs. It has also been observed that among these identified causes, the factors of Administrative Reason, Design, Planning and Scheduling Related, Technical Reasons and Force Majeure are the most significant reasons in cost and time overruns. Whereas, the Cost Escalation related reasons has the least impact on cost increase and delays. The NHA possesses a financial worth of around Rs. 36 billion and with an annual turn over amounting to Rs. 22 billion is responsible to perform road construction project in entire

  18. First-line intra-arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy in unilateral sporadic group D retinoblastoma: evidence of better visual outcomes, ocular survival and shorter time to success with intra-arterial delivery from retrospective review of 20 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Francis L; Mosimann, Pascal; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina; Houghton, Susan; Bergin, Ciara; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as salvage treatment has improved the prognosis for eye conservation in group D retinoblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of consecutive patients with advanced unilateral disease treated with either first-line intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) or first-line IAC. This is a retrospective mono-centric comparative review of consecutive patients. Sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma group D cases treated conservatively at Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital and CHUV between 1997 and 2014. From January 1997 to August 2008, IVC, combined with focal treatments, was the primary treatment approach. From September 2008 to October 2014, IAC replaced IVC as first-line therapy. 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, receiving only either IAC or IVC as primary treatment modality. Outcomes of 23 patients treated by IVC were compared with those of 25 treated by IAC; mean follow-up was 105.3 months (range 29.2-218.6) and 41.7 months (range 19.6-89.5), respectively. Treatment duration was significantly shorter in the IAC group (pchemotherapy treatment. Despite this, the results reported here imply that eyes treated with first-line IAC will have shorter treatment period, better ocular survival and visual acuity than first-line IVC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Actual situation analyses of rat-run traffic on community streets based on car probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Yuki; Matsuo, Kojiro; Sugiki, Nao

    2017-10-01

    Lowering of so-called "rat-run" traffic on community streets has been one of significant challenges for improving the living environment of neighborhood. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively grasp the actual situation of rat-run traffic by the traditional surveys such as point observations. This study aims to develop a method for extracting rat-run traffic based on car probe data. In addition, based on the extracted rat-run traffic in Toyohashi city, Japan, we try to analyze the actual situation such as time and location distribution of the rat-run traffic. As a result, in Toyohashi city, the rate of using rat-run route increases in peak time period. Focusing on the location distribution of rat-run traffic, in addition, they pass through a variety of community streets. There is no great inter-district bias of the route frequently used as rat-run traffic. Next, we focused on some trips passing through a heavily used route as rat-run traffic. As a result, we found the possibility that they habitually use the route as rat-run because their trips had some commonalities. We also found that they tend to use the rat-run route due to shorter distance than using the alternative highway route, and that the travel speeds were faster than using the alternative highway route. In conclusions, we confirmed that the proposed method can quantitatively grasp the actual situation and the phenomenal tendencies of the rat-run traffic.

  20. Design of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) from standard components running in real-time under Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guger, C; Schlögl, A; Walterspacher, D; Pfurtscheller, G

    1999-01-01

    An EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct connection between the human brain and the computer. Such a communication system is needed by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g. late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and has to operate in real-time. This paper describes the selection of the appropriate components to construct such a BCI and focuses also on the selection of a suitable programming language and operating system. The multichannel system runs under Windows 95, equipped with a real-time Kernel expansion to obtain reasonable real-time operations on a standard PC. Matlab controls the data acquisition and the presentation of the experimental paradigm, while Simulink is used to calculate the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm that describes the current state of the EEG in real-time. First results of the new low-cost BCI show that the accuracy of differentiating imagination of left and right hand movement is around 95%.

  1. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. The Influence of Footwear on the Modular Organization of Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuz, Alessandro; Ekizos, Antonis; Janshen, Lars; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2.8 ± 0.4 m/s). Fundamental synergies, containing the time-dependent activation coefficients (motor primitives) and the time-invariant muscle weightings (motor modules), were extracted from 24 ipsilateral electromyographic activities using non-negative matrix factorization. In shod running, the average foot strike pattern was a rearfoot strike, while in barefoot running it was a mid-forefoot strike. In both conditions, five fundamental synergies were enough to describe as many gait cycle phases: weight acceptance, propulsion, arm swing, early swing and late swing. We found the motor primitives to be generally shifted earlier in time during the stance-related phases and later in the swing-related ones in barefoot running. The motor primitive describing the propulsion phase was significantly of shorter duration (peculiarity confirmed by the analysis of the spinal motor output). The arm swing primitive, instead, was significantly wider in the barefoot condition. The motor modules demonstrated analogous organization with some significant differences in the propulsion, arm swing and late swing synergies. Other than to the trivial absence of shoes, the differences might be deputed to the lower ankle gear ratio (and the consequent increased system instability) and to the higher recoil capabilities of the longitudinal foot arch during barefoot compared to shod running.

  3. The Influence of Footwear on the Modular Organization of Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Santuz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2.8 ± 0.4 m/s. Fundamental synergies, containing the time-dependent activation coefficients (motor primitives and the time-invariant muscle weightings (motor modules, were extracted from 24 ipsilateral electromyographic activities using non-negative matrix factorization. In shod running, the average foot strike pattern was a rearfoot strike, while in barefoot running it was a mid-forefoot strike. In both conditions, five fundamental synergies were enough to describe as many gait cycle phases: weight acceptance, propulsion, arm swing, early swing and late swing. We found the motor primitives to be generally shifted earlier in time during the stance-related phases and later in the swing-related ones in barefoot running. The motor primitive describing the propulsion phase was significantly of shorter duration (peculiarity confirmed by the analysis of the spinal motor output. The arm swing primitive, instead, was significantly wider in the barefoot condition. The motor modules demonstrated analogous organization with some significant differences in the propulsion, arm swing and late swing synergies. Other than to the trivial absence of shoes, the differences might be deputed to the lower ankle gear ratio (and the consequent increased system instability and to the higher recoil capabilities of the longitudinal foot arch during barefoot compared to shod running.

  4. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p jump index (p jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  5. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  6. Effects of running time of a cattle-cooling system on core body temperature of cows on dairy farms in an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2010-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm to describe the effects of a reduction in Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) system operating time on core body temperature (CBT) of primiparous and multiparous cows. In the first experiment, KK systems were operated for 18, 21, or 24 h/d while CBT of 63 multiparous Holstein dairy cows was monitored. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0000 h and 0300 h for the 18-h and 21-h treatments, respectively. Animals were housed in 9 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. In the second experiment, 21 multiparous and 21 primiparous cows were housed in 6 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences (KK operated for 21 or 24 h/d) in a switchback design. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0300 h for the 21-h treatments. In experiment 1, cows in the 24-h treatment had a lower mean CBT than cows in the 18- and 21-h treatments (38.97, 39.08, and 39.03±0.04°C, respectively). The significant treatment by time interaction showed that the greatest treatment effects occurred at 0600 h; treatment means at this time were 39.43, 39.37, and 38.88±0.18°C for 18-, 21-, and 24-h treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate that a reduction in KK system running time of ≥3 h/d will increase CBT. In experiment 2, a significant parity by treatment interaction was found. Multiparous cows on the 24-h treatment had lower mean CBT than cows on the 21-h treatment (39.23 and 39.45±0.17°C, respectively), but treatment had no effect on mean CBT of primiparous cows (39.50 and 39.63±0.20°C for 21- and 24-h treatments, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was observed, with the greatest treatment effects occurring at 0500 h; treatment means at this time were 39.57, 39.23, 39.89, and 39.04±0.24°C for 21-h primiparous, 24-h primiparous, 21-h multiparous, and 24-h multiparous cows

  7. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  8. LORD-Q: a long-run real-time PCR-based DNA-damage quantification method for nuclear and mitochondrial genome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehle, Simon; Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Merz, Britta; Malak, Peter N.; Becker, Michael S.; Schmezer, Peter; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Rothfuss, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage is tightly associated with various biological and pathological processes, such as aging and tumorigenesis. Although detection of DNA damage is attracting increasing attention, only a limited number of methods are available to quantify DNA lesions, and these techniques are tedious or only detect global DNA damage. In this study, we present a high-sensitivity long-run real-time PCR technique for DNA-damage quantification (LORD-Q) in both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. While most conventional methods are of low-sensitivity or restricted to abundant mitochondrial DNA samples, we established a protocol that enables the accurate sequence-specific quantification of DNA damage in >3-kb probes for any mitochondrial or nuclear DNA sequence. In order to validate the sensitivity of this method, we compared LORD-Q with a previously published qPCR-based method and the standard single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, demonstrating a superior performance of LORD-Q. Exemplarily, we monitored induction of DNA damage and repair processes in human induced pluripotent stem cells and isogenic fibroblasts. Our results suggest that LORD-Q provides a sequence-specific and precise method to quantify DNA damage, thereby allowing the high-throughput assessment of DNA repair, genotoxicity screening and various other processes for a wide range of life science applications. PMID:24371283

  9. Using Real Time Workshop for rapid and reliable control implementation in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade Feedback Control System running under RTAI-GNU/Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Ledauphin, M.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Feedback Control System running at FTU has been recently ported from a commercial platform (based on LynxOS) to an open-source GNU/Linux-based RTAI-LXRT platform, thereby, obtaining significant performance and cost improvements. Based on the new open-source platform, it is now possible to experiment novel control strategies aimed at improving the robustness and accuracy of the feedback control. Nevertheless, the implementation of control ideas still requires a great deal of coding of the control algorithms that, if carried out manually, may be prone to coding errors, therefore time consuming both in the development phase and in the subsequent validation tests consisting of dedicated experiments carried out on FTU. In this paper, we report on recent developments based on Mathworks' Simulink and Real Time Workshop (RTW) packages to obtain a user-friendly environment where the real time code implementing novel control algorithms can be easily generated, tested and validated. Thanks to this new tool, the control designer only needs to specify the block diagram of the control task (namely, a high level and functional description of the new algorithm under consideration) and the corresponding real time code generation and testing is completely automated without any need of dedicated experiments. In the paper, the necessary work carried out to adapt the Real Time Workshop to our RTAI-LXRT context will be illustrated. A necessary re-organization of the previous real time software, aimed at incorporating the code coming from the adapted RTW, will also be discussed. Moreover, we will report on a performance comparison between the code obtained using the automated RTW-based procedure and the hand-written C code, appropriately optimised; at the moment, a preliminary performance comparison consisting of dummy algorithms has shown that the code automatically generated from RTW is faster (about 30% up) than the manually written one. This preliminary result combined with the

  10. The immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in young healthy adults at 3.0 T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Welsch, Goetz H; Laqmani, Azien; Henes, Frank O; Kaul, Michael G; Schoen, Gerhard; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-08-01

    To quantitatively assess the immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of the articular cartilage of the knee at 3.0 T in young healthy adults. 30 healthy male adults (18-31 years) who perform sports at an amateur level underwent an initial MRI at 3.0 T with T2 weighted [16 echo times (TEs): 9.7-154.6 ms] and T2* weighted (24 TEs: 4.6-53.6 ms) relaxation measurements. Thereafter, all participants performed a 45-min run. After the run, all individuals were immediately re-examined. Data sets were post-processed using dedicated software (ImageJ; National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD). 22 regions of interest were manually drawn in segmented areas of the femoral, tibial and patellar cartilage. For statistical evaluation, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and confidence intervals were computed. Mean initial values were 35.7 ms for T2 and 25.1 ms for T2*. After the run, a significant decrease in the mean T2 and T2* relaxation times was observed for all segments in all participants. A mean decrease of relaxation time was observed for T2 with 4.6 ms (±3.6 ms) and for T2* with 3.6 ms (±5.1 ms) after running. A significant decrease could be observed in all cartilage segments for both biomarkers. Both quantitative techniques, T2 and T2*, seem to be valuable parameters in the evaluation of immediate changes in the cartilage ultrastructure after running. This is the first direct comparison of immediate changes in T2 and T2* relaxation times after running in healthy adults.

  11. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  12. Relationship between running kinematic changes and time limit at vVO2max. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p428Exhaustive running at maximal oxygen uptake velocity (vVO2max can alter running kinematic parameters and increase energy cost along the time. The aims of the present study were to compare characteristics of ankle and knee kinematics during running at vVO2max and to verify the relationship between changes in kinematic variables and time limit (Tlim. Eleven male volunteers, recreational players of team sports, performed an incremental running test until volitional exhaustion to determine vVO2max and a constant velocity test at vVO2max. Subjects were filmed continuously from the left sagittal plane at 210 Hz for further kinematic analysis. The maximal plantar flexion during swing (p<0.01 was the only variable that increased significantly from beginning to end of the run. Increase in ankle angle at contact was the only variable related to Tlim (r=0.64; p=0.035 and explained 34% of the performance in the test. These findings suggest that the individuals under study maintained a stable running style at vVO2max and that increase in plantar flexion explained the performance in this test when it was applied in non-runners.

  13. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  14. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  15. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  16. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  17. Influence of the Heel-to-Toe Drop of Standard Cushioned Running Shoes on Injury Risk in Leisure-Time Runners: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 6-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk. The secondary aim was to investigate whether recent running regularity modifies the relationship between shoe drop and injury risk. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Leisure-time runners (N = 553) were observed for 6 months after having received a pair of shoes with a heel-to-toe drop of 10 mm (D10), 6 mm (D6), or 0 mm (D0). All participants reported their running activities and injuries (time-loss definition, at least 1 day) in an electronic system. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the 3 groups based on hazard rate ratios (HRs) and their 95% CIs. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of shoe drop in occasional runners (running regularity, low-drop shoes (D6 and D0) were found to be associated with a lower injury risk in occasional runners (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98), whereas these shoes were associated with a higher injury risk in regular runners (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62). Overall, injury risk was not modified by the drop of standard cushioned running shoes. However, low-drop shoes could be more hazardous for regular runners, while these shoes seem to be preferable for occasional runners to limit injury risk. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  19. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Alan; Crampton, David; Egaña, Mikel

    2013-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of cold water immersion (CWI) in normothermic conditions, little data is available on its effect on subsequent endurance performance. This study examined the effect of CWI as a recovery strategy on subsequent running performance in normothermic ambient conditions (∼22°C). Nine endurance-trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive running bouts on three separate occasions. The running bouts (Ex1 and Ex2) were separated by 15min of un-immersed seated rest (CON), hip-level CWI at 8°C (CWI-8) or hip-level CWI at 15°C (CWI-15). Intestinal temperature, blood lactate and heart rate were recorded throughout and V˙O2, running economy and exercise times were recorded during the running sessions. Running time to failure (min) during Ex2 was significantly (p<0.05, ES=0.7) longer following CWI-8 (27.7±6.3) than CON (23.3±5) but not different between CWI-15 (26.3±3.4) and CON (p=0.06, ES=0.7) or CWI-8 and CWI-15 (p=0.4, ES=0.2). Qualitative analyses showed a 95% and 89% likely beneficial effect of CWI-8 and CWI-15 during Ex2 compared with CON, respectively. Time to failure during Ex2 was significantly shorter than Ex1 only during the CON condition. Intestinal temperature and HR were significantly lower for most of Ex2 during CWI-8 and CWI-15 compared with CON but they were similar at failure for the three conditions. Blood lactate, running economy and V˙O2 were not altered by CWI. These data indicate that a 15min period of cold water immersion applied between repeated exhaustive exercise bouts significantly reduces intestinal temperature and enhances post-immersion running performance in normothermic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  2. The risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle P; Hanney, William J; Rothschild, Carey E

    2014-11-01

    The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. In September 2013, a comprehensive search of the Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles were obtained from peer-reviewed journals in the English language with no limit for year of publication. Final inclusion criteria required at least 1 of the following outcome variables: pain, injury rate, running economy, joint forces, running velocity, electromyography, muscle performance, or edema. Systematic review. Level 3. Two reviewers appraised each article using the Downs and Black checklist and appraised each for level of evidence. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for this review. Of 27 possible points on the Downs and Black checklist, articles scored between 13 and 19 points, indicating a range of evidence from very limited to moderate. Moderate evidence supports the following biomechanical differences when running barefoot versus in shoes: overall less maximum vertical ground reaction forces, less extension moment and power absorption at the knee, less foot and ankle dorsiflexion at ground contact, less ground contact time, shorter stride length, increased stride frequency, and increased knee flexion at ground contact. Because of lack of high-quality evidence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding specific risks or benefits to running barefoot, shod, or in minimalist shoes.

  3. Hereditary angioedema attacks resolve faster and are shorter after early icatibant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. METHODS: The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009-February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. RESULTS: Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥ 1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]. Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥ 2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001] and <5 hours versus ≥ 5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]. Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]. Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. CONCLUSION: Early blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution.

  4. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  5. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  6. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  7. Changing patterns of working time in Germany - from shorter working hours to more flexible work schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    La reducción del tiempo de trabajo promete sustanciales efectos sobre el empleo. La reducción del tiempo de trabajo, combinada con la flexibilización del tiempo de trabajo se ha mostrado como una buena experiencia porque permite reducir los costes laborales, mejorar la productividad y mantener el empleo. Los incentivos sobre las contribuciones sociales pueden contribuir no sólo a la mejora del empleo, sino también a reducir la carga del gasto público por desempleo. Sin embar...

  8. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  9. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood tests Cl-5 (Run 14), Cl-10 (Run 19) and Cl-12 (Run 21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Murao, Yoshio

    1983-06-01

    Three tests Cl-5 (Run 14), Cl-10 (Run 19) and Cl-12 (Run 21) were performed using the Cylindrical Core Test Facility to study the effect of the containment pressure on the core cooling and the system behaviors during the reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA. The containment pressures of these tests were 0.15, 0.20 and 0.30 MPa for the tests Cl-10, Cl-5 and Cl-12, respectively. Through the comparison of the test results from these three tests, the following results were obtained. (1) The higher containment pressure gave the higher heat transfer coefficient in the core. This resulted in the lower turnaround temperature, the shorter turnaround time and the shorter quench time at the higher containment pressure. (2) In the higher containment pressure test, the higher core water head, the higher upper plenum water head, the higher downcomer water head in the early period and the lower downcomer water head in the later period were observed than those in the lower containment pressure test. This resulted in the higher pressure drop through the intact loop in the early period of the tests and the lower pressure drop in the later period of the test with the containment pressure. (3) The pressure drop through the broken cold leg pressurized the primary system. The pressure drop through the broken cold leg was decreased with the containment pressure. (4) The core inlet mass flow rate was increased with the containment pressure as observed in the FLECHT-SET phase B1 test. In quantity, however, the effect of the containment pressure on the increase of the core inlet mass flow rate was less in the CCTF than that in the FLECHT-SET. The less sensitivity in the CCTF was attributed mainly to the great pressure drop through the broken cold leg, which was not observed in the FLECHT-SET with big broken cold leg. (5) The system effect of the containment pressure was explained quantitatively. (author)

  10. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  11. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  12. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  13. Of faeces and sweat. How much a mouse is willing to run: having a hard time measuring spontaneous physical activity in different mouse sub-strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has multiple beneficial effects in the physiology and pathology of the organism. In particular, we and other groups have shown that running counteracts cancer cachexia in both humans and rodents. The latter are prone to exercise in wheel-equipped cages even at advanced stages of cachexia. However, when we wanted to replicate the experimental model routinely used at the University of Rome in a different laboratory (i.e. at Paris 6 University, we had to struggle with puzzling results due to unpredicted mouse behavior. Here we report the experience and offer the explanation underlying these apparently irreproducible results. The original data are currently used for teaching purposes in undergraduate student classes of biological sciences.

  14. IMPLEMENTING FISCAL OR MONETARY POLICY IN TIME OF CRISIS? RUNNING GRANGER CAUSALITY TO TEST THE PHILLIPS CURVE IN SOME EURO ZONE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Gianluigi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide empirical evidence about the theoretical relationship between inflation and unemployment in 9 European countries. Based on two major goals for economic policymakers namely, to keep both inflation and unemployment low, we use the ingredients of the Phillips curve to orient fiscal and monetary policies. These policies are prerogative for the achievement of a desirable combination of unemployment and inflation. More in detail, we attempt to address two basic issues. One strand of the study examines the size and sign of the impact of unemployment rate on percentage changes in inflation. In our preferred econometric model, we have made explicit the evidence according to which one unit increase (% in unemployment reduces inflation of roughly 0.73 percent, on average. Next, we turn to the question concerning the causal link between inflation and unemployment and we derive a political framework enables to orient European policymakers in the implementation of either fiscal or monetary policy. In this context, by means of the Granger causality test, we mainly find evidence of a directional causality which runs from inflation to unemployment in 4 out of 9 European countries under analysis. This result implies that political authorities of Austria, Belgium, Germany and Italy should implement monetary policy in order to achieve pre-established targets of unemployment and inflation. In the same context, a directional causality running from unemployment to inflation has been found in France and Cyprus suggesting that a reduction in the unemployment level can be achieved through controlling fiscal policy. However, succeeding in this goal may lead to an increasing demand for goods and services which, in turn, might cause a higher inflation than expected. Finally, while there is no statistical evidence of a causal link between unemployment and inflation in Finland and Greece, a bidirectional causality has been found in Estonia. This

  15. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A shorter and more specific oral sensitization-based experimental model of food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Elvira; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Utrilla, Pilar; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Judith; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; Comalada, Mònica

    2012-07-31

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamine levels when swimming and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezennec, C Y; Defer, G; Cazorla, G; Sabathier, C; Lhoste, F

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and catecholamines to two graded exercises differing by posture. Seven male subjects (19-25 years) performed successively a running rest on a treadmill and a swimming test in a 50-m swimming pool. Each exercise was increased in severity in 5-min steps with intervals of 1 min. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate, measured every 5 min, showed a similar progression in energy expenditure until exhaustion, but there was a shorter time to exhaustion in the last step of the running test. PRA, PAC and catecholamines were increased after both types of exercise. The PRA increase was higher after the running test (20.9 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1) than after swimming (8.66 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1). The PAC increase was slightly greater after running (123 pg X ml-1) than swimming (102 pg X ml-1), buth the difference was not significant. Plasma catecholamine was higher after the swimming test. These results suggest that the volume shift induced by the supine position and water pressure during swimming decreased the PRA response. The association after swimming compared to running of a decreased PRA and an enhanced catecholamine response rule out a strict dependence of renin release under the effect of plasma catecholamines and is evidence of the major role of neural pathways for renin secretion during physical exercise.

  18. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-05-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunchspacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  19. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-01-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunch spacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  20. Set up and programming of an ALICE Time-Of-Flight trigger facility and software implementation for its Quality Assurance (QA) during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Toschi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic and Topology Trigger Module (CTTM) is the main component of a trigger based on the ALICE TOF detector. Taking advantage of the TOF fast response, this VME board implements the trigger logic and delivers several L0 trigger outputs, used since Run 1, to provide cosmic triggers and rare triggers in pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb data taking. Due to TOF DCS architectural change of the PCs controlling the CTTM (from 32 bits to 64 bits) it is mandatory to upgrade the software related to the CTTM including the code programming the FPGA firmware. A dedicated CTTM board will be installed in a CERN lab (Meyrin site), with the aim of recreating the electronics chain of the TOF trigger, to get a comfortable porting of the code to the 64 bit environment. The project proposed to the summer student is the setting up of the CTTM and the porting of the software. Moreover, in order to monitor the CTTM Trigger board during the real data taking, the implementation of a new Quality Assurance (QA) code is also crucial, together wit...

  1. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  2. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  3. Effects of body-mapping-designed clothing on heat stress and running performance in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Li, Yi; Yao, Lei; Chen, Yajun; Guo, Yueping; Wong, Stephen H S; Ng, Frency S F; Hu, Junyan

    2017-10-01

    To investigate clothing-induced differences in human thermal response and running performance, eight male athletes participated in a repeated-measure study by wearing three sets of clothing (CloA, CloB, and CloC). CloA and CloB were body-mapping-designed with 11% and 7% increased capacity of heat dissipation respectively than CloC, the commonly used running clothing. The experiments were conducted by using steady-state running followed by an all-out performance running in a controlled hot environment. Participants' thermal responses such as core temperature (T c ), mean skin temperature ([Formula: see text]), heat storage (S), and the performance running time were measured. CloA resulted in shorter performance time than CloC (323.1 ± 10.4 s vs. 353.6 ± 13.2 s, p = 0.01), and induced the lowest [Formula: see text], smallest ΔT c , and smallest S in the resting and running phases. This study indicated that clothing made with different heat dissipation capacities affects athlete thermal responses and running performance in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: A protocol that simulated the real situation in running competitions was used to investigate the effects of body-mapping-designed clothing on athletes' thermal responses and running performance. The findings confirmed the effects of optimised clothing with body-mapping design and advanced fabrics, and ensured the practical advantage of developed clothing on exercise performance.

  4. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wojewoda

    Full Text Available It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻ possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max, decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively. Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05 than in WT mice. V'O(₂max in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20 amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22 amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16. No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01 than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  5. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max) and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max)), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V'O(₂max) in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max), endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  6. Running Performance at High Running Velocities Is Impaired but V′O2max and Peripheral Endothelial Function Are Preserved in IL-6−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6−/−) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V′O2max), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6−/− mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m.min−1 vs. 16.89±1.15 m.min−1, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m.min−1 in IL-6−/− mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V′O2max in IL-6−/− (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml.kg−1.min−1 was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml.kg−1.min−1, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6−/− and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6−/− mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m.min−1 as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6−/− mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6−/− mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice could not be explained by reduced V′O2max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance performance. Furthermore, we

  7. Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Armstrong, Hunter; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    The endurance running (ER) hypothesis suggests that distance running played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. Most researchers have focused on ER performance in modern humans, or on reconstructing ER performance in Homo erectus, however, few studies have examined ER capabilities in other members of the genus Homo. Here, we examine skeletal correlates of ER performance in modern humans in order to evaluate the energetics of running in Neandertals and early Homo sapiens. Recent research suggests that running economy (the energy cost of running at a given speed) is strongly related to the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. Shorter moment arms allow for greater storage and release of elastic strain energy, reducing energy costs. Here, we show that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance (80%) in cost between individuals. Neandertals had relatively longer calcaneal tubers than modern humans, which would have increased their energy costs of running. Calcaneal tuber lengths in early H. sapiens do not significantly differ from those of extant modern humans, suggesting Neandertal ER economy was reduced relative to contemporaneous anatomically modern humans. Endurance running is generally thought to be beneficial for gaining access to meat in hot environments, where hominins could have used pursuit hunting to run prey taxa into hyperthermia. We hypothesize that ER performance may have been reduced in Neandertals because they lived in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  9. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  10. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  11. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  12. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  13. Shorter exposures to harder X-rays trigger early apoptotic events in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJia Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and

  14. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  15. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  16. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  17. Non performing loans (NPLs) in a crisis economy: Long-run equilibrium analysis with a real time VEC model for Greece (2001-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakis, Konstantinos N.; Michaelides, Panayotis G.; Vouldis, Angelos T.

    2016-06-01

    As a result of domestic and international factors, the Greek economy faced a severe crisis which is directly comparable only to the Great Recession. In this context, a prominent victim of this situation was the country's banking system. This paper attempts to shed light on the determining factors of non-performing loans in the Greek banking sector. The analysis presents empirical evidence from the Greek economy, using aggregate data on a quarterly basis, in the time period 2001-2015, fully capturing the recent recession. In this work, we use a relevant econometric framework based on a real time Vector Autoregressive (VAR)-Vector Error Correction (VEC) model, which captures the dynamic interdependencies among the variables used. Consistent with international evidence, the empirical findings show that both macroeconomic and financial factors have a significant impact on non-performing loans in the country. Meanwhile, the deteriorating credit quality feeds back into the economy leading to a self-reinforcing negative loop.

  18. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalargaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.

  19. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  20. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Simple and conditional visual discrimination with wheel running as reinforcement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I H

    1998-09-01

    Three experiments explored whether access to wheel running is sufficient as reinforcement to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats. In Experiment 1, 2 rats learned to press a lit key to produce access to running; responding was virtually absent when the key was dark, but latencies to respond were longer than for customary food and water reinforcers. Increases in the intertrial interval did not improve the discrimination performance. In Experiment 2, 3 rats acquired a go-left/go-right discrimination with a trial-initiating response and reached an accuracy that exceeded 80%; when two keys showed a steady light, pressing the left key produced access to running whereas pressing the right key produced access to running when both keys showed blinking light. Latencies to respond to the lights shortened when the trial-initiation response was introduced and became much shorter than in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 1 rat acquired a conditional discrimination task (matching to sample) with steady versus blinking lights at an accuracy exceeding 80%. A trial-initiation response allowed self-paced trials as in Experiment 2. When the rat was exposed to the task for 19 successive 24-hr periods with access to food and water, the discrimination performance settled in a typical circadian pattern and peak accuracy exceeded 90%. When the trial-initiation response was under extinction, without access to running, the circadian activity pattern determined the time of spontaneous recovery. The experiments demonstrate that wheel-running reinforcement can be used to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats.

  3. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  4. When the facts are just not enough: credibly communicating about risk is riskier when emotions run high and time is short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara J

    2011-07-15

    When discussing risk with people, commonly subject matter experts believe that conveying the facts will be enough to allow people to assess a risk and respond rationally to that risk. Because of this expectation, experts often become exasperated by the seemingly illogical way people assess personal risk and choose to manage that risk. In crisis situations when the risk information is less defined and choices must be made within impossible time constraints, the thought processes may be even more susceptible to faulty heuristics. Understanding the perception of risk is essential to understanding why the public becomes more or less upset by events. This article explores the psychological underpinnings of risk assessment within emotionally laden events and the risk communication practices that may facilitate subject matter experts to provide the facts in a manner so they can be more certain those facts are being heard. Source credibility is foundational to risk communication practices. The public meeting is one example in which these best practices can be exercised. Risks are risky because risk perceptions differ and the psychosocial environment in which risk is discussed complicates making risk decisions. Experts who want to influence the actions of the public related to a threat or risk should understand that decisions often involve emotional as well as logical components. The media and other social entities will also influence the risk context. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's crisis and emergency-risk communication (CERC) principles are intended to increase credibility and recognize emotional components of an event. During a risk event, CERC works to calm emotions and increase trust which can help people apply the expertise being offered by response officials. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 'Ready to hit the ground running': Alumni and employer accounts of a unique part-time distance learning pre-registration nurse education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Jan; Beretta, Ruth; Kenward, Linda; McDonagh, Lin; Messenger, Julie; Rounce, Jill

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the impact of The Open University's (OU) preregistration nursing programme on students' employability, career progression and its contribution to developing the nursing workforce across the United Kingdom. Designed for healthcare support workers who are sponsored by their employers, the programme is the only part-time supported open/distance learning programme in the UK leading to registration as a nurse. The international literature reveals that relatively little is known about the impact of previous experience as a healthcare support worker on the experience of transition, employability skills and career progression. To identify alumni and employer views of the perceived impact of the programme on employability, career progression and workforce development. A qualitative design using telephone interviews which were digitally recorded, and transcribed verbatim prior to content analysis to identify recurrent themes. Three geographical areas across the UK. Alumni (n=17) and employers (n=7). Inclusion criterion for alumni was a minimum of two years' post-qualifying experience. Inclusion criteria for employers were those that had responsibility for sponsoring students on the programme and employing them as newly qualified nurses. Four overarching themes were identified: transition, expectations, learning for and in practice, and flexibility. Alumni and employers were of the view that the programme equipped them well to meet the competencies and expectations of being a newly qualified nurse. It provided employers with a flexible route to growing their own workforce and alumni the opportunity to achieve their ambition of becoming a qualified nurse when other more conventional routes would not have been open to them. Some of them had already demonstrated career progression. Generalising results requires caution due to the small, self-selecting sample but findings suggest that a widening participation model of pre-registration nurse education for

  6. When the facts are just not enough: Credibly communicating about risk is riskier when emotions run high and time is short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    When discussing risk with people, commonly subject matter experts believe that conveying the facts will be enough to allow people to assess a risk and respond rationally to that risk. Because of this expectation, experts often become exasperated by the seemingly illogical way people assess personal risk and choose to manage that risk. In crisis situations when the risk information is less defined and choices must be made within impossible time constraints, the thought processes may be even more susceptible to faulty heuristics. Understanding the perception of risk is essential to understanding why the public becomes more or less upset by events. This article explores the psychological underpinnings of risk assessment within emotionally laden events and the risk communication practices that may facilitate subject matter experts to provide the facts in a manner so they can be more certain those facts are being heard. Source credibility is foundational to risk communication practices. The public meeting is one example in which these best practices can be exercised. Risks are risky because risk perceptions differ and the psychosocial environment in which risk is discussed complicates making risk decisions. Experts who want to influence the actions of the public related to a threat or risk should understand that decisions often involve emotional as well as logical components. The media and other social entities will also influence the risk context. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's crisis and emergency-risk communication (CERC) principles are intended to increase credibility and recognize emotional components of an event. During a risk event, CERC works to calm emotions and increase trust which can help people apply the expertise being offered by response officials.

  7. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todor, D.

    2015-01-01

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  8. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  9. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  10. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  11. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  12. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  13. On run-time exploitation of concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzenspies, P.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    The `free' speed-up stemming from ever increasing processor speed is over. Performance increase in computer systems can now only be achieved through parallelism. One of the biggest challenges in computer science is how to map applications onto parallel computers. Concurrency, seen as the set of

  14. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  15. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  16. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  17. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  18. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly associated with running

  19. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  20. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  1. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  2. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, results in a substantial healthcare system burden. This retrospective observational study compared hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs for patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban versus those treated with warfarin. Hospitalizations for adult patients with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who were initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin were selected from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients treated with warfarin were matched 1:1 to patients treated with rivaroxaban using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, time from first dose to discharge, and hospitalization costs were reported descriptively and with generalized linear models (GLMs). The final study cohorts each included 1223 patients (751 with pulmonary embolism and 472 with deep vein thrombosis). Cohorts were well matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean (±SD) LOS was 3.7±3.1 days for patients taking rivaroxaban and 5.2±3.7 days for patients taking warfarin, confirmed by GLM-adjusted results (rivaroxaban 3.7 days, warfarin 5.3 days, P<0.001). Patients with provoked venous thromboembolism admissions showed longer LOSs (rivaroxaban 5.1±4.5 days, warfarin 6.5±5.6 days, P<0.001) than those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (rivaroxaban 3.3±2.4 days, warfarin 4.8±2.8 days, P<0.001). Days from first dose to discharge were 2.4±1.7 for patients treated with rivaroxaban and 3.9±3.7 for patients treated with warfarin when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001), and 2.7±1.7 and 3.7±2.1, respectively, when initiated without parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001). Patients initiated on rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower mean total hospitalization costs ($8688±$9927 versus $9823±$9319, P=0.004), confirmed by modeling (rivaroxaban $8387 [95

  3. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  4. The running pattern and its importance in running long-distance gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Hoffman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The running pattern is individual for each runner, regardless of distance. We can characterize it as the sum of the data of the runner (age, height, training time, etc. and the parameters of his run. Building the proper technique should focus first and foremost on the work of movement coordination and the power of the runner. In training the correct running steps we can use similar tools as working on deep feeling. The aim of this paper was to define what we can call a running pattern, what is its influence in long-distance running, and the relationship between the training technique and the running pattern. The importance of a running pattern in long-distance racing is immense, as the more distracted and departed from the norm, the greater the harm to the body will cause it to repetition in long run. Putting on training exercises that shape the technique is very important and affects the running pattern significantly.

  5. Effect of sucrose availability on wheel-running as an operant and as a reinforcing consequence on a multiple schedule: Additive effects of extrinsic and automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2015-07-01

    As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is equity confined to the shorter term projects - and if not, what does it need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryan, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are two types of equity investor generally found in shorter term energy projects: energy project developers or sponsors who view a given project as buying or building a business; and financial investors who have viewed an investment as buying a stream of cash flows. This article examines the objectives and needs of these two investor groups, and discusses the principal issues which govern their respective decision-making process. (author)

  7. Metabolic and mechanical aspects of foot landing type, forefoot and rearfoot strike, in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, L P; Lafortuna, C; Minetti, A E; Mognoni, P; Saibene, F

    1995-09-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the metabolic and the mechanical aspects of two different foot strike patterns in running, i.e. forefoot and rearfoot striking (FFS and RFS), and to understand whether there is some advantage for a runner to use one or the other of the two landing styles. Eight subjects performed two series of runs (FFS and RFS) on a treadmill at an average speed of 2.50, 2.78, 3.06, 3.33, 3.61, 3.89, 4.17 m s-1. Step frequency, oxygen uptake, mechanical work, and its two components, external and internal, were measured. No differences were found for step frequency, mechanical internal work per unit time and oxygen uptake, while external and total mechanical work per unit time were significantly higher, 7-12%, for FFS. The higher external work was the result of an increase of the work performed against both gravitational and inertial forces. As the energy expenditure was the same it has been speculated that a higher storage and release of energy takes place in the elastic structures of the lower leg with FFS. In a different series of experiments on six subjects contact time, time of deceleration and time of acceleration were measured by means of a video camera while running on the treadmill at 2.50, 3.33 and 4.17 m s-1, both FFS and RFS. Time of deceleration is similar for FFS and RFS, but contact time and time of acceleration are shorter, respectively 12 and 25%, for FFS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  9. The barefoot debate: can minimalist shoes reduce running-related injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixe, Jeffrey A; Gallo, Robert A; Silvis, Matthew L

    2012-01-01

    Running has evolved throughout history from a necessary form of locomotion to an athletic and recreational pursuit. During this transition, our barefoot ancestors developed footwear. By the late 1970s, running popularity surged, and footwear manufacturers developed the running shoe. Despite new shoe technology and expert advice, runners still face high injury rates, which have yet to decline. Recently, "minimalist" running, marked by a soft forefoot strike and shorter, quicker strides, has become increasingly popular within the running community. Biomechanical studies have suggested that these features of barefoot-style running may lead to a reduction in injury rates. After conducting more outcomes-based research, minimalist footwear and gait retraining may serve as new methods to reduce injuries within the running population.

  10. The psychological benefits of recreational running: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects.

  11. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  12. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, R M; Gallas, E J; Tseng, J C-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called 'runBrowser' makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  13. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  14. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  15. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  16. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  17. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, D.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  18. High Speed Running and Sprinting Profiles of Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miñano-Espin Javier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Real Madrid was named as the best club of the 20th century by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics. The aim of this study was to compare if players from Real Madrid covered shorter distances than players from the opposing team. One hundred and forty-nine matches including league, cup and UEFA Champions League matches played by the Real Madrid were monitored during the 2001-2002 to the 2006-2007 seasons. Data from both teams (Real Madrid and the opponent were recorded. Altogether, 2082 physical performance profiles were examined, 1052 from the Real Madrid and 1031 from the opposing team (Central Defenders (CD = 536, External Defenders (ED = 491, Central Midfielders (CM = 544, External Midfielders (EM = 233, and Forwards (F = 278. Match performance data were collected using a computerized multiple-camera tracking system (Amisco Pro®, Nice, France. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed for distances covered at different intensities (sprinting (>24.0 km/h and high-speed running (21.1-24.0 km/h and the number of sprints (21.1-24.0 km/h and >24.0 km/h during games for each player sectioned under their positional roles. Players from Real Madrid covered shorter distances in high-speed running and sprint than players from the opposing team (p 0.01 from Real Madrid covered shorter distances in high-intensity running and sprint and performed less sprints than their counterparts. Finally, no differences were found in the high-intensity running and sprint distances performed by players from Real Madrid depending on the quality of the opposition.

  19. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Applicability of the shorter ‘Bangladesh regimen’ in high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sotgiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB, clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as the ‘Bangladesh regimen’ proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high-dose isoniazid, and ethambutol, followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. However, recent evidence from Europe and Latin America identified prevalences of resistance to the first-line drugs in this regimen (ethambutol and pyrazinamide exceeding 60%, and of prothionamide exceeding 50%. Furthermore, the proportions of resistance to the two most important pillars of the regimen – quinolones and kanamycin – were higher than 40%. Overall, only 14 out of 348 adult patients (4.0% were susceptible to all of the drugs composing the regimen, and were therefore potentially suitable for the ‘shorter regimen’. A shorter, cheaper, and well-tolerated MDR-TB regimen is likely to impact the number of patients treated and improve adherence if prescribed to the right patients through the systematic use of rapid MTBDRsl testing.

  1. Are Shorter Versions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Doable? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a well-established assessment tool for measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia. Researchers and clinicians have been interested in the development of a short version of the PANSS that could reduce the burden of its administration for patients and raters. The author presents a comprehensive overview of existing brief PANSS measures, including their strengths and limitations, and discusses some possible next steps. There are two available scales that offer a reduced number of original PANSS items: PANSS-14 and PANSS-19; and two shorter versions that include six items: Brief PANSS and PANSS-6. The PANSS-6 has been tested quite extensively in established trials and appears to demonstrate high sensitivity to change and an established cut off definition for remission. Prospective testing in new antipsychotic treatment trials is still required for these shorter versions of PANSS. In addition, they need to be supplemented with interview guides, as well as provide conversion formulas to translate total scores from the short PANSS versions to the PANSS-30. Both short versions of the PANSS are essentially designed to evaluate response to antipsychotic treatment. Future PANSS scale development needs to address specific measurement of treatment-responsive positive symptoms by including treatment-sensitive items, as well as illness-phase specific PANSS tools.

  2. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  3. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  4. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  5. Making consultations run smoothly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the skilful use of time in general practice consultations. It argues that consultation work involves social and material interactions, which are only partially conceptualized in existing medical practice literatures. As an alternative, this article employs ideas from the......-inspired analysis opens up a wider discussion of time as a complex resource and problem in general practice....

  6. A Review of Mechanics and Injury Trends Among Various Running Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    were mid- foot strikers, and 1% were forefoot strikers.3 When run- ners use a rearfoot strike pattern, the knee is relatively extended and the ankle...recently is the POSE method designed by Dr Nicolas Romanov.15 This running strategy involves a midfoot to forefoot strike pattern that minimizes...land with a midfoot or forefoot strike , take shorter strides with a greater frequency, and may demonstrate a reduced initial vertical ground

  7. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  8. Shorter telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older persons with sarcopenia: results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eMarzetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a major clinical correlate of sarcopenia.Methods. Analyses were conducted in 142 persons aged >/= 65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic (University Hospital. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with bioelectrical impedance analysis used for muscle mass estimation. The frailty status was determined by both the Fried’s criteria (physical frailty, PF and a modified Rockwood’s frailty index (FI. Telomere length was measured in PBMCs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction according to the Telomere/Single copy gene ratio (T/S method.Results. Among 142 outpatients (mean age 75.0 ± 6.5 years, 59.2% women, sarcopenia was diagnosed in 23 individuals (19.3%. The PF phenotype was detected in 74 participants (52.1%. The average FI score was 0.46 ± 0.17. PBMC telomeres were shorter in sarcopenic subjects (T/S = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.24 relative to non-sarcopenic individuals (T/S = 0.26; 95%: CI: 0.24 – 0.28; p = 0.01, independent of age, gender, smoking habit, or comorbidity. No significant associations were determined between telomere length and either PF or FI.Conclusion. PBMC telomere length, expressed as T/S values, is shorter in older outpatients with sarcopenia. The cross-sectional assessment of PBMC telomere length is not sufficient at capturing the complex, multidimensional syndrome of frailty.

  9. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  10. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and shorter telomere length: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Jianghua; Huang, Pan; Li, Jiping

    2017-08-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder, which may accelerate aging. Many study have investigated the association between telomeres length and PTSD, but results from published studies are contradictory. Therefore, Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to give more precise estimate of relationship between telomere length and PTSD. We systematically reviewed the databases of PUBMED, PsycINFO, Medline(Ovid SP) and EMBASE for all articles on the association between telomere length and PTSD. Data were summarized by using random-effects in the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies were examined by using Cochrane's Q statistic and I-squared. Five eligible studies containing 3851 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Shorten telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD with mean difference of -0.19( 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01; P<0.001) with I-square of 96%. The results from subgroup analysis demonstrated that shorter telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD across all gender groups, with mean difference of -0.15( 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01; P=0.04) for female, mean difference of -0.17( 95% CI: -0.19, -0.15; P<0.001) for male. Meanwhile, shorten telomere length was significantly associated with sexual assault(mean difference =-0.15, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01), childhood trauma (mean difference =-0.08, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.07), but not combat (mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.05). Compared to the individuals without PTSD, individuals with PTSD have shorter telomere length, which has implications for early intervention and timely treatment to prevent future adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits; Kernenergie als 'goldene Bruecke'? Verfassungsrechtliche Probleme der Aushandlung von Laufzeitverlaengerungen gegen Gewinnabschoepfungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    2010-07-15

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  12. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included...... in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering...... an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P

  13. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  14. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  15. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  16. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  17. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  18. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  19. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  20. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  1. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  2. Running in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J. (Richard Hunt Associates, Annapolis, MD (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Various resource agencies are diluting FERC's authority to carry out its mandated duties. Greater assertiveness is needed to regain control of the hydropower licensing process. Allowing resource agencies this control has not resulted in a workable process or the timely processing of applications. Several examples illustrate the resulting problems.

  3. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  4. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  5. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  6. Constraint-Led Changes in Internal Variability in Running

    OpenAIRE

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a one-time application of elastic constraints on movement-inherent variability during treadmill running. Eleven males ran two 35-min intervals while surface EMG was measured. In one of two 35-min intervals, after 10 min of running without tubes, elastic tubes (between hip and heels) were attached, followed by another 5 min of running without tubes. To assess variability, stride-to-stride iEMG variability was calculated. Significant increases in variability (36 % ...

  7. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy more expensive than open despite shorter length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Anish; Dhamija, Ankit; Hancock, Jacquelyn; McCloskey, Barbara; Kim, Anthony W; Detterbeck, Frank C; Boffa, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) approach offers a number of advantages over open approaches including reduced discomfort, shorter length of stay and a faster recovery to baseline status. On the other hand, minimally invasive procedures typically are longer and consume greater disposable instrumentation, potentially resulting in a greater overall cost. The objective of this study was to compare costs associated with various oesophagectomy approaches for oesophageal cancer. An institutional Resource Information Management System (RIMS) was queried for cost data relating to hospital expenditures (as opposed to billings or collections). The RIMS was searched for patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 2003 and 2012 via minimally invasive, open transthoracic (OTT) (including Ivor Lewis, modified McKeown or thoracoabdominal) or transhiatal approaches. Patients that were converted from minimally invasive to open, or involved hybrid procedures, were excluded. A total of 160 oesophagectomies were identified, including 61 minimally invasive, 35 open transthoracic and 64 transhiatal. Costs on the day of surgery averaged higher in the MIO group ($12 476 ± 2190) compared with the open groups, OTT ($8202 ± 2512, P < 0.0001) or OTH ($5809 ± 2575, P < 0.0001). The median costs associated with the entire hospitalization also appear to be higher in the MIO group ($25 935) compared with OTT ($24 440) and OTH ($15 248). The average length of stay was lowest in the MIO group (11 ± 9 days) compared with OTT (19 ± 18 days, P = 0.006) and OTH (18 ± 28 days P = 0.07). The operative mortality was similar in the three groups (MIO = 3%, OTT = 9% and OTH = 3%). The operating theatre costs associated with minimally invasive oesophagectomy are significantly higher than OTT or OTH approaches. Unfortunately, a shorter hospital stay after MIO does not consistently offset higher surgical expense, as total hospital costs trend higher in the MIO patients. In

  8. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. EMFs run aground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Presently no one knows whether electromagnetic fields (EMFs) play a role in human cancer or other ailments, though epidemiological studies over the years have suggested that possibility. A study by the Electric Power Research Institute attempted to quantify everything it could about the magnetic environment of a home, identifying not only major sources of magnetic fields, but also their frequencies, strengths, and how they fall off with distance. Sources of a homes magnetic environment include appliances, overhead powerlines, and grounding connections to metallic water pipes. Fields will vary over time, depending on how much current is passing through the electrically conductive sources. Additional contributors to a home's magnetic background may include unusual wiring in the walls, underground power lines, and near-by high voltage transmission lines. This paper summarizes the study results, indicating weak, persistant EMFs may dominate, but small magnetic field associated with ground currents can end up contributing more to the overall EMF background than appliances producing far larger fields which fall off more quickly with distance. 2 figs

  10. Hitting the ground running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE; NUSBAUM,ANNA W.

    2000-05-18

    Very few of us get to start clean: getting a new organization, new space, and hiring new people for a new information management program. In over 20 years in some aspect of this profession, the author has never faced that particular challenge. By far the majority of information management opportunities involve taking over from someone else. Sometimes, a predecessor has gone on to better things on his/her initiative; that is not always the case. Sometimes the group is one you were a part of yesterday. If the function functions, time moves on and changes may be needed to accommodate new technology, additional and/or changed tasks, and alterations in corporate missions. If the function does not, it is a good bet that you were hired or promoted as an agent of change. Each of these situations poses challenges. This presentation is about that first few months and first year in a new assignment. In other words, you have the job, now what?

  11. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  12. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  13. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  14. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brandt

    Full Text Available Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  15. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods: 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results: The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions: These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas.

  17. Greater reproductive investment, but shorter lifespan, in agrosystem than in natural-habitat toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain. Mean age was lower in agrosystems than in pine groves, possibly as a consequence of increased mortality due to agrosystem environmental stressors. Remarkably, agrosystem toads were larger despite being younger, suggesting accelerated growth rate. Although we detected no differences in prey availability between habitats, artificial irrigation could shorten aestivation in agrosystems, thus increasing energy trade. Moreover, agrosystem toads exhibited increased indicators of reproductive investment. In the light of life-history theory, agrosystem toads might compensate for lesser reproductive events—due to shorter lives—with a higher reproductive investment in each attempt. Our results show that agrosystems may alter demography, which may have complex consequences on both individual fitness and population stability.

  18. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  19. Short-run and long-run effects of unemployment on suicides: does welfare regime matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Pawel; Zhukovska, Kateryna

    2017-12-01

    Disentangling the immediate effects of an unemployment shock from the long-run relationship has a strong theoretical rationale. Different economic and psychological forces are at play in the first moment and after prolonged unemployment. This study suggests a diverse impact of short- and long-run unemployment on suicides in liberal and social-democratic countries. We take a macro-level perspective and simultaneously estimate the short- and long-run relationships between unemployment and suicide, along with the speed of convergence towards the long-run relationship after a shock, in a panel of 10 high-income countries. We also account for unemployment benefit spending, the share of the population aged 15-34, and the crisis effects. In the liberal group of countries, only a long-run impact of unemployment on suicides is found to be significant (P = 0.010). In social-democratic countries, suicides are associated with initial changes in unemployment (P = 0.028), but the positive link fades over time and becomes insignificant in the long run. Further, crisis effects are a much stronger determinant of suicides in social-democratic countries. Once the broad welfare regime is controlled for, changes in unemployment-related spending do not matter for preventing suicides. A generous welfare system seems efficient at preventing unemployment-related suicides in the long run, but societies in social-democratic countries might be less psychologically immune to sudden negative changes in their professional lives compared with people in liberal countries. Accounting for the different short- and long-run effects could thus improve our understanding of the unemployment-suicide link. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Constraint-led changes in internal variability in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a one-time application of elastic constraints on movement-inherent variability during treadmill running. Eleven males ran two 35-min intervals while surface EMG was measured. In one of two 35-min intervals, after 10 min of running without tubes, elastic tubes (between hip and heels) were attached, followed by another 5 min of running without tubes. To assess variability, stride-to-stride iEMG variability was calculated. Significant increases in variability (36 % to 74 %) were observed during tube running, whereas running without tubes after the tube running block showed no significant differences. Results show that elastic tubes affect variability on a muscular level despite the constant environmental conditions and underline the nervous system's adaptability to cope with somehow unpredictable constraints since stride duration was unaltered.

  1. Running as a Key Lifestyle Medicine for Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Chul; Brellenthin, Angelique G; Thompson, Paul D; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, I-Min; Lavie, Carl J

    Running is a popular and convenient leisure-time physical activity (PA) with a significant impact on longevity. In general, runners have a 25%-40% reduced risk of premature mortality and live approximately 3 years longer than non-runners. Recently, specific questions have emerged regarding the extent of the health benefits of running versus other types of PA, and perhaps more critically, whether there are diminishing returns on health and mortality outcomes with higher amounts of running. This review details the findings surrounding the impact of running on various health outcomes and premature mortality, highlights plausible underlying mechanisms linking running with chronic disease prevention and longevity, identifies the estimated additional life expectancy among runners and other active individuals, and discusses whether there is adequate evidence to suggest that longevity benefits are attenuated with higher doses of running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  3. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  4. The Effect of Shorter Treatment Regimens for Hepatitis C on Population Health and Under Fixed Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jake R; Kim, Arthur Y; Naggie, Susanna; Linas, Benjamin P

    2018-01-01

    Direct acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies are highly effective but costly. Wider adoption of an 8-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment regimen could result in significant savings, but may be less efficacious compared with a 12-week regimen. We evaluated outcomes under a constrained budget and cost-effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks of therapy in treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, genotype 1 HCV-infected black and nonblack individuals and considered scenarios of IL28B and NS5A resistance testing to determine treatment duration in sensitivity analyses. We developed a decision tree to use in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the cost-effectiveness of recommended treatment durations and the population health effect of these strategies given a constrained budget. Outcomes included the total number of individuals treated and attaining sustained virologic response (SVR) given a constrained budget and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We found that treating eligible (treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, HCV-RNA budget among both black and nonblack individuals, and our results suggested that NS5A resistance testing is cost-effective. Eight-week therapy provides good value, and wider adoption of shorter treatment could allow more individuals to attain SVR on the population level given a constrained budget. This analysis provides an evidence base to justify movement of the 8-week regimen to the preferred regimen list for appropriate patients in the HCV treatment guidelines and suggests expanding that recommendation to black patients in settings where cost and relapse trade-offs are considered.

  5. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  6. Hypermetabolism in ALS is associated with greater functional decline and shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Ioannides, Zara A; van Eijk, Ruben P A; Heggie, Susan; Thorpe, Kathryn A; Ceslis, Amelia; Heshmat, Saman; Henders, Anjali K; Wray, Naomi R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Ngo, Shyuan T

    2018-04-29

    To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; pALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Alternative promoter usage generates novel shorter MAPT mRNA transcripts in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huin, Vincent; Buée, Luc; Behal, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Sablonnière, Bernard; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie

    2017-10-03

    Alternative promoter usage is an important mechanism for transcriptome diversity and the regulation of gene expression. Indeed, this alternative usage may influence tissue/subcellular specificity, protein translation and function of the proteins. The existence of an alternative promoter for MAPT gene was considered for a long time to explain differential tissue specificity and differential response to transcription and growth factors between mRNA transcripts. The alternative promoter usage could explain partly the different tau proteins expression patterns observed in tauopathies. Here, we report on our discovery of a functional alternative promoter for MAPT, located upstream of the gene's second exon (exon 1). By analyzing genome databases and brain tissue from control individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy, we identified novel shorter transcripts derived from this alternative promoter. These transcripts are increased in patients' brain tissue as assessed by 5'RACE-PCR and qPCR. We suggest that these new MAPT isoforms can be translated into normal or amino-terminal-truncated tau proteins. We further suggest that activation of MAPT's alternative promoter under pathological conditions leads to the production of truncated proteins, changes in protein localization and function, and thus neurodegeneration.

  8. Cleavage of SNAP25 and its shorter versions by the protease domain of serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Mizanur

    Full Text Available Various substrates, catalysts, and assay methods are currently used to screen inhibitors for their effect on the proteolytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin. As a result, significant variation exists in the reported results. Recently, we found that one source of variation was the use of various catalysts, and have therefore evaluated its three forms. In this paper, we characterize three substrates under near uniform reaction conditions using the most active catalytic form of the toxin. Bovine serum albumin at varying optimum concentrations stimulated enzymatic activity with all three substrates. Sodium chloride had a stimulating effect on the full length synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25 and its 66-mer substrates but had an inhibitory effect on the 17-mer substrate. We found that under optimum conditions, full length SNAP25 was a better substrate than its shorter 66-mer or 17-mer forms both in terms of kcat, Km, and catalytic efficiency kcat/Km. Assay times greater than 15 min introduced large variations and significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency. In addition to characterizing the three substrates, our results identify potential sources of variations in previous published results, and underscore the importance of using well-defined reaction components and assay conditions.

  9. Determinants of National Savings: A Short and Long Run ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the determinants of national savings by employing the Johansen cointegration technique and error correction model to examine the short run and long run dynamics of the system using time-series data for Ghana over the 1975-2008 period. The study found all the variables to be integrated of order ...

  10. The Effects of Running Club Membership on Fourth Graders' Achievement of Connecticut State Standard for the Mile Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, John D.; Patterson, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a running club on the mile run times of fourth grade students. The study was conducted in a suburban elementary school setting in central Connecticut with a student body of 400. The participants for the study included 59 fourth grade students, 30 of whom were boys and 29 of whom were…

  11. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  12. Pulmonary Embolism Inpatients Treated With Rivaroxaban Had Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs Compared With Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Crivera, Concetta; Bookhart, Brahim; Schein, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, treatment patterns, and hospitalization costs were evaluated. Matched cohorts included 751 rivaroxaban-treated patients and 751 warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted mean LOS was 3.77 days for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, 3.66-3.87 days) and 5.48 days for warfarin patients (95% CI, 5.33-5.63 days; P < .001). Mean (SD) LOS was shorter for patients taking rivaroxaban whether admission was for provoked PE (rivaroxaban: 5.2 [5.1] days; warfarin: 7.0 [6.5] days; P < .001) or unprovoked PE (rivaroxaban: 3.4 [2.3] days; warfarin: 5.1 [2.7] days; P < .001). Mean (SD) days from first dose to discharge were 2.5 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.9) (warfarin) when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001) and 2.7 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.2) (warfarin) without parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001). The rivaroxaban cohort incurred significantly lower unadjusted mean (SD) hospitalization costs (rivaroxaban: $8473 [$9105]; warfarin: $10,291 [$9185]; P < .001), confirmed by covariate adjustment with generalized linear modeling estimating predicted mean hospitalization costs of $8266 for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, $7851-$8681) and $10,511 for warfarin patients (95% CI, $10,031-$10,992; P < .001). patients with PE treated with rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs by $2245 per admission compared with patients treated with warfarin, which was attributable to cost offsets from 1.71 fewer days of

  13. Feasibility of a shorter Goal Attainment Scaling method for a pediatric spasticity clinic - The 3-milestones GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, A; Pauly, F; Hiebel, J; Godon, S; Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Chevignard, M

    2017-07-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method for writing personalized evaluation scales to quantify progress toward defined goals. It is useful in rehabilitation but is hampered by the experience required to adequately "predict" the possible outcomes relating to a particular goal before treatment and the time needed to describe all 5 levels of the scale. Here we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using GAS in a clinical setting of a pediatric spasticity clinic with a shorter method, the "3-milestones" GAS (goal setting with 3 levels and goal rating with the classical 5 levels). Secondary aims were to (1) analyze the types of goals children's therapists set for botulinum toxin treatment and (2) compare the score distribution (and therefore the ability to predict outcome) by goal type. Therapists were trained in GAS writing and prepared GAS scales in the regional spasticity-management clinic they attended with their patients and families. The study included all GAS scales written during a 2-year period. GAS score distribution across the 5 GAS levels was examined to assess whether the therapist could reliably predict outcome and whether the 3-milestones GAS yielded similar distributions as the original GAS method. In total, 541 GAS scales were written and showed the expected score distribution. Most scales (55%) referred to movement quality goals and fewer (29%) to family goals and activity domains. The 3-milestones GAS method was feasible within the time constraints of the spasticity clinic and could be used by local therapists in cooperation with the hospital team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  15. Short-run and long-run dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and estimates a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ land allocation decisions that allows for the gradual adjustment of allocations that can result from crop rotation practices and quasi-fixed capital constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers...... that include acreage, output, and variable input utilization at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the short-run and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops...

  16. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  17. Sex and ancestry determine the free-running circadian period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2017-10-01

    The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods. Recently, in evolutionary terms, immigrants came from Europe and Africa to America ('the New World'). The Europeans were descendents of people who had lived in Europe for thousands of years with changing photoperiods (and presumably longer periods), whereas Africans had ancestors who had always lived around the equator (with shorter periods). It may have been advantageous to have a longer circadian period while living in Europe early in the evolution of humans. In our modern world, however, it is better to have a shorter period, because it helps make our circadian rhythms earlier, which is adaptive in our early-bird-dominated society. European American women had a shorter circadian period than men (24.24 versus 24.41), but there was no sex difference in African Americans (24.07 for both men and women). We speculate that selection pressures in Europe made men develop a slightly longer period than women to help them track dawn which could be useful for hunters, but less important for women as gatherers. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Cardiovascular responses during deep water running versus shallow water running in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.

  19. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  20. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  1. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  2. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  3. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  4. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  5. The NLstart2run study: Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors and running-related injuries in novice runners, taking the time varying nature of these training-related factors into account. Prospective cohort study. 1696 participants completed weekly diaries on running exposure and injuries during a 6-week running program for novice runners. Total running volume (min), frequency and mean intensity (Rate of Perceived Exertion) were calculated for the seven days prior to each training session. The association of these time-varying variables with injury was determined in an extended Cox regression analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis showed that running with a higher intensity in the previous week was associated with a higher injury risk. Running frequency was not significantly associated with injury, however a trend towards running three times per week being more hazardous than two times could be observed. Finally, lower running volume was associated with a higher risk of sustaining an injury. These results suggest that running more than 60min at a lower intensity is least injurious. This finding is contrary to our expectations and is presumably the result of other factors. Therefore, the findings should not be used plainly as a guideline for novices. More research is needed to establish the person-specific training patterns that are associated with injury. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  7. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  8. Instrument front-ends at Fermilab during Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T; Slimmer, D; Voy, D

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  9. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  10. Instrument front-ends at Fermilab during Run II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T.; Slimmer, D.; Voy, D.

    2011-11-01

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor. Work supported by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

  11. CMS Software and Computing Ready for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider, software and computing was a strategic strength of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. The timely processing of data and simulation samples and the excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithms played an important role in the preparation of the full suite of searches used for the observation of the Higgs boson in 2012. In Run 2, the LHC will run at higher intensities and CMS will record data at a higher trigger rate. These new running conditions will provide new challenges for the software and computing systems. Over the two years of Long Shutdown 1, CMS has built upon the successes of Run 1 to improve the software and computing to meet these challenges. In this presentation we will describe the new features in software and computing that will once again put CMS in a position of physics leadership.

  12. Metadata Aided Run Selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2010-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale sci- entific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user in- terfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions at...

  13. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attrib...

  14. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  15. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  16. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  17. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  18. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  19. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  20. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  1. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  2. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  3. Spontaneous Entrainment of Running Cadence to Music Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Moens, Bart; Buhmann, Jeska; Demey, Michiel; Coorevits, Esther; Dalla Bella, Simone; Leman, Marc

    Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of music tempo on running cadence. Sixteen recreational runners ran four laps of 200 m (i.e. 800 m in total); this task was repeated 11 times with a short break in between each four-lap sequence. During the first lap of a sequence, participants ran at a self-paced tempo without musical accompaniment. Running cadence of the first lap was registered, and during the second lap, music with a tempo matching the assessed cadence was played. In the final two laps, the music tempo was either increased/decreased by 3.00, 2.50, 2.00, 1.50, or 1.00 % or was kept stable. This range was chosen since the aim of this study was to test spontaneous entrainment (an average person can distinguish tempo variations of about 4 %). Each participant performed all conditions. Imperceptible shifts in musical tempi in proportion to the runner's self-paced running tempo significantly influenced running cadence ( p  tempo conditions and adaptation in running cadence ( p  effect of condition on the level of entrainment was revealed ( p  effects of music tempo on running cadence can only be obtained up to a certain level of tempo modification. Finally, significantly higher levels of tempo entrainment were found for female participants compared to their male counterparts ( p  music tempo could serve as an unprompted means to impact running cadence. As increases in step rate may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of common running-related injuries, this finding could be especially relevant for treatment purposes, such as exercise prescription and gait retraining. Music tempo

  4. Long-Term Costs and Health Consequences of Issuing Shorter Duration Prescriptions for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Payne, Rupert; Wilson, Edward Cf

    2018-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England spends over £9 billion on prescription medicines dispensed in primary care, of which over two-thirds is accounted for by repeat prescriptions. Recently, GPs in England have been urged to limit the duration of repeat prescriptions, where clinically appropriate, to 28 days to reduce wastage and hence contain costs. However, shorter prescriptions will increase transaction costs and thus may not be cost saving. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that shorter prescriptions are associated with lower adherence, which would be expected to lead to lower clinical benefit. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 3-month versus 28-day repeat prescriptions from the perspective of the NHS. We adapted three previously developed UK policy-relevant models, incorporating transaction (dispensing fees, prescriber time) and drug wastage costs associated with 3-month and 28-day prescriptions in three case studies: antihypertensive medications for prevention of cardiovascular events; drugs to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes; and treatments for depression. In all cases, 3-month prescriptions were associated with lower costs and higher QALYs than 28-day prescriptions. This is driven by assumptions that higher adherence leads to improved disease control, lower costs and improved QALYs. Longer repeat prescriptions may be cost-effective compared with shorter ones. However, the quality of the evidence base on which this modelling is based is poor. Any policy rollout should be within the context of a trial such as a stepped-wedge cluster design.

  5. Effect of Compression Garments on Physiological Responses After Uphill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhár, Ivan; Kumstát, Michal; Králová, Dagmar Moc

    2018-03-01

    Limited practical recommendations related to wearing compression garments for athletes can be drawn from the literature at the present time. We aimed to identify the effects of compression garments on physiological and perceptual measures of performance and recovery after uphill running with different pressure and distributions of applied compression. In a random, double blinded study, 10 trained male runners undertook three 8 km treadmill runs at a 6% elevation rate, with the intensity of 75% VO2max while wearing low, medium grade compression garments and high reverse grade compression. In all the trials, compression garments were worn during 4 hours post run. Creatine kinase, measurements of muscle soreness, ankle strength of plantar/dorsal flexors and mean performance time were then measured. The best mean performance time was observed in the medium grade compression garments with the time difference being: medium grade compression garments vs. high reverse grade compression garments. A positive trend in increasing peak torque of plantar flexion (60º·s-1, 120º·s-1) was found in the medium grade compression garments: a difference between 24 and 48 hours post run. The highest pain tolerance shift in the gastrocnemius muscle was the medium grade compression garments, 24 hour post run, with the shift being +11.37% for the lateral head and 6.63% for the medial head. In conclusion, a beneficial trend in the promotion of running performance and decreasing muscle soreness within 24 hour post exercise was apparent in medium grade compression garments.

  6. Shorter anogenital distance predicts poorer semen quality in young men in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Stahlhut, Richard W; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    count (p-values, 0.002-0.048). Men with AGD(AS) below (vs. above) the median were 7.3 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.6) to have a low sperm concentration (... percentiles of (adjusted) AGD(AS). CONCLUSIONS: In our population, AGD(AS) was a strong correlate of all semen parameters and a predictor of low sperm concentration. In animals, male AGD at birth reflects androgen levels during the masculinization programming window and predicts adult AGD and reproductive...

  7. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  8. Environmentally induced nonstationarity in LIGO science run data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Robert; Mukherjee, Soma

    2009-01-01

    NoiseFloorMon is a data monitoring tool (DMT) implemented at the LIGO sites to monitor instances of non-stationarity in the gravitational-wave data that are correlated with physical environmental monitors. An analysis of the fifth science run is nearly complete, and test runs preceding the sixth science run have also been analyzed. These analyses have identified time intervals in the gravitational-wave channel that indicate non-stationarity due to seismic activity, and these intervals are referred to as data quality flags. In the analyses conducted to date the majority of time segments identified as non-stationary were due to seismic activity at the corner station and the x-arm end station. We present the algorithm and its performance, and discuss the potential for an on-site pipeline that automatically generates data quality flags for use in future data runs.

  9. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  10. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  12. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  13. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  14. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  16. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  17. Metabolic cost of running is greater on a treadmill with a stiffer running platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; McKerrow, Alexander D; Kohn, Tertius A

    2017-08-01

    Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO 2max ). The stiffer treadmill elicited higher oxygen consumption (C: 46.7 ± 3.8; Q: 50.1 ± 4.3 ml·kg -1 · min -1 ), energy expenditure (C: 16.0 ± 2.5; Q: 17.7 ± 2.9 kcal · min -1 ), carbohydrate oxidation (C: 9.6 ± 3.1; Q: 13.0 ± 3.9 kcal · min -1 ), heart rate (C: 155 ± 16; Q: 163 ± 16 beats · min -1 ) and rating of perceived exertion (C: 13.8 ± 1.2; Q: 14.7 ± 1.2), but lower fat oxidation (C: 6.4 ± 2.3; Q: 4.6 ± 2.5 kcal · min -1 ) (all analysis of variance treadmill comparisons P running depending on the running platform stiffness.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters did not demonstrate statistically significant coefficient of multiple variation with predictor variables. The time span in running 400 meters is short in order to engage mechanisms that supply and transform the energy for oxidative processes. Criterion variable (of running 800 meters has demonstrated statistically significant coefficient of multiple correlations with predictor variable and its value was 0.377 tested through F-test. This is understandable given that the time effect of engagement of systems responsible for transfer and transformation of energy compared to time needed for running 400 meters.

  19. Potential Relationship between Passive Plantar Flexor Stiffness and Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running. Passive stiffness of the plantar flexors was significantly higher in endurance runners than in untrained subjects. Moreover, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with a personal best 5000-m race time. Furthermore, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with energy cost during submaximal running at 16 km/h and 18 km/h, and a trend towards such significance was observed at 14 km/h. The present findings suggest that stiffer plantar flexors may help achieve better running performance, with greater running economy, in endurance runners. Therefore, in the clinical setting, passive stiffness of the plantar flexors may be a potential parameter for assessing running performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-09-01

    Backward pairings of a distinctive chamber as a conditioned stimulus and wheel running as an unconditioned stimulus (i.e., running-then-chamber) can produce a conditioned place preference in rats. The present study explored whether a forward conditioning procedure with these stimuli (i.e., chamber-then-running) would yield place preference or aversion. Confinement of a rat in one of two distinctive chambers was followed by a 20- or 60-min running opportunity, but confinement in the other was not. After four repetitions of this treatment (i.e., differential conditioning), a choice preference test was given in which the rat had free access to both chambers. This choice test showed that the rats given 60-min running opportunities spent less time in the running-paired chamber than in the unpaired chamber. Namely, a 60-min running opportunity after confinement in a distinctive chamber caused conditioned aversion to that chamber after four paired trials. This result was discussed with regard to the opponent-process theory of motivation.

  1. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Sutcliffe, James S; Warren, Zachary E; Keenan, Brendan T; Potter, Melissa H; Malow, Beth A

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1221-1238. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism

  3. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  4. Trends in economic growth, poverty and energy in Colombia: long-run and short-run effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cotte Poveda, Alexander; Pardo Martínez, Clara

    2011-01-01

    This research analyses the long run and short run relationships among economic growth, poverty and energy using the Colombian case. In this study, we use the time-series methodologies. The results regarding the relationship among economic growth, poverty and energy show that increases in gross domestic product and energy supply per capita should lead a decrease of poverty, which should demonstrate that access to modern and adequate energy services help to decrease poverty and to increase econ...

  5. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H K Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C, in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table.A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT was used as a screening tool of risky drinking.Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959. Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167. The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5.Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  6. Using wheel availability to shape running behavior of the rat towards improved behavioral and neurobiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Julia C; Morrell, Joan I

    2017-10-01

    Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses". VWR increases over several weeks, with females eventually running 1.5 times farther and faster than males. Limiting wheel access can be used as a tool to motivate subjects to run but restricts maximal running speeds attained by the rodents. Additionally, circulating gonadal hormones regulate wheel running behavior, but are not the sole basis of sex differences in running. Limitations from previous studies include the predominate use of males, emphasis on distance run, variable amounts of wheel availability, variable light-dark cycles, and possible food and/or water deprivation. We designed a comprehensive set of experiments to address these inconsistencies, providing data regarding the "microfeatures" of running, including distance run, time spent running, running rate, bouting behavior, and daily running patterns. By systematically altering wheel access, VWR behavior can be finely tuned - a feature that we hypothesize is due to its positive incentive salience. We demonstrate how to maximize VWR, which will allow investigators to optimize exercise-induced changes in their behavioral and/or biological endpoints of interest. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  8. Running Injuries in the Participants of Ljubljana Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitez, Luka; Zupet, Petra; Zadnik, Vesna; Drobnič, Matej

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the self-reported incidence and prevalence of running-related injuries among participants of the 18 th Ljubljana Marathon, and to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A customized questionnaire was distributed over registration. Independent samples of t-test and chi-square test were used to calculate the differences in risk factors occurrence in the injured and non-injured group. Factors which appeared significantly more frequently in the injured group were included further into multiple logistic regression analysis. The reported lifetime running injury (absence >2 weeks) incidence was: 46% none, 47% rarely, 4% occasionally, and 2% often. Most commonly injured body regions were: knee (30%), ankle and Achilles' tendon (24%), foot (15%), and calf (12%). Male gender, running history of 1-3 years, and history of previous injuries were risk factors for life-time running injury. In the season preceding the event, 65% of participants had not experienced any running injuries, 19% of them reported minor problems (max 2 weeks absenteeism), but 10% and 7% suffered from moderate (absence 3-4 weeks) or major (more than 4 weeks pause) injuries. BMI was identified as the solely risk factor. This self-reported study revealed a 53% lifetime prevalence of running-related injuries, with the predominate involvement of knee, ankle and Achilles' tendon. One out of three recreational runners experienced at least one minor running injury per season. It seems that male gender, short running experience, previous injury, and BMI do increase the probability for running-related injuries.

  9. Quintessence as a run-away dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    We consider a late-time cosmological model based on a recent proposal that the infinite-bare-coupling limit of superstring/M-theory exists and has good phenomenological properties, including a vanishing cosmological constant, and a massless, decoupled dilaton. As it runs away to $+ \\infty$, the dilaton can play the role of the quintessence field recently advocated to drive the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. If, as suggested by some string theory examples, appreciable deviations from General Relativity persist even today in the dark matter sector, the Universe may smoothly evolve from an initial "focussing" stage, lasting till radiation-matter equality, to a "dragging" regime, which eventually gives rise to an accelerated expansion with frozen $\\Omega(\\rm{dark energy})/\\Omega(\\rm{dark matter})$.

  10. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  11. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results: We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic

  12. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  13. Asymmetry between the Dominant and Non-Dominant Legs in the Kinematics of the Lower Extremities during a Running Single Leg Jump in Collegiate Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takashi; Kameda, Mai; Kageyama, Masahiro; Kiba, Kazufusa; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the asymmetry between the dominant (DL) and non-dominant takeoff legs (NDL) in terms of lower limb behavior during running single leg jumps (RSJ) in collegiate male basketball players in relation to that of the jump height. Twenty-seven players performed maximal RSJ with a 6 m approach. Three-dimensional kinematics data during RSJ was collected using a 12 Raptor camera infrared motion analysis system (MAC 3D system) at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. The symmetry index in the jump heights and the kinematics variables were calculated as {2 × (DL - NDL) / (DL + NDL)} × 100. The run-up velocity was similar between the two legs, but the jump height was significantly higher in the DL than in the NDL. During the takeoff phase, the joint angles of the ankle and knee were significantly larger in the DL than the NDL. In addition, the contact time for the DL was significantly shorter than that for the NDL. The symmetry index of the kinematics for the ankle joint was positively correlated with that of jump height, but that for the knee joint was not. The current results indicate that, for collegiate basketball players, the asymmetry in the height of a RSJ can be attributed to that in the joint kinematics of the ankle during the takeoff phase, which may be associated with the ability to effectively transmit run-up velocity to jump height. Key pointsAsymmetry of height during running single leg jump between two legs is due to the behavior of the ankle joint (i.e. stiffer the ankle joint and explosive bounding).The dominant leg can transmit run-up velocity into the vertical velocity at takeoff phase to jump high compared with the non-dominant leg.Basketball players who have a greater asymmetry of the RSJ at the collegiate level could be assessed as non-regulars judging by the magnitude of asymmetry.

  14. The Short-Run And Long-Run Relationship In The Indonesia Islamic Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shabri Abd Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at empirically examining the short-run and long-run causal relationship between the Indonesian Islamic stock returns and selected macroeconomic variables namely inflation, money supply and exchange rate during the pre- and post- 2008 global financial turmoil period from 2002 until 2007 and from 2008 until 2013 by using monthly data. The methodology used in this study is time series econometric techniques i.e. the unit root test,co-integration test, error correction model (ECM and variance decompositions(VDCs. The findings showed that there is cointegration between Islamic stock prices and macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that inflation, money supply, and exchange rate significantly affected the Islamic stock returns in Indonesia. These variables should be taken into account by the policy-makers as the important policy instruments in stabilizing Islamic stock markets in the countryDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2505

  15. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  16. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  17. Use of 3-D HD auxiliary monitor by bedside assistant results in shorter console-time and ischemia-time in robot assisted laparoscopic partial tumor-nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alamyar, M.; Bouma, H; ; Goossens, W.J.H.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kroon, B.K.; Eendebak, P.T.; Wijburg, C.J.; Smits, G.A.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that connecting live three-dimensional (3D) monitors to all three available Da Vinci® robot (Intuitive) generations improved the impression of shared perception for the whole surgical team. Standardized dry lab experiments revealed that delicate teamwork was faster (up to

  18. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  19. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  20. Three run-of-river power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Three 'run-of-river' hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels

  1. The Bittersweet Task of Running a Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Running a grant program for the first time can feel overwhelming. The work is time-consuming, requires attention to many details, and is accompanied by pressure from applicants who are desperate for money and prompt decisions. This article presents a list of all of the factors educators have to consider. From establishing a timeline and drafting…

  2. Changes in running pattern due to fatigue and cognitive load in orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Divert, Caroline; Banizette, Marion; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on running biomechanics in normal running, in normal running with a cognitive task, and in running while map reading. Nineteen international and less experienced orienteers performed a fatiguing running exercise of duration and intensity similar to a classic distance orienteering race on an instrumented treadmill while performing mental arithmetic, an orienteering simulation, and control running at regular intervals. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance did not reveal any significant difference between mental arithmetic and control running for any of the kinematic and kinetic parameters analysed eight times over the fatiguing protocol. However, these parameters were systematically different between the orienteering simulation and the other two conditions (mental arithmetic and control running). The adaptations in orienteering simulation running were significantly more pronounced in the elite group when step frequency, peak vertical ground reaction force, vertical stiffness, and maximal downward displacement of the centre of mass during contact were considered. The effects of fatigue on running biomechanics depended on whether the orienteers read their map or ran normally. It is concluded that adding a cognitive load does not modify running patterns. Therefore, all changes in running pattern observed during the orienteering simulation, particularly in elite orienteers, are the result of adaptations to enable efficient map reading and/or potentially prevent injuries. Finally, running patterns are not affected to the same extent by fatigue when a map reading task is added.

  3. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    -training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running...

  4. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  5. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  6. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  7. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  8. Running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics.......This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics....

  9. TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10min or shorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan Tolvanen, A; Tatlisumak, E; Pedrono, E; Abo-Ramadan, U; Tatlisumak, T

    2017-05-15

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30min, n=6-8pergroup) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10min of ischemia followed up to 1week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  11. Use of a novel shorter minimum caliber needle for creating endoscopic tattoos for preoperative localization: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ito, Sayo; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kawakami, Takeshi; Wada, Takuya; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In colorectal cancer surgery, inadvertent deep injections during endoscopic tattooing can cause India ink leakage into the peritoneum, leading to complications or to poor visualization of the surgical plane. This ex vivo animal study compared the use of novel shorter, minimum caliber needles versus conventional injection needles for endoscopic tattooing. Four endoscopists used the novel needles and conventional needles to make ten endoscopic tattoos (five tattoos/needle type/endoscopist) in harvested porcine rectum using a saline test-injection method. India ink leakage and the success of the tattoo (i. e. visible, tattoos but for none of the novel needle tattoos ( P  = 0.02). Tattoos created using the novel needles were more successful than those made with the conventional needles: 18/20 (90 %) vs. 11/20 (55 %); P  = 0.01. The use of novel shorter minimum caliber needles may be safe and effective for endoscopic tattooing for preoperative localization prior to colorectal cancer surgery.

  12. BWR 1 % main recirculation line break LOCA tests, RUNs 917 and 918, without HPCS at ROSA-III program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Motoaki; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1988-07-01

    In a case of small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) at a boiling water reactor (BWR) system, it is important to lower the system pressure to cool down the reactor system by using either the high pressure core spray (HPCS) or the automatic depressurization system (ADS). The report presents characteristic test results of RUNs 918 and 917, which were performed at the rig-of-safety assessment (ROSA)-III program simulating a 1 % break BWR LOCA with an assumption of HPCS failure, and clarifies effects of the ADS delay time on a small break LOCA. The ROSA-III test facility simulates principal components of a BWR/6 system with volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. It is experimentally concluded that the ADS delay time shorter than 4 minutes results in a similar PCT as that in a standard case, in which the PCT is observed after actuation of the low pressure core spray (LPCS). And the ADS delay time longer than 4 minutes results in higher PCT than in the standard case. In the latter, the PCT depends on the ADS time, a 220 K higher PCT, for example, in a case of 10 minutes ADS delay compared with the standard case. (author) 52 refs. 299 figs

  13. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Influence of photoperiod and running wheel access on the entrainment of split circadian rhythms in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, behavioral and physiological states of nocturnal rodents alternate, with a period near 24 h, between those appropriate for the night (e.g., elevated wheel-running activity and high melatonin secretion and for the day (e.g., rest and low melatonin secretion. Under appropriate 24 h light:dark:light:dark conditions, however, rodents may be readily induced to express bimodal rest/activity cycles that reflect a global temporal reorganization of the central neural pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We examine here how the relative length of the light and dark phases of the environmental cycle influences this rhythm splitting and the necessity of a running wheel for expression of this entrainment condition. Results Rhythm splitting was observed in wheel-running and general locomotion of Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The latter also manifest split rhythms in body temperature. Access to a running wheel was necessary neither for the induction nor maintenance of this entrainment pattern. While rhythms were only transiently split in many animals with two 5 h nights, the incidence of splitting was greater with twice daily nights of shorter duration. Removal of running wheels altered the body temperature rhythm but did not eliminate its clear bimodality. Conclusion The expression of entrained, split circadian rhythms exhibits no strict dependence on access to a running wheel, but can be facilitated by manipulation of ambient lighting conditions. These circadian entrainment patterns may be of therapeutic value to human shift-workers and others facing chronobiological challenges.

  15. Running as a form of active leisure - running paths as a substantial element of local society development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Stodółka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The civilizational progress has brought many conveniences that allowed us to choose leisure and recreation as the preferred way of spending our free time. The interest in the advantages of open-air activities keeps growing, together with the number of needs emerging with the constant improvement of the economic status of our society. Meeting those needs has become the aim of many projects. The more fashionable running becomes, the higher amount of people get interested in it and start running. The dynamic development of tourism related to running is a challenge for the tourism market. The astonishing popularity of this form of sport is especially visible in the number of people taking part in official runs and the growing number of the runs themselves. Promoting the region through active tourism is more than desirable. The goal is to show the right direction in creating the local society development strategies in fields such as health and active leisure for local governments. This direction is the proposition to create more running paths. The way of creating them has been described on the example of Świdnica city in Lower Silesian region ofPoland. The project should perfectly match the development strategy of the city and become helpful for the municipality. Having the area of the city and the number of its inhabitants in mind one could apply the guidelines written above to other cities with similar conditions without hesitation.

  16. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  17. Highly coherent free-running dual-comb chip platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Lancaster, David G; Michaud-Belleau, Vincent; Chen, George Y; Genest, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    We characterize the frequency noise performance of a free-running dual-comb source based on an erbium-doped glass chip running two adjacent mode-locked waveguide lasers. This compact laser platform, contained only in a 1.2 L volume, rejects common-mode environmental noise by 20 dB thanks to the proximity of the two laser cavities. Furthermore, it displays a remarkably low mutual frequency noise floor around 10  Hz 2 /Hz, which is enabled by its large-mode-area waveguides and low Kerr nonlinearity. As a result, it reaches a free-running mutual coherence time of 1 s since mode-resolved dual-comb spectra are generated even on this time scale. This design greatly simplifies dual-comb interferometers by enabling mode-resolved measurements without any phase lock.

  18. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  19. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow......-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running...... the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. METHODS: Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one...

  20. Effect of Compression Garments on Physiological Responses After Uphill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struhár Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited practical recommendations related to wearing compression garments for athletes can be drawn from the literature at the present time. We aimed to identify the effects of compression garments on physiological and perceptual measures of performance and recovery after uphill running with different pressure and distributions of applied compression. In a random, double blinded study, 10 trained male runners undertook three 8 km treadmill runs at a 6% elevation rate, with the intensity of 75% VO2max while wearing low, medium grade compression garments and high reverse grade compression. In all the trials, compression garments were worn during 4 hours post run. Creatine kinase, measurements of muscle soreness, ankle strength of plantar/dorsal flexors and mean performance time were then measured. The best mean performance time was observed in the medium grade compression garments with the time difference being: medium grade compression garments vs. high reverse grade compression garments. A positive trend in increasing peak torque of plantar flexion (60o·s-1, 120o·s-1 was found in the medium grade compression garments: a difference between 24 and 48 hours post run. The highest pain tolerance shift in the gastrocnemius muscle was the medium grade compression garments, 24 hour post run, with the shift being +11.37% for the lateral head and 6.63% for the medial head. In conclusion, a beneficial trend in the promotion of running performance and decreasing muscle soreness within 24 hour post exercise was apparent in medium grade compression garments.

  1. At least 10% shorter C–H bonds in cryogenic protein crystal structures than in current AMBER forcefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2015-03-06

    High resolution protein crystal structures resolved with X-ray diffraction data at cryogenic temperature are commonly used as experimental data to refine forcefields and evaluate protein folding simulations. However, it has been unclear hitherto whether the C–H bond lengths in cryogenic protein structures are significantly different from those defined in forcefields to affect protein folding simulations. This article reports the finding that the C–H bonds in high resolution cryogenic protein structures are 10–14% shorter than those defined in current AMBER forcefields, according to 3709 C–H bonds in the cryogenic protein structures with resolutions of 0.62–0.79 Å. Also, 20 all-atom, isothermal–isobaric, 0.5-μs molecular dynamics simulations showed that chignolin folded from a fully-extended backbone formation to the native β-hairpin conformation in the simulations using AMBER forcefield FF12SB at 300 K with an aggregated native state population including standard error of 10 ± 4%. However, the aggregated native state population with standard error reduced to 3 ± 2% in the same simulations except that C–H bonds were shortened by 10–14%. Furthermore, the aggregated native state populations with standard errors increased to 35 ± 3% and 26 ± 3% when using FF12MC, which is based on AMBER forcefield FF99, with and without the shortened C–H bonds, respectively. These results show that the 10–14% bond length differences can significantly affect protein folding simulations and suggest that re-parameterization of C–H bonds according to the cryogenic structures could improve the ability of a forcefield to fold proteins in molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Cryogenic crystal structures are commonly used in computational studies of proteins. • C–H bonds in the cryogenic structures are shorter than those defined in forcefields. • A survey of 3709 C–H bonds shows that the cryogenic bonds are 10–14% shorter. • The

  2. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    barefoot running, and gait training techniques. Current research indicates efficiencies in running with a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, and a...recent retrospective study showed a lower injury rate in forefoot - strike runners as compared with heel- strike runners. However, there are no...barefoot-like” fashion and allows a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, as opposed to the heel- strike gait style often seen with traditional running

  3. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  4. Running-in as an Engineering Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jamari, Jamari

    2007-01-01

    Running-in is a process which can be found in daily lives. This phenomenon occurs after the start of the contact between fresh solid surfaces, resulting in changes in the surface topography, friction and wear. Before the contacting engineering solid surfaces reach a steady-state operation situation this running-n enhances the contact performance. Running-in is very complex and is a vast problem area. A lot of variable occurs in the running-in process, physically, mechanically or chemically. T...

  5. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  6. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  7. A Kinetic Model Explains Why Shorter and Less Affine Enzyme-recruiting Oligonucleotides Can Be More Potent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykke Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to RNA targets promise generality and ease of drug design. The first systemically administered antisense drug was recently approved for treatment and others are in clinical development. Chemical modifications that increase the hybridization affinity of oligonucleotides are reasoned to confer higher potency, i.e., modified oligonucleotides can be dosed at lower concentrations to achieve the same effect. Surprisingly, shorter and less affine oligonucleotides sometimes display increased potency. To explain this apparent contradiction, increased uptake or decreased propensity to form structures have been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here, we provide an alternative explanation that invokes only the kinetics behind oligonucleotide-mediated cleavage of RNA targets. A model based on the law of mass action predicts, and experiments support, the existence of an optimal binding affinity. Exaggerated affinity, and not length per se, is detrimental to potency. This finding clarifies how to optimally apply high-affinity modifications in the discovery of potent antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  8. Modular Control of Treadmill vs Overground Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Motorized treadmills have been widely used in locomotion studies, although a debate remains concerning the extrapolation of results obtained from treadmill experiments to overground locomotion. Slight differences between treadmill (TRD) and overground running (OVG) kinematics and muscle activity have previously been reported. However, little is known about differences in the modular control of muscle activation in these two conditions. Therefore, we aimed at investigating differences between motor modules extracted from TRD and OVG by factorization of multi-muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals. Twelve healthy men ran on a treadmill and overground at their preferred speed while we recorded tibial acceleration and surface EMG from 11 ipsilateral lower limb muscles. We extracted motor modules representing relative weightings of synergistic muscle activations by non-negative matrix factorization from 20 consecutive gait cycles. Four motor modules were sufficient to accurately reconstruct the EMG signals in both TRD and OVG (average reconstruction quality = 92±3%). Furthermore, a good reconstruction quality (80±7%) was obtained also when muscle weightings of one condition (either OVG or TRD) were used to reconstruct the EMG data from the other condition. The peak amplitudes of activation signals showed a similar timing (pattern) across conditions. The magnitude of peak activation for the module related to initial contact was significantly greater for OVG, whereas peak activation for modules related to leg swing and preparation to landing were greater for TRD. We conclude that TRD and OVG share similar muscle weightings throughout motion. In addition, modular control for TRD and OVG is achieved with minimal temporal adjustments, which were dependent on the phase of the running cycle. PMID:27064978

  9. Visualization of synchronization of the uterine contraction signals: running cross-correlation and wavelet running cross-correlation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczeretko, Edward; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Kitlas, Agnieszka; Laudanski, Tadeusz; Pierzynski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    In physiological research, we often study multivariate data sets, containing two or more simultaneously recorded time series. The aim of this paper is to present the cross-correlation and the wavelet cross-correlation methods to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. From a medical point of view, it is important to identify time delays between contractions, which may be of potential diagnostic significance in various pathologies. The cross-correlation was computed in a moving window with a width corresponding to approximately two or three contractions. As a result, the running cross-correlation function was obtained. The propagation% parameter assessed from this function allows quantitative description of synchronization in bivariate time series. In general, the uterine contraction signals are very complicated. Wavelet transforms provide insight into the structure of the time series at various frequencies (scales). To show the changes of the propagation% parameter along scales, a wavelet running cross-correlation was used. At first, the continuous wavelet transforms as the uterine contraction signals were received and afterwards, a running cross-correlation analysis was conducted for each pair of transformed time series. The findings show that running functions are very useful in the analysis of uterine contractions.

  10. Universal Investment in Infants and Long-Run Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Jonas; Sølvsten, Mikkel; Wüst, Miriam

    This paper provides the first estimates of the long-run health effects of a universal infant health intervention. We examine the 1937 Danish home visiting program, which targeted all infants. Using administrative population data and exploiting variation in the timing of implementation across...

  11. On the Lifetime Prevalence of Running Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one in five U.S. youths will run away from home before age 18. Almost 30 percent of these youth will do so three or more times, greatly increasing their risk of violence, crime, drugs, prostitution, STDs, and many other problems. Employing new methodology to yield estimates not available elsewhere, this paper follows a nationally…

  12. LHCb detector and trigger performance in Run II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Dordei

    2017-12-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the LHC, designed to perform high precision studies of b- and c- hadrons. In Run II of the LHC, a new scheme for the software trigger at LHCb allows splitting the triggering of events into two stages, giving room to perform the alignment and calibration in real time. In the novel detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II, data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The larger timing budget, available in the trigger, allows to perform the same track reconstruction online and offline. This enables LHCb to achieve the best reconstruction performance already in the trigger, and allows physics analyses to be performed directly on the data produced by the trigger reconstruction. The novel real-time processing strategy at LHCb is discussed from both the technical and operational point of view. The overall performance of the LHCb detector on the data of Run II is presented as well.

  13. Front-running of Mutual Fund Fire-sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakov, T.C.; Verbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that a real-time trading strategy which front-runs the anticipated forced sales by mutual funds experiencing extreme capital outflows generates an alpha of 0.5% per month during the 1990-2010 period. The abnormal return stems from selling pressure among stocks that are below the NYSE mean

  14. Universal Investment in Infants and Long-Run Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Jonas; Sølvsten, Mikkel; Wüst, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run health effects of a universal infant health intervention, the 1937 Danish home visiting program, which targeted all infants. Using administrative population data and exploiting variation in the timing of implementation across municipalities, we find that treated...

  15. Long-run Determinants of Technological Progress in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized time series data sets on TFP constructed based on purchasing power parity covering from 1960-2010 to estimate long run determinants of technological progress in Nigeria using Vector Error Correction Mode(VECM)l. The co-integration result shows evidence of two cointegrating equations while the Fully ...

  16. Physiological and Biomechanical Mechanisms of Distance Specific Human Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A

    2017-08-01

    Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles. Middle distance running performance is characterized by intermediates of biomechanical and physiological parameters, with the possibility of unique combinations of each leading to high-level performance. The relatively fast velocities in mid-distance events require a high mechanical power output, though ground reaction forces are less than in sprinting. Elite mid-distance runners exhibit local muscle adaptations that, along with a large anaerobic capacity, provide the ability to generate a high power output. Aerobic capacity starts to become an important aspect of performance in middle distance events, especially as distance increases. In distance running events, V˙O2max is an important determinant of performance, but is relatively homogeneous in elite runners. V˙O2 and velocity at lactate threshold have been shown to be superior predictors of elite distance running performance. Ultramarathons are relatively new running events, as such, less is known about physiological and biomechanical parameters that underlie ultra-marathon performance. However, it is clear that performance in these events is related to aerobic capacity, fuel utilization, and fatigue resistance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in

  17. Run 2 Upgrades to the CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Kreis, B.; Cavanaugh, R.; Mishra, K.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Apanasevich, L.; Zhang, J.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Foudas, C.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J.B.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Barbieri, R.; Cali, I.A.; Innocenti, G.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Roland, C.; Wyslouch, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Northup, M.; Tran, B.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2016-01-21

    The CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is being upgraded in two stages to maintain performance as the LHC increases pile-up and instantaneous luminosity in its second run. In the first stage, improved algorithms including event-by-event pile-up corrections are used. New algorithms for heavy ion running have also been developed. In the second stage, higher granularity inputs and a time-multiplexed approach allow for improved position and energy resolution. Data processing in both stages of the upgrade is performed with new, Xilinx Virtex-7 based AMC cards.

  18. CPV, oscillations and rare B-decays in RUN 1

    CERN Document Server

    Smizanska, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results on CP-violation searches in the Bs system, studied in the decay into J/psi phi, and the Bd system through the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state J/psi K* and in the CP eigenstate J/psi KS, both using the Run-1 LHC dataset. We additionally present new results based on the full Run-1 dataset in the search for the rare decays of Bs and Bd into mu+mu-. Such processes involve FCNC transitions in b-hadron decays, suppressed in the standard model, and are sensitive to new physics contributions

  19. Learning to Run with Actor-Critic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhewei; Zhou, Shuchang; Zhuang, BoEr; Zhou, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an Actor-Critic Ensemble(ACE) method for improving the performance of Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient(DDPG) algorithm. At inference time, our method uses a critic ensemble to select the best action from proposals of multiple actors running in parallel. By having a larger candidate set, our method can avoid actions that have fatal consequences, while staying deterministic. Using ACE, we have won the 2nd place in NIPS'17 Learning to Run competition, under the name of "Megvii-hzw...

  20. Drive theory and home run milestones in baseball: an historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmied, Nadav; Harris, Michael; Vira, Damien; Kowalczyk, Jason

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the performance of the home run hitters in Major League Baseball adhered to predictions of Drive Theory. 24 baseball players who have hit at least 505 home runs were included in the sample. Their performance was assessed around the time in which they reached a significant home run career milestone, operationalized as either 500 or 600 home runs, or surpassing the league's home run record. As predicted, the players were found to require significantly more at-bats to complete the 5 home runs before the milestone, when stress was assumed to be mounting, than the 5 home runs after the milestone. In contrast, those players who reached the personal landmark from 1988 (the suspected commencement of the so-called "Steroid Era") onwards required the same number of at-bats before and after the milestone.

  1. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Penc, Ondrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. The redesign of the ID trigger, which took place during the 2013-15 long shutdown, in order to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation is described. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for nearly all trigger signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the early Run 2 data for the different trigger signatures is presented, including the detailed timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  2. The influence of external perturbations on running kinematics and muscle activity before and after accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG), as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h(-1)). Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes). The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p running below normal running level (p constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time.

  3. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  4. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  5. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  6. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  7. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  8. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  9. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  10. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  11. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  12. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  13. Toward a Run-to-Run Adaptive Artificial Pancreas: In Silico Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Chiara; Visentin, Roberto; Messori, Mirko; Palma, Federico Di; Magni, Lalo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary and future outpatient long-term artificial pancreas (AP) studies need to cope with the well-known large intra- and interday glucose variability occurring in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects. Here, we propose an adaptive model predictive control (MPC) strategy to account for it and test it in silico. A run-to-run (R2R) approach adapts the subcutaneous basal insulin delivery during the night and the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CR) during the day, based on some performance indices calculated from subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor data. In particular, R2R aims, first, to reduce the percentage of time in hypoglycemia and, secondarily, to improve the percentage of time in euglycemia and average glucose. In silico simulations are performed by using the University of Virginia/Padova T1D simulator enriched by incorporating three novel features: intra- and interday variability of insulin sensitivity, different distributions of CR at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and dawn phenomenon. After about two months, using the R2R approach with a scenario characterized by a random 30% variation of the nominal insulin sensitivity the time in range and the time in tight range are increased by 11.39% and 44.87%, respectively, and the time spent above 180 mg/dl is reduced by 48.74%. An adaptive MPC algorithm based on R2R shows in silico great potential to capture intra- and interday glucose variability by improving both overnight and postprandial glucose control without increasing hypoglycemia. Making an AP adaptive is key for long-term real-life outpatient studies. These good in silico results are very encouraging and worth testing in vivo.

  14. Experimental evaluation of tool run-out in micro milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with micro milling cutting process focusing the attention on tool run-out measurement. In fact, among the effects of the scale reduction from macro to micro (i.e., size effects) tool run-out plays an important role. This research is aimed at developing an easy and reliable method to measure tool run-out in micro milling based on experimental tests and an analytical model. From an Industry 4.0 perspective this measuring strategy can be integrated into an adaptive system for controlling cutting forces, with the objective of improving the production quality, the process stability, reducing at the same time the tool wear and the machining costs. The proposed procedure estimates the tool run-out parameters from the tool diameter, the channel width, and the phase angle between the cutting edges. The cutting edge phase measurement is based on the force signal analysis. The developed procedure has been tested on data coming from micro milling experimental tests performed on a Ti6Al4V sample. The results showed that the developed procedure can be successfully used for tool run-out estimation.

  15. New operator assistance features in the CMS Run Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, J.-M.; Behrens, U.; Branson, J.; Brummer, P.; Chaze, O.; Cittolin, S.; Contescu, C.; Craigs, B. G.; Darlea, G.-L.; Deldicque, C.; Demiragli, Z.; Dobson, M.; Doualot, N.; Erhan, S.; Fulcher, J. R.; Gigi, D.; Gładki, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Janulis, M.; Jimenez-Estupiñán, R.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Morovic, S.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrova, P.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Sakulin, H.; Schwick, C.; Simelevicius, D.; Vougioukas, M.; Zejdl, P.

    2017-10-01

    During Run-1 of the LHC, many operational procedures have been automated in the run control system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. When detector high voltages are ramped up or down or upon certain beam mode changes of the LHC, the DAQ system is automatically partially reconfigured with new parameters. Certain types of errors such as errors caused by single-event upsets may trigger an automatic recovery procedure. Furthermore, the top-level control node continuously performs cross-checks to detect sub-system actions becoming necessary because of changes in configuration keys, changes in the set of included front-end drivers or because of potential clock instabilities. The operator is guided to perform the necessary actions through graphical indicators displayed next to the relevant command buttons in the user interface. Through these indicators, consistent configuration of CMS is ensured. However, manually following the indicators can still be inefficient at times. A new assistant to the operator has therefore been developed that can automatically perform all the necessary actions in a streamlined order. If additional problems arise, the new assistant tries to automatically recover from these. With the new assistant, a run can be started from any state of the sub-systems with a single click. An ongoing run may be recovered with a single click, once the appropriate recovery action has been selected. We review the automation features of CMS Run Control and discuss the new assistant in detail including first operational experience.

  16. Adolescent runners: the effect of training shoes on running kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Scott; Toby, E Bruce

    2013-06-01

    The modern running shoe typically features a large cushioned heel intended to dissipate the energy at heel strike to the knees and hips. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that shoes have upon the running biomechanics among competitive adolescent runners. We wish to answer the question of whether running style is altered in these athletes because of footwear. Twelve competitive adolescent athletes were recruited from local track teams. Each ran on a treadmill in large heel trainers, track flats, and barefoot. Four different speeds were used to test each athlete. The biomechanics were assessed with a motion capture system. Stride length, heel height during posterior swing phase, and foot/ground contact were recorded. Shoe type markedly altered the running biomechanics. The foot/ground contact point showed differences in terms of footwear (Ptrainers, the athletes landed on their heels 69.79% of the time at all speeds (Ptrainers promote a heel strike pattern, whereas track flats and barefoot promote a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern. Training in heavily cushioned trainers by the competitive runner has not been clearly shown to be detrimental to performance, but it does change the gait pattern. It is not known whether the altered biomechanics of the heavily heeled cushioned trainer may be detrimental to the adolescent runner who is still developing a running style.

  17. The CERN Data Centre readies for Run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    While the world waits for Run 2 data with growing anticipation, the CERN Data Centre is battening down the hatches. Run 2 is set to see a significant increase in the amount of data produced by the LHC experiments, with more than one hundred additional petabytes expected over the next three years. How will CERN manage this flood of results? The Bulletin checks in with the IT Department to find out...   The CERN Data Centre: the heart of CERN's entire scientific, administrative, and computing infrastructure. With every second of run-time, gigabytes of data will come pouring into the CERN Data Centre to be stored, sorted and shared with physicists worldwide. To cope with this massive influx of Run 2 data, the CERN Data and Storage Services group focused on three areas: speed, capacity and reliability. First on the list, the group set out to increase the rate at which they could store data. "During Run 1, we were storing 1 gigabyte-per-second, with the occasional peak of 6 giga...

  18. New Operator Assistance Features in the CMS Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; et al.

    2017-11-22

    During Run-1 of the LHC, many operational procedures have been automated in the run control system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. When detector high voltages are ramped up or down or upon certain beam mode changes of the LHC, the DAQ system is automatically partially reconfigured with new parameters. Certain types of errors such as errors caused by single-event upsets may trigger an automatic recovery procedure. Furthermore, the top-level control node continuously performs cross-checks to detect sub-system actions becoming necessary because of changes in configuration keys, changes in the set of included front-end drivers or because of potential clock instabilities. The operator is guided to perform the necessary actions through graphical indicators displayed next to the relevant command buttons in the user interface. Through these indicators, consistent configuration of CMS is ensured. However, manually following the indicators can still be inefficient at times. A new assistant to the operator has therefore been developed that can automatically perform all the necessary actions in a streamlined order. If additional problems arise, the new assistant tries to automatically recover from these. With the new assistant, a run can be started from any state of the sub-systems with a single click. An ongoing run may be recovered with a single click, once the appropriate recovery action has been selected. We review the automation features of CMS Run Control and discuss the new assistant in detail including first operational experience.

  19. Does running with or without diet changes reduce fat mass in novice runners? A 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O; Videbaek, Solvej; Hansen, Mette; Parner, Erik T; Rasmussen, Sten; Langberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; Pdiet changes, the mean difference in fat mass between groups was 3.81 kg (95% CI: -5.96; -1.66; Pdiet. An average running distance of more than 5 km per week in runners who took up running to lose weight combined with a targeted diet change seems effective in reducing fat mass over a one-year period among novice runners. Still, randomized controlled trials are needed to better document the effects of self-selected diet changes.

  20. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.