WorldWideScience

Sample records for short-pulse laser heating

  1. Research on imploded plasma heating by short pulse laser for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Since the peta watt module (PWM) laser was constructed in 1995, investigated are heating processes of imploded plasmas by intense short pulse lasers. In order to heat the dense plasma locally, a heating laser pulse should be guided into compressed plasmas as deeply as possible. Since the last IAEA Fusion Conference, the feasibility of fast ignition has been investigated by using the short pulse GEKKO MII glass laser and the PWM laser with GEKKO XII laser. We found that relativistic electrons are generated efficiently in a preformed plasma to heat dense plasmas. The coupling efficiency of short pulse laser energy to a solid density plasma is 40% when no plasmas are pre-formed, and 20% when a large scale plasma is formed by a long pulse laser pre-irradiation. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations using the simulation code 'MONET' which stands for the Monte-Carlo Electron Transport code developed at Osaka. In the GEKKO XII and PWM laser experiments, intense heating pulses are injected into imploded plasmas. As a result of the injection of heating pulse, it is found that high energy electrons and ions could penetrate into imploded core plasmas to enhance neutron yield by factor 3∼5. (author)

  2. Transient thermal and nonthermal electron and phonon relaxation after short-pulsed laser heating of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Several dynamic thermal and nonthermal scattering processes affect ultrafast heat transfer in metals after short-pulsed laser heating. Even with decades of measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, the role of thermal vs. nonthermal electron and phonon scattering on overall electron energy transfer to the phonons remains unclear. In this work, we derive an analytical expression for the electron-phonon coupling factor in a metal that includes contributions from equilibrium and nonequilibrium distributions of electrons. While the contribution from the nonthermal electrons to electron-phonon coupling is non-negligible, the increase in the electron relaxation rates with increasing laser fluence measured by thermoreflectance techniques cannot be accounted for by only considering electron-phonon relaxations. We conclude that electron-electron scattering along with electron-phonon scattering have to be considered simultaneously to correctly predict the transient nature of electron relaxation during and after short-pulsed heating of metals at elevated electron temperatures. Furthermore, for high electron temperature perturbations achieved at high absorbed laser fluences, we show good agreement between our model, which accounts for d-band excitations, and previous experimental data. Our model can be extended to other free electron metals with the knowledge of the density of states of electrons in the metals and considering electronic excitations from non-Fermi surface states

  3. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  4. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  5. Selection of heat transfer model for describing short-pulse laser heating silica-based sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiangnan; Nie Jinsong; Li Hua; Bian Jintian

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental equations of Fourier heat transfer model and non-Fourier heat transfer model were numerically solved, with the finite difference method. The relative changes between temperature curves of the two heat transfer models were analyzed under laser irradiation with different pulse widths of 10 ns, 1 ns, 100 ps, 10 ps. The impact of different thermal relaxation time on non-Fourier model results was discussed. For pulses of pulse width less than or equal to 100 ps irradiating silicon material, the surface temperature increases slowly and carrier effect happens, which the non-Fourier model can reflect properly. As for general material, when the pulse width is less than or equal to the thermal relaxation time of material, carrier effect occurs. In this case, the non-Fourier model should be used. (authors)

  6. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    demonstrate FI. Our design work has focused on the NIF, which is the only facility capable of forming a full-scale hydro assembly, and could be adapted for full-scale FI by the conversion of additional beams to short-pulse operation.

  7. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir, E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2015-08-15

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system.

  8. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system

  9. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  10. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  11. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail: girolamo.mincuzzi@alphanov.com; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  12. Time-resolved plasma spectroscopy of thin foils heated by a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Shepherd, R.; Fournier, K.B.; Price, D.; Lee, R.W.; Springer, P.; Peyrusse, O.; Klein, L.

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved K-shell x-ray spectra are recorded from sub-100 nm aluminum foils irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at relativistic intensities of Iλ 2 =2x10 18 W μm 2 /cm 2 . The thermal penetration depth is greater than the foil thickness in these targets so that uniform heating takes place at constant density before hydrodynamic motion occurs. The high-contrast, high-intensity laser pulse, broad spectral band, and short time resolution utilized in this experiment permit a simplified interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the radiating matter. The observed spectrum displays two distinct phases. At early time, ≤500 fs after detecting target emission, a broad quasicontinuous spectral feature with strong satellite emission from multiply excited levels is seen. At a later time, the He-like resonance line emission is dominant. The time-integrated data is in accord with previous studies with time resolution greater than 1 ps. The early time satellite emission is shown to be a signature of an initial large area, high density, low-temperature plasma created in the foil by fast electrons accelerated by the intense radiation field in the laser spot. We conclude that, because of this early time phenomenon and contrary to previous predictions, a short, high-intensity laser pulse incident on a thin foil does not create a uniform hot and dense plasma. The heating mechanism has been studied as a function of foil thickness, laser pulse length, and intensity. In addition, the spectra are found to be in broad agreement with a hydrodynamic expansion code postprocessed by a collisional-radiative model based on superconfiguration average rates and on the unresolved transition array formalism

  13. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  14. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  15. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  16. Theory and simulation of ultra-short pulse laser interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Walling, R; Price, D; Guethlein, G; Stewart, R; Libby, S; Graziani, F; Levatin, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes recent Livermore work aimed at building computational tools to describe ultra-short pulse laser plasmas. We discuss calculations of laser absorption, atomic data for high-charge ions, and a new idea for linear-response treatment of non-equilibrium phenomena near LTE. (author)

  17. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  18. Short-pulse lasers for weather control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Filamentation of ultra-short TW-class lasers recently opened new perspectives in atmospheric research. Laser filaments are self-sustained light structures of 0.1–1 mm in diameter, spanning over hundreds of meters in length, and producing a low density plasma (1015–1017 cm‑3) along their path. They stem from the dynamic balance between Kerr self-focusing and defocusing by the self-generated plasma and/or non-linear polarization saturation. While non-linearly propagating in air, these filamentary structures produce a coherent supercontinuum (from 230 nm to 4 µm, for a 800 nm laser wavelength) by self-phase modulation (SPM), which can be used for remote 3D-monitoring of atmospheric components by Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging). However, due to their high intensity (1013–1014 W cm‑2), they also modify the chemical composition of the air via photo-ionization and photo-dissociation of the molecules and aerosols present in the laser path. These unique properties were recently exploited for investigating the capability of modulating some key atmospheric processes, like lightning from thunderclouds, water vapor condensation, fog formation and dissipation, and light scattering (albedo) from high altitude clouds for radiative forcing management. Here we review recent spectacular advances in this context, achieved both in the laboratory and in the field, reveal their underlying mechanisms, and discuss the applicability of using these new non-linear photonic catalysts for real scale weather control.

  19. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  20. Numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The hyperbolic two-temperature model describing the temporal andspatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially advantageous for the processing of thin films. A precise control of the heat affected zone, as small as tens of nanometers, depending on the material and laser conditions, can be achieved. It enab...

  2. Simulation of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru

    2000-01-01

    We have completed the massive parallelization of a 2-dimensional giga-particle code and have achieved a 530-fold acceleration rate with 512 processing elements (PE's). Using this we have implemented a simulation of the interaction of a solid thin film and a high intensity laser and have discovered a phenomenon in which high quality short pulses from the far ultraviolet to soft X-rays are generated at the back surface of the thin layer. We have also introduced the atomic process database code (Hullac) and have the possibility for high precision simulations of X-ray laser radiation. With respect to laser acceleration we have the possibility to quantitatively evaluate relativistic self-focusing assumed to occur in higher intensity fields. Ion acceleration from a solid target and an underdense plasma irradiated by an intense and an ultra intense laser, respectively, has also been studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. (author)

  3. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  4. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x' = x - V g t, t' = t, where V g is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency)

  5. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  6. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  7. Hot-electron surface retention in intense short-pulse laser-matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R J; Dodd, E S; Albright, B J

    2005-07-01

    Implicit hybrid plasma simulations predict that a significant fraction of the energy deposited into hot electrons can be retained near the surface of targets with steep density gradients illuminated by intense short-pulse lasers. This retention derives from the lateral transport of heated electrons randomly emitted in the presence of spontaneous magnetic fields arising near the laser spot, from geometric effects associated with a small hot-electron source, and from E fields arising in reaction to the ponderomotive force. Below the laser spot hot electrons are axially focused into a target by the B fields, and can filament in moderate Z targets by resistive Weibel-like instability, if the effective background electron temperature remains sufficiently low. Carefully engineered use of such retention in conjunction with ponderomotive density profile steepening could result in a reduced hot-electron range that aids fast ignition. Alternatively, such retention may disturb a deeper deposition needed for efficient radiography and backside fast ion generation.

  8. Erosion of CFC, pyrolytic and boronated graphite under short pulsed laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraaij, G.J.; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der

    1992-07-01

    The effect of short pulsed laser irradiation of '0/3' ms and up to 10 MJ/m 2 on different types of carbon base materials is described. These materials are investigated as candidate protection materials for the Plasma Facing Components of NET/ITER. These materials are: carbon fibre composite graphite, pyrolytic graphite and boronated graphite. The volume of the laser induced craters was measured with an optical topographic scanner, and these data are evaluated with a simple model for the erosion. As a results, the enthalpy of ablation is estimated as 30±3 MJ/kg. A comparison is made with finite element numerical calculations, and the effect of lateral heat transfer is estimated using an analytical model. (author). 8 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  10. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  11. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  12. Phonon transport in a curved aluminum thin film due to laser short pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Saad Bin; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2018-05-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of a curved aluminum thin film is investigated. The Boltzmann transport equation is incorporated to formulate the heating situation. A Gaussian laser intensity distribution is considered along the film arc and time exponentially decaying of pulse intensity is incorporated in the analysis. The governing equations of energy transport in the electron and lattice sub-systems are coupled through the electron-phonon coupling parameter. To quantify the phonon intensity distribution in the thin film, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced, which is associated with the average energy of all phonons around a local point when the phonon energies are redistributed adiabatically to an equilibrium state. It is found the numerical simulations that electron temperature follows similar trend to the spatial distribution of the laser pulse intensity at the film edge. Temporal variation of electron temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity distribution. The rise of temperature in the electron sub-system is fast while it remains slow in the lattice sub-system.

  13. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  14. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  15. XPS studies of short pulse laser interaction with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Minkovski, N.; Balchev, I.; Avramova, I.; Sabotinov, N.; Marinova, Ts.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of laser ablation on copper foil irradiated by a short 30 ns laser pulse was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The laser fluence was varied from 8 to 16.5 J/cm 2 and the velocity of the laser beam from 10 to 100 mm/s. This range of laser fluence is characterized by a different intensity of laser ablation. The experiments were done in two kinds of ambient atmosphere: air and argon jet gas. The chemical state and composition of the irradiated copper surface were determined using the modified Auger parameter (α') and O/Cu intensity ratio. The ablation atmosphere was found to influence the size and chemical state of the copper particles deposited from the vapor plume. During irradiation in air atmosphere the copper nanoparticles react with oxygen and water vapor from the air and are deposited in the form of a CuO and Cu(OH) 2 thin film. In argon atmosphere the processed copper surface is oxidized after exposure to air

  16. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  17. Generation of ultra short pulses by auto injection in the Nd: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, I.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    Yhe work presented here, was concerned to the construction of a coherent light source in the near infrared region with pulses of 10 -10 seconds. The auto-injection technique was employed for generating these short pulses with posterior extraction of the pulse applied to a Nd=YAG-pulsed laser. (author) [pt

  18. Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...

  19. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , Development of High Average Power Picosecond Laser Systems, Opto- Electronic Devices, (2002). INTRODUCTION A Nd:YVO4 modelocked laser has been constructed using a resonator designed according to the theoretical parameters. The laser produced pulses... theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University...

  20. Tissue photoablation process with short-pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gerhard J.; Doerschel, Klaus; Kar, Hasan

    1992-03-01

    Since Hippocrates, physicians have three weapons to fight malignant diseases of the human body: Quae medicamenta non sanat, ferrum sanat; quae ferrum non sanat, ignis sanat; and quae vero ignis non sanat, insanabilia reputari oportet. Today there are various possibilities to use the ''fire'': electrical and optical cauterization; mono- and bipolar rf-surgery; ionizing radiation for tumor treatment; and last but not least, the laser of laser tissue interactions, all can be used to remove malignant tissue either by biological digestion or immediate ablation, i.e., photovaporization or photodecomposition. This paper will discuss a semiempirical theory of the so-called photoablation process and the thermal side effects of the surrounding tissue. The term ''Photoablation; has to be well differentiated with the terms photovaporization, photodisruption and photofragmentation. As will be shown in this paper, photoablation is a microscale fast thermal explosion.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  2. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  3. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.

  4. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  5. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal

    2005-01-01

    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  6. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. X., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Zu, X. T., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Xiang, X. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, K., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu [Department of Materials Engineering and Sciences, University of Michigan, 413B Space Research Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  7. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  8. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livemore, California 94551 (United States); Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  9. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm 2 to 40 J/cm 2 , with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and mineral

  10. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  11. Experimental approach to interaction physics challenges of the shock ignition scheme using short pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C; Depierreux, S; Yahia, V; Loisel, G; Baccou, C; Courvoisier, C; Borisenko, N G; Orekhov, A; Rosmej, O; Labaune, C

    2013-12-06

    An experimental program was designed to study the most important issues of laser-plasma interaction physics in the context of the shock ignition scheme. In the new experiments presented in this Letter, a combination of kilojoule and short laser pulses was used to study the laser-plasma coupling at high laser intensities for a large range of electron densities and plasma profiles. We find that the backscatter is dominated by stimulated Brillouin scattering with stimulated Raman scattering staying at a limited level. This is in agreement with past experiments using long pulses but laser intensities limited to 2×10(15)  W/cm2, or short pulses with intensities up to 5×10(16)  W/cm2 as well as with 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  12. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  13. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  14. Time-dependent H-like and He-like Al lines produced by ultra-short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takako; Kato, Masatoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Shepherd, R; Young, B; More, R; Osterheld, Al

    1998-03-01

    We have performed numerical modeling of time-resolved x-ray spectra from thin foil targets heated by the LLNL Ultra-short pulse (USP) laser. The targets were aluminum foils of thickness ranging from 250 A to 1250 A, heated with 120 fsec pulses of 400 nm light from the USP laser. The laser energy was approximately 0.2 Joules, focused to a 3 micron spot size for a peak intensity near 2 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines were recorded using a 900 fsec x-ray streak camera. We calculate the effective ionization, recombination and emission rate coefficients including density effects for H-like and He-like aluminum ions using a collisional radiative model. We calculate time-dependent ion abundances using these effective ionization and recombination rate coefficients. The time-dependent electron temperature and density used in the calculation are based on an analytical model for the hydrodynamic expansion of the target foils. During the laser pulse the target is ionized. After the laser heating stops, the plasma begins to recombine. Using the calculated time dependent ion abundances and the effective emission rate coefficients, we calculate the time dependent Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines. The calculations reproduce the main qualitative features of the experimental spectra. (author)

  15. Collisionless energy absorption in the short-pulse intense laser-cluster interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Bauer, D.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] we have shown by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a simple rigid-sphere model that nonlinear resonance absorption is the dominant collisionless absorption mechanism in the intense, short-pulse laser cluster interaction. In this paper we present a more detailed account of the matter. In particular we show that the absorption efficiency is almost independent of the laser polarization. In the rigid-sphere model, the absorbed energy increases by many orders of magnitude at a certain threshold laser intensity. The particle-in-cell results display maximum fractional absorption around the same intensity. We calculate the threshold intensity and show that it is underestimated by the common overbarrier ionization estimate

  16. Study and development of 22 kW peak power fiber coupled short pulse Nd:YAG laser for cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Vachhani, D. M.; Singh, Ravindra; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    Free running short pulse Nd:YAG laser of microsecond pulse duration and high peak power has a unique capability to ablate material from the surface without heat propagation into the bulk. Applications of short pulse Nd:YAG lasers include cleaning and restoration of marble, stones, and a variety of metals for conservation. A study on the development of high peak power short pulses from Nd:YAG laser along with its cleaning and conservation applications has been performed. A pulse energy of 1.25 J with 55 μs pulse duration and a maximum peak power of 22 kW has been achieved. Laser beam has an M2 value of ~28 and a pulse-to-pulse stability of ±2.5%. A lower value of M2 means a better beam quality of the laser in multimode operation. A top hat spatial profile of the laser beam was achieved at the exit end of 200 μm core diameter optical fiber, which is desirable for uniform cleaning. This laser system has been evaluated for efficient cleaning of surface contaminations on marble, zircaloy, and inconel materials for conservation with cleaning efficiency as high as 98%. Laser's cleaning quality and efficiency have been analysed by using a microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  17. Cold cathode electron guns in the LASL high power short-pulse CO2 laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, S.; Ladish, J.S.; Nutter, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Electron Beam Controlled Discharge CO 2 Laser is now firmly established as the only high power short pulse laser amplifier that has been demonstrated to have scaling capabilities to large apertures and energies much greater than 100 J. These devices require a beam of energetic electrons to control the gas discharge that produces the required population inversion. Until recently, the electron source was usually a thermionic emitter, even for rather large lasers, whose heater requirements dwarfed the pulsed energies associated with the transient operation of the laser. With the advent of reliable cold-cathode electron guns, the operation of these lasers has been greatly simplified. At LASL, there are four electron beam controlled laser systems which are in operation, under construction, or in design: the 1 kJ system, now operational; the 2.5 kJ system; the 10 kJ system; and the 100 kJ system. Only the first uses thermionic-emitter electron guns; the remainder use or will use cold cathode sources. The operation of the 200 x 35 cm 2 two sided cold cathode electron gun used in the 2.5 kJ laser system and to be used in the 10 kJ laser is described

  18. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  19. Short-pulsed laser for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars and rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Hoffmann, Kristina Andrea; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    This review describes the use of picosecond lasers for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars, and their use in rejuvenation. These devices have delivered enhanced efficacy for the treatment of tattoos and pigmented lesions when compared to the older 40-50 nanosecond devices. The fractional delivery with the picosecond devices have opened up a new method of rejuvenation for photodamaged skin and the treatment of scars. The delivery of these high-energy short pulses have created zones of injury in the skin referred to as areas of laser-induced optical breakdown. These areas of damage appear to produce cytokines and chemokines which result in epidermal and dermal repair and remodeling. The dual use of these devices with the flat and the fractional optics have made these devices useful in many ways that have been unanticipated. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  20. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  1. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  2. Characterization of a high repetition-rate laser-driven short-pulsed neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, J.; Nees, J. A.; Hammig, M. D.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a repetitive, high flux, short-pulsed laser-driven neutron source using a heavy-water jet target. We measure neutron generation at 1/2 kHz repetition rate using several-mJ pulse energies, yielding a time-averaged neutron flux of 2 × 105 neutrons s‑1 (into 4π steradians). Deuteron spectra are also measured in order to understand source characteristics. Analyses of time-of-flight neutron spectra indicate that two separate populations of neutrons, ‘prompt’ and ‘delayed’, are generated at different locations. Gamma-ray emission from neutron capture 1H(n,γ) is also measured to confirm the neutron flux.

  3. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  4. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent.

  5. Dynamical resonance shift and unification of resonances in short-pulse laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Pronounced maximum absorption of laser light irradiating a rare-gas or metal cluster is widely expected during the linear resonance (LR) when Mie-plasma wavelength λM of electrons equals the laser wavelength λ . On the contrary, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an argon cluster irradiated by short 5-fs (FWHM) laser pulses it is revealed that, for a given laser pulse energy and a cluster, at each peak intensity there exists a λ —shifted from the expected λM—that corresponds to a unified dynamical LR at which evolution of the cluster happens through very efficient unification of possible resonances in various stages, including (i) the LR in the initial time of plasma creation, (ii) the LR in the Coulomb expanding phase in the later time, and (iii) anharmonic resonance in the marginally overdense regime for a relatively longer pulse duration, leading to maximum laser absorption accompanied by maximum removal of electrons from cluster and also maximum allowed average charge states for the argon cluster. Increasing the laser intensity, the absorption maxima is found to shift to a higher wavelength in the band of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM than permanently staying at the expected λM. A naive rigid sphere model also corroborates the wavelength shift of the absorption peak as found in MD and unequivocally proves that maximum laser absorption in a cluster happens at a shifted λ in the marginally overdense regime of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM instead of λM of LR. The present study is important for guiding an optimal condition laser-cluster interaction experiment in the short-pulse regime.

  6. Short-pulse-width micromachining of hard materials using DPSS Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heglin, Michael; Govorkov, Sergei V.; Scaggs, Michael J.; Theoharidis, Haris; Schoelzel, T.

    2002-06-01

    The material processing of an industrial, short-pulse duration DPPS YAG laser producing peak powers greater than 0.2MW is discussed in this paper. This peak power provides sufficient materials processing capability to meet the micro machining needs in the automotive, semiconductor, micro- electronic, medical and telecommunication industries. All hard and soft materials including: plastics, metals, ceramics, diamond and other crystalline materials are suitable candidates for the processing capability of this laser. Micro level features can be machined in these materials to a depth in excess of 1mm with high quality results. In most applications feature sizes can be achieved that are not possible or economical with existing technologies. The optical beam delivery system requirements, and overall micro-machining set-up are also described. The drilling and cutting versatility down to feature sizes of less than 7 micrometers , as well as, complex shapes are shown. The wavelength, pulse length, and peakpower are described and relate to their effect on recast, micro-cracking and material removal rates. Material removal effects related to progressive penetration into the material will be reviewed. The requirements of this DPSS laser technology to meet the operational requirements for high duty cycle operation in industrial environments is covered along with processing flexibility and lower operating cost.

  7. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A.

    1999-01-01

    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the Δn = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF 2 target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  8. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Russian Committee of Standards Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    1999-09-01

    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the {delta}n = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF{sub 2} target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  9. Short-pulse-laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Ziegler, Wolfgang; von der Linde, Dietrich; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, D. L.

    2005-03-01

    Short-pulse-laser-induced damage and ablation of thin films of amorphous, diamond-like carbon have been investigated. Material removal and damage are caused by fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments. The fragments exhibit a delayed, intense and broadband emission of microsecond duration. Both fracture and emission are attributed to the laser-initiated relaxation of the high internal stresses of the pulse laser deposition-grown films.

  10. Study of the oncogenic expression in human fibroblast cells after exposure to very short pulsed laser radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormont, D.; Freville, Th.; Raoul, H.; Courant, D.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. The absence of dicentric among chromosomal aberrations on human lymphocytes suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. The studies of the radiation effects on the cellular growth and the oncogenic expression show that the modifications, induced at the cellular level, do not seem the origin of a cellular transformation and a possible mechanism of carcinogenesis. (author)

  11. Lattice Boltzmann method for short-pulsed laser transport in a multi-layered medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We construct a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional multi-layered medium with distinct refractive index in each layer. The left boundary is irradiated normally by a short-pulsed laser. The Fresnel interfaces conditions, which incorporate reflection and refraction, are used at the boundaries and the interfaces. Based on the Fresnel's law and Snell's law, the interfacial intensity formulas are introduced. The collimated and diffuse intensities are treated individually. At a transient time step, the collimated component is first solved by LBM and then embedded into the transient radiative transfer equation as a source term. To keep the consistency of the directions in all the layers, angular interpolation of the intensities at the interfaces is adopted. The transient radiative transfer in a two-layer medium is first investigated, and the time-resolved results are validated by comparing with those by the Monte Carlo method (MCM). Of particular interest, the angular intensities along the slab at different times are presented to illustrate a variety of interesting phenomena, and the discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interfaces is discussed. The effects of various parameters on the time-resolved signals are examined. - Highlights: • Transient radiative transfer in a multi-layered medium is solved by LBM. • The boundary and interfaces are all considered as Fresnel surfaces. • The LBM solution for the collimated pulse is derived. • Discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interface is illustrated and discussed

  12. Evaluation of temperature history of a spherical nanosystem irradiated with various short-pulse laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Arnab; Mondal, Pranab K.

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal thermal response and characteristics of net entropy production rate of a gold nanosphere (radius: 50-200 nm), subjected to a short-pulse, femtosecond laser is reported. In order to correctly illustrate the temperature history of laser-metal interaction(s) at picoseconds transient with a comprehensive single temperature definition in macroscale and to further understand how the thermophysical response of the single-phase lag (SPL) and dual-phase lag (DPL) frameworks (with various lag-ratios') differs, governing energy equations derived from these benchmark non-Fourier frameworks are numerically solved and thermodynamic assessment under both the classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT) as well as extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) frameworks is subsequently carried out. Under the frameworks of SPL and DPL with small lag ratio, thermophysical anomalies such as temperature overshooting characterized by adverse temperature gradient is observed to violate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis. The EIT framework, however, justifies the compatibility of overshooting of temperature with the second law of thermodynamics under a nonequilibrium paradigm. The DPL framework with higher lag ratio was however observed to remain free from temperature overshooting and finds suitable consistency with LTE hypothesis. In order to solve the dimensional non-Fourier governing energy equation with volumetric laser-irradiation source term(s), the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended and a three-time level, fully implicit, second order accurate finite difference method (FDM) is illustrated. For all situations under observation, the LBM scheme is featured to be computationally superior to remaining FDM schemes. With detailed prediction of maximum temperature rise and the corresponding peaking time by all the numerical schemes, effects of the change of radius of the gold nanosphere, the magnitude of fluence of laser, and laser irradiation with

  13. Clinical observation of one time short-pulse pattern scan laser pan-retinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy and benefit of short-pulse pattern scan laser(PASCALphotocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Twenty-eight PDR patients(42 eyesunderwent short-pulse PASCAL pan-retinal photocoagulation(PRPwere analyzed.The best corrected visual acuity was ≥0.1 in 36 eyes, RESULTS: All the cases had no pain during the short-pulse PASCAL treatment.One year after treatments,the final visual acuity was improved in 6 eyes,kept stable in 28 eyes and decreased in 8 eyes; neovascularization were regressed in 18 eyes(43%, stable in 12 eyes(29%, uncontrolled in 12 eyes(29%. Five eyes(12%received vitrectomy due to vitreous hemorrhage.Compared with before operation, retina thickness in central fovea of macula and visual field had no obvious change after one-time PASCAL PRP(P>0.05. CONCLUSION:The one-time short-pulse PASCAL PRP could stabilize the progress of PDR safely, effectively and simply.

  14. Recrystallization and grain growth behavior of rolled tungsten under VDE-like short pulse high heat flux loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Krieger, K.; Luo, G.-N.; Xu, H. Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Li, M.; Liu, W.

    2013-02-01

    Short pulse heat loads expected for vertical displacement events (VDEs) in ITER were applied in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS at IPP-Garching onto samples of rolled W. Pulsed neutral beams with the central heat flux of 23 MW/m2 were applied for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 s, respectively. Rapid recrystallization of the adiabatically loaded 3 mm thick samples was observed when the pulse duration was up to 1.0 s. Grains grew markedly following recrystallization with increasing pulse length. The recrystallization temperature and temperature dependence of the recrystallized grain size were also investigated. The results showed that the recrystallization temperature of the W grade was around 2480 °C under the applied heat loading condition, which was nearly 1150 °C higher than the conventional recrystallization temperature, and the grains were much finer. A linear relationship between the logarithm of average grain size (ln d) and the inverse of maximum surface temperature (1/Tmax) was found and accordingly the activation energy for grain growth in temperature evolution up to Tmax in 1.5 s of the short pulse HHF load was deduced to be 4.1 eV. This provided an effective clue to predict the structure evolution under short pulse HHF loads.

  15. Recrystallization and grain growth behavior of rolled tungsten under VDE-like short pulse high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Krieger, K.; Luo, G.-N.; Xu, H.Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Li, M.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Recrystallization temperature of a rolled W was ∼2480 °C under applied HHF loads. ► Fine grains were obtained under HHF loads with appropriate short pulse length. ► With increasing pulse length, the recrystallized grains significantly grew larger. ► A linear relationship between ln d and 1/T max was found. ► Activation energy for grain growth in T evolution up to T max in 1.5 s was obtained. -- Abstract: Short pulse heat loads expected for vertical displacement events (VDEs) in ITER were applied in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS at IPP-Garching onto samples of rolled W. Pulsed neutral beams with the central heat flux of 23 MW/m 2 were applied for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 s, respectively. Rapid recrystallization of the adiabatically loaded 3 mm thick samples was observed when the pulse duration was up to 1.0 s. Grains grew markedly following recrystallization with increasing pulse length. The recrystallization temperature and temperature dependence of the recrystallized grain size were also investigated. The results showed that the recrystallization temperature of the W grade was around 2480 °C under the applied heat loading condition, which was nearly 1150 °C higher than the conventional recrystallization temperature, and the grains were much finer. A linear relationship between the logarithm of average grain size (ln d) and the inverse of maximum surface temperature (1/T max ) was found and accordingly the activation energy for grain growth in temperature evolution up to T max in 1.5 s of the short pulse HHF load was deduced to be 4.1 eV. This provided an effective clue to predict the structure evolution under short pulse HHF loads

  16. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence

  17. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  18. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Rose, H. A.; Shimada, T.; Williams, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 deg. angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (∼2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  19. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  20. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C G Jr; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  1. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  2. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: guo@jove.rutgers.edu

    2009-07-07

    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  3. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  4. Modeling of collisional excited x-ray lasers using short pulse laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Moribayashi, Kengo; Utsumi, Takayuki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A simple atomic kinetics model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers has been developed. The model consists of a collisional radiative model using the average ion model (AIM) and a detailed term accounting (DTA) model of Ni-like Ta. An estimate of plasma condition to produce gain in Ni-like Ta ({lambda}=44A) is given. Use of the plasma confined in a cylinder is proposed to preform a uniform high density plasma from 1-D hydrodynamics calculations. (author)

  5. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-11-01

    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  6. Pain score of patients undergoing single spot, short pulse laser versus conventional laser for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Ahmad; Lashay, Alireza; Roozbahani, Mehdi; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei; Molaie, Saber; Mireshghi, Meysam; Zaferani, Mohamad Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    To compare pain score of single spot short duration time (20 milliseconds) panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) with conventional (100 milliseconds) PRP in diabetic retinopathy. Sixty-six eyes from 33 patients with symmetrical severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. One eye of each patient was randomized to undergo conventional and the other eye to undergo short time PRP. Spot size of 200 μm was used in both laser types, and energy was adjusted to achieve moderate burn on the retina. Patients were asked to mark the level of pain felt during the PRP session for each eye on the visual analog scale (VAS) and were examined at 1 week, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. Sixteen women and 17 men with mean age 58.9 ± 7.8 years were evaluated. The conventional method required a mean power of 273 ± 107 mW, whereas the short duration method needed 721 ± 406 mW (P = 0.001). An average of 1,218 ± 441 spots were delivered with the conventional method and an average of 2,125 ± 503 spots were required with the short duration method (P = 0.001). Average pain score was 7.5 ± 1.14 in conventional group and 1.75 ± 0.87 in the short duration group (P = 0.001). At 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months following PRP, the mean changes of central macular thickness (CMT) from baseline in the conventional group remained 29.2 μm (P = 0.008), 40.0 μm (P = 0.001), and 40.2 μm (P = 0.007) greater than the changes in CMT for short time group. Patient acceptance of short time single spot PRP was high, and well-tolerated in a single session by all patients. Moreover, this method is significantly less painful than but just as effective as conventional laser during 6 months of follow-up. The CMT change was more following conventional laser than short time laser.

  7. Atomistic simulations of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of aluminum: validity of the Lambert-Beer law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Eugen; Roth, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Based on hybrid molecular dynamics/two-temperature simulations, we study the validity of the application of Lambert-Beer's law, which is conveniently used in various modeling approaches of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of metals. The method is compared to a more rigorous treatment, which involves solving the Helmholtz wave equation for different pulse durations ranging from 100 fs to 5 ps and a wavelength of 800 nm. Our simulations show a growing agreement with increasing pulse durations, and we provide appropriate optical parameters for all investigated pulse durations.

  8. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: yangwei861212@126.com; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  9. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  10. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm 2 in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  11. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  12. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2011-07-10

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  14. Production of neutrons up to 18 MeV in high-intensity, short-pulse laser matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, D. P. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); McNaney, J. M.; Swift, D. C.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Jarrott, L. C.; Tynan, G.; Beg, F. N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kodama, R.; Nakamura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-5 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 454-0871 (Japan); Lancaster, K. L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11OQX (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The generation of high-energy neutrons using laser-accelerated ions is demonstrated experimentally using the Titan laser with 360 J of laser energy in a 9 ps pulse. In this technique, a short-pulse, high-energy laser accelerates deuterons from a CD{sub 2} foil. These are incident on a LiF foil and subsequently create high energy neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(d,xn) nuclear reaction (Q = 15 MeV). Radiochromic film and a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer were used to diagnose the laser accelerated deuterons and protons. Conversion efficiency into protons was 0.5%, an order of magnitude greater than into deuterons. Maximum neutron energy was shown to be angularly dependent with up to 18 MeV neutrons observed in the forward direction using neutron time-of-flight spectrometry. Absolutely calibrated CR-39 detected spectrally integrated neutron fluence of up to 8 x 10{sup 8} n sr{sup -1} in the forward direction.

  15. Laser-fired contact formation on metallized and passivated silicon wafers under short pulse durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ashwin S.

    The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes governing laser-fired contact (LFC) formation under microsecond pulse durations. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding how processing parameters influence contact morphology, passivation layer quality, alloying of Al and Si, and contact resistance. In addition, the research seeks to develop a quantitative method to accurately predict the contact geometry, thermal cycles, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and the influence of contact pitch distance on substrate temperatures in order to improve the physical understanding of the underlying processes. Finally, the work seeks to predict how geometry for LFCs produced with microsecond pulses will influence fabrication and performance factors, such as the rear side contacting scheme, rear surface series resistance and effective rear surface recombination rates. The characterization of LFC cross-sections reveals that the use of microsecond pulse durations results in the formation of three-dimensional hemispherical or half-ellipsoidal contact geometries. The LFC is heavily alloyed with Al and Si and is composed of a two-phase Al-Si microstructure that grows from the Si wafer during resolidification. As a result of forming a large three-dimensional contact geometry, the total contact resistance is governed by the interfacial contact area between the LFC and the wafer rather than the planar contact area at the original Al-Si interface within an opening in the passivation layer. By forming three-dimensional LFCs, the total contact resistance is significantly reduced in comparison to that predicted for planar contacts. In addition, despite the high energy densities associated with microsecond pulse durations, the passivation layer is well preserved outside of the immediate contact region. Therefore, the use of microsecond pulse durations can be used to improve device performance by leading to lower total contact resistances

  16. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  17. Diode-pumped solid state laser. (Part V). ; Short pulse laser oscillation. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 5. ; Tan pulse hasshin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, M.; Bando, N. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-25

    A semiconductor laser (LD) excited solid state laser using an LD as an excited light source is under discussion for its practical applications to measurements, processing, communications, office automation, and medical areas. This paper describes the discussions given on the short pulse transmission using AOQ switching elements in the LD excited solid state laser with a long wave length band (1.3{mu}m), which is expected of its application in the communications and measurements area. Based on a possibility of raising a measurements resolution by making the pluses in the LD excited solid state laser, and experiments were performed using Nd:YLF as a laser host. as a results, it was found that the smaller the effective mode volume V {sub eff},the smaller the pulse width, and that the ratio of number of initial inversion distribution (N{sub i}/N{sub t}), an important parameter to determine pulse widths, can be obtained from the ratio of the LD exciting light to the input power (P{sub in}/P{sub t}). 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microdrilling of metals with an inexpensive and compact ultra-short-pulse fiber amplified microchip laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancona, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory ' LIT3' , Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Nodop, D.; Limpert, J.; Nolte, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF), Jena (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We have investigated the ultra-fast microdrilling of metals using a compact and cheap fiber amplified passively Q-switched microchip laser. This laser system delivers 100-ps pulses with repetition rates higher than 100 kHz and pulse energies up to 80 {mu}J. The ablation process has been studied on metals with quite different thermal properties (copper, carbon steel and stainless steel). The dependence of the ablation depth per pulse on the pulse energy follows the same logarithmic scaling laws governing laser ablation with sub-picosecond pulses. Structures ablated with 100-ps laser pulses are accompanied only by a thin layer of melted material. Despite this, results with a high level of precision are obtained when using the laser trepanning technique. This simple and affordable laser system could be a valid alternative to nanosecond laser sources for micromachining applications. (orig.)

  19. Effect of pulse slippage on resonant second harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitikant; Sharma, A K

    2004-01-01

    The process of second harmonic generation of an intense short pulse laser in a plasma is resonantly enhanced by the application of a magnetic wiggler. The wiggler of suitable wave number k-vector 0 provides necessary momentum to second harmonic photons to make harmonic generation a resonant process. The laser imparts an oscillatory velocity to electrons and exerts a longitudinal ponderomotive force on them at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 ), where ω 1 and k-vector 1 are the frequency and the wave number of the laser, respectively. As the electrons acquire oscillatory velocity at the second harmonic, the wiggler magnetic field beats with it to produce a transverse second harmonic current at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 +k-vector 0 ), driving the second harmonic electromagnetic radiation. However, the group velocity of the second harmonic wave is greater than that of the fundamental wave, hence, the generated pulse slips out of the main laser pulse and its amplitude saturates

  20. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W

    1994-12-01

    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  2. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song

    2011-01-01

    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  3. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.

    2015-01-01

    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  4. Observation of the charge neutrality of the ions from target short-pulse laser interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuike, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Intended to simulate the early stage of the plasma (preformed plasma) formation in the higher (10 20 W cm -2 ) intensity experiments (in which the plasma density profile rules laser absorption thus conversion efficiency from laser into hot electrons, ions and x-rays) experiments using solid target were done under a peak intensity (main laser pulse) of up to ∼10 15 W cm -2 and pre-pulse and pedestal intensity of ∼10 3 times lower than main pulse. With pedestal, significant enhancement of laser absorption was observed with pedestal condition. Charge neutralization of the ions from the plasma was measured by biased charge collectors. Earlier part of the ion were almost un-neutralized in with or without pedestal condition, and the later part of the ions (≤ few keV) were partially neutralized (≥40%). These not-perfect charge neutralization results is different from the longer nano-seconds pulse experimental results. (author)

  5. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of laser-based diagnostics is proposed to measure velocity and temperature simultaneously using unseeded techniques in high enthalpy flows relevant to...

  6. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of pulsed laser diagnostics is proposed for studying aspects of planetary entry and Earth atmospheric reentry in arc jets. For example, dissociation of...

  7. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletti, Mario, E-mail: mario.gall22@gmail.com [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Galimberti, Marco [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hooker, Chris [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Curcio, Alessandro [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, Maria Pia [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giulietti, Danilo [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class. - Highlights: • Integration of the diagnostic tool on high power laser. • Validation of the GROG algorithm in comparison to a well-known commercial available software. • Complete characterization of the GEMINI ultra-short high power laser pulse.

  8. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  9. Control of ion beam generation in intense short pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Gu, Y.J.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.

    2013-01-01

    In intense laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a control of generation of high-energy ions. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions, and also controlled ion energy and the ion energy spectrum by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. The first near-critical plasma target is illuminated by a laser pulse, and the ions accelerated are transferred to the next target. The next identical target is also illuminated by another identical large pulse, and the ion beam introduced is further accelerated and controlled. In this study four stages are employed, and finally a few hundreds of MeV of protons are realized. A quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum is also obtained. (author)

  10. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  11. Q-switched all-fiber laser with short pulse duration based on tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyi; OuYang, Yuyi; Ma, Guoli; Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun

    2018-05-01

    Fiber lasers are widely used in industrial processing, sensing, medical and communications applications due to their simple structure, good stability and low cost. With the rapid development of fiber lasers and the sustained improvement of industrial laser quality requirements, researchers in ultrafast optics focus on how to get laser pulses with high output power and narrow pulse duration. Q-switched technology is one of the most effective techniques to generate ultrashort pulses. In this paper, a tungsten diselenide saturable absorber with 16.82% modulation depth is prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results show that when the pump power changes from 115.7 mW to 630 mW, the all-fiber laser can achieve a stable Q-switched pulse output. The repetition rate of the output pulse varies from 80.32 kHz to 204.2 kHz, the pulse duration is 581 ns, the maximum output power is 17.1 mW and the maximum pulse energy is 83.7 nJ. Results in this paper show that tungsten diselenide can be applied to ultrafast optics, which is a kind of saturable absorption material with excellent properties.

  12. Non-vacuum, single-step conductive transparent ZnO patterning by ultra-short pulsed laser annealing of solution-deposited nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daeho; Pan, Heng; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P. [University of California, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ko, Seung Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee K. [AppliFlex LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    A solution-processable, high-concentration transparent ZnO nanoparticle (NP) solution was successfully synthesized in a new process. A highly transparent ZnO thin film was fabricated by spin coating without vacuum deposition. Subsequent ultra-short-pulsed laser annealing at room temperature was performed to change the film properties without using a blanket high temperature heating process. Although the as-deposited NP thin film was not electrically conductive, laser annealing imparted a large conductivity increase and furthermore enabled selective annealing to write conductive patterns directly on the NP thin film without a photolithographic process. Conductivity enhancement could be obtained by altering the laser annealing parameters. Parametric studies including the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the annealed ZnO NP thin film were conducted for various laser powers, scanning speeds and background gas conditions. The lowest resistivity from laser-annealed ZnO thin film was about 4.75 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm, exhibiting a factor of 10{sup 5} higher conductivity than the previously reported furnace-annealed ZnO NP film and is even comparable to that of vacuum-deposited, impurity-doped ZnO films within a factor of 10. The process developed in this work was applied to the fabrication of a thin film transistor (TFT) device that showed enhanced performance compared with furnace-annealed devices. A ZnO TFT performance test revealed that by just changing the laser parameters, the solution-deposited ZnO thin film can also perform as a semiconductor, demonstrating that laser annealing offers tunability of ZnO thin film properties for both transparent conductors and semiconductors. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.

    1995-04-01

    Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime.

  14. Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.

    1995-04-01

    Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5x10 17 W/cm 2 ) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime

  15. Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Mengli; OuYang, Yuyi; Hou, Huanran; Ma, Guoli; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a WSe2 film prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a tapered fiber, and a WSe2 saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. In order to measure the third-order optical nonlinearity of the WSe2, the Z-scan technique is applied. The modulation depth of the WSe2 SA is measured as being 21.89%. Taking advantage of the remarkable nonlinear absorption characteristic of the WSe2 SA, a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated at 1557.4 nm with a bandwidth of 25.8 nm and signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse duration of 163.5 fs is confirmed to be the shortest compared with previous mode-locked fiber lasers based on transition-metal dichalcogenides SAs. These results indicate that WSe2 is a powerful competitor in the application of ultrashort pulse lasers.

  16. Decoration of silica nanowires with gold nanoparticles through ultra-short pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontad, F.; Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Resta, V.; Taurino, A.; Colombelli, A.; Leo, C.; Klini, A.; Manousaki, A.; Convertino, A.; Rella, R.; Martino, M.; Perrone, A.

    2017-10-01

    The ablation of a metal target at laser energy densities in the range of 1-10 TW/cm2 leads to the generation of nanoparticles (NP) of the ablated material. This aspect is of particular interest if the immobilization of NPs on three-dimensional (3D) substrates is necessary as for example in sensing applications. In this work the deposition of Au NP by irradiation of a Au bulk target with a sub-picosecond laser beam (500 fs; 248 nm; 10 Hz) on 2D (silica and Si(100)) and 3D substrates (silica nanowire forests) is reported for different number of laser pulses (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500). A uniform coverage of small Au NPs (with a diameter of few nm) on both kinds of substrates has been obtained using a suitable number of laser pulses. The presence of spherical droplets, with a diameter ranging from tens of nm up to few μm was also detected on the substrate surface and their presence can be explained by the weak electron-phonon coupling of Au. The optical characterization of the samples on 2D and 3D substrates evidenced the surface plasmon resonance peak characteristic of the Au NPs although further improvements of the size-distribution are necessary for future applications in sensing devices.

  17. Study of the Propagation of Short Pulse Laser With Cavity Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies) of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several ...

  18. Structure modifications in silikon irradiated by ultra-short pulses of XUV free electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelka, J. B.; Andrejczuk, A.; Reniewicz, H.; Schell, N.; Krzywinski, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Wawro, A.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Klinger, D.; Juha, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 382, - (2004), s. 264-270 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : XUV ablation * free electron laser Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2004

  19. Novel short-pulse laser diode source for high-resolution 3D flash lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Imaging based on laser illumination is present in various fields of applications such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified the recent years. Among the various technologies currently studied, automotive lidars are a fast-growing one due to their accuracy to detect a wide range of objects at distances up to a few hundreds of meters in various weather conditions. First commercialized devices for ADAS were laser scanners. Since then, new architectures have recently appeared such as solid-state lidar and flash lidar that offer a higher compactness, robustness and a cost reduction. Flash lidars are based on time-of-flight measurements, with the particularity that they do not require beam scanners because only one short laser pulse with a large divergence is used to enlighten the whole scene. Depth of encountered objects can then be recovered from measurement of echoed light at once, hence enabling real-time 3D mapping of the environment. This paper will bring into the picture a cutting edge laser diode source that can deliver millijoule pulses as short as 12 ns, which makes them highly suitable for integration in flash lidars. They provide a 100-kW peak power highly divergent beam in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and with a 30-% electrical-to-optical efficiency, making them suitable for integration in environments in which compactness and power consumption are a priority. Their emission in the range of 800-1000 nm is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam. An overview of architecture of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources will be given together with some solutions for their integration in 3D mapping systems. Future work leads will be discussed for miniaturization of the laser diode and drastic cost reduction.

  20. Laser radiation short pulse absorption in a high-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A.V.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    Dependences of the absorption coefficients for s and p polarized electromagnetic waves (laser radiation) in a semi-bound plasma on the temperature and incidence angle are found for an arbitrary ratio of the skin-layer depth to the electron free path length t. The dependences obtained describe transition from the normal skin effect to abnormal one and permit quantitatively to determine the absorption coefficients in the intermediate range of the parameter t, characteristic for the majority of modern experiments

  1. Atomistic simulation study of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a transparent overlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Eaman T.; Shugaev, Maxim; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V., E-mail: lz2n@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4745 (United States); Lin, Zhibin; Hainsey, Robert F. [Electro Scientific Industries, Inc., 13900 NW Science Park Drive, Portland, Oregon 97229 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The distinct characteristics of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a solid transparent overlayer are investigated in a series of atomistic simulations. The simulations are performed with a computational model combining classical molecular dynamics (MD) technique with a continuum description of the laser excitation, electron-phonon equilibration, and electronic heat transfer based on two-temperature model (TTM). Two methods for incorporation of the description of a transparent overlayer into the TTM-MD model are designed and parameterized for Ag-silica system. The material response to the laser energy deposition is studied for a range of laser fluences that, in the absence of the transparent overlayer, covers the regimes of melting and resolidification, photomechanical spallation, and phase explosion of the overheated surface region. In contrast to the irradiation in vacuum, the spatial confinement by the overlayer facilitates generation of sustained high-temperature and high-pressure conditions near the metal-overlayer interface, suppresses the generation of unloading tensile wave, decreases the maximum depth of melting, and prevents the spallation and explosive disintegration of the surface region of the metal target. At high laser fluences, when the laser excitation brings the surface region of the metal target to supercritical conditions, the confinement prevents the expansion and phase decomposition characteristic for the vacuum conditions leading to a gradual cooling of the hot compressed supercritical fluid down to the liquid phase and eventual solidification. The target modification in this case is limited to the generation of crystal defects and the detachment of the metal target from the overlayer.

  2. Supersonic Ionization Wave Driven by Radiation Transport in a Short-Pulse Laser-Produced Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmire, T.; Gumbrell, E.T.; Smith, R.A.; Mountford, L.; Hutchinson, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of an ultrashort (2ps) optical probe, we have time resolved the propagation of an ionization wave into solid fused silica. This ionization wave results when a plasma is created by the intense irradiation of a solid target with a 2ps laser pulse. We find that the velocity of the ionization wave is consistent with radiation driven thermal transport, exceeding the velocity expected from simple electron thermal conduction by nearly an order of magnitude. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. STUDY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SHORT PULSE LASER WITH CAVITY USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terniche

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several elements and then studying the physical parameters of a pulse propagating into this cavity, determining its characteristics at the output. The results are interesting but we also projects to verify them experimentally by making assemblies similar to this type of cavities.

  4. Enhancing caries resistance with a short-pulsed CO2 9.3-μm laser: a laboratory study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M.; Groves, William H.; Le, Charles; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this laboratory study was to test whether irradiation with a new 9.3µm microsecond short-pulsed CO2-laser enhances enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. 101 human enamel samples were divided into 7 groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (Carbon-dioxide laser, wavelength 9.3µm, 43Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3μs to 7μs (1.5mJ/pulse to 2.9mJ/pulse). Using a pH-cycling model and cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (∆Z) for each group. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The CO2 9.3μm short-pulsed laser energy rendered enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use.

  5. Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abare, A.C.; Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D.; Falcone, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra a gas jet target. In obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium

  6. Self-cleaning effect in high quality percussion ablating of cooling hole by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Yu, Zhishui

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the trepanning technology, cooling hole could be processed based on the percussion drilling with higher processing efficiency. However, it is widely believed that the ablating precision of hole is lower for percussion drilling than for trepanning, wherein, the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and the recast layer inside the hole are the two main issues for reducing the ablating precision of hole, especially for the recast layer, it can't be eliminated completely even through the trepanning technology. In this paper, the self-cleaning effect which is a particular property just for percussion ablating of holes has been presented in detail. In addition, the reasons inducing the self-cleaning effect have been discussed. At last, based on the self-cleaning effect of percussion drilling, high quality cooling hole without the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and recast layer inside the hole could be ablated in nickel-based superalloy by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser.

  7. Optically transparent and durable Al2O3 coatings for harsh environments by ultra short pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Hannu; Syväluoto, Aki; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, an environmental protection is needed for a number of optical applications in conditions quickly impairing the clarity of optical surfaces. Abrasion resistant optical coatings applied onto plastics are usually based on alumina or polysiloxane technology. In many applications transparent glasses and ceramics need a combination of abrasive and chemically resistant shielding or other protective solutions like coatings. In this study, we intended to test our hypothesis that clear and pore free alumina coating can be uniformly distributed on glass prisms by ultra short pulsed laser deposition (USPLD) technique to protect the sensitive surfaces against abrasives. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by the use of SiC emery paper using specified standard procedures. After the wear tests the measured transparencies of coated prisms turned out to be close those of the prisms before coating. The coating on sensitive surfaces consistently displayed enhanced wear resistance exhibiting still high quality, even after severe wear testing. Furthermore, the coating modified the surface properties towards hydrophobic nature in contrast to untreated prisms, which became very hydrophilic especially due to wear.

  8. The Application of Cryogenic Laser Physics to the Development of High Average Power Ultra-Short Pulse Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser physics continues to advance at a rapid pace, driven primarily by the development of more powerful and sophisticated diode-pumping sources, the development of new laser materials, and new laser and amplification approaches such as optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification. The rapid development of high average power cryogenic laser sources seems likely to play a crucial role in realizing the long-sought goal of powerful ultrafast sources that offer concomitant high peak and average powers. In this paper, we review the optical, thermal, thermo-optic and laser parameters important to cryogenic laser technology, recently achieved laser and laser materials progress, the progression of cryogenic laser technology, discuss the importance of cryogenic laser technology in ultrafast laser science, and what advances are likely to be achieved in the near-future.

  9. Evaluation of plasma disruption simulating short pulse laser irradiation experiments on boronated graphites and CFCs [carbon fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.; Kraaij, G.J.

    1992-12-01

    New experimental and numerical results from disruption heat flux simulations in the millisecond range with laser beams are discussed. For a number of graphites, boronated graphites and carbon fibre composites, the effective enthalpy of ablation is determined as 30 ± 3 MJ/kg, using laser pulses of about -.3 ms. The numerical results predict the experimental results rather well. No effect of boron doping on the ablation enthalpy is found. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Ultra-short pulse, ultra-high intensity laser improvement techniques for laser-driven quantum beam science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Recent development activities of the Quantum Beam Research Team in JAEA are reported. The downsized, petawatt and femtosecond pulse laser is described at first. The process of the system development and utilization effort of so-called J-KAREN is explained with its time and space control system. For high contrast, OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) preamplifier is adopted by using the titanium-sapphire laser system in which only the seed light pulses can be amplified. In addition, high contrast is obtained by adopting the high energy seed light to the amplifier. The system configuration of J-KAREN laser is illustrated. Typical spectra with and without OPCPA, as well as the spectra with OPCPA adjustment and without one are shown. The result of the recompressed pulses is shown in which the pulse width of 29.5 femtoseconds is close to the theoretical limit. Considering the throughput of the pulse compressor is 64 percent it is possible to generate high power laser beam of about 600 terawatts. In the supplementary budget of 2012, it has been approved to cope with the aging or obsoleteness of the system and at the same time to further sophisticate the laser using system. The upgraded laser system is named as J-KAREN-P in which the repetition rate is improved and another booster amplifier is added to increase the power. The system configuration of J-KAREN-P after the upgrading is illustrated. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shuji; Kawata, Shigeo; Kong, Qing; Miyauchi, Koichi; Sakai, Kei; Hasumi, Shotaro; Sonobe, Ryo; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The generation of a high energy microelectron bunch in vacuum by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode is investigated in this paper numerically and analytically. A focused short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode has a confinement effect on electrons in the transverse direction due to the transverse ponderomotive force, and at the same time the electrons are accelerated and compressed longitudinally by a longitudinal electric field. In our three-dimensional particle simulations, the maximum kinetic energy of electrons reaches 455 MeV, the maximum density is 3.87 x 10 10 cm -3 , and the normalized transverse and longitudinal rms emittances of accelerated electrons are of the order of 10 -6 m rad at the following parameter values: a 0 = eE 0 /(m e ω c) = 10 (where a 0 is the dimensionless parameter of the laser amplitude, e and m e are the electron charge and rest mass, respectively, E 0 is the laser amplitude, ω the angular frequency of the laser and c the speed of light in vacuum), a laser wavelength λ = 0.8 μm, laser spot size 20λ, laser pulse length 5λ and initial electron velocity 0.99c. Moreover, the transverse and longitudinal sizes of the compressed electron bunch are about 600λ and 10λ, respectively. In this paper, we also present a scaling law of the maximum electron energy. The estimated results of the maximum electron energy coincide well with the simulation results

  12. Hosing, sausaging, filamentation and side-scatter of a high-intensity short-pulse laser in an under-dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Clark, E.L.; Salvati, M.; Santala, M.I.K.; Tatarakis, M.; Dangor, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of high-intensity short-pulse laser beams propagating in under-dense plasma have relied on spectrally integrated Thomson scattering images. Though interesting, many significant features of the interaction cannot be diagnosed by this method. We report on shadow-graphy and spectrally resolved Thomson scattering of such an interaction. These images reveal many processes previously predicted but unseen, such as the Raman side-scatter and filamentation instabilities. Also the interaction is shown to clearly demonstrate many propagation instabilities such as 'sausaging' and 'hosing' for the first time. (authors)

  13. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  14. Detection of calculus by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using an ultra-short pulse laser system (USPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelle, F.; Brede, O.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of calculus by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The study was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser, emitting pulses with a duration of 8 ps at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A repetition rate of 500 kHz at an average power of 5 W was used. Employing a focusing lense, intensities of the order of 1011 W/cm2 were reached on the tooth surface. These high intensities led to the generation of a plasma. The light emitted by the plasma was collimated into a fibre and then analyzed by an echelle spectroscope in the wavelength region from 220 nm - 900 nm. A total number of 15 freshly extracted teeth was used for this study. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were assessed separately. Comprising all single measurements median values were calculated for the whole spectrum, leading to two specific spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis 28 areas of interest were defined as wavelength regions, in which the signal strength differed regarding the material. In 7 areas the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus. Further studies are necessary to verify that LIBS is a minimally invasive method allowing a safe application in laser-guided dentistry.

  15. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  16. Detection of tumor-like inclusions embedded within human liver tissue using a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam: Parallel simulations with radiative transfer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Addoum, Ahmad; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    An efficient solution to detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a human liver tissue model is presented, using illumination by a short-pulsed laser beam. Light propagation was accurately solved using the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, with multithreaded parallel computing. A modified finite volume method based on unstructured grids and the fourth-order Runge–Kutta approach was employed to solve the equation in the (2-D/3-D) spatial and time domains. The normalization technique applied to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function was adopted to ensure numerical stability for values of the anisotropy factor that were close to unity. The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions was analyzed from the time and spatially resolved reflectance on the medium bounding surface. The results allowed a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection of the inclusion to be highlighted. - Highlights: • We detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a (2D/3D) human liver tissue model. • The technique is based on a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam. • We solve the (2D/3D) time-dependent RTE, with multithreaded parallel computing. • The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions is analyzed. • The results allows a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection

  17. Modelling of Ne-like copper X-ray laser driven by 1.2 ps short pulse and 280 ps background pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, A.; Kenar, N.; Goktas, H.; Tallents, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Detailed simulations of Ne-like Cu x-ray laser are undertaken using the EHYBRID code. The atomic physics data are obtained using the Cowan code. The optimization calculations are performed in terms of the intensity of background and the time separation between the background and the short pulse. The optimum value is obtained for the conditions of a Nd:glass laser with 1.2 ps pulse at 4.4 x 10 15 W cm -2 irradiance pumping a plasma pre-formed by a 280 ps duration pulse at 5.4 x 10 12 W cm -2 with peak-to-peak pulse separation set at 300 ps. X-ray resonance lines between 6 A and 15 A emitted from copper plasmas have been simulated. Free-free and free-bound emission from the Si-, Al-, Mg-, Na-, Ne- and F-like ions is calculated in the simulation. (author)

  18. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  19. X-ray spectroscopy of a thin foil plasma produced by a short-pulse high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Nagels, V.; Geindre, J.P.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.; Shepherd, R.; Gauthier, J.C.; Chenais-Popovics, C.

    2003-01-01

    High density and temperature plasmas have been generated by irradiating thin foils of various elements with a high-energy subpicosecond laser pulse. The X-ray emission duration was studied by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Frequency domain interferometry provided a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion of the back of the foil as a function of time. The effect of longitudinal temperature gradients, i.e., gradients perpendicular to the surface, were decreased using very thin foil targets. Additionally, radial gradients effects, i.e., gradients parallel to the surface, were limited by using a 50 μm pinhole on target. The Al, Se and Sm spectra, recorded in the range 7.7-8 Angst. using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to an 800 fs resolution streak camera, lasted a few picoseconds. Sm spectra showed no spectral features in this wavelength range, providing a spectrally homogeneous backlighter for future experiments. The main features of the experimental time-resolved spectra have been well reproduced with one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the free expansion of a plasma heated at a given initial temperature obtained from the expansion velocity of the rear critical surface of the plasma

  20. Study of Short-Pulsed Laser Retinal Injury Mechanisms By Time-Resolved Imaging of Photomechanical Transients in RPE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We studied RPE cell damage mechanism for laser duration from 100 femtosec to 5 microsec, and we have investigated the dependence of threshold fluence for cell damage on the laser spot size on the RPE...

  1. Three-Dimensional Dynamics of Breakout Afterburner Ion Acceleration Using High-Contrast Short-Pulse Laser and Nanoscale Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Breakout afterburner (BOA) laser-ion acceleration has been demonstrated for the first time in the laboratory. In the BOA, an initially solid-density target undergoes relativistically induced transparency, initiating a period of enhanced ion acceleration. First-ever kinetic simulations of the BOA in three dimensions show that the ion beam forms lobes in the direction orthogonal to laser polarization and propagation. Analytic theory presented for the electron dynamics in the laser ponderomotive field explains how azimuthal symmetry breaks even for a symmetric laser intensity profile; these results are consistent with recent experiments at the Trident laser facility.

  2. Status and trends of short pulse generation using mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot active media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L W; Chen, Y H; Xu, B; Wang, Z C; Jiao, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the potential of mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot (QD) active media to generate short optical pulses is analysed. A comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical work on related aspects is provided, including monolithic-cavity mode-locked QD lasers and external-cavity mode-locked QD lasers, as well as mode-locked solid-state and fibre lasers based on QD semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors. Performance comparisons are made for state-of-the-art experiments. Various methods for improving important characteristics of mode-locked pulses such as pulse duration, repetition rate, pulse power, and timing jitter through optimization of device design parameters or mode-locking methods are addressed. In addition, gain switching and self-pulsation of QD lasers are also briefly reviewed, concluding with the summary and prospects. (topical review)

  3. New developments in short-pulse eye safe lasers pay the way for future LADARs and 3D mapping performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, Guerman; Latone, Kevin; Shilov, Alex; Shklovsky, Eugeni; Spiro, Alex; Tiour, Larissa

    2005-06-01

    We have demonstrated that direct excitation of 3rd Stokes Raman emission in crystal can produce short (few nanosecond) eye-safe pulses. Produced beam has very high quality and the pulse energy can be as high as tens of millijoules. For pulsed diode pumped solid state lasers the demonstrated repetition rate was 250 Hz but higher repetition rates are certainly achievable. It is important that tested schemes do not have strict requirements on laser pump parameters, namely beam divergence and frequency bandwidth. The obtained results are very relevant to the development of eye-safe lasers, such as the new generation of rangefinders, target designators, and laser tracking and pin-pointing devices, as well as remote 2D and 3D imaging systems.

  4. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  5. Acceleration of a solid-density plasma projectile to ultrahigh velocities by a short-pulse ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    It is shown by means of particle-in-cell simulations that a high-fluence ({>=}1 GJ/cm{sup 2}) solid-density plasma projectile can be accelerated up to sub-relativistic velocities by radiation pressure of an ultraviolet (UV) picosecond laser pulse of moderate values of dimensionless laser amplitude a{sub 0}{approx}10. The efficiency of acceleration by the UV laser is significantly higher than in the case of long-wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 1 {mu}m) driver of a comparable value of a{sub 0}, and the motion of the projectile is fairly well described by the ''Light Sail'' acceleration model.

  6. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  7. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  8. X-ray emission reduction and photon dose lowering by energy loss of fast electrons induced by return current during the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser on a metal solid target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    2018-04-01

    During the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the preplasma produced by the pulse's pedestal in front of a high-Z metal solid target, high-energy electrons are produced, which in turn create an X-ray source by interacting with the atoms of the converter target. The current brought by the hot electrons is almost completely neutralized by a return current j → driven by the background electrons of the conductive target, and the force exerted on the hot electrons by the electric field E → which induces Ohmic heating j → .E → , produced by the background electrons, reduces the energy of the hot electrons and thus lowers the X-ray emission and photon dose. This effect is analyzed here by means of a simple 1-D temperature model which contains the most significant terms of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with electron multiple scattering, and the energy equations of ions, hot, and cold electrons are then solved numerically. This Ohmic heating energy loss fraction τOh is introduced as a corrective term in an improved photon dose model. For instance, for a ps laser pulse with 10 μm spot size, the dose obtained with a tantalum target is reduced by less than about 10% to 40% by the Ohmic heating, depending upon the plasma scale length, target thickness, laser parameters, and in particular its spot size. The laser and plasma parameters may be optimized to limit the effect of Ohmic heating, for instance at a small plasma scale length or small laser spot size. Conversely, others regimes not suitable for dose production are identified. For instance, the resistive heating is enhanced in a foam target or at a long plasma scale length and high laser spot size and intensity, as the mean emission angle θ0 of the incident hot electron bunch given by the ponderomotive force is small; thus, the dose produced by a laser interacting in a gas jet may be inhibited under these circumstances. The resistive heating may also be maximized in order to reduce

  9. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser; Alteracoes quimicas e fisicas de tecidos duros irradiados por laser de neodimio chaveado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes

    2003-07-01

    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm{sup 2} to 40 J/cm{sup 2}, with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and

  10. Analysis of the M-shell spectra emitted by a short-pulse laser-created tantalum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet; Jiang; Coinsertion Markte CY; Kieffer; Klapisch; Bar-Shalom; Bauche-Arnoult; Bachelier

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of tantalum emitted by a subpicosecond laser-created plasma, was recorded in the regions of the 3d-5f, 3d-4f, and 3d-4p transitions. The main difference with a nanosecond laser-created plasma spectrum is a broad understructure appearing under the 3d-5f transitions. An interpretation of this feature as a density effect is proposed. The supertransition array model is used for interpreting the spectrum, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at some effective temperature. An interpretation of the 3d-4f spectrum using the more detailed unresolved transition array formalism, which does not assume LTE, is also proposed. Fitted contributions of the different ionic species differ slightly from the LTE-predicted values.

  11. Stable polarization short pulse passively Q-switched monolithic microchip laser with [110] cut Cr4+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Gong, M; Yan, P; Huang, L; Li, D

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic Nd:YAG microchip laser with [110] cut Cr 4+ :YAG is presented. The output beam is linearly polarized with polarization ratio higher than 100:1. The polarization direction is stable, independent of pump power, crystal temperature, LD temperature. In single longitudinal mode operation, stable 259 ps pulses at 2.5 kHz with 82 kW peak power and diffraction limited beam mode are output. With a simple and compact one-pass Nd:YVO 4 amplifier, 144 kW peak power is achieved. Single longitudinal and fundamental transverse mode is kept after passing through the amplifier stage. The microchip laser can be operated in two longitudinal modes with two sets of output pulses by increasing the pump power

  12. Roll-to-roll suitable short-pulsed laser scribing of organic photovoltaics and close-to-process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Thomas; Wollmann, Philipp; Klotzbach, Udo; Fledderus, Henri

    2017-03-01

    The proper long term operation of organic electronic devices like organic photovoltaics OPV depends on their resistance to environmental influences such as permeation of water vapor. Major efforts are spent to encapsulate OPV. State of the art is sandwich-like encapsulation between two ultra-barrier foils. Sandwich encapsulation faces two major disadvantages: high costs ( 1/3 of total costs) and parasitic intrinsic water (sponge effects of the substrate foil). To fight these drawbacks, a promising approach is to use the OPV substrate itself as barrier by integration of an ultra-barrier coating, followed by alternating deposition and structuring of OPV functional layers. In effect, more functionality will be integrated into less material, and production steps are reduced in number. All processing steps must not influence the underneath barrier functionality, while all electrical functionalities must be maintained. As most reasonable structuring tool, short and ultrashort pulsed lasers USP are used. Laser machining applies to three layers: bottom electrode made of transparent conductive materials (P1), organic photovoltaic operative stack (P2) and top electrode (P3). In this paper, the machining of functional 110…250 nm layers of flexible OPV by USP laser systems is presented. Main focus is on structuring without damaging the underneath ultra-barrier layer. The close-to-process machining quality characterization is performed with the analysis tool "hyperspectral imaging" (HSI), which is checked crosswise with the "gold standard" Ca-test. It is shown, that both laser machining and quality controlling, are well suitable for R2R production of OPV.

  13. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  14. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  15. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Hansen, S B; Key, M H; King, J; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H; Patel, P K; Shepard, R; Snavely, R A; Wilks, S C; Glenzer, S H

    2005-03-17

    We have measured high resolution copper K{alpha} spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T{sub e}) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T{sub e} and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z {approx} 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is {Lambda}{sub ii} {approx} 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime.

  16. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Atomic Oxygen Measurements in Short Pulse Discharges by Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Walter; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Mintusov, Eugene; Jiang, Naibo; Adamovich, Igor

    2007-10-01

    Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure time-dependent absolute oxygen atom concentrations in O2/He, O2/N2, and CH4/air plasmas produced with a 20 nanosecond duration, 20 kV pulsed discharge at 10 Hz repetition rate. Xenon calibrated spectra show that a single discharge pulse creates initial oxygen dissociation fraction of ˜0.0005 for air like mixtures at 40-60 torr total pressure. Peak O atom concentration is a factor of approximately two lower in fuel lean (φ=0.5) methane/air mixtures. In helium buffer, the initially formed atomic oxygen decays monotonically, with decay time consistent with formation of ozone. In all nitrogen containing mixtures, atomic oxygen concentrations are found to initially increase, for time scales on the order of 10-100 microseconds, due presumably to additional O2 dissociation caused by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen. Further evidence of the role of metastable N2 is demonstrated from time-dependent N2 2^nd Positive and NO Gamma band emission spectroscopy. Comparisons with modeling predictions show qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.

    2004-01-01

    τ of the electron that per se is an invariant, it is proportional to a certain interval dη. In the chapter 3 it will see that the movement analysis of the charged particles in the electromagnetic field presents serious mathematical difficulties, where the integration of the movement equations results extraordinarily complex and it can only be integrated in most of the cases by numerical means. We will present the procedure used for the deduction of the equations of motion of a charged particle in the interaction of a laser light pulse and a homogeneous magnetic field in arbitrary direction, with the addition of an harmonic term of force. In this chapter it is not sought to make a meticulous discussion of the involved physics and only we will present the algebraic procedure. In the chapter 4 we will present the integration method of the Lorentz force, and we will obtain the exact solution for the case of a pulse of a plane wave elliptically polarized of arbitrary amplitude spreading along an external magnetic field. The solution method will allow to decrease the solutions to the case in which we have an infinite waves train reported by Ondarza (10) and so the corresponding solutions will be obtained reported in the literature by other authors. The main contribution in this part will be the one of obtaining an exact solution for the problem of the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse, modulated by a form of gaussian type, and a charged particle. The above-mentioned approaches in acceptable measure to real situations in well-known experiments. It will be found that when the form of the pulse is introduced to modulate the electromagnetic field, an amplification of the resonance zone in the solutions appears. Such resonance depends of the external magnetic field that fixes by turns the cyclotron frequency, and of the number of optical cycles that compose the encircling one that modulates the pulse form. In the chapter 5 it will see the case of small oscillations free of

  18. Comparison of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser for treatment of cosmetic tattoos containing titanium and iron in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  19. Enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection limit using a low-pressure and short-pulse laser-induced plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yan, Jun Jie; Liu, Ji Ping

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

  20. Short-pulse neodymium:yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG 1064nm) laser irradiation photobiomodulates mitochondria activity and cellular multiplication of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Benedicenti, Alberico; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Selting, Wayne; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Few studies exist to explore the potential photobiomodulation (PBM) effect of neodymium:yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation using a flat-top handpiece delivery system. In this study, we explored the photobiomodulation effect of that laser, on Paramecium primaurelia. The parameters for the different study groups were: 0.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 30J/cm 2 ; 0.75W, 10Hz, 100msp, 45J/cm 2 ; 1.00W, 10Hz, 100msp, 60J/cm 2 ; 1.25W, 10Hz, 100msp, 75J/cm 2 and 1.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 90J/cm 2 . Our results suggest that only the parameter 0.5W, 10Hz, 100msp, 30J/cm 2 positively photobiomodulates the Paramecium cells inducing an increment in oxygen consumption, endogenous ATP synthesis and fission rate rhythm. Applying the laser energy with parameters of 1.25W, 10Hz, 100msp, 75J/cm 2 and 1.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 90J/cm 2 , induce adverse effect on the Paramecium cells, which protect themselves through the increase in Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP70). The data presented in our work support our assumption that, when using appropriate parameters of irradiation, the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser with flat-top handpiece could be a valuable aid for effective clinical application of PBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Multifunctional gold nanorods for selective plasmonic photothermal therapy in pancreatic cancer cells using ultra-short pulse near-infrared laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Tania; Mahajan, Ujjwal; Palankar, Raghavendra; Medvedev, Nikolay; Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus; Mayerle, Julia; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-03-12

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted considerable attention in plasmonic photothermal therapy for cancer treatment by exploiting their selective and localized heating effect due to their unique photophysical properties. Here we describe a strategy to design a novel multifunctional platform based on AuNRs to: (i) specifically target the adenocarcinoma MUC-1 marker through the use of the EPPT-1 peptide, (ii) enhance cellular uptake through a myristoylated polyarginine peptide (MPAP) and (iii) selectively induce cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses. We used a biotin-avidin based approach to conjugate EPPT-1 and MPAP to AuNRs. Dual-peptide (EPPT-1+MPAP) labelled AuNRs showed a significantly higher uptake by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells when compared to their single peptide or avidin conjugated counterparts. In addition, we selectively induced cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses in small target volumes (∼1 μm3), through the creation of plasmonic nanobubbles that lead to the destruction of a local cell environment. Our approach opens new avenues for conjugation of multiple ligands on AuNRs targeting cancer cells and tumors and it is relevant for plasmonic photothermal therapy.

  2. Observation of superradiance in a short-pulse FEL oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Chaix, P.; Piovella, N.; Oepts, D.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Weits, H. H.

    1997-01-01

    Superradiance has been experimentally studied, in a short-pulse free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator. Superradiance is the optimal way of extracting optical radiation from an FEL and can be characterised by the following scale laws: peak optical power P, scales as the square of electron charge, Q,

  3. Forge: a short pulse x-ray diagnostic development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Hurry, T.R.; Denbow, E.R.; Selph, M.M.; Ameduri, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new short pulse x-ray calibration facility has been brought on line at Los Alamos. This facility is being used for the development, testing and calibration of fast x-ray diagnostic systems. The x-ray source consists of a moderate size, sub-nanosecond laser focused at high intensity on an appropriate target material to generate short pulses of x-ray emission from the resulting plasma. Dynamic performance parameters of fast x-ray diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray streak cameras, can be conveniently measured using this facility

  4. Mono-energetic ion beam acceleration in solitary waves during relativistic transparency using high-contrast circularly polarized short-pulse laser and nanoscale targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, quasi-monoenergetic ion beams have been obtained from the interaction of an ultraintense, circularly polarized laser with a diamond-like carbon target of nm-scale thickness under conditions of ultrahigh laser pulse contrast. Kinetic simulations of this experiment under realistic laser and plasma conditions show that relativistic transparency occurs before significant radiation pressure acceleration and that the main ion acceleration occurs after the onset of relativistic transparency. Associated with this transition are a period of intense ion acceleration and the generation of a new class of ion solitons that naturally give rise to quasi-monoenergetic ion beams. An analytic theory has been derived for the properties of these solitons that reproduces the behavior observed in kinetic simulations and the experiments.

  5. Above scaling short-pulse ion acceleration from flat foil and ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets at the Trident laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kirk; Hegelich, B. Manuel; Cort Gautier, D.; Johnson, J. Randy; Kline, John L.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Fernández, Juan C.; Gaillard, Sandrine; Rassuchine, Jennifer; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Malekos, Steve; Korgan, Grant

    2006-10-01

    Ion-driven Fast Ignition (IFI) has certain advantages over electron-driven FI due to a possible large reduction in the amount of energy required. Recent experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident facility have yielded ion energies and efficiencies many times in excess of recent published scaling laws, leading to even more potential advantages of IFI. Proton energies in excess of 35 MeV have been observed from targets produced by the University of Nevada, Reno - dubbed ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets - at intensities of only 1x10^19 W/cm^2 with 20 joules in 600 fs. Energies in excess of 24 MeV were observed from simple flat foil targets as well. The observed energies, above any published scaling laws, are attributed to target production, preparation, and shot to shot monitoring of many laser parameters, especially the laser ASE prepulse level and laser pulse duration. The laser parameters are monitored in real-time to keep the laser in optimal condition throughout the run providing high quality, reproducible shots.

  6. Comparisons of angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements to two-dimensional multi-stage simulations of short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. D.; Kemp, A. J.; Pérez, F.; Link, A.; Key, M. H.; McLean, H.; Ping, Y.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Sorokovikova, A.; Westover, B. [University of California, San Diego (United States); Morace, A. [University of Milan (Italy); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics (United States); Streeter, M. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    A 2-D multi-stage simulation model incorporating realistic laser conditions and a fully resolved electron distribution handoff has been developed and compared to angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements from high-Z planar targets. For near-normal incidence and 0.5-1 × 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict the existence of a high energy electron component consistently directed away from the laser axis, in contrast with previous expectations for oblique irradiation. Measurements of the angular distribution are consistent with a high energy component when directed along the PIC predicted direction, as opposed to between the target normal and laser axis as previously measured.

  7. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, μATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos

    2012-01-01

    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses (λ = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 μJ/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform (μ-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values of

  8. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina

    Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...

  9. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  10. Bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to enamel and dentin irradiated with a novel CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser for dental restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Bartolome, N; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO 2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used. In addition, Scotchbond Universal [ScotchbondSE] (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and Peak SE self-etching primer with Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakSE] (Ultradent Products) were tested. Clearfil APX (Kuraray, New York, NY) was bonded to the samples. After 24 h, a single plane shear bond test was performed. Using the caries preventive setting on enamel resulted in increased shear bond strength for all bonding agents except for self-etch PeakSE. The highest overall bond strength was seen with PeakTE (41.29 ± 6.04 MPa). Etch-and-rinse systems achieved higher bond strength values to ablated enamel than the self-etch systems did. PeakTE showed the highest shear bond strength with 35.22 ± 4.40 MPa. OptiBondTE reached 93.8% of its control value. The self-etch system PeakSE presented significantly lower bond strength. The shear bond strength to dentin ranged between 19.15 ± 3.49 MPa for OptiBondTE and 43.94 ± 6.47 MPa for PeakSE. Etch-and-rinse systems had consistently higher bond strength to CO 2 9.3 µm laser-ablated enamel. Using the maximum recommended energy for dentin ablation, the self-etch system PeakSE reached the highest bond strength (43.9 ± 6.5 MPa).

  11. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  12. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  13. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  14. High field laser heated solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A 10 kJ pulsed CO 2 laser and 3.8 cm bore, 15 T, 8 μs rise time, 1-m long fast solenoid facility has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of using long wavelength lasers to heat magnetically confined plasmas. The most critical physics requirement is the necessity of creating and maintaining an on-axis electron density minimum to trap the axially directed laser beam. Satisfaction of this requirement has been demonstrated by heating 1.5 Torr deuterium fill plasmas in 2.7 cm bore plasma tubes to line energies of approximately 1 kJ/m. (Auth.)

  15. Laser-heated solenoid fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlases, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since the suggestion by Dawson, Hertzberg, and Kidder that high-energy CO 2 lasers could be used to heat magnetically confined plasma columns to thermonuclear temperatures, a great deal of theoretical and experimental work has been performed. In this paper we first review the experiments on the basic laser-plasma interaction phenomena, in which lasers with energies up to 1 kJ have been used to produce plasmas at n/sub e/ greater than 10 18 and T/sub e/ greater than 200 eV. The second part reviews fusion reactor studies based on the laser solenoid

  16. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  17. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E. [ITESST, 52650 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  18. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E

    2004-07-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  19. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  20. Lax representations for matrix short pulse equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Lax representation for different matrix generalizations of Short Pulse Equations (SPEs) is considered. The four-dimensional Lax representations of four-component Matsuno, Feng, and Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are obtained. The four-component Feng system is defined by generalization of the two-dimensional Lax representation to the four-component case. This system reduces to the original Feng equation, to the two-component Matsuno equation, or to the Yao-Zang equation. The three-component version of the Feng equation is presented. The four-component version of the Matsuno equation with its Lax representation is given. This equation reduces the new two-component Feng system. The two-component Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are generalized to the four-parameter family of the four-component SPE. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of this generalization, for special values of parameters, is defined. This four-component SPE in special cases reduces to the new two-component SPE.

  1. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma; Movimiento relativista de particulas cargadas en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa con plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F

    2004-07-01

    interval d{tau} of the electron that per se is an invariant, it is proportional to a certain interval d{eta}. In the chapter 3 it will see that the movement analysis of the charged particles in the electromagnetic field presents serious mathematical difficulties, where the integration of the movement equations results extraordinarily complex and it can only be integrated in most of the cases by numerical means. We will present the procedure used for the deduction of the equations of motion of a charged particle in the interaction of a laser light pulse and a homogeneous magnetic field in arbitrary direction, with the addition of an harmonic term of force. In this chapter it is not sought to make a meticulous discussion of the involved physics and only we will present the algebraic procedure. In the chapter 4 we will present the integration method of the Lorentz force, and we will obtain the exact solution for the case of a pulse of a plane wave elliptically polarized of arbitrary amplitude spreading along an external magnetic field. The solution method will allow to decrease the solutions to the case in which we have an infinite waves train reported by Ondarza (10) and so the corresponding solutions will be obtained reported in the literature by other authors. The main contribution in this part will be the one of obtaining an exact solution for the problem of the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse, modulated by a form of gaussian type, and a charged particle. The above-mentioned approaches in acceptable measure to real situations in well-known experiments. It will be found that when the form of the pulse is introduced to modulate the electromagnetic field, an amplification of the resonance zone in the solutions appears. Such resonance depends of the external magnetic field that fixes by turns the cyclotron frequency, and of the number of optical cycles that compose the encircling one that modulates the pulse form. In the chapter 5 it will see the case of small

  2. VCSELs in short-pulse operation for time-of-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Gudde, Ralph; Herper, Markus; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Smeets, Michael; Weigl, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    VCSEL arrays are the ideal light source for 3D imaging applications. The narrow emission spectrum and the ability for short pulses make them superior to LEDs. Combined with fast photodiodes or special camera chips spatial information can be obtained which is needed in diverse applications like camera autofocus, indoor navigation, 3D-object recognition, augmented reality or autonomously driving vehicles. Pulse operation at the ns scale and at low duty cycle can work with significantly higher current than traditionally used for VCSELs in continuous wave operation. With reduced thermal limitations at low average heat dissipation very high currents become feasible and tens of Watts output power have been realized with small VCSEL chips. The optical emission pattern of VCSELs can be tailored to the desired field of view using beam shaping elements. Such optical elements also enable laser safe class 1 products. A detailed analysis of the complete system and the operation mode is required to calculate the maximum permitted power for a safe system. The good VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for integrated solutions open a huge potential for VCSELs in new mass applications in the consumer and automotive markets.

  3. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, P.A.; Sopchyshyn, F.C.; Selkirk, E.B.; Green, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  4. Laser application of heat pipe technology in energy related programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The design and operating parameters for a heat pipe laser utilizing metal vapors are proposed. The laser would be applied to laser induced fusion, laser induced chemistry, laser isotope separation, and power transport using optical beams. (U.S.)

  5. Laser Drilling Development Trial Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1538-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hebbar, R. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This project performed various laser drilling tests to demonstrate femtosecond laser drilling of fuel injector nozzles with minimal recast, minimal heat affected zone and no collateral damage. LLNL had extensive experience in ultra short-pulse laser systems and developed specialized hardware for these applications.

  6. Characteristics of short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guicheng; Fang Zhigao; Hong Jun

    1996-01-01

    An equivalent circuit is used to obtain the output waveform of a short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC, and the amplitude of the output pulse is studied as a function of number of switching transistors for some kinds of transistor. Two pulsers were fabricated to fulfill the requirements of the 200 MeV LINAC at NSRL

  7. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...... the laser beam as close as possible. After welding, the samples were quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and tested for hardness. The metallurgical phases are analysed and briefly described. A comparison between purely laser welded samples and induction heat-treated laser welded samples is made......In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...

  8. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  9. Extremely short pulses via stark modulation of the atomic transition frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeonychev, Y V; Polovinkin, V A; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2010-10-29

    We propose a universal method to produce extremely short pulses of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges. The essence of the method is a resonant interaction of radiation with atoms under the conditions of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by a far-off-resonant control laser field via dynamic Stark shift of the atomic levels and proper adjustment of the control field intensity and frequency, as well as the optical depth of the medium. The potential of the method is illustrated by an example in a hydrogenlike atomic system.

  10. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  11. Molecular alignment and orientation in short pulse laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1999-01-01

    An analytical expression for the propagator associated with impulsive excitation is derived based on the Magnus expansion. We apply this expression to the excitation of angular motion out of a rotational eigenstate for a linear polar molecule in a plane polarized electromagnetic field. We show...

  12. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  13. Laser-heating of hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, I.B.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kocsis, G.

    1990-10-01

    The possibility of creating a fully ionized hydrogen plasma to investigate the capture of slow antiprotons is discussed. Laser heating of the initially discharge-created arc or Z-pinch plasma is proposed. Within the framework of a simple 1-dimensional model based on the energy balance equation alone it is shown that plasma equilibrium can be sustained for 10 μs. A simple pulsed CO 2 laser with this pulse duration and an energy of about 10-30 J is sufficient for heating. (author) 16 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Heat transfer between adsorbate and laser-heated hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueba, H; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    Strong short laser pulses can give rise to a strong increase in the electronic temperature at metal surfaces. Energy transfer from the hot electrons to adsorbed molecules may result in adsorbate reactions, e.g. desorption or diffusion. We point out the limitations of an often used equation to describe the heat transfer process in terms of a friction coupling. We propose a simple theory for the energy transfer between the adsorbate and hot electrons using a newly introduced heat transfer coefficient, which depends on the adsorbate temperature. We calculate the transient adsorbate temperature and the reaction yield for a Morse potential as a function of the laser fluency. The results are compared to those obtained using a conventional heat transfer equation with temperature-independent friction. It is found that our equation of energy (heat) transfer gives a significantly lower adsorbate peak temperature, which results in a large modification of the reaction yield. We also consider the heat transfer between different vibrational modes excited by hot electrons. This mode coupling provides indirect heating of the vibrational temperature in addition to the direct heating by hot electrons. The formula of heat transfer through linear mode-mode coupling of two harmonic oscillators is applied to the recent time-resolved study of carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen hopping on an ultrafast laser-heated Pt(111) surface. It is found that the maximum temperature of the frustrated translation mode can reach high temperatures for hopping, even when direct friction coupling to the hot electrons is not strong enough

  15. Anisotropic instability in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangam, A.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the Weibel instability induced by the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of a laser light in an underdense plasma is revisited. It is shown that previous analyses have strongly overestimated the effect by neglecting the stabilizing term related to the interaction of the generated quasistatic magnetic field with the laser-heated electrons. The revised model leads to a reduction of the growth rate by more than a factor of 10, to strong reduction of the domain of unstable modes and to inversion of the direction of the unstable wave vectors in the long wavelength limit. The consequences of this instability on the laser plasma interaction are also discussed

  16. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  17. Experimental investigation of plasma dynamics in dc and short-pulse magnetron discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hun; In, Jung-Hwan; Chang, Hong-Young

    2006-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and of plasma parameters such as the electron density, the electron temperature and the plasma and floating potentials has been investigated using spatially and temporally resolved single Langmuir probe measurements in dc and mid-frequency, short-pulse magnetron discharges with a repetition frequency of 10 kHz and a duty cycle of 10%. In the pulsed discharge of the short duty cycle, a peak electron temperature higher than 10 eV was observed near the cathode fall region during the early phase of the pulse-on, which is about three times higher than the steady-state value of the electron temperature in the dc discharge. The temporal evolution of the measured EEDFs showed the initial efficient electron heating during the early phase of the pulse-on and the subsequent relaxation of electron energy by the inelastic collisions and the diffusive loss. The high-energy electrons generated during the pulse-on phase diffused the downstream region toward the grounded substrate, resulting in a bi-Maxwellian EEDF consisting of the background low-energy electrons and the high-energy electrons. The results of the spatially and temporally resolved probe measurements will be presented and the enhanced efficiency of the electron heating in the short-pulse discharge will be explained on the basis of the global model of a pulsed discharge

  18. GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Fawley, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup

  19. Thermoluminescence fast neutron dosimetry by laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, V.K.; Brown, M.D.; Braeunlich, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rates in excess of 10 4 K.sec -1 have been achieved for thin layers of TL dosemeters by laser heating. The high heating rate improves the signal to noise ratio up to a factor of 10 3 . Thus sensitive thin film fast neutron dosemeters with negligible self-shielding have become a practical reality. Thin samples of CaSO 4 :Dy have been investigated for their response to fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source and a 14.6 MeV neutron generator by using a hydrogenous radiator. A 15 watt CO 2 laser was focussed on the thin TLD layer to a spot size of less than 1 mm to heat it. An exposure of a few tens of milliseconds was sufficient to obtain a TLD curve, which was displayed and processed by a wave form digitiser. The laser spot could be scanned over the TLD sample by a x-y positioner and a large number of observations were obtained on each sample. Preliminary results show that it is possible to obtain a figure of merit of approx. 5% in a mixed n, γ field. A practical design for a fast neutron dosemeter is proposed. (author)

  20. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  1. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:Yag laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 ms is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  2. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-10-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  3. Laser Pulse Heating of Spherical Metal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of spherical metal particles with the sizes ranging from nanometers to millimeters. We employ the exact Mie solution of the diffraction problem and solve the heat-transfer equation to determine the maximum temperature rise at the particle surface as a function of optical and thermometric parameters of the problem. Primary attention is paid to the case when the thermal diffusivity of the particle is much larger than that of the environment, as it is in the case of metal particles in fluids. We show that, in this case, for any given duration of the laser pulse, the maximum temperature rise as a function of the particle size reaches a maximum at a certain finite size of the particle. We suggest simple approximate analytical expressions for this dependence, which cover the entire parameter range of the problem and agree well with direct numerical simulations.

  4. Magnetic fields in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiranoff, F.; Brackbill, J.; Colombant, D.; Grandjouan, N.

    1984-01-01

    With a fixed-ion code for the study of self-generated magentic fields in laser heated plasmas, the inhibition of thermal transport and the effect of the Nernst term are modeled for a KrF laser. For various values of the flux limiter, the response of a foil to a focused laser is calculated without a magnetic field and compared with the response calculated with a magnetic field. The results are: The Nernst term convects the magnetic field to densities above critical as found by Nishiguchi et al. (1984), but the field does not strongly inhibit transport into the foil. The field is also transported to sub-critical densities, where it inhibits thermal diffusion and enhance lateral transport by convection

  5. Hybrid Heat Capacity - Moving Slab Laser Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stappaerts, E A

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid configuration of a heat capacity laser (HCL) and a moving slab laser (MSL) has been studied. Multiple volumes of solid-state laser material are sequentially diode-pumped and their energy extracted. When a volume reaches a maximum temperature after a ''sub-magazine depth'', it is moved out of the pumping region into a cooling region, and a new volume is introduced. The total magazine depth equals the submagazine depth times the number of volumes. The design parameters are chosen to provide high duty factor operation, resulting in effective use of the diode arrays. The concept significantly reduces diode array cost over conventional heat capacity lasers, and it is considered enabling for many potential applications. A conceptual design study of the hybrid configuration has been carried out. Three concepts were evaluated using CAD tools. The concepts are described and their relative merits discussed. Because of reduced disk size and diode cost, the hybrid concept may allow scaling to average powers on the order of 0.5 MW/module

  6. Bunching phase evolution of short-pulse FEL oscillator system

    CERN Document Server

    Song, S B; Choi, D I

    2000-01-01

    We studied numerically the short-pulse FEL oscillator system using properly defined bunching phase theta sub B and PSI sub B. In stable operation, we have found that the optical field 'locks' the phase to pi/2 at the trailing edge, which gives the maximum gain. Moreover, electrons can be detrapped from ponderomotive bucket due to the spatial variation of the optical field, and this detrapping effect is a major cause of the limit cycle oscillation of the system. The 'bump' of the output power during the amplification usually exists at the near-perfect cavity synchronism regime, which can be explained as the change of the matching condition between electron micropulse and optical pulse.

  7. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  8. Delayed neutron spectra from short pulse fission of uranium-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, H.F.; Goulding, C.A.; Moss, C.E.; Pederson, R.A.; Robba, A.A.; Wimett, T.F.; Reeder, P.; Warner, R.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed neutron spectra from individual short pulse (∼50 μs) fission of small 235 U samples (50 mg) were measured using a small (5 cm OD x 5 cm length) NE 213 neutron spectrometer. The irradiating fast neutron flux (∼10 13 neutrons/cm 2 ) for these measurements was provided by the Godiva fast burst reactor at the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF). A high speed pneumatic transfer system was used to transfer the 50 mg 235 U samples from the irradiation position near the Godiva assembly to a remote shielded counting room containing the NE 213 spectrometer and associated electronics. Data were acquired in sixty-four 0.5 s time bins and over an energy range 1 to 7 MeV. Comparisons between these measurements and a detailed model calculation performed at Los Alamos is presented

  9. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  10. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-01-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge

  11. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808nm wavelength and an output power up to 50W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  12. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  13. Lubricant reflow after laser heating in heat assisted magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoyu; Mendez, Alejandro Rodriguez; Xiong, Shaomin; Bogy, David B.

    2015-05-01

    In heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) technology for hard disk drives, the media will be heated to about 500 °C during the writing process in order to reduce its magnetic coercivity and thus allow data writing with the magnetic head transducers. The traditional lubricants such as Z-dol and Z-tetraol may not be able to perform in such harsh heating conditions due to evaporation, decomposition and thermal depletion. However, some of the lubricant depletion can be recovered due to reflow after a period of time, which can help to reduce the chance of head disk interface failure. In this study, experiments of lubricant thermal depletion and reflow were performed using a HAMR test stage for a Z-tetraol type lubricant. Various lubricant depletion profiles were generated using different laser heating conditions. The lubricant reflow process after thermal depletion was monitored by use of an optical surface analyzer. In addition, a continuum based lubrication model was developed to simulate the lubricant reflow process. Reasonably good agreement between simulations and experiments was achieved.

  14. Laser heating of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental facility is a 21-cm-long solenoid with a 5.5-cm bore. The 4-cm ID quartz tube is filled with slowly flowing H 2 to 0.5-3.0 torr. Fields up to 6.5 T in 3.7 μsec are produced, with reverse-bias fields up -1.9 T. Preionization is by 40kA axial discharge 4.5 μsec before field-reversal is begun. The CO 2 laser used produces 300 to 400 J in 2 μsec, in an annular beam that can be defocused for preheating the outer edges of the plasma, or focused tightly for central-column heating and beam propagation during formation. The focusing system includes a return mirror for multiple passing of the laser energy. Diagnostics include compensated, diamagnetic flux loops, internal field probes, cross-tube and axial interferometers, fast photography, and spectroscopy

  15. Improving the efficiency of a fluorescent Xe dielectric barrier light source using short pulse excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G; Richter, P; Maros, I; Balazs, L

    2008-01-01

    Operation of a Xe dielectric barrier discharge lamp producing 147-172 nm VUV radiation is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Xe gas pressure varies between 100 and 300 mbar, and the glass body of the lamp is coated with LAP (green) phosphor to convert radiation into the visible part of the spectrum. Simulation results predict improved discharge efficiencies reaching 67% when excited by a fast rise-time, short pulse (∼200 ns) driving waveform. In this case most power deposited into the plasma efficiently produces Xe 2 * excimers, while other energy dissipation processes (ion heating, e-Xe elastic collision) are kept at a low rate. Simulation and experimental results are compared in terms of discharge efficacy and show good agreement. A lamp efficacy value as high as 80 lm W -1 is demonstrated experimentally

  16. New configurations for short-pulses high power solid-state lasers: conception and realization of highly doped waveguide amplifiers/lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy and demonstration of Y2SiO5: Yb and Lu2SiO5: Yb femtosecond lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, F.

    2006-04-01

    Yb-doped yttrium and lutetium ortho-silicates, Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb and Lu 2 SiO 5 :Yb respectively, exhibit spectroscopic properties favorable to an efficient laser operation in both high power cw and femtosecond regime. Their first diode-pumped femtosecond operation demonstration lead to exceptional performances in terms of output power and efficiency. In order to realize compact and efficient solid-state laser devices using those materials, we chose a configuration with an Yb-doped medium planar waveguide geometry, grown by liquid phase epitaxy, face-pumped by a single laser diode bar. The growth of highly doped Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb layers, within a large range of compositions and thicknesses, was demonstrated. The refractive index increase due to the substitution of the various dopants is analyzed. The layers spectroscopic properties are similar to the bulk ones, with an noticeably higher crystalline quality. The Yb ion lifetime evolution with respect to its doping shows up a particularly low decrease, proof of a low concentration of extrinsic quenching centers. The covered YSO:24%Yb waveguides exhibit lower than 0.3 dB/cm propagation losses, and provided up to 2.9 dB/cm net amplification at 1082 nm with a single mode output. The realization of the first diode-pumped monolithic cw waveguide lasers was also demonstrated. For a 4% output coupler, they provided up to 340 mW at 1082 nm with a 14% slope efficiency. (author)

  17. Radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; Darrow, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nearly 10 years of Nova experiments and analysis have lead to a relatively detailed quantitative and qualitative understanding of radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums. Our most successful quantitative modelling tool is 2D Lasnex numerical simulations. Analysis of the simulations provides us with insight into the details of the hohlraum drive. In particular we find hohlraum radiation conversion efficiency becomes quite high with longer pulses as the accumulated, high Z blow-off plasma begins to radiate. Extensive Nova experiments corroborate our quantitative and qualitative understanding

  18. Electron distribution function in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourkal, E.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.; Sydora, R.; Kirkby, C.; Capjack, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Baldis, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new electron distribution function has been found in laser heated homogeneous plasmas by an analytical solution to the kinetic equation and by particle simulations. The basic kinetic model describes inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and electron--electron collisions. The non-Maxwellian distribution function is comprised of a super-Gaussian bulk of slow electrons and a Maxwellian tail of energetic particles. The tails are heated due to electron--electron collisions and energy redistribution between superthermal particles and light absorbing slow electrons from the bulk of the distribution function. A practical fit is proposed to the new electron distribution function. Changes to the linear Landau damping of electron plasma waves are discussed. The first evidence for the existence of non-Maxwellian distribution functions has been found in the interpretation, which includes the new distribution function, of the Thomson scattering spectra in gold plasmas [Glenzer , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999)

  19. Laser heated solenoid proof-of-concept experiment (PCX) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, T.E.; Zumdieck, J.F.; Hoffman, A.L.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Crawford, E.A.; Parry, B.

    1977-01-01

    The total facility, including laser, magnet, focusing optics, instrumentation and control, its design problems, and its current performance are discussed. Preliminary results from plasma heating experiments are discussed

  20. Complementarity of long pulse and short pulse spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezei, F [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    The complementarity of short pulse spallation sources (SPSS) and steady state (CW) reactors is a widely accepted concept. SPSS and long pulse spallation sources (LPSS) are complementary in two ways: (a) in their performance in neutron scattering experiments LPSS closely emulate CW reactors. In this respect two facets of the time-of-flight (TOF) monochromator method adequate for LPSS will be discussed: the superiority of the TOF approach to the crystal monochromator method in high resolution powder diffraction, and the novel technique of repetition rate multiplication in TOF spectroscopy, (b) LPSS combined with adequate chopper systems can also emulate SPSS in a number of applications. It will be shown that the LPSS method of producing short neutron pulses is more efficient for cold and thermal neutrons (below an energy of about 100 MeV), while SPSS is the more favourable approach for hot, epithermal neutrons, i.e. in the slowing down regime in contrast to the moderated regime. These two aspects of complementarity of LPSS and SPSS lead to the conclusions that for about 75% of the spectrum of neutron scattering experiments as known of today the LPSS approach is the most advantageous one with a feasible neutron intensity exceeding that available at ILL by a factor of about 30, while for the remaining 25% of applications the SPSS technique is superior with a well-known potential of a similar gain over present day performances. (author) 7 figs., 6 refs.

  1. Complementarity of long pulse and short pulse spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1995-01-01

    The complementarity of short pulse spallation sources (SPSS) and steady state (CW) reactors is a widely accepted concept. SPSS and long pulse spallation sources (LPSS) are complementary in two ways: a) in their performance in neutron scattering experiments LPSS closely emulate CW reactors. In this respect two facets of the time-of-flight (TOF) monochromator method adequate for LPSS will be discussed: the superiority of the TOF approach to the crystal monochromator method in high resolution powder diffraction, and the novel technique of repetition rate multiplication in TOF spectroscopy, b) LPSS combined with adequate chopper systems can also emulate SPSS in a number of applications. It will be shown that the LPSS method of producing short neutron pulses is more efficient for cold and thermal neutrons (below an energy of about 100 MeV), while SPSS is the more favourable approach for hot, epithermal neutrons, i.e. in the slowing down regime in contrast to the moderated regime. These two aspects of complementarity of LPSS and SPSS lead to the conclusions that for about 75% of the spectrum of neutron scattering experiments as known of today the LPSS approach is the most advantageous one with a feasible neutron intensity exceeding that available at ILL by a factor of about 30, while for the remaining 25% of applications the SPSS technique is superior with a well-known potential of a similar gain over present day performances. (author) 7 figs., 6 refs

  2. Short pulse mid-infrared amplifier for high average power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  3. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  4. Advances in High Power Calorimetric Matched Loads for Short Pulses and CW Gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, W.M.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gandini, F.; Granucci, G.; Mellera, V.; Muzzini, V.; Nardone, A.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.

    2006-01-01

    The development of high power gyrotrons for plasma physics research needs proper matched and calorimetric loads able to absorb and measure the power, which nowadays is foreseen to be as high as 2 MW during CW operations. To this end IFP/CNR has developed a family of matched loads useful in the mm-wave frequency band for applications ranging from a few ms to CW in pulse length. The different loads in the family, made of an integrating sphere with a partially reflecting coating on the inner wall, are characterized by having the same absorbing geometry for the incoming beam and a different heat removal system for the specific application. Some important advances have been recently achieved from the point of view of the uniformity of power distribution on the absorbing wall and of the load construction. With high precision achieved in the coating thickness a better control of the heating power distribution is possible by proper shaping of the local reflectivity, in addition to the shaping of the mirror dispersing the input beam. A more sophisticated model describing the power distribution has been developed, taking into account a variable thickness of the absorbing coating, the proper shape of the spreading mirror, the frequency of the incoming radiation and the shape of the input beam. Lower coating thickness is shown to be preferable, at equal local reflectivity, from the point of view of a lower peak temperature and thermal stress. The paper describes a load with variable coating thickness along the meridian of the sphere, showing a uniform power deposition on the inner walls. The cooling pipe is completely electroformed on the spherical copper shell, ensuring the maintenance of the correct curvature of the inner surface and a fast heat conduction from the absorbing coating to the water through the thin copper body. For CW use all heated parts of the load must be cooled and this is achieved by 16 electroformed spiral channels. Both short pulse loads (0.1-1 s) and

  5. Chirped or time modulated excitation compared to short pulses for photoacoustic imaging in acoustic attenuating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, P.; Motz, C.; Lang, O.; Berer, T.; Huemer, M.

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, optically generated acoustic waves transport the information about embedded structures to the sample surface. Usually, short laser pulses are used for the acoustic excitation. Acoustic attenuation increases for higher frequencies, which reduces the bandwidth and limits the spatial resolution. One could think of more efficient waveforms than single short pulses, such as pseudo noise codes, chirped, or harmonic excitation, which could enable a higher information-transfer from the samples interior to its surface by acoustic waves. We used a linear state space model to discretize the wave equation, such as the Stoke's equation, but this method could be used for any other linear wave equation. Linear estimators and a non-linear function inversion were applied to the measured surface data, for onedimensional image reconstruction. The proposed estimation method allows optimizing the temporal modulation of the excitation laser such that the accuracy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is maximized. We have restricted ourselves to one-dimensional models, as for higher dimensions the one-dimensional reconstruction, which corresponds to the acoustic wave without attenuation, can be used as input for any ultrasound imaging method, such as back-projection or time-reversal method.

  6. Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, Samuel Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)

  7. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  8. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, {mu}ATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy; Ablacao de pele queimada com laser de pulsos ultra-curtos para promocao da cicatrizacao: avaliacao por tomografia por coerencia optica, histologia, {mu}ATR-FTIR e microscopia nao-linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos

    2012-07-01

    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses ({lambda} = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 {mu}J/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform ({mu}-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values

  9. Relativistic acceleration and retardation effects on photoemission of intense electron short pulses, in RF-FEL photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolique, J.M.; Coacolo, M.

    1991-01-01

    In high-power free electron lasers, self-field effects in the electron beam are often the most important phenomenon on which the beam quality depends. These effects are generally conceived as space-charge effects, and described by a Poisson equation in a beam frame. In RF-FEL photoinjectors, the electrons of the intense short pulse produced by laser irradiation are submitted, just after their photoemission, to such a strong acceleration that relativistic acceleration and retardation effects are discussed, from the rigorous calculation of the Lienard-Wiechert velocity- and acceleration electric and magnetic fields, as a function of RF-electric field and beam parameters. The beam pulse is assumed to be axisymmetric, with a constant photoemitted current density. Consequences for the maximum current density that can be extracted are considered (the 'self-field limit,' a name more appropriate than 'space-charge limit' for the present conditions where electro-dynamic phenomena play an important role)

  10. Development of laser heated high current DC electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Bhattacharjee, Dhruva; Kandaswamy, E.; Ghodke, S.R.; Tiwari, Rajnish; Bakhtsingh, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a Laser heated cathode for Electron Accelerator. The electron gun is meant for Megawatt-class DC Accelerator for Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment applications. Conventionally, LaB 6 cathode is indirectly heated by tungsten filaments whereas in the newly proposed gun, Laser is utilized for heating. A Nd:YAG Laser is used to heat the LaB 6 cathode to emission temperatures. The characterization of cathode heating at various Laser powers has been carried out. In initial trials, it has been observed that with 125 W of Laser power, the LaB 6 pellet was heated to 1315 ° C. Based on these experimental results, an electron gun rated for 30 kV, 350 mA CW has been designed. The optimization of gun electrode geometry has been done using CST Particle Studio in order to tune the various electron gun parameters. The beam diameter obtained in simulation is 8 mm at 100 mm from the LaB 6 cathode. The perveance obtained is 7.1 x 10 -8 A/V 3/2 . The Laser heated cathode has the advantages of eliminating the magnetic field effects of filament on the electron beam, electrical isolation needed for gun filament power supplies and better electron beam emittances. (author)

  11. A Test Bed for Short Pulse OA Detection of Optical Directors in Amphibious Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ertem, M

    1999-01-01

    ...) system to detect optical directors of potential threats in amphibious operations. The use of a short pulse duration allows discrimination of retroreflections from natural sources such as rock formations and vegetation...

  12. Modulational instability of short pulses in long optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed......The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed...

  13. Nuclear fuel safety studies by laser pulse heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, C.S.; Kumar, Santosh; Dey, G.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun; Jathar, V.P.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of nuclear fuels under transient heating conditions is vital to nuclear safety. A laser pulse based heating system to simulate the transient heating conditions experienced by the fuel during reactor accidents like LOCA and RIA is under development at BARC, Mumbai. Some of the concepts used in this system are under testing in pilot studies. This paper describes the results of some pilot studies carried out on unirradiated UO 2 specimens by laser pulse heating, followed by metallography and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

  14. Computational modeling of ultra-short-pulse ablation of enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A. [and others

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 sec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  15. Convection flows driven by laser heating of a liquid layer

    OpenAIRE

    Rivière , David; Selva , Bertrand; Chraibi , Hamza; Delabre , Ulysse; Delville , Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; When a fluid is heated by the absorption of a continuous laser wave, the fluid density decreases in the heated area. This induces a pressure gradient that generates internal motion of the fluid. Due to mass conservation, convection eddies emerge in the sample. To investigate these laser-driven bulk flows at the microscopic scale, we built a setup to perform temperature measurements with a fluorescent-sensitive dye on the one hand, and measured the flow pattern at diffe...

  16. Enthalpy model for heating, melting, and vaporization in laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilios Alexiades; David Autrique

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation is used in a growing number of applications in various areas including medicine, archaeology, chemistry, environmental and materials sciences. In this work the heat transfer and phase change phenomena during nanosecond laser ablation of a copper (Cu) target in a helium (He) background gas at atmospheric pressure are presented. An enthalpy model is outlined, which accounts for heating, melting, and vaporization of the target. As far as we know, this is the first model th...

  17. Manipulation of heat-diffusion channel in laser thermal lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun

    2014-12-29

    Laser thermal lithography is a good alternative method for forming small pattern feature size by taking advantage of the structural-change threshold effect of thermal lithography materials. In this work, the heat-diffusion channels of laser thermal lithography are first analyzed, and then we propose to manipulate the heat-diffusion channels by inserting thermal conduction layers in between channels. Heat-flow direction can be changed from the in-plane to the out-of-plane of the thermal lithography layer, which causes the size of the structural-change threshold region to become much smaller than the focused laser spot itself; thus, nanoscale marks can be obtained. Samples designated as "glass substrate/thermal conduction layer/thermal lithography layer (100 nm)/thermal conduction layer" are designed and prepared. Chalcogenide phase-change materials are used as thermal lithography layer, and Si is used as thermal conduction layer to manipulate heat-diffusion channels. Laser thermal lithography experiments are conducted on a home-made high-speed rotation direct laser writing setup with 488 nm laser wavelength and 0.90 numerical aperture of converging lens. The writing marks with 50-60 nm size are successfully obtained. The mark size is only about 1/13 of the focused laser spot, which is far smaller than that of the light diffraction limit spot of the direct laser writing setup. This work is useful for nanoscale fabrication and lithography by exploiting the far-field focusing light system.

  18. Desensitization of stainless steels by laser surface heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    1987-11-01

    Laser heating was applied for the desensitization heat-treatment of the surface layer in the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel. The degree of sensitization was examined by EPR technique and the 10 % oxalic acid electrolytic etch test. The CO/sub 2/ laser with maximum power of 1.5 kW was used for heat-treatment. Time-Temperature-Desensitization diagram (TTDS diagram) for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were developed by calculation assuming the chromium diffusion control for desensitization which might occur when the chromium depleted zone was healed up due to dissolution of chromium carbide and chromium diffusion from the matrix being heated at the solution annealing temperatures. TTDS diagrams calculated agree fairly well with ones determined by corrosion tests. Laser irradiation conditions (e.g., Laser power, beam diameter and traveling velocity) required for desensitization of sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were calculated using additivity rule from the TTDS diagram calculated and theoretical thermal curve of laser heating derived from the heat conduction theory. After laser beam irradiated under an optimum condition predicted by calculation, the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel restored complete resistance to intergranular corrosion.

  19. Virtual cathode driven by short pulse electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spassovsky, I P; Cho, Sung Oh; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Jeong, Young Uk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Laboratory for Quantum Optics; Messina, G [ENEA, Roma-Frascati (Italy). INN-FIS-LAC; Yovchev, I G; Nikolov, N A [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Faculty of Physics

    1997-12-31

    An electron gun has been developed by ENEA (Italy) to power a free-electron laser operating in the far infrared region. The device can also be used to drive various microwave sources. Numerical simulations were performed for the planned foil-diode vircator experiment to be carried out by ENEA. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Virtual cathode driven by short pulse electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spassovsky, I.P.; Cho, Sung Oh; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Jeong, Young Uk; Messina, G.; Yovchev, I.G.; Nikolov, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    An electron gun has been developed by ENEA (Italy) to power a free-electron laser operating in the far infrared region. The device can also be used to drive various microwave sources. Numerical simulations were performed for the planned foil-diode vircator experiment to be carried out by ENEA. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs

  1. Analysis of laser-induced heating in optical neuronal guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Christian L.; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to control the growth direction of neuronal growth cones by stimulation with weak laser light; an effect dubbed optical neuronal guidance. The effect exists for a broad range of laser wavelengths, spot sizes, spot intensities, optical intensity...... profiles and beam modulations, but it is unknown which biophysical mechanisms govern it. Based on thermodynamic modeling and simulation using published experimental parameters as input, we argue that the guidance is linked to heating. Until now, temperature effects due to laser-induced heating...

  2. Computational simulation of laser heat processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Gnanamuthu, Daniel

    1987-04-01

    A computational model simulating the laser heat treatment of AISI 4140 steel plates with a CW CO2 laser beam has been developed on the basis of the three-dimensional, time-dependent heat equation (subject to the appropriate boundary conditions). The solution method is based on Newton iteration applied to a triple-approximate factorized form of the equation. The method is implicit and time-accurate; the maintenance of time-accuracy in the numerical formulation is noted to be critical for the simulation of finite length workpieces with a finite laser beam dwell time.

  3. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-02-09

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  4. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  5. Heat transfer modelling of pulsed laser-tissue interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzova, J.; Jelinek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Due to their attributes, the application of medical lasers is on the rise in numerous medical fields. From a biomedical point of view, the most interesting applications are the thermal interactions and the photoablative interactions, which effectively remove tissue without excessive heat damage to the remaining tissue. The objective of this work is to create a theoretical model for heat transfer in the tissue following its interaction with the laser beam to predict heat transfer during medical laser surgery procedures. The dimensions of the ablated crater (shape and ablation depth) were determined by computed tomography imaging. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used for temperature modelling. The parameters of tissue and blood, such as density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, were calculated from the chemical ratio. The parameters of laser-tissue interaction, such as absorption and reflection coefficients, were experimentally determined. The parameters of the laser beam were power density, repetition frequency, pulse length and spot dimensions. Heat spreading after laser interaction with tissue was captured using a Fluke thermal camera. The model was verified for adipose tissue, skeletal muscle tissue and heart muscle tissue.

  6. The ''Dolphin'' power laser installation for spherical thermonuclear target heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Bykovskij, N.E.; Danilov, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    12-channel laser installation the ''Dolphin'' for thermonuclear target heating in the radiation spheric geometry has been developed to carry out series of physical investigations of laser-thermonuclear plasma system, optimization of target heating conditions and obtaining a comparatively large value of thermonuclear output in ratio to the energy of absorbed light radiation in the target. The description of installation main elements, consisting of the following components, is given: 1)neodymium laser with the maximum permissible radiation energy of 10kJ, with light pulse duration of 10 -10 /10 -9 c and radiation divergence of approximately 5x10 -4 rad; 2)vacuum chamber, where laser radiation interaction with plasma takes place; 3)diagnostic means of laser and plasma parameters and 4)focus system. The focus system provides a high degree of target spherical radiation symmetry at current maximum density on its surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2

  7. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  8. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge

    1996-02-01

    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  9. Lubricant depletion under various laser heating conditions in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shaomin; Wu, Haoyu; Bogy, David

    2014-09-01

    Heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is expected to increase the storage areal density to more than 1 Tb/in2 in hard disk drives (HDDs). In this technology, a laser is used to heat the magnetic media to the Curie point (~400-600 °C) during the writing process. The lubricant on the top of a magnetic disk could evaporate and be depleted under the laser heating. The change of the lubricant can lead to instability of the flying slider and failure of the head-disk interface (HDI). In this study, a HAMR test stage is developed to study the lubricant thermal behavior. Various heating conditions are controlled for the study of the lubricant thermal depletion. The effects of laser heating repetitions and power levels on the lubricant depletion are investigated experimentally. The lubricant reflow behavior is discussed as well.

  10. Multiloop soliton and multibreather solutions of the short pulse model equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2007-01-01

    We develop a systematic procedure for constructing the multisoliton solutions of the short pulse (SP) model equation which describes the propagation of ultra-short pulses in nonlinear medica. We first introduce a novel hodograph transformation to convert the SP equation into the sine-Gordon (sG) equation. With the soliton solutions of the sG equation, the system of linear partial differential equations governing the inverse mapping can be integrated analytically to obtain the soliton solutions of the SP equation in the form of the parametric representation. By specifying the soliton parameters, we obtain the multiloop and multibreather solutions. We investigate the asymptotic behavior of both solutions and confirm their solitonic feature. The nonsingular breather solutions may play an important role in studying the propagation of ultra-short pulses in an optical fibre. (author)

  11. 8th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyo, J. Scott; Baum, Carl E; Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8; UWBSP8

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics Conference series is to focus on advanced technologies for the generation, radiation and detection of ultra-wideband short pulse signals, taking into account their propagation and scattering from and coupling to targets of interest. This Conference series reports on developments in supporting mathematical and numerical methods and presents current and potential future applications of the technology. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8 is based on the American Electromagnetics 2006 conference held from June 3-7 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Topical areas covered in this volume include pulse radiation and measurement, scattering theory, target detection and identification, antennas, signal processing, and communications.

  12. Conceptual fusion reactor designs based on the laser heat solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the laser heated solenoid (LHS) as an approach to fusion and fusion-fission commercial power generation has been examined. The LHS concept is based on magnetic confinement of a long slender plasma column which is partly heated by the axially directed beam from a powerful long wavelength laser. As a pure fusion concept, the LHS configurations studied so far are characterized by fairly difficult engineering constraints, particularly on the magnet, a large laser, and a marginally acceptable system energy balance. As a fusion-fission system, however, the LHS is capable of a very attractive energy balance, has much more relaxed engineering constraints, requires a relatively modest laser, and as such holds great potential as a power generator and fissile fuel breeding scheme

  13. Heat Flow In Cylindrical Bodies During Laser Surface Transformation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, Ole A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transient heat flow in cylindrical specimens is presented. The model predicts the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a moving ring-shaped laser spot around the periphery of the outer surface of a cylinder, or the inner surface of a hollow cylinder. It can be used to predict the depth of case in laser surface transformation hardening. The validity of the model is tested against experimental results obtained on SAE 4140 steel.

  14. Laser heating of a molecular gas channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.N.; Baker, L.

    1980-02-01

    The first steps toward laser-initiated discharge channels are outlined, wherein we determine the temperature and density changes which are to be expected with reasonable laser energies. To this end, absorption cross sections were measured as a function of gas pressure, line tuning, and laser energy for NH 3 and C 2 H 4 gases. Based on these values a number of hydrodynamic simulations were performed with the CHARTB hydrocode which show that an efficient conversion of initial vibrational temperature into translational temperature occurs. Moreover, it is seen that the hydrodynamic motion is slow compared to reasonable relaxation times so that this efficiency is not unique to NH 3 with its anomalously fast relaxation time

  15. Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled-wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized. (paper)

  16. Enthalpy model for heating, melting, and vaporization in laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Alexiades

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation is used in a growing number of applications in various areas including medicine, archaeology, chemistry, environmental and materials sciences. In this work the heat transfer and phase change phenomena during nanosecond laser ablation of a copper (Cu target in a helium (He background gas at atmospheric pressure are presented. An enthalpy model is outlined, which accounts for heating, melting, and vaporization of the target. As far as we know, this is the first model that connects the thermodynamics and underlying kinetics of this challenging phase change problem in a self-consistent way.

  17. Hydrodynamic time scales for intense laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Enrique; Alexeev, Ilya; Fan, Jingyun; Kim, Kiong Y.; McNaught, Stuart J.; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements are presented of x-ray (>1.5 keV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ equal to 2-44 nm) emission from argon clusters irradiated with constant-energy (50 mJ), variable-width laser pulses ranging from 100 fs to 10 ns. The results for clusters can be understood in terms of two time scales: a short time scale for optimal resonant absorption at the critical-density layer in the expanding plasma, and a longer time scale for the plasma to drop below critical density. We present a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the intense laser-cluster interaction in which the laser field is treated self-consistently. We find that nonuniform expansion of the heated material results in long-time resonance of the laser field at the critical-density plasma layer. These simulations explain the dependence of generation efficiency on laser pulse width

  18. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the Trident laser facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guler, N.; Volegov, P.; Favalli, A.; Merrill, F.E.; Falk, Kateřina; Jung, D.; Tybo, J.L.; Wilde, C.H.; Croft, S.; Danly, C.; Deppert, O.; Devlin, M.; Fernandez, J.; Gautier, D.C.; Geissel, M.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C.E.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henzlova, D.; Johnson, R. P.; Schaumann, G.; Schoenberg, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Shimada, T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Taddeucci, T.; Wender, S.A.; Wurden, G.A.; Roth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 15 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 154901. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inertial confinement fusion * ion-beams * plasma interactions * reconstruction * acceleration * dynamics * targets * images Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  19. Laser-heating wire bonding on MEMS packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Making connections is critical in fabrication of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. It is also complicated, because the temperature during joining affects both the bond produced and the structure and mechanical properties of the moving parts of the device. Specifications for MEMS packaging require that the temperature not exceed 240 °C. However, usually, temperatures can reach up to 300 °C during conventional thermosonic wire bonding. Such a temperature will change the distribution of dopants in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor circuits. In this paper we propose a new heating process. A semiconductor laser (wavelength 808 nm is suggested as the thermal source for wire bonding. The thermal field of this setup was analyzed, and specific mathematical models of the field were built. Experimental results show that the heating can be focused on the bonding pad, and that much lower heat conduction occurs, compared with that during the normal heating method. The bond strength increases with increasing laser power. The bond strengths obtained with laser heating are slightly lower than those obtained with the normal heating method, but can still meet the strength requirements for MEMS.

  20. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  1. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  2. Heating and conduction in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, H.D.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted by G. McCall of LASL provides important clues concerning the electron distributions heated in the absorption of intense (less than or approximately equal to 10/sup lb/ W/cm 2 ) laser radiation and the thermal transport of energy. Presented here is a tentative interpretation of these experiments obtained from LASNEX calculations. (U.S.)

  3. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, N.N.; Imamova, S.E.; Atanasov, P.A.; Toshkova, R.A.; Gardeva, E.G.; Yossifova, L.S.; Alexandrov, M.T.; Obara, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  4. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, N. N.; Imamova, S. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Toshkova, R. A.; Gardeva, E. G.; Yossifova, L. S.; Alexandrov, M. T.; Obara, M.

    2011-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  5. Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Gupta, Ayush; Palastro, John; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2005-01-01

    Gases of atomic clusters are interaction media for laser pulse propagation with properties useful for applications such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray microscopy, harmonic generation, EUV lithography, and laser plasma acceleration. To understand cluster heating and expansion, a series of two- and three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell simulations of the explosion of argon clusters of diameter in the range 20 nm-53 nm have been preformed. The studies show that heating is dominated by a nonlinear, resonant absorption process that gives rise to a size-dependent intensity threshold for strong absorption and that controls the dielectric properties of the cluster. Electrons are first accelerated out from the cluster and then driven back into it by the combined effects of the laser field and the electrostatic field produced by the laser-driven charge separation. Above the intensity threshold for strong heating there is a dramatic increase in the production of energetic particles and harmonic radiation. The dielectric properties of a gas of clusters are determined by the ensemble average cluster polarizability. Individual electrons contribute to the polarizability differently depending on whether they are in the core of the cluster or in the outer edge. Consequently, there can be large fluctuations in polarizability during the heating of a cluster

  6. Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

  7. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. YAG laser cladding to heat exchanger flange in actual plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshio, Kojima

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to ''Development of YAG Laser Cladding Technology to Heat Exchanger Flange'' presented in ICONE-8. A YAG Laser cladding technology is a permanent repairing and preventive maintenance method for heat exchanger's flange (channel side) seating surface which is degraded by the corrosion in long term operation. The material of this flange is carbon steel, and that of cladding wire is type 316 stainless steel so as to have high corrosion resistance. In former paper above, the soundness of cladding layers were presented to be verified. This channel side flange is bolted with tube sheet (shell side) through metal gasket. As the tube sheet side is already cladded a corrosion resistant material, it needs to apply the repairing and preventive maintenance method to only channel side. In 2000 this technology had been performed to the actual heat exchanger (Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger; RHR Hx) flange in domestic nuclear power plant. This paper described the outline, special equipment, and our total evaluation for this actual laser cladding work. And also several technical subjects which we should solve and/or improve for the next project was presented. (author)

  9. Computational simulation of heat transfer in laser melted material flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.; Gnanamuthu, D.

    1986-01-01

    A computational procedure has been developed to study the heat transfer process in laser-melted material flow associated with surface heat treatment of metallic alloys to improve wear-and-tear and corrosion resistance. The time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, accounting for both convective and conductive heat transfer processes. The convection, induced by surface tension and high surface temperature gradients, sets up a counterrotating vortex flow within the molten pool. This recirculating material flow is responsible for determining the molten pool shape and the associated cooling rates which affect the solidifying material composition. The numerical method involves an implicit triple-approximate factorization scheme for the energy equation, and an explicit treatment for the momentum and the continuity equations. An experimental setup, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser beam as a heat source, has been carried out to generate data for validation of the computational model. Results in terms of the depth, width, and shape of the molten pool and the heat-affected zone for various power settings and shapes of the laser, and for various travel speeds of the workpiece, compare very well with experimental data. The presence of the surface tension-induced vortex flow is demonstrated

  10. Moving heat source in a confined channel: Heat transfer and boiling in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Amit; Oliveira, Jorge L. G.; van der Geld, Cees W. M.; Malskat, Wendy S. J.; van den Bos, Renate; Nijsten, Tamar; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Motion of a moving laser light heat source in a confined volume has important applications such as in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of varicose veins. This light heats up the fluid and the wall volume by absorption and heat conduction. The present study compares the flow and temperature fields in

  11. Supplemental heating of conventional Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B R; Hughes, S J; Garbett, W J; Sircombe, N J

    2016-01-01

    We report a new ICF scheme whereby a capsule is imploded to near ignition conditions and subsequently flooded with hot electrons generated from a short-pulse laser- plasma interaction so as to heat the whole assembly by a few hundred eV. The cold dense shell pressure is increased by a larger factor than that of the hot spot at the capsule core, so that further heating and compression of the hot spot occurs. We suggest it may be possible to drive the capsule to ignition by the pressure augmentation supplied by this extra deposition of energy. (paper)

  12. Experimental study of a laser-heated solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the interaction of an intense CO 2 laser beam with a column of initially uv-ionized hydrogen immersed in a steady magnetic field of up to 100 kG. Under the intense laser radiation, the gas becomes ionized and heated to temperatures as high as 150 eV (1.6 x 10 6 0 K). The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the properties of the dense, hot plasma formed in this manner. Time and space resolved measurements of the plasma electron density were made using holographic interferometry along the axis and Mach--Zehnder interferometry across the column. The temperature was determined by measuring the decay rate of a line from CV in the quartz uv. These measurements were supplemented by streak photography to provide data on the development of the luminosity of the plasma column, radially and axially, as a function of time. From these various diagnostic techniques, it was possible to determine that a density minimum is formed on-axis within a few tens of nanoseconds after initiation of the laser pulse. This effectively produces a light pipe which traps the beam, and suggests that long columns can be formed by laser irradiation. The beam energy was efficiently absorbed and plasma loss rates appeared to be those expected from classical MHD modelling. While a completely unambiguous answer as to the mode of laser discharge propagation occurring in the experiment was not obtained, the bulk of the evidence suggests a ''bleaching wave'' rather than a laser driven detonator. In summary, the experiment was successful in demonstrating the creation of dense, slender columns by laser breakdown, in support of the ''laser-heated solenoid'' fusion concept

  13. Influence of laser parameters on laser ultrasonic efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available , TEA CO2 lasers, laser chemistry, short pulses 1. INTRODUCTION Polymer-matrix composites are increasingly used in the aerospace industry, particularly in the manufacture of modern fighter planes1-3. The number and complexity of such composites... efficiency can be improved by utilising short pulses in the 3–4 µm and 10 µm spectral regions1. Short pulse 10 µm radiation can be produced by transversely excited, atmospheric CO2 (TEA CO2) lasers. Due to the technological maturity of these lasers...

  14. Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K Y; Alexeev, I; Parra, E; Milchberg, H M

    2003-01-17

    We investigate the femtosecond explosive dynamics of intense laser-heated argon clusters by measuring the cluster complex transient polarizability. The time evolution of the polarizability is characteristic of competition in the optical response between supercritical and subcritical density regions of the expanding cluster. The results are consistent with time-resolved Rayleigh scattering measurements, and bear out the predictions of a recent laser-cluster interaction model [H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, Phys. Rev. E 64, 056402 (2001)

  15. Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.; Alexeev, I.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the femtosecond explosive dynamics of intense laser-heated argon clusters by measuring the cluster complex transient polarizability. The time evolution of the polarizability is characteristic of competition in the optical response between supercritical and subcritical density regions of the expanding cluster. The results are consistent with time-resolved Rayleigh scattering measurements, and bear out the predictions of a recent laser-cluster interaction model [H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, Phys. Rev. E 64, 056402 (2001)

  16. Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

    2013-02-05

    A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

  17. Nonlinear processes in laser heating of chemically active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F V; Kirichenko, N A; Luk' yanchuk, B S

    1984-08-01

    After it had been discovered and in due measure physically comprehended that numerous nontrivial phenomena observed during laser heating of chemically active media are caused primarily by self-stress of laser radiation due to the chemical intertial nonlinearity of the medium, an approach was found for solving problems of laser thermochemistry that is most adequate from the mathematical (and physical) standpoint: the approach of the theory of nonlinear oscillations in point systems and distributed systems. This approach has provided a uniform viewpoint for examination of a variety of phenomena of spatiotemporal self-organization of chemically active media under the effect of laser radiation, qualitative, and in some cases quantitative description of such phenomena as the onset of thermochemical instability, self-oscillations, various spatial structures and the like. Evidently it can be rightly considered that at this juncture a definite stage has been completed in the development of laser thermochemistry marked by the creation of an ideology, method and overall approach to interpretation of the most diverse phenomena under conditions of actual physical experiments. References to the numerous studies that make up the content of this stage of development of laser thermochemistry are to be found in survey papers. 48 references, 10 figures.

  18. Synergistic skin heat shock protein expression in response to combined laser treatment with a diode laser and ablative fractional lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Sonja, Grunewald; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-06-01

    Diode laser-based skin heating has been shown to minimise scars by interfering with wound healing responses through the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP are also induced after ablative fractional laser (AFXL) wound healing. AFXL itself is highly recommended for scar treatment. Therefore, the sequential combination of both modalities may produce superior outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the pretreatment effects of a diode laser before AFXL on wound healing responses in terms of HSP up-regulation in an in vitro model. Immediate responses and responses on days 1, 3 or 6 post-procedure were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model (n = 240). Untreated samples served as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (Hsp70) was performed in all untreated controls, diode laser-, AFXL-, and in diode laser + AFXL-treated samples. Hsp70 was shown to be up-regulated by all interventions between days 1 and 6 after interventions. The largest effect was caused by the combination of a diode laser and an AFXL procedure. Diode laser exposure induces a skin HSP response that can be further enhanced by sequential AFXL treatment. Clinical studies are necessary to investigate the dose response of HSP on scar formation and refine suitable laser exposure settings.

  19. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  20. 10th and 11th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mokole, Eric; UWB SP 10; UWB SP 11

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions of deep technical content and high scientific quality in the areas of electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-resolution techniques. Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Like previous books in this series, Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electrom...

  1. Comment on "Defocusing complex short-pulse equation and its multi-dark-soliton solution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufa, Saliou; Kuetche, Victor K.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2017-08-01

    In their recent paper, Feng et al. [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052227 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052227] proposed a complex short-pulse equation of both focusing and defocusing types. They studied in detail the defocusing case and derived its multi-dark-soliton solutions. Nonetheless, from a physical viewpoint in order to better and deeply understand their genuine implications, we find it useful to provide a real and proper background for the derivation of the previous evolution system while showing that the expression of the nonlinear electric polarization the above authors used in their scheme is not suitable for getting the defocusing complex short-pulse equation.

  2. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  3. 7th conference on ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Uwe; Nitsch, Daniel; Sabath, Frank; Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7; UWBSP7

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP7 Conference, including wide-ranging contributions on electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-res...

  4. Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.; Deadrick, F.J.; Landt, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire is examined. Energy collected by the wire, load energy, peak load currents, and peak load voltages are found for a wide range of parameters, with particular emphasis on nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena. A series of time-sequenced plots is used to illustrate pulse propagation on wires when loads and wire ends are encountered

  5. Maxwell-Cattaneo Heat Convection and Thermal Stresses Responses of a Semi-Infinite Medium to High-Speed Laser Heating due to High Speed Laser Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Maxwell-Cattaneo convection equation, the thermoelasticity problem is in- vestigated in this paper. The analytic solution of a boundary value problem for a semi- infinite medium with traction free surface heated by a high-speed laser-pulses have Dirac temporal profile is solved. The temperature, the displacement and the stresses distributions are obtained analytically using the Laplace transformation, and discussed at small time duration of the laser pulses. A numerical study for Cu as a target is performed. The results are presented graphically. The obtained results indicate that the small time duration of the laser pulses has no e ect on the finite velocity of the heat con- ductivity, but the behavior of the stress and the displacement distribution are affected due to the pulsed heating process and due to the structure of the governing equations.

  6. Beta dosimetry using pulsed laser heating of TLD materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of a pulsed CO 2 laser to heat the surface of hot-pressed LiF chips has been investigated. The thermoluminescent traps in the first 10 to 20 μm of depth may be read out with good efficiency, which will allow entrance dose and exit dose to be determined using a standard chip. These dose data can be used to calculate beta dose and gamma dose separately. Readout speed is estimated to be a few milliseconds per chip

  7. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  8. Heat effect of pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1990-06-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation has been found to be effective for dental enamel and dentin removal. Damage to the surrounding hard tissue is little, but before testing the Er:YAG laser clinically for the preparation of cavities, possible effects on the soft tissue of the pulp must be known. In order to estimate pulp damage , temperature rise in dentin caused by the laser radiation was measured by a thermocouple. Additionally, temperature distributions were observed by means of a thermal imaging system. The heat effect of a single Er:YAG laser pulse is little and limited to the vicinity of the impact side. Because heat energy is added with each additional pulse , the temperature distribution depends not only on the radiant energy, but also on the number of pulses and the repetition rate. Both irradiation conditions can be found , making irreversible pulp damage either likely or unlikely. The experimental observations can be explained qualitatively by a simple model of the ablation process.

  9. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.; Guttadora, G.; Carpe, A.; Langish, S.; Young, K.M.; Nishi, M.; Shu, W.

    2001-01-01

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm 2 , and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed

  10. Laser heated solenoid as a neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Rose, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual designs are presented for a radiation test facility based on a laser heated plasma confined in a straight solenoid. The thin plasma column, a few meters in length and less than a centimeter in diameter, serves as a line source of neutrons. Test samples are located within or just behind the plasma tube, at a radius of 1-2 cm from the axis. The plasma is heated by an axially-directed powerful long-wavelength laser beam. The plasma is confined radially in the intense magnetic field supplied by a pulsed solenoid surrounding the plasma tube. The facility is pulsed many times a second to achieve a high time-averaged neutron flux on the test samples. Based on component performance achievable in the near term (e.g., magnetic field, laser pulse energy) and assuming classical physical processes, it appears that average fluxes of 10 13 to 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 -sec can be achieved in such a device. The most severe technical problems in such a facility appear to be rapid pulsing design and lifetime of some electrical and laser components

  11. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  12. Vacuum heating evaluation for plasmas of exponentially decreasing density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S.J.; Mohammadnejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers have opened a regime of laser-plasma interaction where plasmas have scale lengths shorter than the laser wavelength and allow the possibility of generating near-solid density plasmas. The interaction of high-intensity laser beams with sharply bounded high-density and small scale length plasmas is considered. Absorption of the laser energy associated with the mechanism of dragging electrons out of the plasma into the vacuum and sending them back into the plasma with the electric field component along the density gradient, so called vacuum heating, is studied. An exponentially decreasing electron density profile is assumed. The vector potential of the electromagnetic field propagating through the plasma is calculated and the behaviour of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field is studied. The fraction of laser power absorbed in this process is calculated and plotted versus the laser beam incidence angle, illumination energy, and the plasma scale length

  13. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H., E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Z. [Physics and Accelerator School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  14. Effects of laser-polarization and wiggler magnetic fields on electron acceleration in laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ghotra, Harjit; Kant, Niti

    2018-06-01

    We examine the electron dynamics during laser-cluster interaction. In addition to the electrostatic field of an individual cluster and laser field, we consider an external transverse wiggler magnetic field, which plays a pivotal role in enhancing the electron acceleration. Single-particle simulation has been presented with a short pulse linearly polarized as well as circularly polarized laser pulses for electron acceleration in a cluster. The persisting Coulomb field allows the electron to absorb energy from the laser field. The stochastically heated electron finds a weak electric field at the edge of the cluster from where it is ejected. The wiggler magnetic field connects the regions of the stochastically heated, ejected electron from the cluster and high energy gain by the electron from the laser field outside the cluster. This increases the field strength and hence supports the electron to meet the phase of the laser field for enhanced acceleration. A long duration resonance appears with an optimized magnetic wiggler field of about 3.4 kG. Hence, the relativistic energy gain by the electron is enhanced up to a few 100 MeV with an intense short pulse laser with an intensity of about 1019 W cm‑2 in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field.

  15. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  16. Dependence of core heating properties on heating pulse duration and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sunahara, Atsushi; Cai, Hongbo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2009-11-01

    In the cone-guiding fast ignition, an imploded core is heated by the energy transport of fast electrons generated by the ultra-intense short-pulse laser at the cone inner surface. The fast core heating (˜800eV) has been demonstrated at integrated experiments with GEKKO-XII+ PW laser systems. As the next step, experiments using more powerful heating laser, FIREX, have been started at ILE, Osaka university. In FIREX-I (phase-I of FIREX), our goal is the demonstration of efficient core heating (Ti ˜ 5keV) using a newly developed 10kJ LFEX laser. In the first integrated experiments, the LFEX laser is operated with low energy mode (˜0.5kJ/4ps) to validate the previous GEKKO+PW experiments. Between the two experiments, though the laser energy is similar (˜0.5kJ), the duration is different; ˜0.5ps in the PW laser and ˜ 4ps in the LFEX laser. In this paper, we evaluate the dependence of core heating properties on the heating pulse duration on the basis of integrated simulations with FI^3 (Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting) code system.

  17. Analysis of High-Power Diode Laser Heating Effects on HY-80 Steel for Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechec, Maxwell; Baker, Brad; McNelley, Terry; Matthews, Manyalibo; Rubenchik, Alexander; Rotter, Mark; Beach, Ray; Wu, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    In this research, several conditions of high power diode laser heated HY-80 steel were characterized to determine the viability of using such lasers as a preheating source before friction stir welding in order to reduce frictional forces thereby reducing tool wear and increasing welding speeds. Differences in microstructures within heat affected zones were identified at specific laser powers and traverse speeds. Vickers hardness values were recorded and analyzed to validate the formation of additional martensite in diode laser heated regions of HY-80 steel. Conditions that produced little to no additional martensite were identified and relationships among high power diode laser power, traverse speed, and martensite formation were determined. The development of heat affected zones, change in grain structure, and creation of additional martensite in HY-80 can be prevented through the optimization of laser amperage and transverse speed.

  18. Numerical investigation of vessel heating using a copper vapor laser and a pulsed dye laser in treating vascular skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkareva, A. E.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Isaev, A. A.; Klyuchareva, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    A computer simulation technique was employed to study the selective heating of a tissue vessel using emission from a pulsed copper vapor laser and a pulsed dye laser. The depth and size of vessels that could be selectively and safely removed were determined for the lasers under examination.

  19. Calculation of thermal stress condition in long metal cylinder under heating by continuous laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglov, A.A.; Uglov, S.A.; Kulik, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The method of determination of temperature field and unduced thermal stresses in long metallic cylinder under its heating by cw-laser normally distributed heat flux is offered. The graphically presented results of calculation show the stress maximum is placed behind of center of laser heat sport along its movement line on the cylinder surface

  20. Combined laser ultrasonics, laser heating, and Raman scattering in diamond anvil cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Burgess, Katherine; Odake, Shoko; Chigarev, Nikolay; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a multi-functional in situ measurement system under high pressure equipped with a laser ultrasonics (LU) system, Raman device, and laser heating system (LU-LH) in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The system consists of four components: (1) a LU-DAC system (probe and pump lasers, photodetector, and oscilloscope) and DAC; (2) a fiber laser, which is designed to allow precise control of the total power in the range from 2 to 100 W by changing the diode current, for heating samples; (3) a spectrometer for measuring the temperature of the sample (using black body radiation), fluorescence spectrum (spectrum of the ruby for pressure measurement), and Raman scattering measurements inside a DAC under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions; and (4) an optical system to focus laser beams on the sample and image it in the DAC. The system is unique and allows us to do the following: (a) measure the shear and longitudinal velocities of non-transparent materials under HPHT; (b) measure temperature in a DAC under HPHT conditions using Planck's law; (c) measure pressure in a DAC using a Raman signal; and (d) measure acoustical properties of small flat specimens removed from the DAC after HPHT treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that the LU-LH-DAC system allows measurements of velocities of the skimming waves in iron at 2580 K and 22 GPa.

  1. Laser Heating of the Core-Shell Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Dumitru, Ioan; Stancu, Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The induced thermal stress in a heating process is an important parameter to be known and controlled in the magnetization process of core-shell nanowires. This paper analyses the stress produced by a laser heating source placed at one end of a core-shell type structure. The thermal field was computed with the non-Fourier heat transport equation using a finite element method (FEM) implemented in Comsol Multiphysics. The internal stresses are essentially due to thermal gradients and different expansion characteristics of core and shell materials. The stress values were computed using the thermo elastic formalism and are depending on the laser beam parameters (spot size, power etc.) and system characteristics (dimensions, thermal characteristics). Stresses in the GPa range were estimated and consequently we find that the magnetic state of the system can be influenced significantly. A shell material as the glass which is a good thermal insulator induces in the magnetic core, the smaller stresses and consequently the smaller magnetoelastic energy. These results lead to a better understanding of the switching process in the magnetic materials.

  2. Laser pulse heating of nuclear fuels for simulation of reactor power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser applications; nuclear fuel elements; nuclear safety. ... accident (LOCA) and reactivity initiated accident (RIA), a laser pulse heating system is under ... As a prelude to work on irradiated nuclear fuel specimens, pilot studies on unirradiated ...

  3. Hybrid fuzzy logic control of laser surface heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Jose Antonio; Ocana, Jose Luis; Molpeceres, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced hybrid fuzzy logic control system for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to increase significantly the uniformity and final quality of the obtained product, reducing the rejection rate and increasing the productivity and efficiency of the treatment. Basically, the proposed hybrid control structure combines a fuzzy logic controller, with a pure integral action, both fully decoupled, improving the performances of the process with a reasonable design cost, since the system nonlinearities are fully compensated by the fuzzy component of the controller, while the integral action contributes to eliminate the steady-state error

  4. A comparison between short pulse spallation source and long pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Teshigawara, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Mezei, F.

    1997-11-01

    The performance for a 5 MW short pulse spallation source (SPSS) and a 4.5 MW long pulse spallation source (LPSS) in a JAERI program which is based on the availability of a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac with a 30 mA peak current for both proton and H{sup -} beams is discussed. We have examined the superiority of SPSS to LPSS. While a LPSS facility is a second option, we propose an SPSS facility as a first option. (author)

  5. A comparison between short pulse spallation source and long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Teshigawara, Makoto; Mezei, F.

    1997-01-01

    The performance for a 5 MW short pulse spallation source (SPSS) and a 4.5 MW long pulse spallation source (LPSS) in a JAERI program which is based on the availability of a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac with a 30 mA peak current for both proton and H - beams is discussed. We have examined the superiority of SPSS to LPSS. While a LPSS facility is a second option, we propose an SPSS facility as a first option. (author)

  6. Partial Shading Detection in Solar System Using Single Short Pulse of Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Mateusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

  7. Moving heat source in a confined channel: Heat transfer and boiling in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins : Heat transfer and boiling in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.; Oliveira, J.L.G.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Malskat, Wendy S.J.; van den Bos, Renate; Nijsten, Tamar; van Gemert, M.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Motion of a moving laser light heat source in a confined volume has important applications such as in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of varicose veins. This light heats up the fluid and the wall volume by absorption and heat conduction. The present study compares the flow and temperature fields in

  8. Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-SRS and dominateing initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-SRS plasma waves with high phase velocities. This tow-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.

  9. Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Haji Sharifi, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-stimulated Raman scattering and dominating initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-stimulated Raman scattering plasma waves with high phase velocities. This two-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.

  10. Small-scale heat detection using catalytic microengines irradiated by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqian; Li, Jinxing; Wang, Jiao; Huang, Gaoshan; Liu, Ran; Mei, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to modulating the motion speed of catalytic microtubular engines via laser irradiation/heating with regard to small-scale heat detection. Laser irradiation on the engines leads to a thermal heating effect and thus enhances the engine speed. During a laser on/off period, the motion behaviour of a microengine can be repeatable and reversible, demonstrating a regulation of motion speeds triggered by laser illumination. Also, the engine velocity exhibits a linear dependence on laser power in various fuel concentrations, which implies an application potential as local heat sensors. Our work may hold great promise in applications such as lab on a chip, micro/nano factories, and environmental detection.We demonstrate a novel approach to modulating the motion speed of catalytic microtubular engines via laser irradiation/heating with regard to small-scale heat detection. Laser irradiation on the engines leads to a thermal heating effect and thus enhances the engine speed. During a laser on/off period, the motion behaviour of a microengine can be repeatable and reversible, demonstrating a regulation of motion speeds triggered by laser illumination. Also, the engine velocity exhibits a linear dependence on laser power in various fuel concentrations, which implies an application potential as local heat sensors. Our work may hold great promise in applications such as lab on a chip, micro/nano factories, and environmental detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32494f

  11. Optimal laser heating of plasmas confined in strong solenoidal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.; Akcasu, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Optimal Control Theory is used to analyze the laser-heating of plasmas confined in strong solenoidal magnetic fields. Heating strategies that minimize a linear combination of heating time and total energy spent by the laser system are found. A numerical example is used to illustrate the theory. Results of this example show that by an appropriate modulation of the laser intensity, significant savings in the laser energy are possible with only slight increases in the heating time. However, results may depend strongly on the initial state of the plasma and on the final ion temperature. (orig.)

  12. Application of Laser Pulse Heating to Simulate Thermomechanical Damage at Gun Bore Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cote, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Laser pulse heating experiments were performed to provide insights into the thermomechanical damage effects that occur at the surface of coated and uncoated gun steel under cyclic rapid heating and cooling...

  13. Short-pulse optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for the generation of high-power few-cycle pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Zs.; Osterhoff, J.; Hoerlein, R.; Karsch, S.; Fuoloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. In the quest for a way to generate ultrashort, high-power, few-cycle laser pulses the discovery of optical parametric amplification (OPA) has opened up to the path towards a completely new regime, well beyond that of conventional laser amplification technology. The main advantage of this parametric amplification process is that it allows for an extremely broad amplification bandwidth compared to any known laser amplifier medium. When combined with the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) principle (i.e. OPCPA), on one hand pulses of just 10 fs duration and 8 mJ pulse energy have been demonstrated. On the other hand, pulse energies of up to 30 J were also achieved on a different OPCPA system; the pulse duration in this case, however, was 100 fs. In order to combine ultrashort pulse durations (i.e. pulses in the few-cycle regime) with high pulse energies (i.e. in the Joule range) we propose tu pump on OPCPA chain with TW-scale short pulses (100 fs - 1 ps instead of > 100 ps of previous OPCPA systems) delivered by a conventional CPA system. This approach inherently improves the conditions for generating high-power ultrashort pulses using OPCPA in the following ways. Firstly, the short pump pulse duration reduces the necessary stretching factor for the seed pulse, thereby increasing stretching and compression fidelity. Secondly, also due to the shortened pump pulse duration, a much higher contrast is achieved. Finally, the significantly increased pump power makes the use of thinner OPCPA crystals possible, which implies an even broader amplification bandwidth, thereby allowing for even shorter pulses. We carried out theoretical investigations to show the feasibility of such a set-up. Alongside these studies we will also present preliminary experimental results of an OPCPA system pumped by the output of our Ti:Sapphire ATLAS laser, currently delivering 350 mJ in 43 fs. An insight into the planned scaling of this technique to petawatt

  14. Effect of heat input on heat affected zone cracking in laser welded ATI Allvac 718Plus superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idowu, O.A.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The heat affected zones (HAZs) of low and high heat input laser welds of a newly developed superalloy, ATI Allvac 718Plus, were studied. Low heat input welds suffered significant HAZ grain boundary liquation cracking, while no cracking was observed in spite of a more extensive HAZ intergranular liquation in the higher heat input welds. Combination of lower welding stresses generated during cooling, and relaxation of these stresses by thick intergranular liquid were suggested to be the factors that contributed to the absence of cracking in the high heat input welds. Further, healing of some of the HAZ cracks in lower heat input welds by fusion zone interdendritic liquid occurred through liquid backfilling

  15. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  16. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  17. Time-resolved x-ray laser induced photoelectron spectroscopy of isochoric heated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Dunn, J.; Hunter, J.; Widmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the nonsteady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultrathin (50 nm) copper. A metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.1-2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500x700 μm 2 spot to create heated conditions of 0.07-1.8x10 12 W cm -2 intensity. Valence band photoemission spectra are presented showing the changing occupancy of the Cu 3d level with heating are presented. These picosecond x-ray laser induced time-resolved photoemission spectra of laser-heated ultrathin Cu foil show dynamic changes in the electronic structure. The ultrafast nature of this technique lends itself to true single-state measurements of shocked and heated materials

  18. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  19. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  20. Isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-04-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short (1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors

  1. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrable discretizations and self-adaptive moving mesh method for a coupled short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, integrable semi-discrete and fully discrete analogues of a coupled short pulse (CSP) equation are constructed. The key to the construction are the bilinear forms and determinant structure of the solutions of the CSP equation. We also construct N-soliton solutions for the semi-discrete and fully discrete analogues of the CSP equations in the form of Casorati determinants. In the continuous limit, we show that the fully discrete CSP equation converges to the semi-discrete CSP equation, then further to the continuous CSP equation. Moreover, the integrable semi-discretization of the CSP equation is used as a self-adaptive moving mesh method for numerical simulations. The numerical results agree with the analytical results very well. (paper)

  3. Verification of the validity of the short-pulse approximation for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyciuk, T; Grajek, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the short-pulse approximation (SPA) for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms. We analyse the limits that SPA has to fulfil in order to be applicable. These concern the shape, the duration and the displacement caused by the pulse. The correctness of SPA is tested by comparing the results obtained using SPA with a numerical solution of the set of time-dependent Schroedinger equations. We show that the limit for the displacement caused by the pulse is of greatest importance. Violation of the limit for the duration of the pulse is shown to lead to concurrent violation of the limit for the displacement. We also show that the shape of the pulse has no influence on the created wave packet.

  4. An isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-01-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short ( 1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors. (orig.)

  5. Laser heating and magnetic compression of plasma in a fast solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoida, H.W.; Vlases, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A low-β plasma column a few mm in diameter by 22 cm in length is heated by an axially directed CO 2 laser to a high-β state in a fast rising solenoidal field. Successful heating depends on proper timing between the laser pulse and rising field. Typical conditions attained are a line energy density of 6 J/cm, T-barapprox. =40 eV, and n/sub e/approx. =3 x 10 17 e - /cm 3 , with conditions quite uniform along the length. The heating suppresses instabilities which appear under certain conditions in the non-laser-heated case

  6. Heat transfer modelling and stability analysis of selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.V.; Yadroitsev, I.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-01-01

    The process of direct manufacturing by selective laser melting basically consists of laser beam scanning over a thin powder layer deposited on a dense substrate. Complete remelting of the powder in the scanned zone and its good adhesion to the substrate ensure obtaining functional parts with improved mechanical properties. Experiments with single-line scanning indicate, that an interval of scanning velocities exists where the remelted tracks are uniform. The tracks become broken if the scanning velocity is outside this interval. This is extremely undesirable and referred to as the 'balling' effect. A numerical model of coupled radiation and heat transfer is proposed to analyse the observed instability. The 'balling' effect at high scanning velocities (above ∼20 cm/s for the present conditions) can be explained by the Plateau-Rayleigh capillary instability of the melt pool. Two factors stabilize the process with decreasing the scanning velocity: reducing the length-to-width ratio of the melt pool and increasing the width of its contact with the substrate

  7. A contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea by numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyin; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Ji; Wang, Qiuling

    2016-05-23

    The photo-thermal effect has been hypothesised to be one of the most possible biophysical mechanisms for laser-cochlea stimulation. However, there is a lack of studies to date for direct assessing laser heating in humans due to the large body of evidence required to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Instead, the majority focus on animals like the guinea pig, from which a number of valuable results have been gained. However, in light of the increasing need to improve laser safety, it has became necessary to find out whether studies on animals can shed light on safe laser parameters in the human cochlea. Hence, we conducted this contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea with the aim of assisting further investigations in this field. In this work, a 3D symmetrical model was adopted to simplify the spiraled cochlea. With attention focused on the effect of heat conduction, the time-dependent heat equation was solved using finite element method with the COMSOL Script. In the simulations, cochleae with different sizes and various boundary thermal conditions were utilized. Laser heating in both cochleae has a similar trend. In the first stage, or at the beginning of the laser heating, both cochleae increased their temperatures rapidly. In the second stage in which the laser heating reached a quasi-steady stage, the peak temperatures began to rise slowly as more laser pulses were applied. However, three differences of the laser heating were observed. The first is regarding the temperature rise. The results show that laser heating in guinea pig is higher than that in human under the same laser parameters. The second difference is the fluctuation of temperature rise at the center of the modiolus. There is a larger fluctuation of temperature rise in the guinea pig cochlea, compared with that in the human cochlea. The third one is the time for reaching a steady thermal state. The results show that the guinea pig cochlea takes longer time to

  8. Characterization and modeling of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; London, R.A.; Nilsen, J.; Moreno, J.C.; Weber, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes our theoretical, numerical, and experimental development of short-pulse-duration, high brightness, and enhanced coherence x-ray lasers (XRLs) as sources suitable for applications as imaging diagnostics for laser plasmas

  9. Analysis of the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Miloš J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. The mathematical model for the heat affected zone was expressed as a function of the laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position using the artificial neural network. To obtain experimental database for the artificial neural network training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameter. Using the 27 experimental data sets, the artificial neural network was trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm and the average absolute percentage error was 2.33%. The testing accuracy was then verified with 6 extra experimental data sets and the average predicting error was 6.46%. Statistically assessed as adequate, the artificial neural network model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone. To analyze the main and interaction effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone, 2-D and 3-D plots were generated. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed had maximum influence on the heat affected zone followed by the laser power, focus position and assist gas pressure. Finally, using the Monte Carlo method the optimal laser cutting parameter values that minimize the heat affected zone were identified.

  10. First results on a laser-heated emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, R.; Klinger, T.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2004-01-01

    The floating potential V(fl,em) of a probe, emitting a sufficiently high electron current, yields a fairly accurate approximation of Φ(pl). This is an advantage in comparison to the conventional Langmuir probe where, after determination of the electron temperature T e , the plasma potential can only be derived indirectly from the formula Φ(pl) = V(fl) + α*T e , where α is a function of the ratio of the electron to the ion saturation currents (α is around 2.4 in a magnetized hydrogen plasma). In addition, an emissive probe also works if there are electron drifts or beams in the plasma. Emissive probes are usually realised by small directly heated loops of W-wire. Drawbacks of this design are the limited lifetime, the low electron emissivity of W and the voltage drop across the wire. We have developed a new type of emissive probe, which is heated by an infrared high-power diode laser with a maximum output power of 50 W. The probe consists of a small cylinder of LaB 6 . The probe was inserted into the edge region of the VINETA helicon discharge plasma. Basic features of emissive probes were checked. (authors)

  11. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  12. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  13. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

    2001-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have held great promise for the generation of high-average-power, high-quality output beams for a number of decades. However, the inherent difficulty of scaling the active solid-state gain media while continuing to provide efficient cooling has limited demonstrated powers to 10X the diffraction limit. Challenges posed by optical distortions and depolarization arising from internal temperature gradients in the gain medium of a continuously cooled system are only increased for laser designs that would attempt to deliver the high average power in the form of high energy pulses (>25J) from a single coherent optical aperture. Although demonstrated phase-locking of multiple laser apertures may hold significant promise for the future scaling of solid-state laser systems,1 the continuing need for additional technical development and innovation coupled with the anticipated complexity of these systems effectively limits this approach for near-term multi-kW laser operation outside of a laboratory setting. We have developed and demonstrated a new operational mode for solid-state laser systems in which the cooling of the gain medium is separated in time from the lasing cycle. In ''heat-capacity'' operation, no cooling takes place during lasing. The gain medium is pumped very uniformly and the waste heat from the excitation process is stored in the solid-state gain medium. By depositing the heat on time scales that are short compared to thermal diffusion across the optical aperture, very high average power operation is possible while maintaining low optical distortions. After a lasing cycle, aggressive cooling can then take place in the absence of lasing, limited only by the fracture limit of the solid-state medium. This mode of operation is ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense

  14. Time differentiated nuclear resonance spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupenko, I., E-mail: kupenko@esrf.fr; Strohm, C. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); McCammon, C.; Cerantola, V.; Petitgirard, S.; Dubrovinsky, L. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Glazyrin, K. [Photon Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Vasiukov, D.; Aprilis, G. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Developments in pulsed laser heating applied to nuclear resonance techniques are presented together with their applications to studies of geophysically relevant materials. Continuous laser heating in diamond anvil cells is a widely used method to generate extreme temperatures at static high pressure conditions in order to study the structure and properties of materials found in deep planetary interiors. The pulsed laser heating technique has advantages over continuous heating, including prevention of the spreading of heated sample and/or the pressure medium and, thus, a better stability of the heating process. Time differentiated data acquisition coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells was successfully tested at the Nuclear Resonance beamline (ID18) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We show examples applying the method to investigation of an assemblage containing ε-Fe, FeO, and Fe{sub 3}C using synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy, FeCO{sub 3} using nuclear inelastic scattering, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} using nuclear forward scattering. These examples demonstrate the applicability of pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells to spectroscopic techniques with long data acquisition times, because it enables stable pulsed heating with data collection at specific time intervals that are synchronized with laser pulses.

  15. Some applications on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oros, C.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art in laser material processing for a large types of lasers from IR (CO 2 laser, NdYAG laser) to UV (excimer laser) and different kinds of materials (metals, dielectrics) is given. Laser radiation has found a wide range of applications as machining tool for various kinds of materials processing. The machining geometry, the work piece geometry, the material properties and economic productivity claim for customized systems with special design for beam guiding, shaping and delivery in order to fully utilize the laser radiation for surface processing with optimum efficiency, maximum processing speed and high processing quality. The laser-material interaction involves complex processes of heating, melting, vaporization, ejection of atoms, ions, and molecules, shock waves, plasma initiation and plasma expansion. The interaction is dependent on the laser beam parameters (pulse duration, energy and wavelength), the solid target properties and the surrounding environments condition. Experimental results for laser surface melting and laser ablation are given. Also, assuming the applicability of a one dimensional model for short pulses used, and restricting condition to single-pulse exposure, the temperature rise on the target was calculated taking account of the finite optical absorption depth and pulse duration of the laser

  16. Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R; Pissadakis, S; Ehrhardt, M; Ruthe, D; Zimmer, K

    2006-01-01

    Similarly to laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) with nanosecond ultraviolet (ns UV) laser pulses, the irradiation of the solid/liquid interface of fused silica with sub-picosecond (sub-ps) UV and femtosecond near infrared (fs NIR) laser pulses results in etching of the fused silica surface and deposition of decomposition products from liquid. Furthermore, the etch threshold is reduced compared with both direct ablation with an fs laser in air and backside etching with UV ns pulses. Using 0.5 M pyrene/toluene as absorbing liquid, the thresholds were determined to be 70 mJ cm -2 (sub-ps UV) and 330 mJ cm -2 (fs NIR). Furthermore, an almost linear increase in the etch rate with increasing laser fluence was found. The roughness of surfaces backside etched with ultra-short pulses is higher in comparison with ns pulses but lower than that obtained using direct fs laser ablation. Hence a combination of processes involved in fs laser ablation and ns backside etching can be expected. The processes at the ultra-short pulse laser irradiated solid/liquid interface are discussed, considering the effects of ultra-fast heating, multi-photon absorption processes, as well as defect generation in the materials

  17. Study on VCSEL laser heating chip in nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Binquan; Wu, Wenfeng; Jia, Yuchen; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, atomic gyroscope has become an important direction of inertial navigation. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope has a stronger advantage in the miniaturization of the size. In atomic gyroscope, the lasers are indispensable devices which has an important effect on the improvement of the gyroscope performance. The frequency stability of the VCSEL lasers requires high precision control of temperature. However, the heating current of the laser will definitely bring in the magnetic field, and the sensitive device, alkali vapor cell, is very sensitive to the magnetic field, so that the metal pattern of the heating chip should be designed ingeniously to eliminate the magnetic field introduced by the heating current. In this paper, a heating chip was fabricated by MEMS process, i.e. depositing platinum on semiconductor substrates. Platinum has long been considered as a good resistance material used for measuring temperature The VCSEL laser chip is fixed in the center of the heating chip. The thermometer resistor measures the temperature of the heating chip, which can be considered as the same temperature of the VCSEL laser chip, by turning the temperature signal into voltage signal. The FPGA chip is used as a micro controller, and combined with PID control algorithm constitute a closed loop control circuit. The voltage applied to the heating resistor wire is modified to achieve the temperature control of the VCSEL laser. In this way, the laser frequency can be controlled stably and easily. Ultimately, the temperature stability can be achieved better than 100mK.

  18. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  19. Gradient heating protocol for a diode-pumped alkali laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, He; Wang, You; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; An, Guofei; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Yu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has gained rapid development in the recent years. Until now, the structure with single heater has been widely utilized to adjust the temperature of an alkali vapor cell in most of the literatures about DPALs. However, for an end-pumped DPAL using single heater, most pump energy is absorbed by the gain media near the entrance cell window because of the large absorption cross section of atomic alkali. As a result, the temperature in the pumping area around the entrance window will go up rapidly, especially in a case of high pumping density. The temperature rise would bring about some negative influences such as thermal effects and variations in population density. In addition, light scattering and window contamination aroused by the chemical reaction between the alkali vapor and the buffer gas will also affect the output performance of a DPAL system. To find a solution to these problems, we propose a gradient heating approach in which several heaters are tandem-set along the optical axis to anneal an alkali vapor cell. The temperature at the entrance window is adjusted to be lower than that of the other side. By using this novel scheme, one can not only achieve a homogeneous absorption of the pump energy along the cell axis, but also decrease the possibility of the window damage in a DPAL configuration. The theoretical simulation of the laser output features has been carried out for a configuration of multiple heaters. Additionally, the DPAL output performance under different gradient temperatures is also discussed in this paper. The conclusions might be helpful for development of a high-powered and high-beam-quality DPAL.

  20. Simulation of intense laser-dense matter interactions. X-ray production and laser absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueshima, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Tajima, Toshiki

    1998-03-01

    The development of short-pulse ultra high intensity lasers will enable us to generate short-pulse intense soft and hard X-rays. Acceleration of an electron in laser field generates intense illuminated located radiation, Larmor radiation, around KeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with 100 TW and 1 {mu}m wave length laser. The Coulomb interaction between rest ions and relativistic electron generates broad energy radiation, bremsstrahlung emission, over MeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with the same condition. These intense radiations come in short pulses of the same order as that of the irradiated laser. The generated intense X-rays, Larmor and bremsstrahlung radiation, can be applied to sources of short pulse X-ray, excitation source of inner-shell X-ray laser, position production and nuclear excitation, etc. (author)

  1. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Ali, H.

    2016-08-15

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  2. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-08-01

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  3. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2016-01-01

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  4. Heat accumulation during high repetition rate ultrafast laser interaction: Waveguide writing in borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    During high repetition rate (>200 kHz) ultrafast laser waveguide writing, visible heat modified zones surrounding the formed waveguide occur as a result of heat accumulation. The radii of the heat-modified zones increase with the laser net fluence, and were found to correlate with the formation of low-loss and cylindrically symmetric optical waveguides. A numerical thermal model based on the finite difference method is applied here to account for cumulative heating and diffusion effects. The model successfully shows that heat propagation and accumulation accurately predict the radius of the 'heat modified' zones observed in borosilicate glass waveguides formed across a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Such modelling promises better control of thermal effects for optimizing the fabrication and performance of three-dimensional optical devices in transparent materials

  5. Improve the material absorption of light and enhance the laser tube bending process utilizing laser softening heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2018-02-01

    Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.

  6. High-precision laser microcutting and laser microdrilling using diffractive beam-splitting and high-precision flexible beam alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibner, F.; Fornaroli, C.; Holtkamp, J.; Shachaf, Lior; Kaplan, Natan; Gillner, A.

    2017-08-01

    High-precision laser micro machining gains more importance in industrial applications every month. Optical systems like the helical optics offer highest quality together with controllable and adjustable drilling geometry, thus as taper angle, aspect ratio and heat effected zone. The helical optics is based on a rotating Dove-prism which is mounted in a hollow shaft engine together with other optical elements like wedge prisms and plane plates. Although the achieved quality can be interpreted as extremely high the low process efficiency is a main reason that this manufacturing technology has only limited demand within the industrial market. The objective of the research studies presented in this paper is to dramatically increase process efficiency as well as process flexibility. During the last years, the average power of commercial ultra-short pulsed laser sources has increased significantly. The efficient utilization of the high average laser power in the field of material processing requires an effective distribution of the laser power onto the work piece. One approach to increase the efficiency is the application of beam splitting devices to enable parallel processing. Multi beam processing is used to parallelize the fabrication of periodic structures as most application only require a partial amount of the emitted ultra-short pulsed laser power. In order to achieve highest flexibility while using multi beam processing the single beams are diverted and re-guided in a way that enables the opportunity to process with each partial beam on locally apart probes or semimanufactures.

  7. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Reponen, M; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A

    2015-01-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Agisotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusio...

  8. Manipulation and simulations of thermal field profiles in laser heat-mode lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Long

    2017-12-01

    Laser heat-mode lithography is a very useful method for high-speed fabrication of large-area micro/nanostructures. To obtain nanoscale pattern structures, one needs to manipulate the thermal diffusion channels. This work reports the manipulation of the thermal diffusion in laser heat-mode lithography and provides methods to restrain the in-plane thermal diffusion and improve the out-of-plane thermal diffusion. The thermal field profiles in heat-mode resist thin films have been given. It is found that the size of the heat-spot can be decreased by decreasing the thickness of the heat-mode resist thin films, inserting the thermal conduction layers, and shortening the laser irradiation time. The optimized laser writing strategy is also given, where the in-plane thermal diffusion is completely restrained and the out-of-plane thermal diffusion is improved. The heat-spot size is almost equal to that of the laser spot, accordingly. This work provides a very important guide to laser heat-mode lithography.

  9. Theoretical analysis of saturation and limit cycles in short pulse FEL oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovella, N.; Chaix, P.; Jaroszynski, D. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We derive a model for the non linear evolution of a short pulse oscillator from low signal up to saturation in the small gain regime. This system is controlled by only two independent parameters: cavity detuning and losses. Using a closure relation, this model reduces to a closed set of 5 non linear partial differential equations for the EM field and moments of the electron distribution. An analysis of the linearised system allows to define and calculate the eigenmodes characterising the small signal regime. An arbitrary solution of the complete nonlinear system can then be expanded in terms of these eigenmodes. This allows interpreting various observed nonlinear behaviours, including steady state saturation, limit cycles, and transition to chaos. The single mode approximation reduces to a Landau-Ginzburg equation. It allows to obtain gain, nonlinear frequency shift, and efficiency as functions of cavity detuning and cavity losses. A generalisation to two modes allows to obtain a simple description of the limit cycle behaviour, as a competition between these two modes. An analysis of the transitions to more complex dynamics is also given. Finally, the analytical results are compared to the experimental data from the FELIX experiment.

  10. Development of the dense plasma focus for short-pulse applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, N.; Blasco, M.; Breeding, K.; Constantino, D.; DeYoung, A.; DiPuccio, V.; Friedman, J.; Gall, B.; Gardner, S.; Gatling, J.; Hagen, E. C.; Luttman, A.; Meehan, B. T.; Misch, M.; Molnar, S.; Morgan, G.; O'Brien, R.; Robbins, L.; Rundberg, R.; Sipe, N.; Welch, D. R.; Yuan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) has long been considered a compact source for pulsed neutrons and has traditionally been optimized for the total neutron yield. In this paper, we describe the efforts to optimize the DPF for short-pulse applications by introducing a reentrant cathode at the end of the coaxial plasma gun. The resulting neutron pulse widths are reduced by an average of 21 ±9 % from the traditional long-drift DPF design. Pulse widths and yields achieved from deuterium-tritium fusion at 2 MA are 61.8 ±30.7 ns FWHM and 1.84 ±0.49 ×1012 neutrons per shot. Simulations were conducted concurrently to elucidate the DPF operation and confirm the role of the reentrant cathode. A hybrid fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell modeling capability demonstrates correct sheath velocities, plasma instabilities, and fusion yield rates. Consistent with previous findings that the DPF is dominated by beam-target fusion from superthermal ions, we estimate that the thermonuclear contribution is at the 1% level.

  11. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  12. 2nd International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold

    1995-01-01

    The papers published in this volume were presented at the Second International Conference on Ultra-WidebandiShort-Pulse (UWB/SP) Electromagnetics, ApriIS-7, 1994. To place this second international conference in proper perspective with respect to the first conference held during October 8-10, 1992, at Polytechnic University, some background information is necessary. As we had hoped, the first conference struck a responsive cord, both in timeliness and relevance, among the electromagnetic community 1. Participants at the first conference already inquired whether and when a follow-up meeting was under consideration. The first concrete proposal in this direction was made a few months after the first conference by Prof. A. Terzuoli of the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), Dayton, Ohio, who has been a strong advocate of time-domain methods and technologies. He initially proposed a follow-up time-domain workshop under AFIT auspices. Realizing that interest in this subject is lodged also at other Air Force i...

  13. Resistance and recovery of river biofilms receiving short pulses of Triclosan and Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proia, L; Morin, S; Peipoch, M; Romaní, A M; Sabater, S

    2011-08-01

    The effects of the herbicide Diuron (DIU) and the bactericide Triclosan (TCS) were assessed on laboratory-grown stream biofilms. Four week-old biofilms were exposed in mesocosms to 48-hours of short pulses of either DIU or TCS. The direct and indirect effects of each toxicant on the biofilms, and the subsequent recovery of the biofilms, were evaluated according to structural and functional biomarkers. These parameters were analyzed immediately before exposure, immediately after exposure, and 9 and 16days post-exposure. DIU caused an increase in diatom mortality (+79%), which persisted until the end of the experiment. TCS also affected diatom mortality (+41%), although the effect did not appear until 1week post-exposure. TCS caused an increase in bacterial mortality (+45%); however, this parameter returned to normal values 1week post-exposure. TCS compromised the cellular integrity of the green alga Spirogyra sp., whereas DIU did not. TCS also strongly inhibited phosphate uptake (-71%), which did not return to normal values until 2weeks post-exposure. DIU directly affected algae, but barely affected the heterotrophs, whereas TCS seriously impaired bacteria (direct effect) as well as autotrophs (indirect effect). However, the biofilms recovered their normal structure and function within only a few days to a few weeks. These findings demonstrate the capacity of biofilms to cope with periodic inputs of toxicants, but also the risks associated to repeated exposure or multi-contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.

  15. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  16. Laser-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound heating in an in vivo small animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced heating effect during the combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-optical-fluence laser illumination was investigated by using an in vivo murine animal model. The thighs of murine animals were synergistically irradiated by HIFU and pulsed nano-second laser light. The temperature increases in the target region were measured by a thermocouple under different HIFU pressures, which were 6.2, 7.9, and 9.8 MPa, in combination with 20 mJ/cm2 laser exposures at 532 nm wavelength. In comparison with conventional laser therapies, the laser fluence used here is at least one order of magnitude lower. The results showed that laser illumination could enhance temperature during HIFU applications. Additionally, cavitation activity was enhanced when laser and HIFU irradiation were concurrently used. Further, a theoretical simulation showed that the inertial cavitation threshold was indeed decreased when laser and HIFU irradiation were utilized concurrently.

  17. A feasibility study of a linear laser heated solenoid fusion reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1976-02-01

    This report examines the feasibility of a laser heated solenoid as a fusion or fusion-fission reactor system. The objective of this study, was an assessment of the laser heated solenoid reactor concept in terms of its plasma physics, engineering design, and commercial feasibility. Within the study many pertinent reactor aspects were treated including: physics of the laser-plasma interaction; thermonuclear behavior of a slender plasma column; end-losses under reactor conditions; design of a modular first wall, a hybrid (both superconducting and normal) magnet, a large CO 2 laser system; reactor blanket; electrical storage elements; neutronics; radiation damage, and tritium processing. Self-consistent reactor configurations were developed for both pure fusion and fusion-fission designs, with the latter designed both to produce power and/or fissile fuels for conventional fission reactors. Appendix A is a bibliography with commentary of theoretical and experimental studies that have been directed at the laser heated solenoid

  18. Experimental simulation and analysis of off-normal heat loads accompanying plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    The plasma disruption heat load is simulated experimentally using a pulsed laser beam with high energy density and short pulse duration (0.2-20 mm) covering a certain range of ITER design values. The present status of the laser heat flux test facility and new experimental tools are described. Spatial and time resolved profiles of the laser beam are given. Experimental results are presented including the variation of angle of incidence of the laser beam relative to the material surface. The nature and effects of the induced vapour plume are discussed. Materials studied are relevant to the ITER design. Experimental results are compared with numerical calculations. Some implications for the design of First Wall and Divertor of ITER are addressed. (author). 13 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Heat wave propagation in a thin film irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Gwon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lim, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A thermal wave solution of a hyperbolic heat conduction equation in a thin film is developed on the basis of the Green's function formalism. Numerical computations are carried out to investigate the temperature response and the propagation of the thermal wave inside a thin film due to a heat pulse generated by ultra-short laser pulses with various laser pulse durations and thickness of the film

  20. Repetitive 1 Hz fast-heating fusion driver HAMA pumped by diode pumped solid state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Sekine, Takashi; Komeda, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We describe a repetitive fast-heating fusion driver called HAMA pumped by Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) to realize the counter irradiation of sequential implosion and heating laser beams. HAMA was designed to activate DPSSL for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and to realize a unified ICF machine for power plants. The details of a four-beam alignment scheme and the results of the counter irradiation of stainless plates are shown. (author)

  1. Laser fusion systems for industrial process heat. Third semiannual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; Goldthwaite, W.H.; Kok, K.D.; Skelton, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report concentrates not only on the design of the laser fusion system but also on the cost of this system and the costs of alternative sources of energy that are expected to be in competition with the laser fusion system. The absolute values of the cost of the laser fusion system are limited by the estimates of the cost of the components and subsystems making up the laser fusion energy station. The method used in calculating costs of the laser fusion and alternative systems are laid out in detail

  2. Laser heating of large noble gas clusters: from the resonant to the relativistic interaction regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbrell, E T; Moore, A S; Clark, E L; Garbett, W J; Comley, A J; Edwards, R D; Eagleton, R E [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Lazarus, J A; Nilson, P M; Robinson, J S; Hohenberger, M; Symes, D R; Smith, R A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: edward.gumbrell@awe.co.uk, E-mail: r.a.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Wide-ranging measurements of sub-picosecond laser interactions with large noble gas cluster targets have been conducted in order to help clarify the nature and extent of the underlying laser-plasma heating. Within the sub-relativistic vacuum irradiance range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}, we find that electron temperatures measured with continuum x-ray spectroscopy exhibit a pronounced multi-keV enhancement. Analysis indicates this behaviour to be consistent with collisional or collisionless resonant heating mechanisms. We also present the first measurements of laser-to-cluster energy deposition at relativistic vacuum irradiances, our data demonstrating absorption fractions of 90% or more. Optical probing was used to resolve the onset of a supersonic ionization front resulting from this very high absorption, and shows that despite significant pre-focus heating, the greatest plasma energy densities can be generated about the vacuum focus position. Electron energy spectra measurements confirm that laser-plasma super-heating occurs, and together with ion data establish that relativistic laser-plasma coupling in atomic clusters can take place without significant MeV particle beam production. In conjunction with optical self-emission data, the optical probing also indicates laser pre-pulse effects at peak vacuum irradiance of 5 x 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Laser absorption, plasma heating and energy transport data are supported throughout with analytical and numerical modelling.

  3. Point, surface and volumetric heat sources in the thermal modelling of selective laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Ayas, C.; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Ul Ahad, Inam

    2017-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing technique suitable for producing high precision metal parts. However, distortions and residual stresses within products arise during SLM because of the high temperature gradients created by the laser heating. Residual stresses

  4. Plasma heating in a long solenoid by a laser or a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the technology of a large energy laser and/or relativistic electron beam (REB) generator have made it possible to seriously consider a long solenoid reactor concept. This concept has been reviewed. The physical problems in the plasma heating of the long solenoid by a laser or a REB are studied

  5. Non-Fourier heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Daixian; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Jian; He, Zhaofu

    2017-11-01

    The phase transition in heat conduction of polytetrafluoroethylene-like polymers was investigated and applied in many fields of science and engineering. Considering more details including internal absorption of laser radiation, reflectivity of material and non-Fourier effect etc., the combined heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene were modeled and investigated numerically. The thermal and mechanic issues in laser ablation were illustrated and analyzed. Especially, the phenomenon of temperature discontinuity formed in the combined phase transition and non-Fourier heat conduction was discussed. Comparisons of target temperature profiles between Fourier and non-Fourier heat conduction in melting process were implemented. It was indicated that the effect of non-Fourier plays an important role in the temperature evolvement. The effect of laser fluence was proven to be significant and the thermal wave propagation was independent on the laser intensity for the non-Fourier heat conduction. Besides, the effect of absorption coefficients on temperature evolvements was studied. For different ranges of absorption coefficients, different temperature evolvements can be achieved. The above numerical simulation provided insight into physical processes of combined non-Fourier heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation.

  6. Micro-structured rough surfaces by laser etching for heat transfer enhancement on flush mounted heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventola, L; Scaltrito, L; Ferrero, S; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P; Maccioni, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve heat transfer performances of flush mounted heat sinks used in electronic cooling. To do this we patterned 1.23 cm 2 heat sinks surfaces by microstructured roughnesses built by laser etching manufacturing technique, and experimentally measured the convective heat transfer enhancements due to different patterns. Each roughness differs from the others with regards to the number and the size of the micro-fins (e.g. the micro- fin length ranges from 200 to 1100 μm). Experimental tests were carried out in forced air cooling regime. In particular fully turbulent flows (heating edge based Reynolds number ranging from 3000 to 17000) were explored. Convective heat transfer coefficient of the best micro-structured heat sink is found to be roughly two times compared to the smooth heat sinks one. In addition, surface area roughly doubles with regard to smooth heat sinks, due to the presence of micro-fins. Consequently, patterned heat sinks thermal transmittance [W/K] is found to be roughly four times the smooth heat sinks one. We hope this work may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by innovative manufacturing techniques.

  7. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallmeier, F. X., E-mail: gallmeierfz@ornl.gov; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6466, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} to 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  8. Laser plasma heating in the presence of electrostatic-magnetostatic crosses fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, A.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma heating by one or two lasers in the presence of electrostatic-magnetostatic crossed fields is studied. The results show that the increasing of heating ratio is bigger due to the increment of stationary electric field. 7 refs

  9. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandeya, G.D.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Oudkerk, M.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; Hillegersberg, R. van

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All tissues were imaged at least once before and 7 times during laser heating using CT and temperatures were simultaneously measured with 5 calibrated thermal sensors. The dependency of the average CT numbers as a function of temperature was analysed with regression analysis and a CT thermal sensitivity was derived. During laser heating, the growing hypodense area was observed around the laser source and that area showed an increase as a function of time. The formation of hypodense area was caused by declining in CT numbers at increasing temperatures. The regression analysis showed an inverse linear dependency between temperature and average CT number with -0.65 ± 0.048 HU/ C (R 2 = 0.75) for the range of 18-85 C in bovine liver. The non-invasive CT based thermometry during interstitial laser heating is feasible in the bovine liver. CT based thermometry could be further developed and may be of potential use during clinical LITT of the liver. (orig.)

  10. Effect of heating mechanism on concrete during inspection by laser shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Safiey Wan Abdullah; Noorhazleena Azaman; Mohd Zaki Umar; Khairiah Yazid

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights heating technique as one of suitable loading mechanism in concrete Non Destructive Testing (NDT) inspection by laser shearography. The reason of heating the concrete as loading mechanism is to give a small deformation to the concrete because the result produced from laser shearography technique reveals flaws by looking into flaw-induced deformation anomalies. In this study Laser shearography that surface displacement gradients is used to detect flaw in concrete sample with the dimension of 31 cm x 10 cm x 4 cm. Laser shearography technique reveal flaws by looking into flaw-induced deformation anomalies that can be observed by heating the sample with 500 Watt- infrared spotlight as loading mechanism at different times intervals. Result obtained by laser shearography shows that the convenient time of heating the concrete sample for flaw detection during 2 minute. For validation, a result from conventional radiography technique is also observed. The application of loading mechanism by heating from a 500 Watt- infrared spotlight makes the laser shearography as a prime alternative technique for detecting flaw in concrete. (author)

  11. Laser ablation under different electron heat conduction models in inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuanggui; Ren, Guoli; Huo, Wen Yi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of three different electron heat conduction models on the laser ablation of gold plane target. Different from previous studies, we concentrate on the plasma conditions, the conversion efficiency from laser into soft x rays and the scaling relation of mass ablation, which are relevant to hohlraum physics study in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. We find that the simulated electron temperature in corona region is sensitive to the electron heat conduction models. For different electron heat conduction models, there are obvious differences in magnitude and spatial profile of electron temperature. For the flux limit model, the calculated conversion efficiency is sensitive to flux limiters. In the laser ablation of gold, most of the laser energies are converted into x rays. So the scaling relation of mass ablation rate is quite different from that of low Z materials.

  12. Fast switching of alkali atom dispensers using laser-induced heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.F.; Weatherill, K.J.; Adams, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that by using an intense laser source to locally heat an alkali atom dispenser, one can generate a high flux of atoms followed by fast recovery (<100 ms) of the background pressure when the laser is extinguished. For repeated heating pulses a switch-on time for the atomic flux of 200 ms is readily attainable. This technique is suited to ultracold atom experiments using simple ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chambers. Laser-induced heating provides a fast repetition of the experimental cycle, which, combined with low atom loss due to background gas collisions, is particularly useful for experiments involving far-off resonance optical traps, where sufficient laser power (0.5-4 W) is readily available

  13. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  14. Surface-selective laser sintering of thermolabile polymer particles using water as heating sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, E N; Krotova, L I; Minaev, N V; Minaeva, S A; Mironov, A V; Popov, V K [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciencies, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bagratashvili, V N [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We report the implementation of a novel scheme for surface-selective laser sintering (SSLS) of polymer particles, based on using water as a sensitizer of laser heating and sintering of particles as well as laser radiation at a wavelength of 1.94 μm, corresponding to the strong absorption band of water. A method of sintering powders of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), a hydrophobic bioresorbable polymer, after modifying its surface with an aqueous solution of hyaluronic acid is developed. The sintering thresholds for wetted polymer are by 3 – 4 times lower than those for sintering in air. The presence of water restricts the temperature of the heated polymer, preventing its thermal destruction. Polymer matrices with a developed porous structure are obtained. The proposed SSLS method can be applied to produce bioresorbable polymer matrices for tissue engineering. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. Investigation of Heat Transfer in Mini Channels using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgild, Morten Ryge; Poulsen, Jonas Lundsted; Rath, Emil Zacho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an experimental investigation of the heat transfer in mini channels with a hydraulic diameter of 889 m is conducted. The method used is planar laser induceduorescence (PLIF), which uses the principle of laser excitation of rhodamine B in water. The goal of this study is to validate...... the applicability of PLIF to determine the convective heat transfer coecient in mini channels against conventional correlations of the convective heat transfer coecient. The applicability of the conventional theory in micro and mini channels has been discussed by several researchers, but to the authors knowledge...

  16. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Modified Laser Flash Method for Thermal Properties Measurements and the Influence of Heat Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochuan; Zhu, Shen; Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the effect of natural convection in applying the modified laser flash method to measure thermal properties of semiconductor melts. Common laser flash method uses a laser pulse to heat one side of a thin circular sample and measures the temperature response of the other side. Thermal diffusivity can be calculations based on a heat conduction analysis. For semiconductor melt, the sample is contained in a specially designed quartz cell with optical windows on both sides. When laser heats the vertical melt surface, the resulting natural convection can introduce errors in calculation based on heat conduction model alone. The effect of natural convection was studied by CFD simulations with experimental verification by temperature measurement. The CFD results indicated that natural convection would decrease the time needed for the rear side to reach its peak temperature, and also decrease the peak temperature slightly in our experimental configuration. Using the experimental data, the calculation using only heat conduction model resulted in a thermal diffusivity value is about 7.7% lower than that from the model with natural convection. Specific heat capacity was about the same, and the difference is within 1.6%, regardless of heat transfer models.

  18. Antenna Parts and Waveguide Transmission Line of Short Pulse Radar System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Golubcov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this research was работы являлось to create a stand to explore the application of short pulse radio signals in radar. The stand consists of antenna and waveguide elements. Each element out to guarantee operation in X-band with 10 percent working bank and 5 percent instantaneous bandwidth and the power output gotta be 1.5 kW. The form of the antenna beam patten need to be similar to cosecant pattern Side-lobe level need to be less than -25 dB. Background level got to be at least -30 dB. Wave friction, which is radiated from the antenna aperture, got to simultaneous formed in a space.As the most easily realizing variant of such antenna cutting parabolic mirror antenna with offset irradiator was chosen. The irradiator phase centre is shifted from the focal point of the paraboloid to form a cosecant pattern. Method of physical optics is used for the analysis of antennas. Calculating pattern of horn irradiator and mirror antenna which were met the requirements was received. The construction choice was limited by the preproduction possibilities, mass and dimensions. Mirror antenna consists of skeleton framing with mirroring elements which are fixing on it. Mirroring plane is multiplex and consists off rectangular planes made by hydroforming method. Antenna was tested and adjusted at the antenna darkroom after fabricating. The results were meted requirements.Besides the mirror antenna and the horn antenna waveguide elements, waveguide bends and rotating joints were calculated, manufactured and researched. All calculations included the manufacturers tolerances, technological corner R etc. As the construction base of rotating joint coaxial waveguide was chosen. The decision on the one hand: let keep the axial symmetry of excited wave at rotating part of the waveguide, on the other hand there’s no necessary to apply resonant rings, which are plug into dielectric beads for the transition from rotating ring part to

  19. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  20. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  1. Laser induced magnetization switching in a TbFeCo ferrimagnetic thin film: discerning the impact of dipolar fields, laser heating and laser helicity by XPEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierster, L.; Ünal, A.A.; Pape, L.; Radu, F.; Kronast, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate laser induced magnetic switching in a ferrimagnetic thin film of Tb_2_2Fe_6_9Co_9 by PEEM. Using a small laser beam with a spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter in combination with high resolution magnetic soft X-ray microscopy we are able to discriminate between different effects that govern the microscopic switching process, namely the influence of the laser heating, of the helicity dependent momentum transfer, and of the dipolar coupling. Applying a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses to a previously saturated TbFeCo film leads to the formation of ring shaped magnetic structures in which all three effects can be observed. Laser helicity assisted switching is only observed in a narrow region within the Gaussian profile of the laser spot. Whereas in the center of the laser spot we find clear evidence for thermal demagnetization and in the outermost areas magnetic switching is determined by dipolar coupling with the surrounding film. Our findings demonstrate that by reducing the laser spot size the influence of dipolar coupling on laser induced switching is becoming increasingly important. - Highlights: • With a new PEEM sample holder a laser spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter is reached. • Spatial resolved imaging of laser induced magnetization reversal. • A single femtosecond laser pulse leads to a multi-domain state in TbFeCo. • A pulse sequence results in a ring-shaped magnetic pattern caused by dipolar fields. • Laser helicity dependent effects appear only in a narrow fluence region.

  2. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental hard tissues with an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Krillke, Raphael Franz; Frentzen, Matthias; Bourauel, Christoph; Stark, Helmut; Schelle, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Heat generation during the removal of dental hard tissues may lead to a temperature increase and cause painful sensations or damage dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental hard tissues following laser ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system. A total of 85 specimens of dental hard tissues were used, comprising 45 specimens of human dentine evaluating a thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm (15 samples each) and 40 specimens of human enamel with a thickness of 1 and 2 mm (20 samples each). Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1,064 nm, a pulse duration of 9 ps, and a repetition rate of 500 kHz with an average output power of 6 W. Specimens were irradiated for 0.8 s. Employing a scanner system, rectangular cavities of 1-mm edge length were generated. A temperature sensor was placed at the back of the specimens, recording the temperature during the ablation process. All measurements were made employing a heat-conductive paste without any additional cooling or spray. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the dental hard tissue (enamel or dentine) and the thickness of the respective tissue (p dental hard tissues, heat generation has to be considered. Especially during laser ablation next to pulpal tissues, painful sensations and potential thermal injury of pulp tissue might occur.

  3. Laser heat hyperalgesia is not a feature of non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Ritter, A; Puta, C; Nötzel, D; Miltner, W H R; Weiss, T

    2014-11-01

    Based upon studies using mechanical pin-prick, pressure, electrical or heat stimuli applied to painful and/or pain-free parts of the body, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been shown to be associated with generalized and enhanced pain sensitivity and altered brain responses to noxious stimuli. To date, no study examined the processing of noxious laser heat pulses, which are known to selectively excite thermal nociceptors located in the superficial skin layers, in CLBP. We studied laser heat pain thresholds (LHPTs) and nociceptive laser-evoked brain electrical potentials (LEPs) following skin stimulation of the pain-affected back and the pain-free abdomen using noxious laser heat stimulation in 16 CLBP patients and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). We observed no statistically significant differences in LHPTs between CLBP patients and HCs, neither on the back nor on the abdomen. Furthermore, we found no evidence for altered brain responses between CLBP patients and HCs in response to stimulation of the back and abdomen in single-trial latencies and amplitudes of LEP components (N2, P2). The results are in contrast to previous studies showing hypersensitivity to different experimental noxious stimuli (e.g., contact heat). We argue that these discrepancies may be due to low spatial and temporal summation within the central nervous system following laser heat stimulation. Our results indicate important methodological differences between laser heat and thermode stimulation that should be taken into account when interpreting results, such as from thermal quantitative sensory testing. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  4. Convective mechanism for inhibition of heat conduction in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Willi, O.; Trainor, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In laser-produced plasmas, the laser energy is absorbed only below and up to the critical density. For laser fusion applications, this energy must be transported beyond the corona via electron thermal conduction towards colder, higher density regions of the target to heat up material and cause ablation, which in turn generates an inward pressure to compress the fusion fuel. If the heat conduction is inhibited, the consequences will be a weaker ablation and therefore a weaker implosion. For many years now, the inhibition of heat conduction, i.e., the reduction of heat conduction relative to classical conduction, in laser-produced plasmas at relevant irradiances has been apparent from the large body of experimental evidence. Many mechanisms, such as dc magnetic fields, ion acoustic turbulence, and Weibel instabilities, have been proposed to be the cause of inhibition of heat conduction. Even improved calculations of the classical heat flux have been carried out to solve this problem. Nevertheless, no single one of the above mentioned mechanisms can explain the large inhibition observed in the experiments

  5. Computer simulation of heating of biological tissue during laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanic, S.; Sreckovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Computer model is based on an implicit finite difference scheme to solve the diffusion equation for light distribution and the bio-heat equation. A practical application of the model is to calculate the temperature distributions during thermal coagulation of prostate by radiative heating. (author)

  6. On stochastic heating of electrons by intense laser radiation in the presence of electrostatic potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation

  7. Heat treatment of transparent Yb:YAG and YAG ceramics and its influence on laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kana; Mochida, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Maruyama, Momoko; Sugiyama, Akira; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2018-05-01

    Composite transparent ceramic materials are promising for improving the performance of high-average-power lasers. A combination of room-temperature bonding via surface treatment by a fast atom beam and diffusion bonding via heating, which effectively controls the ion diffusion distance near the interface, makes the laser materials suitable for a variety of oscillator/amplifier. During the heat treatment of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics, the Si ions in the solid solution of the sintering aid incorporated within the grains were seen to segregate at the grain boundary, resulting in an increase of scattering sites. The number density and size of the scattering sites strongly depended on the post-heating temperature rather than the heating time. Specifically, heating at 1300 °C did not affect the transmittance of the YAG ceramic, whereas both the size and number of scattering sites substantially increased with a heat treatment at 1400 °C. The laser oscillation experiment using cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG ceramics exhibited heating temperature dependence of the slope efficiency owing to the increasing scattering loss.

  8. Laser-based gluing of diamond-tipped saw blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigs, Christian; Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hustedt, Michael; Brand, Helmut; Wloka, Richard; Zobel, Frank; Dültgen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To process natural stone such as marble or granite, saw blades equipped with wear-resistant diamond grinding segments are used, typically joined to the blade by brazing. In case of damage or wear, they must be exchanged. Due to the large energy input during thermal loosening and subsequent brazing, the repair causes extended heat-affected zones with serious microstructure changes, resulting in shape distortions and disadvantageous stress distributions. Consequently, axial run-out deviations and cutting losses increase. In this work, a new near-infrared laser-based process chain is presented to overcome the deficits of conventional brazing-based repair of diamond-tipped steel saw blades. Thus, additional tensioning and straightening steps can be avoided. The process chain starts with thermal debonding of the worn grinding segments, using a continuous-wave laser to heat the segments gently and to exceed the adhesive's decomposition temperature. Afterwards, short-pulsed laser radiation removes remaining adhesive from the blade in order to achieve clean joining surfaces. The third step is roughening and activation of the joining surfaces, again using short-pulsed laser radiation. Finally, the grinding segments are glued onto the blade with a defined adhesive layer, using continuous-wave laser radiation. Here, the adhesive is heated to its curing temperature by irradiating the respective grinding segment, ensuring minimal thermal influence on the blade. For demonstration, a prototype unit was constructed to perform the different steps of the process chain on-site at the saw-blade user's facilities. This unit was used to re-equip a saw blade with a complete set of grinding segments. This saw blade was used successfully to cut different materials, amongst others granite.

  9. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of very short laser pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Courant, D.; Malarbet, J.-L.; Dolloy, M.-T.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. Chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations studies are used to test potential effect on human lymphocytes. The laser irradiation induces a significant increase of acentric fragments but the absence of dicentric suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. (author)

  10. Modeling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in the Laser Multilayered Cladding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanrong; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    The current work examines the heat-and-mass transfer process in the laser multilayered cladding of H13 tool steel powder by numerical modeling and experimental validation. A multiphase transient model is developed to investigate the evolution of the temperature field and flow velocity of the liquid phase in the molten pool. The solid region of the substrate and solidified clad, the liquid region of the melted clad material, and the gas region of the surrounding air are included. In this model, a level-set method is used to track the free surface motion of the molten pool with the powder material feeding and scanning of the laser beam. An enthalpy-porosity approach is applied to deal with the solidification and melting that occurs in the cladding process. Moreover, the laser heat input and heat losses from the forced convection and heat radiation that occurs on the top surface of the deposited layer are incorporated into the source term of the governing equations. The effects of the laser power, scanning speed, and powder-feed rate on the dilution and height of the multilayered clad are investigated based on the numerical model and experimental measurements. The results show that an increase of the laser power and powder feed rate, or a reduction of the scanning speed, can increase the clad height and directly influence the remelted depth of each layer of deposition. The numerical results have a qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements.

  11. Effect of Laser Feeding on Heat Treated Aluminium Alloy Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labisz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the investigation results concerning microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the surface layer of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloy after heat treatment alloyed and/ or remelted with SiC ceramic powder using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL. For investigation of the achieved structure following methods were used: light and scanning electron microscopy with EDS microanalysis as well as mechanical properties using Rockwell hardness tester were measured. By mind of scanning electron microscopy, using secondary electron detection was it possible to determine the distribution of ceramic SiC powder phase occurred in the alloy after laser treatment. After the laser surface treatment carried out on the previously heat treated aluminium alloys, in the structure are observed changes concerning the distribution and morphology of the alloy phases as well as the added ceramic powder, these features influence the hardness of the obtained layers. In the structure, there were discovered three zones: the remelting zone (RZ the heat influence zone (HAZ and transition zone, with different structure and properties. In this paper also the laser treatment conditions: the laser power and ceramic powder feed rate were investigated. The surface laser structure changes in a manner, that there zones are revealed in the form of. This carried out investigations make it possible to develop, interesting technology, which could be very attractive for different branches of industry.

  12. Structural changes in connective tissues caused by a moderate laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N; Bagratashvili, N V; Sviridov, A P; Shakh, G Sh; Ignat'eva, Natalia Yu; Lunin, Valery V; Grokhovskaya, T E; Averkiev, S V

    2002-01-01

    The structural changes in adipose and fibrous tissues caused by 2- and 3-W IR laser irradiation are studied by the methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that heating of fibrous tissue samples to 50 0 C and adipose tissue samples to 75 0 C by IR laser radiation changes the supramolecular structure of their proteins and triacylglycerides, respectively, without the intramolecular bond breaking. Heating of fibrous tissue to 70 0 C and adipose tissue to 90 - 110 0 C leads to a partial reversible denaturation of proteins and to oxidation of fats.

  13. Detection using visible laser of palm oil quality affected by heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rahman, A.A.; Badawy, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil was heated at 180 degree C for six times (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 hours) to measure some physical, chemical and optical properties. Palm oil was exposure to laser beam to determine optical properties of oils using (He-Ne) lasers with wavelengths 632.8 and 543.5 nm. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Chemical properties such as oxidized fatty acid, acid value and peroxide value were increased by increasing heating time, but the iodine value was decreased. Meanwhile, physical properties such as viscosity and reflective index were increased at the same of heating times., (2) By increasing heating time of palm oil from 3 to 18 hrs, the absorbed of wavelengths of laser beam with wavelength 543.5 nm was more absorbed than 632.8 nm. Meanwhile, the transmission of laser beam with wavelength 543.5 nm was more high transmission than 632.8 nm., (3) The deterioration of palm oil was started after 16 hours of heating at the light intensity 228 and 368 lux of transmission for wavelengths of 543.5 and 632.8 nm., (4) There are high relation between heating time and chemical, physical, optical properties. The R square was ranged from 0.83 to 0.97, from 0.89 to 0.96 and from 0.95 to 0.98 for chemical, physical, and optical properties with heating, and (5) From optical properties we can determine the quality of oil using the laser transmission or absorbed as a detector of oil quality.

  14. Coherent, Short-Pulse X-ray Generation via Relativistic Flying Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kando

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent, Short X-ray pulses are demanded in material science and biology for the study of micro-structures. Currently, large-sized free-electron lasers are used; however, the available beam lines are limited because of the large construction cost. Here we review a novel method to downsize the system as well as providing fully (spatially and temporally coherent pulses. The method is based on the reflection of coherent laser light by a relativistically moving mirror (flying mirror. Due to the double Doppler effect, the reflected pulses are upshifted in frequency and compressed in time. Such mirrors are formed when an intense short laser pulse excites a strongly nonlinear plasma wave in tenuous plasma. Theory, proof-of-principle, experiments, and possible applications are addressed.

  15. Hydrodynamic model for ultra-short pulse ablation of hard dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.; Alley, W.E.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Neev, J. [Beckman Laser Inst., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 fsec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  16. Particulates reduction in laser-ablated YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films by laser-induced plume heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, G.; Baseman, R.J.; Gupta, A.; Lutwyche, M.I.; Laibowitz, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of reduction in the number and size of particulates formed in the laser ablation deposition of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films is obtained by the use of a second laser which further heats and fragments the blowoff material in the plume formed by the first laser. This results in a smoother film with higher critical current density as compared to that obtained without the second laser irradiation of the plume

  17. Diode laser heat treatment of lithium manganese oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Mangang, A.; Ulrich, S.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H.J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization of lithium manganese oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates under 10 Pa argon pressure is demonstrated by a laser annealing technique. Laser annealing processes were developed as a function of annealing time and temperature with the objective to form an electrochemically active lithium manganese oxide cathode. It is demonstrated, that laser annealing with 940 nm diode laser radiation and an annealing time of 2000 s at 600 °C delivers appropriate parameters for formation of a crystalline spinel-like phase. Characteristic features of this phase could be detected via Raman spectroscopy, showing the characteristic main Raman band at 627 cm -1 . Within cyclic voltammetric measurements, the two characteristic redox pairs for spinel lithium manganese oxide in the 4 V region could be detected, indicating that the film was well-crystallized and de-/intercalation processes were reversible. Raman post-analysis of a cycled cathode showed that the spinel-like structure was preserved within the cycling process but mechanical degradation effects such as film cracking were observed via scanning electron microscopy. Typical features for the formation of an additional surface reaction layer could be detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Nonlocal heat transport and improved target design for x-ray heating studies at x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoidn, Oliver; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2018-01-01

    The extremely high-power densities and short durations of single pulses of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) have opened new opportunities in atomic physics, where complex excitation-relaxation chains allow for high ionization states in atomic and molecular systems, and in dense plasma physics, where XFEL heating of solid-density targets can create unique dense states of matter having temperatures on the order of the Fermi energy. We focus here on the latter phenomena, with special emphasis on the problem of optimum target design to achieve high x-ray heating into the warm dense matter (WDM) state. We report fully three-dimensional simulations of the incident x-ray pulse and the resulting multielectron relaxation cascade to model the spatial energy density deposition in multicomponent targets, with particular focus on the effects of nonlocal heat transport due to the motion of high energy photoelectrons and Auger electrons. We find that nanoscale high-Z /low-Z multicomponent targets can give much improved energy density deposition in lower-Z materials, with enhancements reaching a factor of 100. This has three important benefits. First, it greatly enlarges the thermodynamic parameter space in XFEL x-ray heating studies of lower-Z materials. Second, it allows the use of higher probe photon energies, enabling higher-information content x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements such as in two-color XFEL operations. Third, while this is merely one step toward optimization of x-ray heating target design, the demonstration of the importance of nonlocal heat transport establishes important common ground between XFEL-based x-ray heating studies and more traditional laser plasma methods.

  19. Point, surface and volumetric heat sources in the thermal modelling of selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Ayas, Can

    2017-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing technique suitable for producing high precision metal parts. However, distortions and residual stresses within products arise during SLM because of the high temperature gradients created by the laser heating. Residual stresses limit the load resistance of the product and may even lead to fracture during the built process. It is therefore of paramount importance to predict the level of part distortion and residual stress as a function of SLM process parameters which requires a reliable thermal modelling of the SLM process. Consequently, a key question arises which is how to describe the laser source appropriately. Reasonable simplification of the laser representation is crucial for the computational efficiency of the thermal model of the SLM process. In this paper, first a semi-analytical thermal modelling approach is described. Subsequently, the laser heating is modelled using point, surface and volumetric sources, in order to compare the influence of different laser source geometries on the thermal history prediction of the thermal model. The present work provides guidelines on appropriate representation of the laser source in the thermal modelling of the SLM process.

  20. Optical engineering for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, M.

    1993-01-01

    Laser facilities for Inertial Confinement Fusion (I.C.F.) experiments require laser and X ray optics able to withstand short pulse conditions. After a brief recall of high power laser system arrangements and of the characteristics of their optics, the authors will present some X ray optical developments

  1. Laser wakefields at UCLA and LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.; Decker, C.B.; Marsh, K.; Katsouleas, T.; Darrow, C.B.; Wilks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on recent progress at UCLA and LLNL on the nonlinear laser wakefield scheme. They find advantages to operating in the limit where the laser pulse is narrow enough to expel all the plasma electrons from the focal region. A description of the experimental program for the new short pulse 10 TW laser facility at LLNL is also presented

  2. Dense strongly non-ideal plasma generation by laser isobaric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, P.P.; Rozanov, E.K.; Riabii, V.A.; Titov, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of generation of a dense strongly non-ideal plasma by slow isobaric heating of a small target in a high inert gas medium is discussed. The characteristic life-time of dense plasma is 10 -3 sec. Estimations show that such a plasma is homogeneous. Conditions are found for temperature uniformity. The experimental results of the isobaric heating of a thin potassium foil target by a ruby laser beam at 500 atm are described. (Auth.)

  3. Kinetics of excited levels in copper-vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilanski, I.

    1981-10-01

    A full and representative description of the excited copper level kinetics in a copper-vapor laser is presented. The research was carried out in three stages. The first stage was the development of a representative and reliable measurement cell. A laser tube constructed of refractory materials and an excitation circuit which provides short pulses at a high repetition rate to heat the tube and excite the copper atoms were developed. This stage was also dedicated to characterizing the laser and studying its scaling laws. In the second stage a rapid neasuring system which avoids the problem of spectral line shape was developed. The system is based on the 'hook' method, which utilizes the anomalous dispersion in the vicinity of an atomic line. The light source, a wide band nitrogen-laser-pumped dye laser, ensures a short sampling time, and the recording system, with a television camera face as the recording medium, allows precise data reduction. In the third stage the excited copper level kinetics in a copper vapor laser is measured. The principal conclusions, that only a small part of the energy in the discharge is utilized to populate the upper laser levels and that the lower laser level population is very large at the end of the excitation pulse and cannot be attributed to relaxation of the upper levels, necessitate a new kinetic description of the copper-vapor laser. The laser is not self-terminating; it is activated and terminated by the electrical discharge

  4. C.A.P. plasma physics summer school, Banff, June 1975. I. Experiments on laser-heated solenoids and pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlases, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of experimental progress on the use of long wavelength lasers (CO 2 or CO) to heat long, magnetically confined plasma columns to thermonuclear temperatures. Theoretical studies of the feasibility of the concept for controlled fusion power are reviewed. The laser-heated solenoid concept is reviewed in particular

  5. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  6. The numerical simulation of heat transfer during a hybrid laser-MIG welding using equivalent heat source approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Issam; Matteï, Simone; Cicala, Eugen; Tomashchuk, Iryna; Andrzejewski, Henri; Sallamand, Pierre; Mathieu, Alexandre; Bouchaud, Fréderic

    2014-03-01

    The present study is dedicated to the numerical simulation of an industrial case of hybrid laser-MIG welding of high thickness duplex steel UR2507Cu with Y-shaped chamfer geometry. It consists in simulation of heat transfer phenomena using heat equivalent source approach and implementing in finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. A numerical exploratory designs method is used to identify the heat sources parameters in order to obtain a minimal required difference between the numerical results and the experiment which are the shape of the welded zone and the temperature evolution in different locations. The obtained results were found in good correspondence with experiment, both for melted zone shape and thermal history.

  7. Laser Raman spectroscopy in heat and flow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipertz, A.

    1981-01-01

    The laser Raman spectroscopy based on the inelastic scattering of incident laser photons on the molecules of the fluid to be investigated, has advantages which partly reach beyond the usual scattered light methods: The signales are molecule-specific, the vibration line of various gases can be spectrally well recognized, the field of application is wide, the energy state of the molecules is hardly influenced. By measuring the line intensity, one obtains the concentration of the observed gas components via the molecule number, the temperature and total pressure; from the uptake of the partial density of the single components one can obtain the density of the gas mixture; vibration temperature and rotation temperature can be measured independently. Measuring methods and construction of a Raman probe are given. (WB) [de

  8. Corrosion performance of 7075 alloy under laser heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Su, Ruiming; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure, exfoliation corrosion (EXCO), intergranular corrosion (IGC) and potentidynamic polarization test of the 7075 aluminum alloy after retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment, and laser retrogression and re-aging (LRRA), respectively, were studied by using scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that after pre-aging, laser treatment (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) and re-aging a lot of matrix precipitates of alloy were precipitated again. The semi-continuous grain boundary precipitates and the wider precipitate-free zones (PFZ) improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The corrosion properties of the alloy after LRRA (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) treatment are better than that after RRA treatment.

  9. Smectic liquid crystal cell with heat pulse and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mash, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of operating a homeotropically aligned smectic liquid crystal cell in which the cell is turned from a clear to a scattering state by illumination with an intense flash of light after which a focused laser beam is scanned across the layer to leave clear tracks where homeotropic alignment has been restored thereby producing a display providing, in projection, bright lines on a dark background

  10. A computational model for heterogeneous heating during pulsed laser irradiation of polymers doped with light-absorbing microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    characteristics. This work presents a study based on a computational model of laser heating of polymer doped with light-absorbing microparticles accounting for the heterogeneous nature of heating. The work aims at gaining a fundamental insight into the nature of the heating process and to understand the role......Doping of polymers with light-absorbing microparticles to increase their optical properties is a commonly used pre-treatment technique in laser processing of polymers. The presence of these particles plays an important role during laser heating of the polymer that influences its surface...... of microparticles. The results suggest that apart from the laser intensity and pulse duration, the properties of the microparticles including their size and distribution also play an important role during the laser heating of polymers....

  11. Optimization of the design and mode of operation of a QD laser for reducing the heat-to-bitrate ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, A. E., E-mail: zhukale@gmail.com; Savelyev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovskaya, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Gordeev, N. Yu.; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Payusov, A. S.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Korenev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Heat dissipation under the high-speed modulation of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers is considered. It is shown that, for a given laser diode, there is a bias current at which the heat-to-bitrate ratio is minimized. Moreover, there exists a certain optimal optical loss of the laser cavity at which the lowest heat-to-bitrate ratio is provided for any design of edge-emitting lasers that can be fabricated from an epitaxial structure. The heat-to-bitrate ratio and the corresponding bitrate are numerically calculated and analytical expressions are derived. It is demonstrated that the heat-to-bitrate ratio of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers can be less than 0.4 pJ/bit at a bitrate exceeding 10 Gbit/s.

  12. Optimization of the design and mode of operation of a QD laser for reducing the heat-to-bitrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. E.; Savelyev, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Korenev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Heat dissipation under the high-speed modulation of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers is considered. It is shown that, for a given laser diode, there is a bias current at which the heat-to-bitrate ratio is minimized. Moreover, there exists a certain optimal optical loss of the laser cavity at which the lowest heat-to-bitrate ratio is provided for any design of edge-emitting lasers that can be fabricated from an epitaxial structure. The heat-to-bitrate ratio and the corresponding bitrate are numerically calculated and analytical expressions are derived. It is demonstrated that the heat-to-bitrate ratio of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers can be less than 0.4 pJ/bit at a bitrate exceeding 10 Gbit/s

  13. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C; Gregori, G; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Makita, M

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  14. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum f. Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C; Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Makita, M, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  15. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu; Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A. [Laser-Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell’s equations and heat conduction.

  16. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for the plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices

  17. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO{sub 2} laser heating and variable q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhu, Gaohua [Materials Research Department, Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO{sub 2} laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ∼13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (∼141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm)

  18. Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    properties of the gun bore materials. Ideally, well validated interior ballistics modeling has been carried out (typically with NOVA) to provide time...03002, February 2003. 5. J. Warrender, C. Mulligan, and J. Underwood , “Analysis of thermo-mechanical cracking in refractory coatings using variable pulse duration laser pulse heating,” Wear 263 1540 (2007).

  19. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for a plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices. 15 refs., 13 figs

  20. Study of surface layer assessment of solids by ultra-slow and short-pulsed positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryouichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of insulators with low dielectric constant, as a candidate for next generation LSI (large scale integration), were assessed by two dimensional positron life time and wave height measurements using variable incident energy and also short pulsed positron beams. Linkages and openness of nano-scale voids in the films were evaluated by the measurements. Amorphous SiO 2 films were compared with SiCOH films synthesized by plasma CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) by measurements of the correlation between positron lifetime and momentum using short-pulsed positron beams. From the measurements, many hydrocarbons were found on void surface of SiCOH films. Positron lifetime measurement gives information about void sizes, and Doppler broadening due to annihilation γ-rays offers electron momentum distribution, which is a counterpart of positron annihilation. Two γ-rays are emitted on the positron annihilation. Coincident measurements of these two γ-rays provide the correlation spectra between positron lifetime and momentum. An instrument for positron annihilation excitation Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was improved, and a time-of-flight (TOF) PAES instrument was developed. Double counting rate and high resolution, compared with a conventional Auger electron spectrometer, were attained in elementary analysis using above TOF-PAES instrument. (Y. Kazumata)

  1. Full melting of a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal triggered by localized pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couëdel, L.; Nosenko, V.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Zhdanov, S.; Elskens, Y.; Hall, T.; Ivlev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer. The reported experimental observations are due to the fluid mode-coupling instability, which can pump energy into the particle monolayer at a rate surpassing the heat transport and damping rates in the energetic localized melted spot, resulting in its further growth. This behavior exhibits remarkable similarities with impulsive spot heating in ordinary reactive matter.

  2. A practical nonlocal model for heat transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaie, Ph.D.; Feugeas, J.-L.A.; Schurtz, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of nonlocal transport for multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics codes is presented. In laser produced plasmas, it is now believed that the heat transport can be strongly modified by the nonlocal nature of the electron conduction. Other mechanisms, such as self-generated magnetic fields, may also affect the heat transport. The model described in this work, based on simplified Fokker-Planck equations aims at extending the model of G. Schurtz, Ph. Nicolaie, and M. Busquet [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] to magnetized plasmas. A complete system of nonlocal equations is derived from kinetic equations with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. These equations are analyzed and simplified in order to be implemented into large laser fusion codes and coupled to other relevant physics. The model is applied to two laser configurations that demonstrate the main features of the model and point out the nonlocal Righi-Leduc effect in a multidimensional case

  3. A practical nonlocal model for heat transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, Ph. D.; Feugeas, J.-L. A.; Schurtz, G. P.

    2006-03-01

    A model of nonlocal transport for multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics codes is presented. In laser produced plasmas, it is now believed that the heat transport can be strongly modified by the nonlocal nature of the electron conduction. Other mechanisms, such as self-generated magnetic fields, may also affect the heat transport. The model described in this work, based on simplified Fokker-Planck equations aims at extending the model of G. Schurtz, Ph. Nicolaï, and M. Busquet [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] to magnetized plasmas. A complete system of nonlocal equations is derived from kinetic equations with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. These equations are analyzed and simplified in order to be implemented into large laser fusion codes and coupled to other relevant physics. The model is applied to two laser configurations that demonstrate the main features of the model and point out the nonlocal Righi-Leduc effect in a multidimensional case.

  4. Influence of non-collisional laser heating on the electron dynamics in dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilleau, L.; Duchateau, G.; Chimier, B.; Geoffroy, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-12-01

    The electron dynamics in dielectric materials induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses is theoretically addressed. The laser driven temporal evolution of the energy distribution of electrons in the conduction band is described by a kinetic Boltzmann equation. In addition to the collisional processes for energy transfer such as electron-phonon-photon and electron-electron interactions, a non-collisional process for photon absorption in the conduction band is included. It relies on direct transitions between sub-bands of the conduction band through multiphoton absorption. This mechanism is shown to significantly contribute to the laser heating of conduction electrons for large enough laser intensities. It also increases the time required for the electron distribution to reach the equilibrium state as described by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. Quantitative results are provided for quartz irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm and for intensities in the range of tens of TW cm-2, lower than the ablation threshold. The change in the energy deposition induced by this non-collisional heating process is expected to have a significant influence on the laser processing of dielectric materials.

  5. Numerical estimation of phase transformations in solid state during Yb:YAG laser heating of steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, Marcin, E-mail: kubiak@imipkm.pcz.pl; Piekarska, Wiesława; Domański, Tomasz; Saternus, Zbigniew [Institute of Mechanics and Machine Design Foundations, Częstochowa University of Technology, Dąbrowskiego 73, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Stano, Sebastian [Welding Technologies Department, Welding Institute, Błogosławionego Czesława 16-18, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    This work concerns the numerical modeling of heat transfer and phase transformations in solid state occurring during the Yb:YAG laser beam heating process. The temperature field is obtained by the numerical solution into transient heat transfer equation with convective term. The laser beam heat source model is developed using the Kriging interpolation method with experimental measurements of Yb:YAG laser beam profile taken into account. Phase transformations are calculated on the basis of Johnson - Mehl - Avrami (JMA) and Koistinen - Marburger (KM) kinetics models as well as continuous heating transformation (CHT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for S355 steel. On the basis of developed numerical algorithms 3D computer simulations are performed in order to predict temperature history and phase transformations in Yb:YAG laser heating process.

  6. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: dilatation performance in cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the artery dilatation performance of the short-duration heating balloon catheter in cadaver stenotic arteries. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to around 60 °C in 15-25 s by a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. We performed ex vivo short-duration heating dilatation in the cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries (initial percent diameter stenosis was 36-98%), with the maximum balloon temperature of 65+/-5 °C, laser irradiation duration of 25 s, and balloon dilatation pressure of 3.5 atm. The artery lumen configurations before and after the dilatations were assessed with a commercial IVUS system. After the short-duration heating dilatations, the percent diameter stenosis was reduced below 30% without any artery tears or dissections. We estimated that the artery media temperature was raised to around 60 °C in which plaque thickness was below 0.8 mm by a thermal conduction calculation. The estimated maximum temperature in artery adventitia and surrounding tissue was up to 45 °C. We found that the short-duration heating balloon could sufficiently dilate the cadaver stenotic arteries, without thermal injury in artery adventitia and surroundings.

  7. Inverse bremsstrahlung heating beyond the first Born approximation for dense plasmas in laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, M; Schlanges, M; Bornath, Th; Krainov, V P

    2012-01-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating, an important process in the laser-matter interaction, involves two different kinds of interaction—the interaction of the electrons with the external laser field and the electron-ion interaction. This makes analytical approaches very difficult. In a quantum perturbative approach to the IB heating rate in strong laser fields, usually the first Born approximation with respect to the electron-ion potential is considered, whereas the influence of the electric field is taken exactly in the Volkov wave functions. In this paper, a perturbative treatment is presented adopting a screened electron-ion interaction potential. As a new result, we derive the momentum-dependent, angle-averaged heating rate in the first Born approximation. Numerical results are discussed for a broad range of field strengths, and the conditions for the applicability of a linear approximation for the heating rate are analyzed in detail. Going a step further in the perturbation series, we consider the transition amplitude in the second Born approximation, which enables us to calculate the heating rate up to the third order of the interaction strength. (paper)

  8. Heating of multi-layered samples by a Nd: YAG pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz Neto, O.O.

    1998-01-01

    In the work we examine the heating of multi-layered samples by a powerful Nd-YAG pulsed laser. The samples are made of two and three layers, conductor-isolator (Al-Al 2 O 3 ). conductor-conductor (Al-Ag: Al-Au) an conductor-conductor-conductor (Al-Au-Ag:Ag-Au-Al). The transient behaviour of the temperature distribution throughout the samples is computed. We carry out three dimensional model calculations for the heating process in which we consider not only the temperature dependence of the sample thermal and optical parameters but also the space and time characteristics of the laser beams as the heating source. We showed the influence of the substrate in the thermal profile, in space and time, and maximum temperature on the multi-layered samples. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Experimental investigation of thermal conduction and related phenomena in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal conduction in plasmas is of major importance especially in controlled nuclear fusion studies. Direct measurements are rare. When the temperature gradient in a plasma becomes large enough classical thermal conduction (Heat flux q = -kΔT) no longer applies and it is thought that q is limited to some fraction of the free streaming limit qsub(m). The main experiment is the heating of a z-pinch plasma by a fast rising, intense carbon dioxide laser pulse. Electron temperature and density in time and space are diagnosed by ruby laser scattering. The profiles obtained were consistent with a flux limited to approximately 3% of the free streaming limit. Ion acoustic turbulence is observed along the temperature gradient. It is shown that the observed turbulence level is consistent with the heat flux limitation. At electron densities > 10 17 cm -3 backscattered light is observed from the plasma whose growth rate implies that it is Brillouin scattered. (author)

  10. Microstructural Characterization Of Laser Heat Treated AISI 4140 Steel With Improved Fatigue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh M.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface heat treatment using laser radiation on the fatigue strength and corresponding microstructural evolution of AISI 4140 alloy steel was investigated in this research. The AISI 4140 alloy steel was radiated by a diode laser to give surface temperatures in the range between 600 and 800°C, and subsequently underwent vibration peening. The fatigue behavior of surface-treated specimens was examined using a giga-cycle ultrasonic fatigue test, and it was compared with that of non-treated and only-peened specimens. Fatigue fractured surfaces and microstructural evolution with respect to the laser treatment temperatures were investigated using an optical microscope. Hardness distribution was measured using Vickers micro-hardness. Higher laser temperature resulted in higher fatigue strength, attributed to the phase transformation.

  11. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  12. Plasma production and heating by a laser TEA-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.; Rodrigues, N.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary experiments of plasma production and heating by laser irradiation of gases and solid targets have been performed with a laser TEA-CO 2 (1 MW, 80 ns, monomode), developed and built at the IEAv/Laser Laboratory. The laser beam was focused in the interior of a vacuum chamber (100 1) with a base pressure of 10 1 torr, and recolimated by a system of confocal lenses. The breakdown theresholds for nitrogen gas was investigated by varying the laser power, the neutral gas density and the focal lenght of the lenses. Plasma breakdown observed in the range of pressures between 100-720 torr was in good agreement with calculations of cascade ionization theory and classical absorption by inverse-Bremsstrahlung. The laser absorption was inferred by measuring the power transmitted in the presence and absence of plasma. The light emitted by the plasma was detected by a fast photo-diode, indicating that the plasma expansion phase lasted for several microseconds. These investigations have been applied in the development of plasma shutters for laser pulse compression. (author) [pt

  13. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-01-01

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength λ=8.5 μm suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length Nλ. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users' experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 μm have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up

  14. Effect of Heating Time on Hardness Properties of Laser Clad Gray Cast Iron Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Mifthal, F.; Zulhishamuddin, A. R.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents effect of heating time on cladded gray cast iron. In this study, the effect of heating time on cladded gray cast iron and melted gray cast iron were analysed. The gray cast iron sample were added with mixed Mo-Cr powder using laser cladding technique. The mixed Mo and Cr powder was pre-placed on gray cast iron surface. Modified layer were sectioned using diamond blade cutter and polish using SiC abrasive paper before heated. Sample was heated in furnace for 15, 30 and 45 minutes at 650 °C and cool down in room temperature. Metallographic study was conduct using inverted microscope while surface hardness properties were tested using Wilson hardness test with Vickers scale. Results for metallographic study showed graphite flakes within matrix of pearlite. The surface hardness for modified layer decreased when increased heating time process. These findings are significant to structure stability of laser cladded gray cast iron with different heating times.

  15. Application of optimal control theory to laser heating of a plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Laser heating of a plasma column confined by a solenoidal magnetic field is studied via modern optimal control techniques. A two-temperature, constant pressure model is used for the plasma so that the temperature and density are functions of time and location along the plasma column. They are assumed to be uniform in the radial direction so that refraction of the laser beam does not occur. The laser intensity used as input to the column at one end is taken as the control variable and plasma losses are neglected. The localized behavior of the plasma heating dynamics is first studied and conventional optimal control theory applied. The distributed parameter optimal control problem is next considered with minimum time to reach a specified final ion temperature criterion as the objective. Since the laser intensity can only be directly controlled at the input end of the plasma column, a boundary control situation results. The problem is unique in that the control is the boundary value of one of the state variables. The necessary conditions are developed and the problem solved numerically for typical plasma parameters. The problem of maximizing the space-time integral of neutron production rate in the plasma is considered for a constant distributed control problem where the laser intensity is assumed fixed at maximum and the external magnetic field is taken as a control variable

  16. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization

  17. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Holmlid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0 give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0 of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  18. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  19. Effects of heat treatments on laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jun; Huang Jian; Li Min; Li Zhuguo; Dong Jie; Wu Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Firstly find the tadpole-shape precipitates in the welding joint. → The precipitation strengthening can account for 79% of the total strength. → The results can provide some insights on the application of Mg-RE alloy. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of heat treatments on the quality of laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K were systematically studied. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints, welded by a 15 kW high power CO 2 laser, under different heat treatments had been tested and analyzed. The results indicated that the heat treatment plays an important role in the mechanical strength of laser welded joint of NZ30K. The microstructure of samples after the solution treatment as well as aging treatment is different from that of the as-received welded joint. For solution treatment, although the microstructure is much different from that of as-received welded joint, the solution strengthening effect is not obvious. There are lots of precipitates in the fusion zone after the aging treatment, which will significantly enhance the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the yield tensile strength (YTS) of the welding joint. 79% of YTS is caused by precipitation strengthening. Therefore, the results implied that the UTS and YTS can be greatly improved by proper heat treatment.

  20. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  1. Heating effect of substrate of pulsed laser ablation deposition technique towards the orientation of carbon microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, L.S.; Irmawati Ramli; Noorhana Yahya; Abdul Halim Shaari

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Carbon thin film has been successfully deposited by second harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser ablation deposition, PLAD. The topology and morphology of the deposited layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas emission dispersion X-ray (EDX) was used to determine the existence of elements that constitutes the microstructure. Substrate heated at 500 degree Celsius during the laser ablation showed the most homogenous lollipop microstructure as compared to mainly pillars of microstructure ablated at lower substrate temperature. It is found that this also avoid further diffusion of carbon into catalyst in forming iron carbide. (author)

  2. Ultrafast electron diffraction from non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser heated Au films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, T. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Trigo, M.; Reid, A. H.; Dürr, H. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Li, R.; Vecchione, T.; Shen, X.; Weathersby, S.; Coffee, R.; Hartmann, N.; Wang, X. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Reis, D. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    We use ultrafast electron diffraction to detect the temporal evolution of non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser-excited ultrathin single-crystalline gold films. From the time-dependence of the Debye-Waller factor, we extract a 4.7 ps time-constant for the increase in mean-square atomic displacements. The observed increase in the diffuse scattering intensity demonstrates that the energy transfer from laser-heated electrons to phonon modes near the X and K points in the Au fcc Brillouin zone proceeds with timescales of 2.3 and 2.9 ps, respectively, faster than the Debye-Waller average mean-square displacement.

  3. Diagnosis of a short-pulse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure in helium with hydrogen-methane admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastuta, A. V.; Pohoata, V.; Mihaila, I.; Topala, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present results from electrical, optical, and spectroscopic diagnosis of a short-pulse (250 ns) high-power impulse (up to 11 kW) dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure running in a helium/helium-hydrogen/helium-hydrogen-methane gas mixture. This plasma source is able to generate up to 20 cm3 of plasma volume, pulsed in kilohertz range. The plasma spatio-temporal dynamics are found to be developed in three distinct phases. All the experimental observations reveal a similar dynamic to medium power microsecond barrier discharges, although the power per pulse and current density are up to two orders of magnitude higher than the case of microsecond barrier discharges. This might open the possibility for new applications in the field of gas or surface processing, and even life science. These devices can be used in laboratory experiments relevant for molecular astrophysics.

  4. Generation of short optical pulses for laser fusion. M.L. report No. 2451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizenga, D.J.

    1975-06-01

    This report considers some of the problems involved in generating the required short pulses for the laser-fusion program. Short pulses are required to produce the laser fusion, and pulses produced synchronously with this primary pulse are required for plasma diagnostics. The requirements of these pulses are first described. Several methods are considered in order to generate pulses at 1.064 μ to drive the Nd:Glass amplifiers to produce laser fusion. Conditions for optimum energy extraction per short pulse for Nd:YAG and Nd:Glass lasers are given. Four methods are then considered to produce these pulses: (1) using a fast switch to chop the required pulse out of a much longer Q-switched pulse; (2) active mode locking; (3) passive mode locking; and (4) a combination of active and passive mode locking. The use of cavity dumping is also considered to increase the energy per short pulse

  5. Determination of Heating Value of Estonian Oil Shale by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aints

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS combined with multivariate regression analysis of measured data were utilised for determination of the heating value and the chemical composition of pellets made from Estonian oil shale samples with different heating values. The study is the first where the oil shale heating value is determined on the basis of LIBS spectra. The method for selecting the optimal number of spectral lines for ordinary multivariate least squares regression model is presented. The correlation coefficient between the heating value predicted by the regression model, and that measured by calorimetric bomb, was R2=0.98. The standard deviation of prediction was 0.24 MJ/kg. Concentrations of oil shale components predicted by the regression model were compared with those measured by ordinary methods.

  6. Laser pulse heating of steel mixing with WC particles in a irradiated region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-12-01

    Laser pulse heating of steel mixing with tungsten carbide (WC) particles is carried out. Temperature field in the irradiated region is simulated in line with the experimental conditions. In the analysis, a laser pulse parameter is introduced, which defines the laser pulse intensity distribution at the irradiated surface. The influence of the laser parameter on the melt pool size and the maximum temperature increase in the irradiated region is examined. Surface temperature predictions are compared with the experimental data. In addition, the distribution of WC particles and their re-locations in the treated layer, due to combination of the natural convection and Marangoni currents, are predicted. The findings are compared to the experimental data. It is found that surface temperature predictions agree well with the experimental data. The dislocated WC particles form a streamlining in the near region of the melt pool wall, which agree with the experimental findings. The Gaussian distribution of the laser pulse intensity results in the maximum peak temperature and the maximum flow velocity inside the melt pool. In this case, the melt pool depth becomes the largest as compared to those corresponding to other laser pulse intensity distributions at the irradiated surface.

  7. Short pulse duration shock initiation experiments plus ignition and growth modeling on Composition B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Chadd M; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, 1% wax) is still a widely used energetic material whose shock initiation characteristics are necessary to understand. It is now possible to shock initiate Composition B and other secondary explosives at diameters well below their characteristic failure diameters for unconfined self-sustaining detonation. This is done using very high velocity, very thin, small diameter flyer plates accelerated by electric or laser power sources. Recently experimental detonation versus failure to detonate threshold flyer velocity curves for Composition B using several Kapton TM flyer thicknesses and diameters were measured. Flyer plates with diameters of 2 mm successfully detonated Composition B, which has a nominal failure diameter of 4.3 mm. The shock pressures required for these initiations are greater than the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) pressure in self-sustaining Composition B detonation waves. The initiation process is two-dimensional, because both rear and side rarefactions can affect the shocked Composition B reaction rates. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for Composition B is extended to yield accurate simulations of this new threshold velocity data for various flyer thicknesses.

  8. Generation of strong pulsed magnetic fields using a compact, short pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuka, D.; Efimov, S.; Nitishinskiy, M.; Rososhek, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of strong magnetic fields (˜50 T) using single- or multi-turn coils immersed in water was studied. A pulse generator with stored energy of ˜3.6 kJ, discharge current amplitude of ˜220 kA, and rise time of ˜1.5 μs was used in these experiments. Using the advantage of water that it has a large Verdet constant, the magnetic field was measured using the non-disturbing method of Faraday rotation of a polarized collimated laser beam. This approach does not require the use of magnetic probes, which are sensitive to electromagnetic noise and damaged in each shot. It also avoids the possible formation of plasma by either a flashover along the conductor or gas breakdown inside the coil caused by an induced electric field. In addition, it was shown that this approach can be used successfully to investigate the interesting phenomenon of magnetic field enhanced diffusion into a conductor.

  9. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  10. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  11. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at frequencies ranging form 280 to 560 GHz. 7 refs., 1 tab

  12. Energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during laser and electron beam irradiation of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.W.; Aziz, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The fundamentals of energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during energy deposition from lasers and electron beams is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the deposition of energy from pulsed sources (10 to 100 ns pulse duration time) in order to achieve high heating and cooling rates (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/C/s) in the near surface region. The response of both metals and semiconductors to pulsed energy deposition is considered. Guidelines are presented for the choice of energy source, wavelength, and pulse duration time.

  13. CO sub 2 laser-heated diamond-anvil cell methodology revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Hearne, G; Zhao, J

    2002-01-01

    A description is given of CO sub 2 laser heating system for attaining high temperatures at pressure in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC). The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a relatively inexpensive set-up, perhaps affordable to many high-pressure laboratories, may be commissioned for laser-heated DAC experiments to achieve comparable extreme P-T conditions to those attained with more sophisticated stations documented in the literature. A novel idea of using the analogue output of a CCD camera to estimate the peak temperature and map the temperature distribution across the hot-spot has been tested. In an additional initial experiment on cubic zirconia (c-ZrO sub 2) we present evidence from a Raman characterization of the sample that temperatures exceeding 4000 K have been obtained at pressure in the DAC.

  14. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, M.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nagai, K.; Iwamae, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Fournier, K.B.; Girard, F.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Tobin, M.; Mima, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target (ρ ∼ 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation

  15. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  16. The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir; Anvari, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani, E. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-04-14

    The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 10{sup 7 }K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.

  17. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BLEPHAROPLASTY AND PERIOCULAR SKIN RESURFACING WITH NEW GENERATION ER:YAG LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Drnovšek-Olup

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, a new type of Er:YAG laser, emitting irradiation with variable pulse duration, has been used for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing in periocular region.More than 40 patients have been treated with second generation Er:YAG laser (Fotona Fidelis for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing. A focused laser beam (diameter 0.4 mm with very short pulse width (100 µs, that is significantly below the thermal relaxation time of skin, leads to a precise cut with no observable thermal effect on surrounding tissue. The depth of the cut is approximately 1–2 mm, precision comparable to a surgical scalpel. The high repetition rate of consecutive laser pulses (50 Hz at 120 mJ energy accounts for accumulation of thermal load in tissue, and thus leads to complete hemostasis of the cut tissue. Due to improved cutting abilities of the Er:YAG laser, excision of orbital fat is also performed with one pass of the laser beam. By changing the laser parameters to short pulses (300 µs, energy 500 mJ, spot diameter 5 mm and repetition rate 12–15 Hz, skin resurfacing was performed. No special pretreatment therapy was used. Anesthesia: 2% Xylocain inj. subcutaneously. Non adhesive dressing for 24 hours was applied after surgery.Epithelisation was complete after ten days. Redness persists up to 5 weeks. Discomfort of patients was mild. Cosmetic results are satisfying.Conclusions. New generation of Er:YAG laser offers a possibility to cut and coagulate the tissue simultaneously, and by changing the parameters to ablate the tissue with heating influence on skin collagen.

  19. The rapid growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using laser heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B; Jeong, S H; Jeong, M S; Lim, S C; Lee, I H; Lee, Y H

    2009-05-06

    Growth of densely packed vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition with visible laser (lambda = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature is reported. Using a multiple-catalyst layer (Fe/Al/Cr) on quartz as the substrate and an acetylene-hydrogen mixture as the precursor gas, VA-CNT pillars with 60 microm height and 4 microm diameter were grown at a high rate of around 1 microm s(-1) with good reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of uniform pillar arrays of VA-CNTs can be achieved with a single irradiation for each pillar using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. Here, laser fast heating is considered the primary mechanism facilitating the growth of VA-CNT pillars. Field emission characteristics of an array of VA-CNT pillars were then examined to investigate their potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  20. Effects of He-Ne laser beam on mechanical, heat, chemical and superficial wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakai, S.F.K.; Albarwari, S.E.; Alsenawi, T.A.

    1988-02-01

    This study summarizes the effects of low-doses of He-Ne laser radiation (λ = 6328 A), on healing of four types of wounds, including mechanical, heat, chemical and superficial wounds. The results revealed that variations between complete wound-closure in irradiated samples and that of control groups were statistically significant. Moreover, the results suggest that the stimulative action of laser is an accumulative phenomenon, that affects factors involved in the course of wound healing. The results also indicate that the skin epithelium is a highly responsive tissue towards this sort of radiation, which suggests that the stimulative action of He-Ne laser could be assayed easily by using such tissues as a test target. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

    2009-02-04

    We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

  2. Depth profiling of laser-heated chromophores in biological tissues by pulsed photothermal radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.E.; Goodman, D.M.; Tanenbaum, B.S.; Nelson, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A solution method is proposed to the inverse problem of determining the unknown initial temperature distribution in a laser-exposed test material from measurements provided by infrared radiometry. A Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is derived that relates the temporal evolution of the infrared signal amplitude to the unknown initial temperature distribution in the exposed test material. The singular-value decomposition is used to demonstrate the severely ill-posed nature of the derived inverse problem. Three inversion methods are used to estimate solutions for the initial temperature distribution. A nonnegatively constrained conjugate-gradient algorithm using early termination is found superior to unconstrained inversion methods and is applied to image the depth of laser-heated chromophores in human skin. Key words: constrained conjugate gradients, ill-posed problem, infrared radiometry, laser surgery, nonnegative, singular-value decomposition

  3. Laser re-melting of tungsten damaged by transient heat loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loewenhoff, Th.; Linke, J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Rasinski, M.; Vostřák, M.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 165-170 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma facing material * Laser surface remelting * Transient heat load * Tungsten Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.04.004

  4. Image analysis as an improved melting criterion in laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ran; Matityahu, Shlomi; Melchior, Aviva; Nikolaevsky, Mark; Noked, Ori; Sterer, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The precision of melting curve measurements using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) is largely limited by the correct and reliable determination of the onset of melting. We present a novel image analysis of speckle interference patterns in the LHDAC as a way to define quantitative measures which enable an objective determination of the melting transition. Combined with our low-temperature customized IR pyrometer, designed for measurements down to 500K, our setup allows studying the melt...

  5. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; Key, M.; Akli, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Chen, C.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R.; King, J.; Link, A.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Patel, P.; Stephens, R.; VanWoerkom, L.; Zhang, B.; Beg, F.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented

  6. High-temperature quadrupole mass spectrometer for studying vaporization from materials heated by a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredin, L.; Hansen, G.P.; Sampson, M.P.; Margrave, J.L.; Behrens, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mass spectrometry techniques in studying vaporization from selected materials, we designed a mass spectrometer than can be used either with a continuous wave or pulsed laser heating system or with a conventional furnace heating system. Our experimental apparatus, the components of which are described in detail, consisted of a quadrupole mass spectrometer positioned in a crossed-beam configuration, controlling electronics, a data acquisition system, a vacuum system, a cryogenic collimation system, and a laser heating system. Results of mass spectral scans taken during laser pyrolysis of polymeric materials and laser vaporization of graphite were compatible with data reported in other studies. Results of mass spectral studies of laser-induced combustion in the Ti + C system are also presented

  7. A reaction cell with sample laser heating for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies under environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos; Jiang, Peng; Pach, Elzbieta; Borondics, Ferenc; West, Mark W; Tuxen, Anders; Chintapalli, Mahati; Carenco, Sophie; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel

    2013-05-01

    A miniature (1 ml volume) reaction cell with transparent X-ray windows and laser heating of the sample has been designed to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of materials in the presence of gases at atmospheric pressures. Heating by laser solves the problems associated with the presence of reactive gases interacting with hot filaments used in resistive heating methods. It also facilitates collection of a small total electron yield signal by eliminating interference with heating current leakage and ground loops. The excellent operation of the cell is demonstrated with examples of CO and H2 Fischer-Tropsch reactions on Co nanoparticles.

  8. Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.

  9. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  10. Modeling the Influence of Process Parameters and Additional Heat Sources on Residual Stresses in Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, F.; Lepski, D.; Beyer, E.

    2007-09-01

    In laser cladding thermal contraction of the initially liquid coating during cooling causes residual stresses and possibly cracks. Preweld or postweld heating using inductors can reduce the thermal strain difference between coating and substrate and thus reduce the resulting stress. The aim of this work is to better understand the influence of various thermometallurgical and mechanical phenomena on stress evolution and to optimize the induction-assisted laser cladding process to get crack-free coatings of hard materials at high feed rates. First, an analytical one-dimensional model is used to visualize the most important features of stress evolution for a Stellite coating on a steel substrate. For more accurate studies, laser cladding is simulated including the powder-beam interaction, the powder catchment by the melt pool, and the self-consistent calculation of temperature field and bead shape. A three-dimensional finite element model and the required equivalent heat sources are derived from the results and used for the transient thermomechanical analysis, taking into account phase transformations and the elastic-plastic material behavior with strain hardening. Results are presented for the influence of process parameters such as feed rate, heat input, and inductor size on the residual stresses at a single bead of Stellite coatings on steel.

  11. Effect of Heat and Laser Treatment on Cu2S Thin Film Sprayed on Polyimide Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Wafaa; Mahmoud, Fawzy A.; Nassar, Amira H.

    2018-02-01

    Three samples of copper sulfide Cu2S thin film were deposited on polyimide substrate by spray pyrolysis using deposition temperature of 400°C and deposition time of about 45 min. One of the samples was left as deposited, another was heat treated, while the third was laser treated. The structural, surface morphological, optical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the copper sulfide films were close to copper-rich phase (Cu2S). Increased crystallite size after heat and laser treatment was confirmed by XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers hardness measurements showed that the samples' hardness values were enhanced with increasing crystallite size, representing an inverse Hall-Petch (H-P) effect. The calculated optical bandgap of the treated films was lower than that of the deposited film. Finally, it was found that both heat and laser treatment enhanced the physical properties of the sprayed Cu2S films on polyimide substrate for use in solar energy applications.

  12. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  13. Effect of Heat Accumulation on Femtosecond Laser Reductive Sintering of Mixed CuO/NiO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Mizoshiri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct laser-writing techniques have attracted attention for their use in two- and three-dimensional printing technologies. In this article, we report on a micropatterning process that uses femtosecond laser reductive sintering of mixed CuO/NiO nanoparticles. The writing speed, laser fluence, and incident total energy were varied to investigate the influence of heat accumulation on the micropatterns formed by these materials. Heat accumulation and the thermal history of the laser irradiation process significantly affected the material composition and the thermoelectric properties of the fabricated micropatterns. Short laser irradiation durations and high laser fluences decrease the amount of metal oxide in the micropatterns. Selective fabrication of p-type and n-type thermoelectric micropatterns was demonstrated to be possible with control of the reduction and reoxidization reactions through the control of writing speed and total irradiation energy.

  14. Research on Heat Source Model and Weld Profile for Fiber Laser Welding of A304 Stainless Steel Thin Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat source model is the key issue for laser welding simulation. The Gaussian heat source model is not suitable to match the actual laser weld profile accurately. Furthermore, fiber lasers are widely recognized to result in good-quality laser beam output, a narrower weld zone, less distortion, and high process efficiency, compared with other types of lasers (such as CO2, Nd : YAG, and diode lasers. At present, there are few heat source models for fiber laser welding. Most of researchers evaluate the weld profile only by the bead width and depth of penetration, which is not suitable for the laser keyhole welding nail-like profile. This paper reports an experimental study and FEA simulation of fiber laser butt welding on 1 mm thick A304 stainless steel. A new heat source model (cylindrical and cylindrical is established to match the actual weld profile using Marc and Fortran software. Four bead geometry parameters (penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist are used to compare between the experimental and simulation results. The results show that the heat source model of cylindrical and cylindrical can match the actual shape of the fiber laser welding feasibly. The error range of the penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist between experimental and simulation results is about 4.1 ± 1.6%, 2.9 ± 2.0%, 13.6 ± 7.4/%, and 18.3 ± 8.0%, respectively. In addition, it is found that the depth of penetration is more sensitive to laser power rather than bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist. Welding speed has a similar influence on the depth of penetration, weld width, waist width, and depth of the waist.

  15. Tribological performance of titanium samples oxidized by fs-laser radiation, thermal heating, or electrochemical anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirner, S. V.; Slachciak, N.; Elert, A. M.; Griepentrog, M.; Fischer, D.; Hertwig, A.; Sahre, M.; Dörfel, I.; Sturm, H.; Pentzien, S.; Koter, R.; Spaltmann, D.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2018-04-01

    Commercial grade-1 titanium samples (Ti, 99.6%) were treated using three alternative methods, (i) femtosecond laser processing, (ii) thermal heat treatment, and (iii) electrochemical anodization, respectively, resulting in the formation of differently conditioned superficial titanium oxide layers. The laser processing (i) was carried out by a Ti:sapphire laser (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm, pulse repetition rate 1 kHz) in a regime of generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning setup for the processing of several square-millimeters large surface areas covered homogeneously by these nanostructures. The differently oxidized titanium surfaces were characterized by optical microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and instrumented indentation testing. The tribological performance was characterized in the regime of mixed friction by reciprocating sliding tests against a sphere of hardened steel in fully formulated engine oil as lubricant. The specific tribological performance of the differently treated surfaces is discussed with respect to possible physical and chemical mechanisms.

  16. Theory of free-electron-laser heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of a powerful new microwave source, the free-electron laser, provides new opportunities for novel heating and current-drive schemes to be used in toroidal fusion devices. This high-power, pulsed source has a number of technical advantages for these applications, and its use is predicted to lead to improved current-drive efficiencies and opacities in reactor-grade fusion plasmas in specific cases. The Microwave Tokamak Experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will provide a test for some of these new heating and current-drive schemes. Although the motivation for much of this research has derived from the application of a free-electron laser to the heating of a tokamak plasma at a frequency near the electron cyclotron frequency, the underlying physics, i.e., the highly nonlinear interaction of an intense, pulsed, coherent electromagnetic wave with an electron in a magnetized plasma including relativistic effects, is of general interest. Other relevant applications include ionospheric modification by radio-frequency waves, high-energy electron accelerators, and the propagation of intense, pulsed electromagnetic waves in space and astrophysical plasmas. This review reports recent theoretical progress in the analysis and computer simulation of the absorption and current drive produced by intense pulses, and of the possible complications that may arise, e.g., parametric instabilities, nonlinear self-focusing, trapped-particle sideband instability, and instabilities of the heated plasma

  17. Does laser-driven heat front propagation depend on material microstructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, J. D.; Matsukuma, H.; Fournier, K. B.; Yoga, A.; Kemp, G. E.; Tanaka, N.; Zhang, Z.; Kota, K.; Tosaki, S.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nishimura, H.

    2016-10-01

    We showed earlier that the laser-driven heat front propagation velocity in low-density Ti-silica aerogel and TiO2 foam targets was slower than that simulated with a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code incorporating an atomic kinetics model in non-LTE and assuming initially homogeneous material. Some theoretical models suggest that the heat front is slowed over what it would be in a homogeneous medium by the microstructure of the foam. In order to test this hypothesis we designed and conducted a comparison experiment on the GEKKO laser to measure heat front propagation velocity in two targets, one an Ar/CO2 gas mixture and the other a TiO2 foam, that had identical initial densities and average ionization states. We found that the heat front traveled about ten times faster in the gas than in the foam. We present the details of the experiment design and a comparison of the data with the simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and the joint research project of ILE Osaka U. (contract Nos. 2014A1-04 and 2015A1-02).

  18. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  19. Heat transfer and fluid flow during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel

    CERN Document Server

    He, X; Debroy, T

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of temperature and velocity fields during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel was studied using a transient, heat transfer and fluid flow model based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in the weld pool. The weld pool geometry, weld thermal cycles and various solidification parameters were calculated. The fusion zone geometry, calculated from the transient heat transfer and fluid flow model, was in good agreement with the corresponding experimentally measured values for various welding conditions. Dimensional analysis was used to understand the importance of heat transfer by conduction and convection and the roles of various driving forces for convection in the weld pool. During solidification, the mushy zone grew at a rapid rate and the maximum size of the mushy zone was reached when the pure liquid region vanished. The solidification rate of the mushy zone/liquid interface was shown to increase while the temperature gradient in the liquid zone at...

  20. A study of the flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel for a heated wall with surface texture produced by vibration-assisted laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga; Grabas, Bogusław; Maciejewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a vertical minichannel with a depth of 1.7 mm and a width of 16 mm. The element responsible for heating FC-72, which flowed laminarly in the minichannel, was a plate with an enhanced surface. Two types of surface textures were considered. Both were produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. Infrared thermography was used to record changes in the temperature on the outer smooth side of the plate. Two-phase flow patterns were observed through a glass pane. The main aim of the study was to analyze how the two types of surface textures affect the heat transfer coefficient. A two-dimensional heat transfer approach was proposed to determine the local values of the heat transfer coefficient. The inverse problem for the heated wall was solved using a semi-analytical method based on the Trefftz functions. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance along the minichannel length and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported in the saturated boiling region for the plate with the type 1 texture produced by vibration-assisted laser machining. (paper)

  1. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Whitehead, D.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO2 (continuous wave), disc and fibre lasers were used in cutting CFRP composites and the control of damages such as the size of heat-affected zones (HAZs) remains a challenge. In this paper, a short-pulsed (8 μs) transversely excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser was used, for the first time, to machine CFRP composites. The laser has high peak powers (up to 250 kW) and excellent absorption by both the carbon fibre and the epoxy binder. Design of experiment and statistical modelling, based on response surface methodology, was used to understand the interactions between the process parameters such as laser fluence, repetition rate and cutting speed and their effects on the cut quality characteristics including size of HAZ, machining depth and material removal rate (MRR). Based on this study, process parameter optimization was carried out to minimize the HAZ and maximize the MRR. A discussion is given on the potential applications and comparisons to other lasers in machining CFRP.

  2. High Heat Flux Interactions and Tritium Removal from Plasma Facing Components by a Scanning Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.; Hassanein, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for studying high heat flux interactions with plasma facing components is presented. The beam from a continuous wave 300 W neodymium laser was focused to 80 W/mm2 and scanned at high speed over the surface of carbon tiles. These tiles were previously used in the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] inner limiter and have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was codeposited during plasma operations. Laser scanning released up to 84% of the codeposited tritium. The temperature rise of the codeposit on the tiles was significantly higher than that of the manufactured material. In one experiment, the codeposit surface temperature rose to 1,770 C while for the same conditions, the manufactured surface increased to only 1,080 C. The peak temperature did not follow the usual square-root dependence on heat pulse duration. Durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, while a duration of approximately 10 ms showed minimal change. A digital microscope imaged the codeposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed hot spots on a 100-micron scale. These results will be compared to analytic modeling and are relevant to the response of plasma facing components to disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) in next-step magnetic fusion devices

  3. Laser heating tunability by off-resonant irradiation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Silvia; Gregorio-Godoy, Paula; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Juárez, Beatriz H; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo

    2014-01-29

    Temperature changes in the vicinity of a single absorptive nanostructure caused by local heating have strong implications in technologies such as integrated electronics or biomedicine. Herein, the temperature changes in the vicinity of a single optically trapped spherical Au nanoparticle encapsulated in a thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell (Au@pNIPAM) are studied in detail. Individual beads are trapped in a counter-propagating optical tweezers setup at various laser powers, which allows the overall particle size to be tuned through the phase transition of the thermo-responsive shell. The experimentally obtained sizes measured at different irradiation powers are compared with average size values obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) from an ensemble of beads at different temperatures. The size range and the tendency to shrink upon increasing the laser power in the optical trap or by increasing the temperature for DLS agree with reasonable accuracy for both approaches. Discrepancies are evaluated by means of simple models accounting for variations in the thermal conductivity of the polymer, the viscosity of the aqueous solution and the absorption cross section of the coated Au nanoparticle. These results show that these parameters must be taken into account when considering local laser heating experiments in aqueous solution at the nanoscale. Analysis of the stability of the Au@pNIPAM particles in the trap is also theoretically carried out for different particle sizes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  5. Crystallization of an amorphous Fe72Ni9Si8B11 alloy upon laser heating and isothermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girzhon, V.V.; Smolyakov, A.V.; Yastrebova, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    With the use of methods of x-ray diffraction, resistometric and metallographic analyses specific features of crystallization and phase formation in amorphous alloy Fe 72 Ni 9 Si 8 B 11 are studied under various heating conditions. It is shown that laser heating results in alloy crystallization by an explosive mechanism when attaining a certain density of irradiation power. It is stated that ribbon surface laser heating with simultaneous water cooling of an opposite surface allows manufacturing two-layer amorphous-crystalline structures of the amorphous matrix + α-(Fe, Si) - amorphous matrix type [ru

  6. Numerical analysis of high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat sinking structure using epitaxial liftoff technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghyun; Sung, Yunsu; Yang, Jung-Tack; Choi, Woo-Young

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of high-power broad-area laser diodes with the improved heat sinking structure are numerically analyzed by a technology computer-aided design based self-consistent electro-thermal-optical simulation. The high-power laser diodes consist of a separate confinement heterostructure of a compressively strained InGaAsP quantum well and GaInP optical cavity layers, and a 100-μm-wide rib and a 2000-μm long cavity. In order to overcome the performance deteriorations of high-power laser diodes caused by self-heating such as thermal rollover and thermal blooming, we propose the high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat-sinking structure, which another effective heat-sinking path toward the substrate side is added by removing a bulk substrate. It is possible to obtain by removing a 400-μm-thick GaAs substrate with an AlAs sacrificial layer utilizing well-known epitaxial liftoff techniques. In this study, we present the performance improvement of the high-power laser diode with the heat-sinking structure by suppressing thermal effects. It is found that the lateral far-field angle as well as quantum well temperature is expected to be improved by the proposed heat-sinking structure which is required for high beam quality and optical output power, respectively.

  7. Heat accumulation regime of femtosecond laser writing in fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukharin, M.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Optosystems Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khudyakov, D.V. [Optosystems Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Physics Instrumentation Center of the General Physics Institute, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vartapetov, S.K. [Physics Instrumentation Center of the General Physics Institute, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    We investigated refractive index induced by direct femtosecond laser writing inside fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass in heat accumulation regime. Spatial profile and magnitude of induced refractive index were investigated at various pulse repetition rates and translation velocities. It was shown that the magnitude of induced refractive index significantly rises with decreasing in time interval between successive laser pulses below the time for thermal diffusion. Going from nonthermal regime to heat accumulation regime, we achieved induced refractive index growth from 4 x 10{sup -3} up to 6.5 x 10{sup -3} in fused silica and from -6 x 10{sup -3} to -9 x 10{sup -3} in Nd:phosphate glass. Aspect ratio of treated area decreased from 2.1 down to less than 1.5 without correcting optical elements. It was shown that in heat accumulation regime, the treated area was surrounded by region of alternatively changed refractive index with significant magnitude up to -2 x 10{sup -3}. Wide regions of decreased refractive index enable fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides. We demonstrated low-loss (0.3 dB/cm) tubular waveguide inside fused silica. For orthogonal polarizations of guiding light, we achieved a small difference between losses as 0.1 dB/cm using highly symmetric written tracks forming the cladding. The desired structure was simulated with the beam propagation method, and the results were in good agreement with experiment data. (orig.)

  8. Plasma column development in the CO2 laser-heated solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Offenberger, A.A.; Capjack, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Axial and radial plasma dynamics in the CO 2 laser-heated solenoid have been studied experimentally and numerically. The axial behavior is found to be well described by a self-regulated bleaching wave model. The radial expansion is found to be strongly dependent on the focusing ratio of the input laser beam. With a fast focus ( f/5), the early radial expansion rate is twice that found with a slower focusing arrangement ( f/15). The faster focusing ratio also results in a significantly wider plasma column. On the other hand, no significant dependence of f/number on the axial propagation was found. A finite ionization time and the rapid formation of a density minimum on axis are observed and verify earlier experimental results. Detailed comparisons are made with a 2-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and laser propagation code. The axial and radial plasma behavior and, in particular, the dependence of the radial behavior on the focal ratio of the laser are reasonably well supported by the simulation results. Computational results are also in good agreement with experimental measurements of temperature and density using stimulated scattering (Brillouin, Raman) and interferometry diagnostic techniques

  9. Evaporation studies of liquid oxide fuel at very high temperatures using laser beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Breitung, W.; Karow, H.U.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-11-01

    Evaporation experiments with oxide fuel are carried out based laser beam heating of the fuel specimen surface. The measuring quantities are the recoil momentum of the target, the evaporation area, the evaporation time and the mass and momentum of the supersonic vapor jet expanding into vacuum, and the thermal radiation density of the evaporating surface. From the mechanical measuring quantities we derive the vapor pressure of the target material and, in a first approach, also the evaporation temperature by applying a gas dynamic evaluation model. In a second approach, after having measured the spectral emissivity of liquid UO 2 at 633 nm, we determine the evaporation temperature at the liquid surface also from its thermal radiation. For the determination of the vapor pressure from the measured quantities a gas dynamic evaluation model has been developed. An application limit of the measuring technique is given by onset of plasma interaction of the vapor plume with the incident laser beam at temperatures above 4500 K. Experimental values for the saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 are presented, determined from three series of laser evaporation measurements obtained at temperatures around 3500 K, 3950 K, and 4200 K. The average vapor pressures found are 0.6 bar, 3 bar, and 7 bar, respectively. Laser vapor pressure measurements performed by other authors and theoretical extrapolations of the UO 2 vapor pressure curve known from literature show fairly good agreement within their confidence interval with the vapor pressure measurements reported here. (orig./HR) [de

  10. Surface properties tuning of welding electrode-deposited hardfacings by laser heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Arthur; Croitoru, Catalin; Tierean, Mircea Horia

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, several Cr-Mn-rich hardfacings have been open-arc deposited on S275JR carbon quality structural steel and further submitted to laser treatment at different powers. An overall increase with 34-98% in the average microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings has been obtained, due to the formation of martensite, silicides, as well as simple and complex carbides on the surface of the hardfacings, in comparison with the reference, not submitted to laser thermal treatment. Surface laser treatment of electrode-deposited hardfacings improves their chemical resistance under corrosive saline environments, as determined by the 43% lower amount of leached iron and respectively, 28% lower amount of manganese ions leached in a 10% wt. NaCl aqueous solution, comparing with the reference hardfacings. Laser heat treatment also promotes better compatibility of the hardfacings with water-based paints and oil-based paints and primers, through the relative increasing in the polar component of the surface energy (with up to 65%) which aids both water and filler spreading on the metallic surface.

  11. The physics of megajoule, large-scale, and ultrafast short-scale laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in laser science and technology have opened new possibilities for the study of high energy density plasma physics. The advances include techniques to control the laser spatial and temporal coherence, and the development of laser architectures and optical materials that have led to the demonstration of compact, short pulse (τ≤10 -12 sec) high brightness lasers, capable of irradiating plasmas with intensities ≥10 18 W/cm 2 . Experiments with reduced laser coherence have shown a substantial decrease in laser-driven parametric instabilities and have extended the parameter range where inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is the dominant coupling process. Beam smoothing with short wavelength lasers should result in inverse bremsstrahlung dominated coupling in the irradiance parameter regimes of the millimeter scale-length plasmas envisioned for the megajoule class lasers for ignition and gain in inertial fusion. In addition new regimes of laser--plasma coupling will become experimentally accessible when plasmas are irradiated with I≥10 18 W/cm 2 . Relativistic effects, extreme profile modification, and electrons heated to energies exceeding 1 MeV are several of the phenomena that are expected. Numerous applications in basic and applied plasma physics will result from these new capabilities

  12. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Change in the optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by the near-IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N.; Bagratashvili, N. V.; Gapontsev, V. P.; Makhmutova, G. Sh; Minaev, V. P.; Omel'chenko, A. I.; Samartsev, I. E.; Sviridov, A. P.; Sobol', E. N.; Tsypina, S. I.

    2001-06-01

    The in vitro dynamics of the change in optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by fibre lasers at wavelengths 0.97 and 1.56 μm is studied. The laser-induced bleaching (at 1.56 μm) and darkening (at 0.97 μm) of the cartilage, caused by the heating and transport of water as well as by a change in the cartilage matrix, were observed and studied. These effects should be taken into account while estimating the depth of heating of the tissue. The investigated dynamics of light scattering in the cartilage allows one to choose the optimum radiation dose for laser plastic surgery of cartilage tissues.

  13. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  14. Infrared Laser Heating Applied to Nanopore Sensing for DNA Duplex Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Christopher E; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J; Reiner, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Temperature studies coupled with resistive-pulse nanopore sensing enable the quantification of a variety of important thermodynamic properties at the single-molecule limit. Previous demonstrations of nanopore sensing with temperature control have utilized bulk chamber heating methodologies. This approach makes it difficult to rapidly change temperatures and enable optical access for other analytical techniques (i.e., single-molecule fluorescence). To address these issues, researchers have explored laser-based methodologies through either direct infrared (IR) absorption or plasmonic assisted heating. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of IR-based direct absorption heating with the DNA sensing capabilities of a biological nanopore. The IR heating enables rapid changes of the temperature in and around an α-hemolysin pore, and we use this to explore melting properties for short (≤50 bp) double-stranded DNA homopolymers. We also demonstrate that the IR heating enables one to measure the percentage of different-sized DNA molecules in a binary mixture.

  15. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  16. Coupled light transport-heat diffusion model for laser dosimetry with dynamic optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.; Glinsky, M.E.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Eder, D.C.; Jacques, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of dynamic optical properties on the spatial distribution of light in laser therapy is studied via numerical simulations. A two-dimensional, time dependent computer program called LATIS is used. Laser light transport is simulated with a Monte Carlo technique including anisotropic scattering and absorption. Thermal heat transport is calculated with a finite difference algorithm. Material properties are specified on a 2-D mesh and can be arbitrary functions of space and time. Arrhenius rate equations are solved for tissue damage caused by elevated temperatures. Optical properties are functions of tissue damage, as determined by previous measurements. Results are presented for the time variation of the light distribution and damage within the tissue as the optical properties of the tissue are altered

  17. Studies on post weld heat treatment of dissimilar aluminum alloys by laser beam welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B.; Krishna, N. Murali; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study mainly focuses on post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of AA5083 and AA6061 alloys by joining these using laser beam welding at three different laser power and two different beam spot sizes and three different welding speeds. Effects of these parameters on microstructural and mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength were studied at PWHT condition and significant changes had been observed. The PWHT used was artificial aging technique. The microstructural observations revealed that there was a appreciable changes were taken place in the grain size. The microhardness observations proven that the change in the hardness profile in AA6061 was appreciable than in the AA5083. The tensile strength of 246 MPa was recorded as highest. The fractured surfaces observed are predominantly ductile in nature.

  18. Prediction of laser cutting heat affected zone by extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicic, Obrad; Jović, Srđan; Skrijelj, Hivzo; Nedić, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Heat affected zone (HAZ) of the laser cutting process may be developed based on combination of different factors. In this investigation the HAZ forecasting, based on the different laser cutting parameters, was analyzed. The main goal was to predict the HAZ according to three inputs. The purpose of this research was to develop and apply the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) to predict the HAZ. The ELM results were compared with genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN). The reliability of the computational models were accessed based on simulation results and by using several statistical indicators. Based upon simulation results, it was demonstrated that ELM can be utilized effectively in applications of HAZ forecasting.

  19. X-ray spectroscopy of laser heated CF{sub 2}-targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissel, M.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Pirzadeh, P.; Rosmej, F.B.; Roth, M.; Seelig, W.; Sub, W. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany); Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T. [VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Tauschwitz, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The scientific focus of plasma physics with heavy ions is to investigate the interaction of heavy ion beams with hot and dense plasmas. These plasmas are generated by a Nd:YAG/Nd:glass-laser system which can provide up to 100 J within 15 ns. Previous experiments showed, that there is an enhanced energy loss of the projectiles in carbon, when it is heated from the solid into the plasma state. To model and interpret the experiments more precisely, an exact knowledge of the plasma parameters, such as size, temperature, electron density and inhomogeneity are of fundamental necessity. Due to the high temperatures achieved in laser produced plasmas the soft X-ray emission of highly charged ions can be used for diagnostics. (authors)

  20. Higher coherent x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)