WorldWideScience

Sample records for short doubling time

  1. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system.

  2. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  3. Double universe and the arrow of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfinito, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universitta di Lecce, 73100 Lecce and CNISM-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia. Universita di Lecce (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The canonical quantum field theory formalism for the expanding geometry universe leads to the 'Double Universe' scenario envisaged by quantum loop gravity. Thermal properties of inflating universe and the classicality of the time-evolution trajectories in the space of the representations of the canonical commutation relations are also discussed.

  4. Doubling time of liver metastase images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittighoffer, Bernard.

    1975-01-01

    For our study, where clinical and scintigraphic observation seldom lasts more than two years and where measurable metastases always exceed 1 cm 3 , the exponential model was adopted and our results were all calculated with GERSTENBERG's formula which gives an apparent doubling time. The liver metastases were measured on the scintigraphic image obtained, a more or less sharply limited blank which makes for a first difficulty of judgement. Two magnascanner V type PICKER 5-inch crystal scintigraphs were used, giving three images simultaneously by a transcriber made up of a stylus and a light spot built into the detection system. The isotope used is colloidal gold ( 198 Au) phagocytized by the Kuepfferian reticulo-endothelial system. The doubling time for liver metastase scintigraphic images calculated for fifteen patients having undergone one or more isotopic checks after a first metastase image was discovered range from 10 to 103 days [fr

  5. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is

  6. On the short-distance double penguin contribution to the K0 - anti K0 mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-04-01

    The short-distance contribution of the double penguin box diagram to the K 0 - anti K 0 mixing is investigated. Compared with previous work of other authors, the present paper takes into account the momentum dependence of the box loop, both the non-local part of the penguin and the previously considered local part and the crossed diagrams, which make a class of double penguin diagrams complete. With such new ingredients, is is concluded that the short-distance part of the double penguin is physically irrelevant. After eliminating this particular mechanism for the K 0 - anti K 0 mixing, other potentially relevant mechanisms are pointed out

  7. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  8. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  9. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  10. On the short-distance double penguin contribution to the K0-anti K0 mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the short-distance contribution of the double penguin box diagram to the K 0 -anti K 0 mixing. Compared with previous work of other authors, the present paper takes into account (i) the momentum dependence of the box loop, (ii) both the non-local part of the penguin and the previously considered local part and (iii) the crossed diagrams, which make a class of double penguin diagrams complete. With such new ingredients, we arrive at the conclusion that the SD part of the double penguin is physically irrelevant. After eliminating this particular mechanism for the K 0 -anti K 0 mixing, we point out other potentially relevant mechanisms. (orig.)

  11. Half Double Methodology – Leading projects to impact in half the time with double the impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Michael; Svejvig, Per

    this presentation to learn about the three core elements of the half-double methodology so that you can lead your projects to double the impact in half the time. Objectives: Summarize the half-double methodology and core elements of impact, flow, and leadership; explain how PMI’s project management tools can......Despite developments in agile methodologies over the last 20 years, the potential for optimization in projects is still significant. Current research shows that there are methodologies that can be used to reduce lead time and increase value creation of projects by 30% or more. Join...

  12. Nuclear fuel, mass balances, conversion ratio, doubling time, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1976-11-01

    Information on the performance aspects of nuclear power plants is presented concerning conversion ratio, criticality, primitive economic analysis, stable breeder-converter industry, doubling time, breeder industry economic benefit, defining nuclear fuel, recommendations, and uncertainty

  13. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  14. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary

  15. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  16. Period doubling phenomenon in a class of time delay equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the solution of a nonlinear time delayed differential equation (infinite dimension) as function of two parameters: the time delay tau and another parameter A (nonlinearity) are investigated. After a Hopf bifurcation period doubling may occur and is characterized by Feigenbaum's delta. A strange atractor is obtained after the period doubling cascade and the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated indicating that the attractor has low dimension. The behaviour of this Liapunov exponent as function of tau is different from its behaviour as function of A. (Author) [pt

  17. Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)

    2010-07-28

    We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.

  18. Double-layer rotor magnetic shield performance analysis in high temperature superconducting synchronous generators under short circuit fault conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Aliahmadi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    High temperature superconducting, HTS, synchronous machines benefit from a rotor magnetic shield in order to protect superconducting coils against asynchronous magnetic fields. This magnetic shield, however, suffers from exerted Lorentz forces generated in light of induced eddy currents during transient conditions, e.g. stator windings short-circuit fault. In addition, to the exerted electromagnetic forces, eddy current losses and the associated effects on the cryogenic system are the other consequences of shielding HTS coils. This study aims at investigating the Rotor Magnetic Shield, RMS, performance in HTS synchronous generators under stator winding short-circuit fault conditions. The induced eddy currents in different circumferential positions of the rotor magnetic shield along with associated Joule heating losses would be studied using 2-D time-stepping Finite Element Analysis, FEA. The investigation of Lorentz forces exerted on the magnetic shield during transient conditions has also been performed in this paper. The obtained results show that double line-to-ground fault is of the most importance among different types of short-circuit faults. It was revealed that when it comes to the design of the rotor magnetic shields, in addition to the eddy current distribution and the associated ohmic losses, two phase-to-ground fault should be taken into account since the produced electromagnetic forces in the time of fault conditions are more severe during double line-to-ground fault.

  19. Serum Thyroglobulin Doubling Time in Progressive Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, R.M.; Jentzen, W.; Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A.; Gorges, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor marker doubling time (DT) has been proposed as a prognostic marker for various types of cancer. The present study analyzed the DT of the thyroid-specific tumor marker thyroglobulin (Tg), focusing on patients with progressive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: A total of

  20. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  1. Utility of newly developed short-type double-balloon endoscopy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Kato, Kota; Miyamoto, Sachi; Masuda, Masataka; Sakao, Masayuki; Fukata, Norimasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2017-07-01

    The utility of conventional short-type double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) for pancreatobiliary disease in patients with postoperative anatomy had been widely acknowledged and accepted. However, some technical difficulties yet remained. In an attempt to solve these problems, the new short-type DBE (N-short DBE) was uniquely designed for therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in postoperative patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of N-short DBE for ERC in postoperative patients. From August 2015 to April 2016, ERC using N-short DBE (DB-ERC) was performed in 100 postoperative patients (112 procedures). We retrospectively studied the success rate of reaching the blind end, the median time to reach the blind end, the diagnostic success rate, the therapeutic success rate, the median time to complete ERC-related interventions, the overall success rate, the median time to complete DB-ERC, and adverse events. The success rate of reaching the blind end was 99.1%. The median time to reach the blind end was 10 min (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19 min). The diagnostic success rate was 98.2%. The therapeutic success rate was 100%. The median time to complete ERC-related interventions was 36 min (IQR, 22-62 min). The overall DB-ERC success rate was 97.3%. The median time to complete DB-ERC was 54 min (IQR, 37-73 min). The occurrence of adverse events was 2.7%. The N-short DBE for ERC in postoperative patients is useful and safe. DB-ERC is promising therapeutic modality in such patients and should be selected as the first-line policy. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Kālacakra: Shortlies Considerations on Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Muñoz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls for a comparative reading of both the Buddhist conception of time and a branch of Western phenomenology. With special emphasis on the Madhyamaka Buddhist school, it discusses the way in which fugacity and impermanence are similarly discussed by French philosopher Gaston Bachelard in his L’intuition de l’instant. In both cases, the stress lies on the fact that duration is but a mental construct lacking true, absolute reality, while at the same time the human being is subjected to hopes of transcendence which, in turn, engender disillusion and delusion.

  3. Inferring interdependencies from short time series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex networks provide an invaluable framework for the study of interlinked dynamical systems. In many cases, such networks are constructed from observed time series by first estimating the ...... does not quantify causal relations (unlike IOTA, or .... Africa_map_regions.svg, which is under public domain.

  4. Phonemes as short time cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    are the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. Generalizable components were found deriving from phonemes based on homomorphic filtering features with basic time scale (20 msec). We sparsified the features based on energy as a preprocessing means to eliminate the intrinsic noise. Independent...

  5. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  6. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  7. A novel double gate MOSFET by symmetrical insulator packets with improved short channel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we study a novel double-gate SOI MOSFET structure incorporating insulator packets (IPs) at the junction between channel and source/drain (S/D) ends. The proposed MOSFET has great strength in inhibiting short channel effects and OFF-state current that are the main problems compared with conventional one due to the significant suppressed penetrations of both the lateral electric field and the carrier diffusion from the S/D into the channel. Improvement of the hot electron reliability, the ON to OFF drain current ratio, drain-induced barrier lowering, gate-induced drain leakage and threshold voltage over conventional double-gate SOI MOSFETs, i.e. without IPs, is displayed with the simulation results. This study is believed to improve the CMOS device reliability and is suitable for the low-power very-large-scale integration circuits.

  8. Improving Music Genre Classification by Short-Time Feature Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Many different short-time features, using time windows in the size of 10-30 ms, have been proposed for music segmentation, retrieval and genre classification. However, often the available time frame of the music to make the actual decision or comparison (the decision time horizon) is in the range...... of seconds instead of milliseconds. The problem of making new features on the larger time scale from the short-time features (feature integration) has only received little attention. This paper investigates different methods for feature integration and late information fusion for music genre classification...

  9. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice; Hiley, Basil

    2013-12-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri-Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  10. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosson, Maurice de; Hiley, Basil

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri–Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt 2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt 2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  11. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  12. Fissile fuel doubling time characteristics for reactor lifetime fuel logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindler, M.; Harms, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The establishment of nuclear fuel requirements and their efficient utilization requires a detailed knowledge of some aspects of fuel dynamics and processing during the reactor lifetime. It is shown here that the use of the fuel stockpile inventory concept can serve effectively for this fuel management purpose. The temporal variation of the fissile fuel doubling time as well as nonequilibrium core conditions are among the characteristics which thus become more evident. These characteristics - rather than a single figure-of-merit - clearly provide an improved description of the expansion capacity and/or fuel requirements of a nuclear reactor energy system

  13. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Er' el, E-mail: erel@ariel.ac.il; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-15

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  14. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  15. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically

  16. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  17. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosson, Maurice de, E-mail: maurice.degosson@gmail.com [Universität Wien, Fakultät für Mathematik, NuHAG, Wien 1090 (Austria); Hiley, Basil [University of London, Birkbeck College, Theoretical Physics Unit, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-06

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri–Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt{sup 2} for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt{sup 2} for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  18. A short history of fractal-Cantorian space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2009-01-01

    The article attempts to give a short historical overview of the discovery of fractal-Cantorian space-time starting from the 17th century up to the present. In the last 25 years a great number of scientists worked on fractal space-time notably Garnet Ord in Canada, Laurent Nottale in France and Mohamed El Naschie in England who gave an exact mathematical procedure for the derivation of the dimensionality and curvature of fractal space-time fuzzy manifold.

  19. Tests of general relativity from timing the double pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M; Stairs, I H; Manchester, R N; McLaughlin, M A; Lyne, A G; Ferdman, R D; Burgay, M; Lorimer, D R; Possenti, A; D'Amico, N; Sarkissian, J M; Hobbs, G B; Reynolds, J E; Freire, P C C; Camilo, F

    2006-10-06

    The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B is unique in that both neutron stars are detectable as radio pulsars. They are also known to have much higher mean orbital velocities and accelerations than those of other binary pulsars. The system is therefore a good candidate for testing Einstein's theory of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. We report on precision timing observations taken over the 2.5 years since its discovery and present four independent strong-field tests of general relativity. These tests use the theory-independent mass ratio of the two stars. By measuring relativistic corrections to the Keplerian description of the orbital motion, we find that the "post-Keplerian" parameter s agrees with the value predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 0.05%, the most precise test yet obtained. We also show that the transverse velocity of the system's center of mass is extremely small. Combined with the system's location near the Sun, this result suggests that future tests of gravitational theories with the double pulsar will supersede the best current solar system tests. It also implies that the second-born pulsar may not have formed through the core collapse of a helium star, as is usually assumed.

  20. Optimum short-time polynomial regression for signal analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sreenivasa Murthy

    the Proceedings of European Signal Processing Conference. (EUSIPCO) 2008. ... In a seminal paper, Savitzky and Golay [4] showed that short-time polynomial modeling is ...... We next consider a linearly frequency-modulated chirp with an exponentially .... 1 http://www.physionet.org/physiotools/matlab/ECGwaveGen/.

  1. Time Resolved Precision Differential Photometry with OAFA's Double Astrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. P. A.; Podestá, F.; Podestá, R.; Pacheco, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the Double Astrograph located at the Carlos U. Cesco station of the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA), San Juan province, Argentina, was used for astrometric observations and research. The main programs involved the study of asteroid positions and proper motions of stars in the Southern hemisphere, being the latter a long time project that is near completion from which the SPM4 catalog is the most recent version (Girard et al. 2011). In this paper, new scientific applications in the field of photometry that can be accomplished with this telescope are presented. These first attempts show the potential of the instrument for such tasks.

  2. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  3. The case of escape probability as linear in short time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2018-02-01

    We derive rigorously the short-time escape probability of a quantum particle from its compactly supported initial state, which has a discontinuous derivative at the boundary of the support. We show that this probability is linear in time, which seems to be a new result. The novelty of our calculation is the inclusion of the boundary layer of the propagated wave function formed outside the initial support. This result has applications to the decay law of the particle, to the Zeno behaviour, quantum absorption, time of arrival, quantum measurements, and more.

  4. Short Sleep Times Predict Obesity in Internal Medicine Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Dolores; Kumar, Ashwani; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between short sleep times and obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI). We wanted to determine whether this association occurs in patients with chronic medical diagnoses since the number of confounding factors is likely higher in patients than the general population. Methods: Two hundred patients attending internal medicine clinics completed a survey regarding sleep habits, lifestyle characteristics, and medical diagnoses. An independent surveyor collected the information on the questionnaires and reviewed the medical records. Height and weight were measured by clinic personnel. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Subjects with short sleep times (< 7 hours) had an increased likelihood of obesity as defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 when compared to the reference group of (8, 9] hours (odds ratio 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–8.09). There was a U-shaped relationship between obesity and sleep time in women but not in men. Young age (18 to 49 years), not smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea were also associated with obesity in the overall model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between short sleep times and obesity in undifferentiated patients attending an internal medicine clinic using models adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and some medical diagnoses. The U-shaped relationship in women suggests that sleep patterns may have gender specific associations. These observations provide the background for therapeutic trials in weight loss in patients with established medical problems. Citation: Buscemi D; Kumar A; Nugent R; Nugent K. Short sleep times predict obesity in internal medicine clinic patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):681–688. PMID:18198800

  5. Short echo time, fast gradient-echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haacke, E.M.; Lenz, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Present fast-gradient-echoes schemes can acquire volume data rapidly and are flexible in T1 or T1/T2 contrast behavior. However, sequences used to date employ echo time (TE) values of about 15 ms +- 5 and, because of in vivo field inhomogeneities (short T2), they suffer badly from signal loss near sinuses and tissue boundaries. The authors implemented sequences with TE = 4-6 ms and found significant improvement in image quality, especially at high fields. Examples with long TEs vs. short TEs are given in the knee, spine, head, and orbits. Further advantages include (1) faster repetition times (15 ms), (2) higher-quality spin-density or T1-weighted images, and (3) reduction of blood motion artifacts

  6. Double Super-Exchange in Silicon Quantum Dots Connected by Short-Bridged Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Wu, Zhigang; Lusk, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (QDs) with diameters in the range of 1-2 nm are attractive for photovoltaic applications. They absorb photons more readily, transport excitons with greater efficiency, and show greater promise in multiple-exciton generation and hot carrier collection paradigms. However, their high excitonic binding energy makes it difficult to dissociate excitons into separate charge carriers. One possible remedy is to create dot assemblies in which a second material creates a Type-II heterojunction with the dot so that exciton dissociation occurs locally. This talk will focus on such a Type-II heterojunction paradigm in which QDs are connected via covalently bonded, short-bridge molecules. For such interpenetrating networks of dots and molecules, our first principles computational investigation shows that it is possible to rapidly and efficiently separate electrons to QDs and holes to bridge units. The bridge network serves as an efficient mediator of electron superexchange between QDs while the dots themselves play the complimentary role of efficient hole superexchange mediators. Dissociation, photoluminescence and carrier transport rates will be presented for bridge networks of silicon QDs that exhibit such double superexchange. This material is based upon work supported by the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (REMRSEC) under Grant No. DMR-0820518 and Golden Energy Computing Organization (GECO).

  7. The short time Fourier transform and local signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shuhei

    In this thesis, I examine the theoretical properties of the short time discrete Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT is obtained by applying the Fourier transform by a fixed-sized, moving window to input series. We move the window by one time point at a time, so we have overlapping windows. I present several theoretical properties of the STFT, applied to various types of complex-valued, univariate time series inputs, and their outputs in closed forms. In particular, just like the discrete Fourier transform, the STFT's modulus time series takes large positive values when the input is a periodic signal. One main point is that a white noise time series input results in the STFT output being a complex-valued stationary time series and we can derive the time and time-frequency dependency structure such as the cross-covariance functions. Our primary focus is the detection of local periodic signals. I present a method to detect local signals by computing the probability that the squared modulus STFT time series has consecutive large values exceeding some threshold after one exceeding observation following one observation less than the threshold. We discuss a method to reduce the computation of such probabilities by the Box-Cox transformation and the delta method, and show that it works well in comparison to the Monte Carlo simulation method.

  8. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2. Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03 and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05. Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  9. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2). Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03) and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  10. Application of short-time activation analysis in the sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1991-01-01

    Short-time activation analysis has proved to be a valuable tool in nearly all fields of science. To take full advantage of this technique, it is favorable to use a fast transfer system and a high resolution high rate gamma-spectroscopy system for short lived gamma-emitters and a Cherenkov detector for the determination of hard beta-emitters. It is then possible to utilize sub-minute nuclides Li-8 (740 ms), B-12 (20 ms), F-20 (11.1 s), Y-89m (16 s), and Pb-207m (800 ms) for the determination of these elements. Besides these sub-minute nuclides which constitute the only possibility for neutron activation analysis of these elements there are a number of other elements which form longer lived nuclides on short irradiation. The analysis of the halogenides F, Cl, Br, I in waste water of a sewage incineration plant can be achieved with a single 20 s irradiation and two consecutive measurement of 20 and 600 s using Cl-38m, F-20, Br-79m as well as the longer lived Cl-38, Br-80, I-128

  11. Short-time perturbation theory and nonrelativistic duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitenton, J.B.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.

    1983-01-01

    We give a simple proof of the nonrelativistic duality relation 2 sigma/sub bound/>roughly-equal 2 sigma/sub free/> for appropriate energy averages of the cross sections for e + e - →(qq-bar bound states) and e + e - →(free qq-bar pair), and calculate the corrections to the relation by relating W 2 sigma to the Fourier transform of the Feynman propagation function and developing a short-time perturbation series for that function. We illustrate our results in detail for simple power-law potentials and potentials which involve combinations of powers

  12. Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.

  13. EVOLVING TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH SHORT DELAY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Meng Xiangcun

    2009-01-01

    The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the WD + He star channel is ∼0.3 x 10 -3 yr -1 according to our standard model, and that this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (∼4.5 x 10 7 -1.4 x 10 8 yr). Meanwhile, these WD + He star systems may be related to the young supersoft X-ray sources prior to SN Ia explosions.

  14. Decision time horizon for music genre classification using short time features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Meng, Anders; Larsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper music genre classification has been explored with special emphasis on the decision time horizon and ranking of tapped-delay-line short-time features. Late information fusion as e.g. majority voting is compared with techniques of early information fusion such as dynamic PCA (DPCA......). The most frequently suggested features in the literature were employed including mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), linear prediction coefficients (LPC), zero-crossing rate (ZCR), and MPEG-7 features. To rank the importance of the short time features consensus sensitivity analysis is applied...

  15. Short-time action electric generators to power physical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Kasharskij, Eh.G.; Rutberg, F.G.; Khutoretskij, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by power-supply sources of the native electrophysical facilities have been analyzed and trends in designing foreign electric machine units of short-time action have been considered. Specifications of a generator, manufactured in the form of synchronous bipolar turbogenerator with an all-forged rotor with indirect air cooling of the rotor and stator windings are presented. Front parts of the stator winding are additionally fixed using glass-textolite rings, brackets and gaskets. A flywheel, manufactured in the form of all-forged steel cylinder is joined directly with the generator rotor by means of a half-coupling. An acceleration asynchronous engine with a phase rotor of 4 MW nominal capacity is located on the opposite side of the flywheel. The generator peak power is 242 MVxA; power factor = 0.9; energy transferred to the load 5per 1 pulse =00 MJ; the flywheel weight 81 t

  16. Forecast model of landslides in a short time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Lopez, Reinaldo

    2006-01-01

    The IDEAM in development of their functions as member of the national technical committee for the prevention and disasters attention (SNPAD) accomplishes the follow-up, monitoring and forecast in real time of the environmental dynamics that in extreme situations constitute threats and natural risks. One of the frequent dynamics and of greater impact is related to landslides, those that affect persistently the life of the persons, the infrastructure, the socioeconomic activities and the balance of the environment. The landslide in Colombia and in the world are caused mainly by effects of the rain, due to that, IDEAM has come developing forecast model, as an instrument for risk management in a short time. This article presents aspects related to their structure, operation, temporary space resolution, products, results, achievements and projections of the model. Conceptually, the model is support by the principle of the dynamic temporary - space, of the processes that consolidate natural hazards, particularly in areas where the man has come building the risk. Structurally, the model is composed by two sub-models; the general susceptibility of the earthly model and the critical rain model as a denotative factor, that consolidate the hazard process. In real time, the model, works as a GIS, permitting the automatic zoning of the landslides hazard for issue public advisory warming to help makers decisions on the risk that cause frequently these events, in the country

  17. Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity Regulation in Solution-Gated Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-04-20

    In the biological nervous system, synaptic plasticity regulation is based on the modulation of ionic fluxes, and such regulation was regarded as the fundamental mechanism underlying memory and learning. Inspired by such biological strategies, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors gated by aqueous solutions were proposed for synaptic behavior emulations. Short-term synaptic plasticity, such as paired-pulse facilitation, high-pass filtering, and orientation tuning, was experimentally emulated in these EDL transistors. Most importantly, we found that such short-term synaptic plasticity can be effectively regulated by alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and salt (potassium chloride) additives. Our results suggest that solution gated oxide-based EDL transistors could act as the platforms for short-term synaptic plasticity emulation.

  18. Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peliti, L

    2005-01-01

    It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics. (book review)

  19. The effect of short-time active listening training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Asami; Sumiyoshi, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Hitomi; Sano, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    We conducted mental health training incorporating active listening for managers at a site of a general chemical company with 1,400 employees. Our purpose was to clarify the effect of active listening training of 2.5h. All subjects were managers. The mental health training was given to 229 managers, 21 times from May 2007 until March 2008. Surveys were conducted from May 2007 to September 2008. The training sessions were conducted in a company meeting room, starting at 2:00 p.m. The importance and significance of listening as a mental health measure and methods of active listening were explained in the training. Afterward, role-playing and follow-up discussions were done twice each. In summaries, participants wrote down what they noticed about listening and gave group presentations. The instructor commented on the presentations, and ended the session by passing out and explaining a paper summarizing what is important in listening. The training was evaluated with a questionnaire distributed at the completion of training, and questionnaires on implementation of what was learned were distributed 1, 3, and 6 mo later. The Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS; composed of two scales for method of listening and listening attitude) developed by Mishima et al. was also used before and 1, 3, and 6 mo after the training. In questionnaires distributed on the same day after training, 60% of the 212 respondents said the training time was just right, and 30.1% felt it was too short. The difficulty level of the training was considered appropriate by 77.8%, and 79.7% intended to implement what they had learned. Overall satisfaction was high at 85.9%. In the questionnaire 6 mo after training, 81.4% of the 145 respondents remembered the content of the training and 49.7% said they were practicing what they had learned. They responded that their conversations with subordinates about non-work topics had increased, and communication and support at work had become smoother. ALAS was

  20. Innovation: study of 'ultra-short' time reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This short article presents the new Elyse facility of Orsay-Paris 11 university for the study of ultra-short chemical and biochemical phenomena. Elyse uses the 'pump-probe' technique which consists in two perfectly synchronized electron and photon pulses. It comprises a 3 to 9 MeV electron accelerator with a HF gun photo-triggered with a laser. Elyse can initiate reactions using ultra-short electron pulses (radiolysis) or ultra-short photon pulses (photolysis). (J.S.)

  1. The optimal timing to perform 18F/11C-choline PET/CT in patients with suspicion of relapse of prostate cancer: trigger PSA versus PSA velocity and PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Rubello, Domenico; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-12-09

    In the present short communication we considered the main publications focused on trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA kinetics that systematically compared 18F to 11C-choline PET/CT in order to establish the optimal time to perform choline PET/CT in relation to the trigger values and velocity, as well as doubling time of PSA serum levels.

  2. Job quality of short-time workers and perception and support from their managers

    OpenAIRE

    坂爪, 洋美

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of job quality that short-time workers occupied and the managers’ perception and support whose member has used short-time working hour system. A total of 559 first-line managers who has a member using short-time working hour system completed a web-based survey assessing job quality of short-time workers , the risk of using short-timeworking hour system, career perspective of short-time workers, and the suppo...

  3. Mechanistic models for cancer development after short time radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M. M.

    1997-12-01

    In this work two biological based models were developed. First the single-hit model for solid tumors (SHM-S) and second the single-hit model for leukemia (SHM-L). These models are a further development of the Armitage-Doll model for the special case of a short time radiation exposure. The basis of the models is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The single-hit models provide simultaneously the age-dependent cancer-rate of spontaneous and radiation induced tumors as well as the dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The SHM-S leads to a biological based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the relative risk model suggested by the ICRP 60. The SHM-S describes the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the relative risk model. The SHM-L results in an additive dose-effect relationship. It is shown that only small differences in the derivation of the two models lead to the two dose-effect relationships. Beside the radiation exposure the new models consider the decrease of the cancer mortality rate at higher ages (age>75) which can be traced back mainly to three causes: competitive causes of death, reduction of cell proliferation and reduction of risk groups. The single-hit models also consider children cancer, the different rates of incidence and mortality, influence of the immune system and the cell-killing effect. (author)

  4. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2012-10-01

    Any effective volcanic risk mitigation strategy requires a scientific assessment of the future evolution of a volcanic system and its eruptive behavior. Some consider the onus should be on volcanologists to provide simple but emphatic deterministic forecasts. This traditional way of thinking, however, does not deal with the implications of inherent uncertainties, both aleatoric and epistemic, that are inevitably present in observations, monitoring data, and interpretation of any natural system. In contrast to deterministic predictions, probabilistic eruption forecasting attempts to quantify these inherent uncertainties utilizing all available information to the extent that it can be relied upon and is informative. As with many other natural hazards, probabilistic eruption forecasting is becoming established as the primary scientific basis for planning rational risk mitigation actions: at short-term (hours to weeks or months), it allows decision-makers to prioritize actions in a crisis; and at long-term (years to decades), it is the basic component for land use and emergency planning. Probabilistic eruption forecasting consists of estimating the probability of an eruption event and where it sits in a complex multidimensional time-space-magnitude framework. In this review, we discuss the key developments and features of models that have been used to address the problem.

  6. Effect of short-term estrogen therapy on endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.

  7. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. Mean-Field Theory of Electrical Double Layer In Ionic Liquids with Account of Short-Range Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, Zachary A.H.; Feng, Guang; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the theory of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids as proposed earlier by Kornyshev (2007). In the free energy function we keep the so called ‘short-range correlation terms’ which were omitted there. With some simplifying assumptions, we arrive at a modified expression for differential capacitance, which makes differential capacitance curves less sharply depending on electrode potential and having smaller values at extrema than in the previous theory. This brings the results closer to typical experimental observations, and makes it appealing to use this formalism for treatment of experimental data. Implications on Debye length and the extent of ion paring in ionic liquids are then briefly discussed.

  9. Quantum Dynamics with Short-Time Trajectories and Minimal Adaptive Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Maximilian A C; Habershon, Scott

    2017-07-11

    Methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via basis set expansion of the wave function can generally be categorized as having either static (time-independent) or dynamic (time-dependent) basis functions. We have recently introduced an alternative simulation approach which represents a middle road between these two extremes, employing dynamic (classical-like) trajectories to create a static basis set of Gaussian wavepackets in regions of phase-space relevant to future propagation of the wave function [J. Chem. Theory Comput., 11, 8 (2015)]. Here, we propose and test a modification of our methodology which aims to reduce the size of basis sets generated in our original scheme. In particular, we employ short-time classical trajectories to continuously generate new basis functions for short-time quantum propagation of the wave function; to avoid the continued growth of the basis set describing the time-dependent wave function, we employ Matching Pursuit to periodically minimize the number of basis functions required to accurately describe the wave function. Overall, this approach generates a basis set which is adapted to evolution of the wave function while also being as small as possible. In applications to challenging benchmark problems, namely a 4-dimensional model of photoexcited pyrazine and three different double-well tunnelling problems, we find that our new scheme enables accurate wave function propagation with basis sets which are around an order-of-magnitude smaller than our original trajectory-guided basis set methodology, highlighting the benefits of adaptive strategies for wave function propagation.

  10. Exploring the Short-Channel Characteristics of Asymmetric Junctionless Double-Gate Silicon-on-Nothing MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Banerjee, Pritha; Dash, Dinesh Kumar; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an analytical model of an asymmetric junctionless double-gate (asymmetric DGJL) silicon-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Solving the 2-D Poisson's equation, the expressions for center potential and threshold voltage are calculated. In addition, the response of the device toward the various short-channel effects like hot carrier effect, drain-induced barrier lowering and threshold voltage roll-off has also been examined along with subthreshold swing and drain current characteristics. Performance analysis of the present model is also demonstrated by comparing its short-channel behavior with conventional DGJL MOSFET. The effect of variation of the device features due to the variation of device parameters is also studied. The simulated results obtained using 2D device simulator, namely ATLAS, are in good agreement with the analytical results, hence validating our derived model.

  11. On the Option Effects of Short-Time Work Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Kuno; Thijssen, J.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the short term work (STW) regulations that several OECD countries introduced after the 2007 financial crisis. We view these measures as a collection of real options and study the dynamic effect of STW on the endogenous liquidation decision of the firm. While STW delays a firm’s

  12. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  13. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  14. Time allocated to mathematics in post-primary schools in Ireland: are we in double trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Niamh; Prendergast, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Mathematics educators and legislators worldwide have begun placing a greater emphasis on teaching mathematics for understanding and through the use of real-life applications. Revised curricula have led to the time allocated to mathematics in effected countries being scrutinised. This has resulted in policy-makers and educationalists worldwide calling for the inclusion of double class periods on the mathematics timetable. Research from the United States suggests that the introduction of double or block periods allow for the objectives of revised curricula to be realized. The aim of this study, which is set in the school context, is first to ascertain if schools in Ireland are scheduling double periods for mathematics at both lower post-primary level (Junior Cycle) and upper post-primary level (Senior Cycle). It also seeks to determine if there is a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods and to get insights from teachers in relation to their opinions on what can be achieved through the introduction of such classes. Questionnaires were sent to 400 post-primary schools (approximately 1600 teachers) which were selected using stratified sampling techniques. It was found that 8.7% of mathematics teachers reported the provision of double periods at Junior Cycle while 55% reported that double periods were included on their timetable at Senior Cycle. The study also identified a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods. Finally, teachers felt that double periods allowed for new teaching methodologies, which were promoted by the revised curricula, to be implemented and teaching for understanding was also more feasible. In essence, it was found that double periods have an influence on the mathematical experience of post-primary students as well as the teaching approaches employed.

  15. Two-Electron Time-Delay Interference in Atomic Double Ionization by Attosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, A.; Rescigno, T. N.; McCurdy, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond uv pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  16. Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N

    2009-10-04

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond UV pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  17. Numerical simulations of single and double ionization of H2 in short intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Rescattering is the dominant process leading to double ionization in atoms and molecules interacting with linearly polarized laser pulses with wavelengths around 800 nm and in an intensity regime of 10 14 to 10 15 W/cm 2 . Using numerical integrations of the two-electron Schroedinger equation of the Hydrogen molecule in appropriate reduced dimensions two mechanisms, namely correlated emission of the electrons and excitation followed by field ionization after rescattering, could be identified and characterized. With the help of a planar model in reduced dimensions these mechanisms were quantitatively compared by their dependence on the molecular alignment with respect to the polarization axis. Two additional mechanisms, which are also related to rescattering, could be identified as well. (orig.)

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

    2010-10-01

    We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

  19. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  20. The prognostic value of tumor markers doubling times in medullary thyroid carcinoma - preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Calcitonin (Ct and carcinoembrional antigen (CEA are widely used as tumor markers for the post-operative follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. In patients with elevated serum Ct and CEA their dynamics can be described by calculating the doubling time (DT - the time, they need to double the serum concentration. Previous reports concluded that the Ct and CEA DT have prognostic value in MTC patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 70 MTC patients with elevated serum Ct or CEA. In total, doubling times were calculated and the DT of the less favorable marker was used to stratify the patients into the low- and high-risk group with the cut-off value of 2 years. The survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard method. Results The doubling time Conclusions The calcitonin and carcinembrional antigen doubling times of less than two years are negative prognostic factors for MTC recurrence-free and total survival in patients with persistent or recurrent disease. They may be used as predictive factors for more intensive search of disease localization in asymptomatic hypercalcitoninemia and for therapy choice in symptomatic disease.

  1. Application of R-Matrix with Time-dependence Theory to Double Ionisation Using a 2-electron Outer Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wragg, Jack; Parker, J S; Van der Hart, H W

    2015-01-01

    R-Matrix with Time-dependence (RMT) theory has been extended to cover double-ionisation processes. An application to photoionisation of He is demonstrated, with an emphasis on double-ionisation cross sections. (paper)

  2. Chlamydomonas chloroplasts can use short dispersed repeats and multiple pathways to repair a double-strand break in the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Obed W; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Dani, Radhika N; Herrin, David L

    2008-03-01

    Certain group I introns insert into intronless DNA via an endonuclease that creates a double-strand break (DSB). There are two models for intron homing in phage: synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) and double-strand break repair (DSBR). The Cr.psbA4 intron homes efficiently from a plasmid into the chloroplast psbA gene in Chlamydomonas, but little is known about the mechanism. Analysis of co-transformants selected using a spectinomycin-resistant 16S gene (16S(spec)) provided evidence for both pathways. We also examined the consequences of the donor DNA having only one-sided or no homology with the psbA gene. When there was no homology with the donor DNA, deletions of up to 5 kb involving direct repeats that flank the psbA gene were obtained. Remarkably, repeats as short as 15 bp were used for this repair, which is consistent with the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. When the donor had one-sided homology, the DSB in most co-transformants was repaired using two DNAs, the donor and the 16S(spec) plasmid, which, coincidentally, contained a region that is repeated upstream of psbA. DSB repair using two separate DNAs provides further evidence for the SDSA pathway. These data show that the chloroplast can repair a DSB using short dispersed repeats located proximally, distally, or even on separate molecules relative to the DSB. They also provide a rationale for the extensive repertoire of repeated sequences in this genome.

  3. Axial Compression Properties Nonlinear Analysis on Square Double Skin Steel Stub Short Columns Filled with Recycled Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mixing amount of diatomite calcined and vitrified micro bubbles(VMB as the main changing parameters, experiment studies the properties of the vitrified micro bubbles recycled concrete blocks; then this paper adopts the finite element software ANSYS to analyze the square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete under axial compression. According to the vertical stress distribution, strain and bearing capacity of the steel tube and core concrete, we make a contrastive axial compression properties analysis on the different hollow ratio χ(0,0.35and the VMB content(0%,100%,130% of square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete. The result shows that: Compressive strength of VMB recycled concrete increases with the increase of diatomite calcined content, when mixing amount of diatomite calcined is 3%,the compressive strength of 130% VMB content test specimen can reach 32.45 MPa;Because of the inner circular steel tube is setted which strengthening component buckling capacity and improving the ductility of the component, stress distribution of hollow components is more balance than solid components, and their axial displacements decrease by 5.6% compared with the solid components when they reach ultimate bearing capacity; When the hollow ratio is same, ultimate bearing capacity of 130% VMB content test specimen compared with the content is 0% only reduces by about 3.5%; When the VMB content is same, ultimate bearing capacity of hollow components compared with solid components increases by about 2.5%, which reducing weight as well as improving the anti-seismic performance.

  4. The history of time a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holford-Strevens, Leofranc

    2005-01-01

    Leofranc Holford-Strevens explores time measurement and the organisation of time into hours, days, months and years using a range of fascinating examples from Ancient Rome and Julius Caesar's Leap Year, to the 1920s' project for a fixed Easter. - ;Why do we measure time in the way that we do? Why is a week seven days long? At what point did minutes and seconds come into being? Why are some calendars lunar and some solar? The organisation of time into hours, days, months and years seems immutable and universal, but is actually far more artificial than most people realise. The French Revolution

  5. Usefulness of analytical CEA doubling time and half-life time for overlooked synchronous metastases in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsuki; Hibi, Kenji; Ando, Hideyuki; Hidemura, Kazuhiko; Yamazaki, Taiji; Akiyama, Seiji; Nakao, Akimasa

    2002-02-01

    Measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been widely applied to detect recurrence, especially of colorectal carcinoma. The validity however, is still controversial. We investigated serial changes in CEA values to calculate whether the CEA doubling time and half-life time could predict metastatic progression or prognosis in colorectal carcinoma. Pre- and post-operative serial serum CEA contents were determined in 22 cases of colorectal cancer with or without metastasis. CEA values were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Patients were assigned depending upon survival time (within vs. more than 18 months after primary resection) for assessment of CEA doubling time. From the gradient of the semi-logarithmic CEA graph, the preoperative doubling time was calculated and the postoperative half-life time was estimated according to the diagnosis of metastases within 2 years after primary resection [metastasis (+) or (-)]. In spite of the effect of curative re-operation of metastatic lesions or of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the CEA doubling time of the groups showed a relation with prognosis (p = 0.045, Student's t-test) when the patients were divided into >18 and time. The CEA half-life time of the groups without overlooked metastases was statistically longer than those with (mean +/- SD 8.01 +/- 2.07 and 4.33 +/- 1.11, respectively, p Clearance (k) showed a significant difference between the groups (p time appeared to be a less independent prognostic factor, whereas prolongation of the CEA half-life time might potentially suggest the existence of overlooked synchronous metastases from colorectal carcinoma.

  6. Short Vigilance Tasks are Hard Work Even If Time Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other...actual time. Upon completion of the task, participants filled out questionnaires related to the hedonic and temporal evaluation of the task. Participants...time. Upon completion of the task, participants filled out questionnaires related to the hedonic and temporal evaluation of the task. Participants

  7. Enhancement and stabilization of plasma using collinear long-short double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minchao; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fujita, Yuki; Liu, Renwei; Shiou, Fang-Jung; Zhao, Shengdun

    2018-04-01

    A collinear long-short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) method was employed to enhance and stabilize the laser-induced plasma from steel sample. The long-pulse-width laser beam with the pulse width of 60 μs was generated by a Nd: YAG laser which was operated at FR (free running) mode. The comparative experiments were carried out between single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and long-short DP-LIBS. The recorded results showed that the emission intensities and the temperature of plasma were enhanced by long-short DP-LIBS. The plasma images showed that the plasma was bigger and had a longer lifetime in long-short DP-LIBS situation. Through the calculation of time-resolved plasma temperature and intensity ratio, it can be concluded that the plasma was stabilized by the long-pulse-width laser beam. The long-short DP-LIBS method also generated the stable plasma condition from the samples with different initial temperatures, which overcame the difficulties of LIBS in the online measurement for steel production line.

  8. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  9. Dollars and Deadlines: Rule Reforms in Short Time Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: In "At Last! Aye, and there's the Rub" (i.e., the target article for this commentary), Capron describes challenges related to the timing for development, adoption, and revision of the Common Rule. Specifically, what the National Commission thought would be a...

  10. Tests for nonlinearity in short stationary time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Sauer, T.; Schiff, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    To compare direct tests for detecting determinism in chaotic time series, data from Henon, Lorenz, and Mackey--Glass equations were contaminated with various levels of additive colored noise. These data were analyzed with a variety of recently developed tests for determinism, and the results compared

  11. Wide variation of prostate-specific antigen doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade, prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Klotz, Laurence; Deboer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C

    2004-08-01

    To assess the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate carcinoma. A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress since November 1995 to assess the feasibility of a watchful-observation protocol with selective delayed intervention for clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate adenocarcinoma. The PSA doubling time was estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) against time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. As of March 2003, 231 patients had at least 6 months of follow-up (median 45) and at least three PSA measurements (median 8, range 3-21). The distribution of the doubling time was: 50 years, 56. The median doubling time was 7.0 years; 42% of men had a doubling time of >10 years. The doubling time of untreated clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer varies widely.

  12. PASTEURISASI HIGH TEMPERATURE SHORT TIME (HTST) SUSU TERHADAP Listeria monocytogenes PADA PENYIMPANAN REFRIGERATOR

    OpenAIRE

    SABIL, SYAHRIANA

    2015-01-01

    2015 SYAHRIANA SABIL (I 111 11 273). Pasteurisasi High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Susu terhadap Listeria monocytogenes pada Penyimpanan Refrigerator. Dibimbing oleh RATMAWATI MALAKA dan FARIDA NUR YULIATI. Pasteurisasi High Temperature Short Time (HTST) merupakan proses pemanasan susu di bawah titik didih yang diharapkan dapat membunuh Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) karena bersifat patogen dan mengakibatkan listeriosis yang merupakan penyakit zoonosis. Tu...

  13. Outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture bridge double row rotator cuff repair: a prospective study and short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohamed Abdelnabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transosseous-equivalent cross bridge double row (TESBDR rotator cuff (RC repair technique has been developed to optimize healing biology at a repaired RC tendon insertion. It has been shown in the laboratory to improve pressurized contact area and mean foot print pressure when compared with a double row anchor technique. Pressure has been shown to influence healing between tendon and bone, and the tendon compression vector provided by the transosseous-equivalent suture bridges may enhance healing. The purpose was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair. Methods: Single center prospective case series study. Sixty-nine patients were selected to undergo arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair and were included in the current study. Primary outcome measures included the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA score, the Constant-Murley (CM Score and Range of motion (ROM. Secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, another VAS for patient satisfaction from the operative procedure, EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D for quality of life assessment. Results: At 24 months post-operative, average OSS score was 44, average UCLA score was 31, average CM score was 88, average forward flexion was 145°, average internal rotation was 35°, average external rotation was 79°, average abduction was 150°, average EQ-5D score was 0.73, average VAS for pain was 2.3, and average VAS for patient satisfaction was 9.2. Conclusion: Arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair is a procedure with good post-operative functional outcome and low re-tear rate based on a short term follow-up.

  14. Time manages interference in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy V; McKeown, Denis; Bunce, David

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar). In comparison to young adults, older adults show a decreased pattern separation when the number of items between "old" and "similar" items is increased. Yet the mechanisms of forgetting underpinning this type of recognition task are yet to be explored in a cognitively homogenous group, with careful control over the parameters of the task, including elapsing time (a critical variable in models of forgetting). By extending the inter-item intervals, number of intervening items and overall decay interval, we observed in a young adult sample (N = 35, M age  = 19.56 years) that the critical factor governing performance was inter-item interval. We argue that tasks using behavioural continuous recognition to index pattern separation in immediate memory will benefit from generous inter-item spacing, offering protection from inter-item interference.

  15. Infinite dwell time and group delay in resonant electron tunneling through double complex potential barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacak, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Radovanović, Jelena

    2017-12-01

    Tunneling times in complex potentials are investigated. Analytical expressions for dwell time, self-interference time and group delay are obtained for the case of complex double delta potentials. It is shown that we can always find a set of parameters of the potential so that the tunneling times achieve very large values and even approach infinity for the case of resonance. The phenomenon of infinite tunneling times occurs for only one particular positive value of the imaginary part of the potential, if all other parameters are given.

  16. A peculiar low-luminosity short gamma-ray burst from a double neutron star merger progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B-B; Zhang, B; Sun, H; Lei, W-H; Gao, H; Li, Y; Shao, L; Zhao, Y; Hu, Y-D; Lü, H-J; Wu, X-F; Fan, X-L; Wang, G; Castro-Tirado, A J; Zhang, S; Yu, B-Y; Cao, Y-Y; Liang, E-W

    2018-01-31

    Double neutron star (DNS) merger events are promising candidates of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) progenitors as well as high-frequency gravitational wave (GW) emitters. On August 17, 2017, such a coinciding event was detected by both the LIGO-Virgo gravitational wave detector network as GW170817 and Gamma-Ray Monitor on board NASA's Fermi Space Telescope as GRB 170817A. Here, we show that the fluence and spectral peak energy of this sGRB fall into the lower portion of the distributions of known sGRBs. Its peak isotropic luminosity is abnormally low. The estimated event rate density above this luminosity is at least [Formula: see text] Gpc -3  yr -1 , which is close to but still below the DNS merger event rate density. This event likely originates from a structured jet viewed from a large viewing angle. There are similar faint soft GRBs in the Fermi archival data, a small fraction of which might belong to this new population of nearby, low-luminosity sGRBs.

  17. Short-term tibolone does not interfere with endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S

    2016-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.

  18. Double-stranded endonuclease activity in Bacillus halodurans clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fran; Haitjema, Charles; Huang, Qingqiu; DeLisa, Matthew P; Ke, Ailong

    2012-10-19

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against extrachromosomal genetic elements. Cas2 is a universally conserved core CRISPR-associated protein required for the acquisition of new spacers for CRISPR adaptation. It was previously characterized as an endoribonuclease with preference for single-stranded (ss)RNA. Here, we show using crystallography, mutagenesis, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the Bacillus halodurans Cas2 (Bha_Cas2) from the subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR instead possesses metal-dependent endonuclease activity against double-stranded (ds)DNA. This activity is consistent with its putative function in producing new spacers for insertion into the 5'-end of the CRISPR locus. Mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that a single divalent metal ion (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)), coordinated by a symmetric Asp pair in the Bha_Cas2 dimer, is involved in the catalysis. We envision that a pH-dependent conformational change switches Cas2 into a metal-binding competent conformation for catalysis. We further propose that the distinct substrate preferences among Cas2 proteins may be determined by the sequence and structure in the β1-α1 loop.

  19. Portable double-sided pulsed laser heating system for time-resolved geoscience and materials science applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilis, G; Strohm, C; Kupenko, I; Linhardt, S; Laskin, A; Vasiukov, D M; Cerantola, V; Koemets, E G; McCammon, C; Kurnosov, A; Chumakov, A I; Rüffer, R; Dubrovinskaia, N; Dubrovinsky, L

    2017-08-01

    A portable double-sided pulsed laser heating system for diamond anvil cells has been developed that is able to stably produce laser pulses as short as a few microseconds with repetition frequencies up to 100 kHz. In situ temperature determination is possible by collecting and fitting the thermal radiation spectrum for a specific wavelength range (particularly, between 650 nm and 850 nm) to the Planck radiation function. Surface temperature information can also be time-resolved by using a gated detector that is synchronized with the laser pulse modulation and space-resolved with the implementation of a multi-point thermal radiation collection technique. The system can be easily coupled with equipment at synchrotron facilities, particularly for nuclear resonance spectroscopy experiments. Examples of applications include investigations of high-pressure high-temperature behavior of iron oxides, both in house and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility using the synchrotron Mössbauer source and nuclear inelastic scattering.

  20. TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF TWO CANDIDATE DOUBLE DEGENERATES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6633

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Chakraborty, Subho [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX, 75429 (United States); Serna-Grey, Donald [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Canton, Paul A., E-mail: Kurtis.Williams@tamuc.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    SNe Ia are heavily used tools in precision cosmology, yet we still are not certain what the progenitor systems are. General plausibility arguments suggest there is potential for identifying double degenerate SN Ia progenitors in intermediate-age open star clusters. We present time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of two white dwarfs (WDs) in the field of the open cluster NGC 6633 that had previously been identified as candidate double degenerates in the cluster. However, three hours of continuous observations of each candidate failed to detect any significant radial velocity variations at the ≳10 km s{sup −1} level, making it highly unlikely that either WD is a double degenerate that will merge within a Hubble Time. The WD LAWDS NGC 6633 4 has a radial velocity inconsistent with cluster membership at the 2.5σ level, while the radial velocity of LAWDS NGC 6633 7 is consistent with cluster membership. We conservatively conclude that LAWDS 7 is a viable massive double degenerate candidate, though unlikely to be a Type Ia progenitor. Astrometric data from GAIA will likely be needed to determine if either WD is truly a cluster member.

  1. Reconciling environmental conservation with economic prosperity. The feasibility of double dividends in the short and long run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, T.

    2007-12-28

    Two of the most important challenges which policymakers in advanced economies have to address in the 21st century are mass unemployment and the increasing strain on the natural environment caused by growing economic activity and energy demand. Therefore, this dissertation aims at improving our understanding of the links between environmental policy, unemployment and growth. Is it possible to find a policy which contributes to further growth, a cleaner environment and lower unemployment simultaneously? The first part of the dissertation provides a survey of the existing literature on the links between growth, unemployment and the natural environment. It is shown that the validity of the double dividend hypothesis, which states that an environmental tax reform may achieve a reduction in both environmental pollution and unemployment, depends on the institutional characteristics of the labour market. Therefore, the second part of the dissertation introduces a new labour market model which combines elements of efficiency wage and bargaining models. This model is applied to an analysis of environmental tax reforms in the third part of the dissertation. The analysis suggests that if the labour market is distorted by efficiency wages and a monopolistic union, an environmental tax reform can be expected to yield a double dividend. Since Dalton's law does not hold in such a setting, the distribution of the tax burden over workers and capital owners depends on whether the tax is levied on workers or firms. Therefore, policymakers should take the distributional impacts of an environmental tax should be taken into account. Furthermore, it is shown that if the government announces a revenueneutral tax reform, influential economic agents such as labour unions may realise that they can indirectly affect tax or subsidy rates. In this case, the timing of tax and subsidy rate announcements affects on the behaviour of such influential agents. The fourth part of the dissertation

  2. Short-term adaptations as a response to travel time: results of a stated adaptation experimentincreases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on short-term dynamics of activity-travel behavior as a response to travel time increases. It is assumed that short-term changes are triggered by stress, which is defined as the deviation between an individual’s aspirations and his or her daily experiences. When stress exceeds a

  3. Lung lesion doubling times: values and variability based on method of volume determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud Quint, Leslie; Cheng, Joan; Schipper, Matthew; Chang, Andrew C.; Kalemkerian, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine doubling times (DTs) of lung lesions based on volumetric measurements from thin-section CT imaging. Methods: Previously untreated patients with ≥ two thin-section CT scans showing a focal lung lesion were identified. Lesion volumes were derived using direct volume measurements and volume calculations based on lesion area and diameter. Growth rates (GRs) were compared by tissue diagnosis and measurement technique. Results: 54 lesions were evaluated including 8 benign lesions, 10 metastases, 3 lymphomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous carcinomas, and 7 miscellaneous lung cancers. Using direct volume measurements, median DTs were 453, 111, 15, 181, 139 and 137 days, respectively. Lung cancer DTs ranged from 23-2239 days. There were no significant differences in GRs among the different lesion types. There was considerable variability among GRs using different volume determination methods. Conclusions: Lung cancer doubling times showed a substantial range, and different volume determination methods gave considerably different DTs

  4. Double giant resonances in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.; Podobnik, B.

    1996-01-01

    Collective vibrations in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory (RMFT). Isoscalar quadrupole and isovector dipole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances are studied, and possible excitations of higher modes are investigated. We find evidence for modes which can be interpreted as double resonances. In a quantized RMFT they correspond to two-phonon states. (orig.)

  5. Doubling time measurement by method of digital integration of pulses from a CFU7 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Guy

    1968-01-01

    The author reports an experimental study which aimed at measuring the doubling time with a CFU7 fission chamber by using an integration method on the Siloette pile with a new core and with a spent core, and at comparing results with those obtained with a specific instrument which receives information from an ionisation chamber. The interest of this method relies on the fact that the fission chamber is insensitive to gamma radiations

  6. Period-doubling bifurcation and chaos control in a discrete-time mosquito model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Din

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of some qualitative properties of a discrete-time mosquito Model. It is shown that there exists period-doubling bifurcation for wide range of bifurcation parameter for the unique positive steady-state of given system. In order to control the bifurcation we introduced a feedback strategy. For further confirmation of complexity and chaotic behavior largest Lyapunov exponents are plotted.

  7. Doubling and half-life times for a combined fission-fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantis, G

    1982-01-01

    The long term fuel dynamics for a fission symbiotic system is examined under the assumption of discontinuous loading and offloading conditions. It is found that the breeding capacities of the core and the blankets identify several distinct fuel cycles. By numerical test and a specific comparison it is shown that doubling times and half-lives can differ by as much as 10% from those predicted by conventional methods.

  8. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  9. The double-slit experiment and the time-reversed fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    When both slits of the double-slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to understand such a puzzling feature only draws into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double-slit experiment and a time-reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double-slit experiment with a time-reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow. In further support of this, we employ a plausible formulation of the thermodynamic arrow to derive an uncertainty in classical mechanics that is reminiscent of quantum uncertainty.

  10. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times: clinical utility of this predictor of prostate cancer behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Lee, W. Robert; Slivjak, Anne; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The distribution of pretreatment and posttreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling times (PSADT) varies widely. This report examines the pretreatment PSADT as an independent predictor of biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) and describes the clinical utility of PSADT. Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine patients with T1-3 NX, M-0 prostate cancer treated between February 1989 and November 1993 have pretreatment PSADTs calculated from three or more PSA levels. Biochemical disease-free (bNED) survival (failure is PSA ≥ 1.5 ngm/ml and rising) is evaluated by multivariate analysis of common prognostic indicators and PSADT. Results: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a significant predictor of survival along with radiation dose. Patients with a pretreatment PSADT of < 12 months show 50% failure by 18 months, while those with a PSADT that is not increasing show only 3% failure at 3 years. Conclusions: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a predictor of bNED outcome in prostate cancer. Patients with PSADT < 12 months have aggressive disease and should be considered for multimodal therapy. Slow PSADT (≥ 5 years) is observed in 57% of patients, and this end point may be considered in the decision to observe rather than to treat. After treatment failure, the PSADT may be used to determine which patients do not need immediate androgen deprivation

  11. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  12. Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled-wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized. (paper)

  13. Time resolved measurements of plasma potential across an anode double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohoata, V.; Popa, Gh.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, Codrina

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on self-sustained oscillations produced by the dynamics of an anode double layer or fireball in a DP-machine. By additional ionisation processes the fireball is formed in front of an additional small plane anode inserted in the diffusive plasma. An annular (ring) electrode surrounds the anode. The thickness of the ion sheath in front of this ring affects the anode current by controlling its effective diameter during the fireball oscillations. The ring potential controls first the oscillation frequency of the anode current, but also other characteristics of the instability. The ring potential was chosen as a pulsed one so that only single anode double layer instability can be excited. The ring signal was used for triggering the data acquisition system. The spatial distribution of the plasma potential in front of the anode is presented as a time resolved measurement one. A negative drop potential was found that controls the charge flux particle across the double layer. Also the plasma density inside the fireball relaxes during the disrupting time controlled by ambipolar diffusion and also by the negative potential drop. (authors)

  14. Action detection by double hierarchical multi-structure space-time statistical matching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Zhu, Junwei; Cui, Yiyin; Bai, Lianfa; Yue, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Aimed at the complex information in videos and low detection efficiency, an actions detection model based on neighboring Gaussian structure and 3D LARK features is put forward. We exploit a double hierarchical multi-structure space-time statistical matching model (DMSM) in temporal action localization. First, a neighboring Gaussian structure is presented to describe the multi-scale structural relationship. Then, a space-time statistical matching method is proposed to achieve two similarity matrices on both large and small scales, which combines double hierarchical structural constraints in model by both the neighboring Gaussian structure and the 3D LARK local structure. Finally, the double hierarchical similarity is fused and analyzed to detect actions. Besides, the multi-scale composite template extends the model application into multi-view. Experimental results of DMSM on the complex visual tracker benchmark data sets and THUMOS 2014 data sets show the promising performance. Compared with other state-of-the-art algorithm, DMSM achieves superior performances.

  15. Time-lapse crystallography snapshots of a double-strand break repair polymerase in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsen, Joonas A; Beard, William A; Pedersen, Lars C; Shock, David D; Moon, Andrea F; Krahn, Juno M; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A; Wilson, Samuel H

    2017-08-15

    DNA polymerase (pol) μ is a DNA-dependent polymerase that incorporates nucleotides during gap-filling synthesis in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double-strand break repair. Here we report time-lapse X-ray crystallography snapshots of catalytic events during gap-filling DNA synthesis by pol μ. Unique catalytic intermediates and active site conformational changes that underlie catalysis are uncovered, and a transient third (product) metal ion is observed in the product state. The product manganese coordinates phosphate oxygens of the inserted nucleotide and PP i . The product metal is not observed during DNA synthesis in the presence of magnesium. Kinetic analyses indicate that manganese increases the rate constant for deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate insertion compared to magnesium. The likely product stabilization role of the manganese product metal in pol μ is discussed. These observations provide insight on structural attributes of this X-family double-strand break repair polymerase that impact its biological function in genome maintenance.DNA polymerase (pol) μ functions in DNA double-strand break repair. Here the authors use time-lapse X-ray crystallography to capture the states of pol µ during the conversion from pre-catalytic to product complex and observe a third transiently bound metal ion in the product state.

  16. Dynamical properties of a particle in a time-dependent double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonel, Edson D; McClintock, P V E

    2004-01-01

    Some chaotic properties of a classical particle interacting with a time-dependent double-square-well potential are studied. The dynamics of the system is characterized using a two-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving map. Scaling arguments are used to study the chaotic sea in the low-energy domain. It is shown that the distributions of successive reflections and of corresponding successive reflection times obey power laws with the same exponent. If one or both wells move randomly, the particle experiences the phenomenon of Fermi acceleration in the sense that it has unlimited energy growth

  17. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  18. The time-dependent development of electric double-layers in saline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the time-dependent development of electric double-layers (ionic sheaths) in saline solutions by simultaneously solving the sodium and chlorine ion continuity equations coupled with Poisson's equation in one dimension. The study of the effects of time-varying electric fields in solution is relevant to the possible health effect of radio-frequency electric fields on cells in the human body and to assessing the potential of using external electric fields to orient proteins for attachment to surfaces for biosensing applications. Our calculations, for applied voltages of 10-175 mV between the electrode and the solution, predict time scales of ∼0.1-110 μs for the formation of double-layers in solutions of concentration between 0.001 and 1.0 M. We develop an empirical equation that can predict the double-layer formation time to within 10% over this wide parameter range. The method has been validated by comparing the solutions obtained, once the program has run to a steady state, with the standard non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equations. Excellent agreement is found with the Gouy-Chapman solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Thus the method is not restricted in accuracy and applicability as is the case for the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The method can also provide solutions for cases where there are orders of magnitude changes in the ion densities; this has not been the case for previous studies where small perturbation analysis has been employed. The method developed here can readily be extended to two and three dimensions using time-splitting methods

  19. A double hit model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillale, Nagaraja Rao

    2013-09-01

    Incubation time is a key epidemiologic descriptor of an infectious disease. In the case of HIV infection this is a random variable and is probably the longest one. The probability distribution of incubation time is the major determinant of the relation between the incidences of HIV infection and its manifestation to Aids. This is also one of the key factors used for accurate estimation of AIDS incidence in a region. The present article i) briefly reviews the work done, points out uncertainties in estimation of AIDS onset time and stresses the need for its precise estimation, ii) highlights some of the modelling features of onset distribution including immune failure mechanism, and iii) proposes a 'Double Hit' model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset in the cases of (a) independent and (b) dependent time variables of the two markers and examined the applicability of a few standard probability models.

  20. Short-term soy isoflavone intervention in patients with localized prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hamilton-Reeves

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of soy isoflavone consumption on prostate specific antigen (PSA, hormone levels, total cholesterol, and apoptosis in men with localized prostate cancer.We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of soy isoflavone capsules (80 mg/d of total isoflavones, 51 mg/d aglucon units on serum and tissue biomarkers in patients with localized prostate cancer. Eighty-six men were randomized to treatment with isoflavones (n=42 or placebo (n=44 for up to six weeks prior to scheduled prostatectomy. We performed microarray analysis using a targeted cell cycle regulation and apoptosis gene chip (GEArrayTM. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol were analyzed at baseline, mid-point, and at the time of radical prostatectomy. In this preliminary analysis, 12 genes involved in cell cycle control and 9 genes involved in apoptosis were down-regulated in the treatment tumor tissues versus the placebo control. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol in the isoflavone-treated group compared to men receiving placebo were not statistically significant.These data suggest that short-term intake of soy isoflavones did not affect serum hormone levels, total cholesterol, or PSA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00255125.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Real-time mobile customer short message system design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qirui; Sun, Fang

    To expand the current mobile phone short message service, and to make the contact between schools, teachers, parents and feedback of the modern school office system more timely and conveniently, designed and developed the Short Message System based on the Linux platform. The state-of-the-art principles and designed proposals in the Short Message System based on the Linux platform are introduced. Finally we propose an optimized secure access authentication method. At present, many schools,vbusinesses and research institutions ratify the promotion and application the messaging system gradually, which has shown benign market prospects.

  3. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  4. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  5. Development of a level-1 trigger and timing system for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of the mixing angle θ 13 is the goal of several running and planned experiments. The experiments are either accelerator based (super)beam experiments (e.g. MINOS, T2K, Nova) or reactor anti-neutrino disappearance experiments (e.g. Daya Bay, RENO or Double Chooz). In order to measure or constrain θ 13 with the Double Chooz experiment the overall systematic errors have to be controlled at the one-percent or sub-percent level. The limitation of the systematic errors is achieved through various means and techniques. E.g. the experiment consists of two identical detectors at different baselines, which allow to make a differential anti-neutrino flux measurement, where basically only relative normalisation errors remain. The requirements on the systematic errors put also strong constraints on the quality of all components and materials used for both detectors, most prominently on the stability and radiopurity of the scintillator, the photomultiplier tubes, the vessels containing the detector liquids and the shielding against ambient radioactivity. The readout electronics, trigger and data acquisition system have to operate reliably as an integrated and highly efficient whole over several years. The trigger is provided by the Level-1 Trigger and Timing System, which is the subject of this thesis. It has to provide a highly efficient trigger (at the 0.1% level) for neutrino-induced events as well as for several types of background events. Its decision is realized in hardware and based on energy depositions in the muon veto and the target region. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System furthermore provides a common System Clock and an absolute timestamp for each event. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System consists of two types of VME modules, several Trigger Boards and a Trigger Master Board, which have been custom-designed and developed in the electronics workshop of our institute for this experiment and purpose, starting in 2005. In this thesis all

  6. Development of a level-1 trigger and timing system for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, Bernd

    2009-02-25

    The measurement of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} is the goal of several running and planned experiments. The experiments are either accelerator based (super)beam experiments (e.g. MINOS, T2K, Nova) or reactor anti-neutrino disappearance experiments (e.g. Daya Bay, RENO or Double Chooz). In order to measure or constrain {theta}{sub 13} with the Double Chooz experiment the overall systematic errors have to be controlled at the one-percent or sub-percent level. The limitation of the systematic errors is achieved through various means and techniques. E.g. the experiment consists of two identical detectors at different baselines, which allow to make a differential anti-neutrino flux measurement, where basically only relative normalisation errors remain. The requirements on the systematic errors put also strong constraints on the quality of all components and materials used for both detectors, most prominently on the stability and radiopurity of the scintillator, the photomultiplier tubes, the vessels containing the detector liquids and the shielding against ambient radioactivity. The readout electronics, trigger and data acquisition system have to operate reliably as an integrated and highly efficient whole over several years. The trigger is provided by the Level-1 Trigger and Timing System, which is the subject of this thesis. It has to provide a highly efficient trigger (at the 0.1% level) for neutrino-induced events as well as for several types of background events. Its decision is realized in hardware and based on energy depositions in the muon veto and the target region. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System furthermore provides a common System Clock and an absolute timestamp for each event. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System consists of two types of VME modules, several Trigger Boards and a Trigger Master Board, which have been custom-designed and developed in the electronics workshop of our institute for this experiment and purpose, starting in 2005. In

  7. Double-arm time-of-flight mass-spectrometer of nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazian, G.M.; Astabatyan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer of nuclear fragments for the investigation of heavy nuclei photofission in the intermediate energy range is described. The calibration results and working characteristics of the spectrometer, obtained using 252 Cf as a source of spontaneous fission, are presented. A mass resolution of σ m ∼2-3 a.m.u. was obtained within the registered fragments mass range of 80-160 a.m.u. The spectrometer was tested in the experiment on the investigation of 238 U nuclei fission by Bremsstahlung photons with Eγ max=1.75 GeV

  8. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, L.F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E.H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al 2 O 3 :C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: T OSL , and Peak OSL: P OSL ) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al 2 O 3 :C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al 2 O 3 :C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (T OSL and P OSL ) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both T OSL and P OSL from droplets and Luxel™. - Highlights: • Droplet composed of thin powder of Al 2 O 3 :C was prepared using a photo-curable polymer. • Powder grain sizes ranged from 5 μm to 35 μm. • Short-time fading was measured for irradiated samples. • Various bleaching regimes and light power was tested. • Droplets were compared to a commercially dosimeter, Luxel™

  9. Prospects for quantitative and time-resolved double and continuous exposure off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, Vadim, E-mail: v.migunov@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dwyer, Christian [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Boothroyd, Chris B. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale B. Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The technique of double exposure electron holography, which is based on the superposition of two off-axis electron holograms, was originally introduced before the availability of digital image processing to allow differences between electron-optical phases encoded in two electron holograms to be visualised directly without the need for holographic reconstruction. Here, we review the original method and show how it can now be extended to permit quantitative studies of phase shifts that oscillate in time. We begin with a description of the theory of off-axis electron hologram formation for a time-dependent electron wave that results from the excitation of a specimen using an external stimulus with a square, sinusoidal, triangular or other temporal dependence. We refer to the more general method as continuous exposure electron holography, present preliminary experimental measurements and discuss how the technique can be used to image electrostatic potentials and magnetic fields during high frequency switching experiments. - Highlights: • Double and continuous exposure electron holography are described in detail. • The ability to perform quantitative studies of phase shifts that are oscillating in time is illustrated. • Theoretical considerations related to noise are presented. • Future high frequency electromagnetic switching experiments are proposed.

  10. Time-dependent theory of double ionization of helium under XUV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, L A A; Lambropoulos, P

    2007-01-01

    We present non-perturbative time-dependent calculations of single and double ionization of helium, under XUV radiation of photon energy ranging from 40 to 45 eV, through the direct propagation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent wavefunction of the atom under the field is expanded in terms of correlated multichannel states normalized with incoming-wave boundary conditions. In addition to presenting a new non-perturbative approach to the three-body problem, in a fully correlated scheme, capable of providing in the same calculation photoelectron energy and angularly resolved spectra, as well as cross sections through the lowest non-vanishing order transition amplitude, we also present a detailed comparison of the values of certain key quantities that have been obtained through a variety of other methods. The degree of agreement we find, while lending credence to the approach and its versatility, also highlights the remaining open questions in this novel context of double ionization

  11. Finite-size effects in the short-time height distribution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    We use the optimal fluctuation method to evaluate the short-time probability distribution P(H, L, t) of height at a single point, H=h(x=0, t) , of the evolving Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) interface h(x, t) on a ring of length 2L. The process starts from a flat interface. At short times typical (small) height fluctuations are unaffected by the KPZ nonlinearity and belong to the Edwards-Wilkinson universality class. The nonlinearity, however, strongly affects the (asymmetric) tails of P(H) . At large L/\\sqrt{t} the faster-decaying tail has a double structure: it is L-independent, -\\lnP˜≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 5/2/t1/2 , at intermediately large \\vert H\\vert , and L-dependent, -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , at very large \\vert H\\vert . The transition between these two regimes is sharp and, in the large L/\\sqrt{t} limit, behaves as a fractional-order phase transition. The transition point H=Hc+ depends on L/\\sqrt{t} . At small L/\\sqrt{t} , the double structure of the faster tail disappears, and only the very large-H tail, -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , is observed. The slower-decaying tail does not show any L-dependence at large L/\\sqrt{t} , where it coincides with the slower tail of the GOE Tracy-Widom distribution. At small L/\\sqrt{t} this tail also has a double structure. The transition between the two regimes occurs at a value of height H=Hc- which depends on L/\\sqrt{t} . At L/\\sqrt{t} \\to 0 the transition behaves as a mean-field-like second-order phase transition. At \\vert H\\vert c-\\vert the slower tail behaves as -\\lnP˜ ≤ft\\vert H\\right\\vert 2L/t , whereas at \\vert H\\vert >\\vert H_c-\\vert it coincides with the slower tail of the GOE Tracy-Widom distribution.

  12. Comparison of holographic and field theoretic complexities for time dependent thermofield double states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Run-Qiu; Niu, Chao; Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Kim, Keun-Young

    2018-02-01

    We compute the time-dependent complexity of the thermofield double states by four different proposals: two holographic proposals based on the "complexity-action" (CA) conjecture and "complexity-volume" (CV) conjecture, and two quantum field theoretic proposals based on the Fubini-Study metric (FS) and Finsler geometry (FG). We find that four different proposals yield both similarities and differences, which will be useful to deepen our understanding on the complexity and sharpen its definition. In particular, at early time the complexity linearly increase in the CV and FG proposals, linearly decreases in the FS proposal, and does not change in the CA proposal. In the late time limit, the CA, CV and FG proposals all show that the growth rate is 2 E/(πℏ) saturating the Lloyd's bound, while the FS proposal shows the growth rate is zero. It seems that the holographic CV conjecture and the field theoretic FG method are more correlated.

  13. Ultra-short time sciences. From the atto-second to the peta-watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book presents the recent advances in the scientific and technical domains linked with ultra-short time physics. It deals first with the conceptual and technological aspects of ultra-intense and ultra-brief lasers. Then, it describes the different domains of research (atoms, molecules and aggregates; gaseous phase dynamics using the pump-probe technique; femto-chemistry in dense phase; condensed matter; plasma physics; consistent control; aerosols; functional femto-biology) and the different domains of application (medical diagnosis; ophthalmology; telecommunications; technological and industrial developments). A last part is devoted to the teaching of ultra-short time sciences. (J.S.)

  14. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  15. The decreased influence of overall treatment time on the response of human breast tumor xenografts following prolongation of the potential doubling time (T{sub pot})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkaria, Jann N; Fowler, John F; Lindstrom, Mary J; Jordan, V Craig; Mulcahy, R Timothy

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: Repopulation during fractionated radiotherapy has been postulated to result in a significant loss in local control in rapidly proliferating tumors. Clinical data suggest that accelerated fractionation schedules can overcome the influence of repopulation by limiting the overall treatment time. Unfortunately, accelerated therapy frequently leads to increased acute reactions, which may become dose limiting. An alternative to accelerated fractionation would be to decrease the rate of repopulation during therapy. To test the potential efficacy of this alternative, we examined the effect of reducing tumor proliferation rate on the response of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma xenografts treated with a short vs. a long course of fractionated therapy. To reduce the proliferation rate, we deprived nude mice transplanted with MCF-7 xenografts of the growth-stimulating hormone estradiol (E{sub 2}). We have previously reported that E{sub 2} deprivation increases the potential doubling time (T{sub pot}) for MCF-7 xenografts from a mean of 2.6 days to 5.3 days (p < 0.001). Methods and Materials: E{sub 2}-stimulated and E{sub 2}-deprived MCF-7 breast carcinoma xenografts were clamped hypoxically and irradiated with four fractions of 5 Gy each, using either a short (3-day) or long (9-day) treatment course. E{sub 2} stimulation was restored in all animals at the completion of irradiation. Radiation response was determined by regrowth time and regrowth delay of the irradiated tumors as compared to unirradiated controls. Results: Prolongation of therapy in rapidly proliferating, E{sub 2}-stimulated tumors (T{sub pot} {approx} 2.6 days) resulted in a significant decrease in regrowth time in two identical experiments. With results pooled for analysis, the regrowth times for the short and long treatments were 62 and 32 days, respectively (combined p < 0.001). The shorter regrowth times suggest that there was less overall tumor damage with the longer fractionated radiotherapy course

  16. Quantum ratchet effect in a time non-uniform double-kicked model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Wu; Chu, Cheng-Yu; Chai, Ji-Min; Xiao, Jin; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Jin-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    The quantum ratchet effect means that the directed transport emerges in a quantum system without a net force. The delta-kicked model is a quantum Hamiltonian model for the quantum ratchet effect. This paper investigates the quantum ratchet effect based on a time non-uniform double-kicked model, in which two flashing potentials alternately act on a particle with a homogeneous initial state of zero momentum, while the intervals between adjacent actions are not equal. The evolution equation of the state of the particle is derived from its Schrödinger equation, and the numerical method to solve the evolution equation is pointed out. The results show that quantum resonances can induce the ratchet effect in this time non-uniform double-kicked model under certain conditions; some quantum resonances, which cannot induce the ratchet effect in previous models, can induce the ratchet effect in this model, and the strengths of the ratchet effect in this model are stronger than those in previous models under certain conditions. These results enrich people’s understanding of the delta-kicked model, and provides a new optional scheme to control the quantum transport of cold atoms in experiment.

  17. Observations of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time in 107 patients referred for definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Hanks, Gerald E.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times (PSADT) in patients referred for definitive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven patients with histologically proven nonmetastatic prostate cancer and an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) who were referred for radiation therapy had three serum PSA values obtained prior to the start of definitive therapy. Prostate-specific antigen doubling times were calculated by linear regression. Results: Prostate-specific antigen values increased during the period of observation in 78 patients (73%). Forty-three patients (40%) had calculated PSADT of less than 2 years and of those patients with pretreatment serum PSA values of greater than 10 ng/mL more than 50% has calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. Conclusions: A significant minority of patients referred for radiotherapy have calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. The significance of this relatively fast growth rate is as yet undetermined, but suggests that patients referred for radiotherapy may have aggressive disease prior to treatment

  18. The role of short-time intensity and envelope power for speech intelligibility and psychoacoustic masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberger, Thomas; Ewert, Stephan D

    2017-08-01

    The generalized power spectrum model [GPSM; Biberger and Ewert (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 1023-1038], combining the "classical" concept of the power-spectrum model (PSM) and the envelope power spectrum-model (EPSM), was demonstrated to account for several psychoacoustic and speech intelligibility (SI) experiments. The PSM path of the model uses long-time power signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), while the EPSM path uses short-time envelope power SNRs. A systematic comparison of existing SI models for several spectro-temporal manipulations of speech maskers and gender combinations of target and masker speakers [Schubotz et al. (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 524-540] showed the importance of short-time power features. Conversely, Jørgensen et al. [(2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 436-446] demonstrated a higher predictive power of short-time envelope power SNRs than power SNRs using reverberation and spectral subtraction. Here the GPSM was extended to utilize short-time power SNRs and was shown to account for all psychoacoustic and SI data of the three mentioned studies. The best processing strategy was to exclusively use either power or envelope-power SNRs, depending on the experimental task. By analyzing both domains, the suggested model might provide a useful tool for clarifying the contribution of amplitude modulation masking and energetic masking.

  19. Combined use of positron emission tomography and volume doubling time in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Dirksen, A; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2011-01-01

    In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules.......In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules....

  20. Computation of the Short-Time Linear Canonical Transform with Dual Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-time linear canonical transform (STLCT, which maps the time domain signal into the joint time and frequency domain, has recently attracted some attention in the area of signal processing. However, its applications are still limited due to the fact that selection of coefficients of the short-time linear canonical series (STLCS is not unique, because time and frequency elementary functions (together known as basis function of STLCS do not constitute an orthogonal basis. To solve this problem, this paper investigates a dual window solution. First, the nonorthogonal problem that suffered from original window is fulfilled by orthogonal condition with dual window. Then based on the obtained condition, a dual window computation approach of the GT is extended to the STLCS. In addition, simulations verify the validity of the proposed condition and solutions. Furthermore, some possible applied directions are discussed.

  1. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (population over time; therefore, the virus snapshot shed in the fecal wastes of an infected population at a specific point in time can serve as a marker for tracking virus and groundwater movement. The virus tracing approach and an example application are described to illustrate their ability to characterize travel times in high-groundwater velocity settings, and provide insight unavailable from standard hydrogeologic approaches. Although characterization of preferential flowpaths does not usually characterize the majority of other travel times occurring in the groundwater system (e.g., center of plume mass; tail of the breakthrough curve), virus approaches can trace very short times of transport, and thus can fill an important gap in our current hydrogeology toolbox.

  2. The Dubna double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy-ion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.D.; Gippner, P.; Seidel, W.; Stary, F.; Will, E.; Heidel, K.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Salamatin, V.S.; Sodan, H.; Chubarian, G.G.

    1986-05-01

    The double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer DEMAS designed for the detection and identification of heavy-ion reaction products at incident energies below 10 MeV/amu is presented. Based on the kinematic coincidence method, the relevant physical information is obtained from the measurement of the two correlated velocity vectors of the binary fragments. Construction and performance of the different detector systems applied to measure the time-of-flight values, the position coordinates and the kinetic energies of both fragments are presented in detail. The description of the data acquisition and analysing procedures is followed by the discussion of some experimental examples to demonstrate the spectrometer performance. A mass resolution of typically 4 - 5 amu (fwhm) is routinely achieved. (author)

  3. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example "1"5O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. - Highlights: • Derived combined effects of decay and dead time. • Derived for counting systems with extending or non-extending dead times. • Derived series expansions for both midpoint and decay-to-start-time methods. • Useful for counting experiments with short-lived radionuclides. • Examples given for "1"5O, used in PET scanning.

  4. PSA doubling time of prostate carcinoma managed with watchful observation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; DeBoer, Gerrit; Klotz, Lawrence; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C.; Rakovitch, Eileen; Fleshner, Neil; Bunting, Peter; Kapusta, Linda; Hruby, George

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, favorable grade, prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress to assess the feasibility of a watchful observation protocol with selective delayed intervention using clinical, histologic, or PSA progression as treatment indication in untreated, localized, favorable grade prostate adenocarcinoma (T1b-T2bN0 M0, Gleason Score ≤7, and PSA ≤15 ng/mL). Patients are conservatively managed with watchful observation alone, as long as they do not meet the arbitrarily defined disease progression criteria. Patients are followed regularly and undergo blood tests including PSA at each visit. PSA doubling time (Td) is estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) on time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. Results: As of March 2000, 134 patients have been on the study for a minimum of 12 months (median, 24; range, 12-52) and have a median frequency of PSA measurement of 7 times (range, 3-15). Median age is 70 years. Median PSA at enrollment is 6.3 (range, 0.5-14.6). The distribution of Td is as follows: 50 years, 27. The median Td is 5.1 years. In 44 patients (33%), Td is greater than 10 years. There was no correlation between Td and patient age, clinical T stage, Gleason score, or initial PSA level. Conclusion: Td of untreated prostate cancer varies widely. In our cohort, 33% have Td >10 years. Td may be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed conservatively with watchful observation alone

  5. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  6. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  7. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  8. Eulerian short-time statistics of turbulent flow at large Reynolds number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    An asymptotic analysis is presented of the short-time behavior of second-order temporal velocity structure functions and Eulerian acceleration correlations in a frame that moves with the local mean velocity of the turbulent flow field. Expressions in closed-form are derived which cover the viscous

  9. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  10. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  11. Waiting time distribution revealing the internal spin dynamics in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics of unidirectional electron transport through a double quantum dot molecule attached to spin-polarized leads are analyzed using the quantum master equation. The waiting time distribution exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the value of the exchange coupling between the dots and the gradient of the applied magnetic field, which reveals the oscillations between the spin states of the molecule. The zero-frequency full counting statistics, on the other hand, is independent of the aforementioned quantities, thus giving no insight into the internal dynamics. The fact that the waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics give a nonequivalent information is associated with two factors. Firstly, it can be explained by the sensitivity to different timescales of the dynamics of the system. Secondly, it is associated with the presence of the correlation between subsequent waiting times, which makes the renewal theory, relating the full counting statistics and the waiting time distribution, no longer applicable. The study highlights the particular usefulness of the waiting time distribution for the analysis of the internal dynamics of mesoscopic systems.

  12. Double adjoint method for determining the contribution of composition to reactivity at different times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, S.A.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The double adjoint method is described. ► System reloading is determined so the multiplication factor behaviour is repeated. ► Both fast and thermal systems behave as desired. ► Allowance must be made for indirect effects in thermal systems. ► An alternative definition of breeding ratio is derived. -- Abstract: The double adjoint method uses the adjoint reactivity and transmutation problems to describe how the system composition is related to the system reactivity at different points in time. Values of the contribution to the reactivity are determined using the adjoint reactivity problem, and these are then used as the source function for the adjoint transmutation problem. The method is applied to the problem of determining the contribution of the beginning of cycle composition to the end of cycle reactivity. It is tested in both fast and thermal systems by comparing the behaviour of the multiplication factor at the end of cycle in calculations with perturbed initial compositions to that predicted by the double adjoint method. The results from the fast system are good, while those from the thermal system are less favourable. This is believed to be due to the method neglecting the coupling between the composition and the flux, which plays a more significant role in thermal systems than fast ones. The importance of correcting for the effects of the fuel compound is also established. The values found are used in calculations to determine the appropriate fuel reloading of the systems tested, with the aim of duplicating the behaviour of the multiplication factor of the original system. Again the fast system gives good results, while the thermal system is less accurate. The double adjoint method is also used for a definition of breeding ratio, and some of the features of this definition are illustrated by examining the effects of different feed materials and reprocessing schemes. The method is shown to be a useful tool for the comparison of the

  13. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  14. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications; Roentgenuntersuchungen fuer kurzzeitdynamische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Efringen-Kirchen (Germany). Ernst-Mach-Inst. (EMI)

    2017-08-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  15. Rotor-System Log-Decrement Identification Using Short-Time Fourier-Transform Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qihang; Wang, Weimin; Chen, Lifang; Sun, Dan

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of the centrifugal compressor capability, such as large scale LNG and CO2 reinjection, the stability margin evaluation is crucial to assure the compressor work in the designed operating conditions in field. Improving the precision of parameter identification of stability is essential and necessary as well. Based on the time-varying characteristics of response vibration during the sine-swept process, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) filter was introduced to increase the ...

  16. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe

    1999-06-01

    Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).

  17. An instrument for measuring doubling time; Un appareillage de mesure de temps de doublement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Chandanson, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The instrument described here allows the direct and almost immediate measurement, with a precision of the order of 1 per cent, of the time taken by a reactor to double its power. The method of measurement consists of noting the instants when the power of the reactor passes the levels P{sub 1} and P{sub 2} such that P{sub 2} = 2 P{sub 1}, and of measuring the time lapse between these two instants. The instrument picks out, in the course of one rise in power, several levels, P{sub 1}, P{sub 2}, P{sub 3}... etc, chosen in such a manner as to give several successive measurements of the doubling time. It is also capable of making these same measurements when the reactor is working below the critical level. (author) [French] L'appareil decrit ici permet la mesure directe et quasi immediate du temps de doublement de la puissance d'un reacteur avec une precision de l'ordre de 1 pour cent. La methode de mesure consiste a reperer les instants de passage de la puissance du reacteur par des niveaux P{sub 1} et P{sub 2} tels que P{sub 2} = 2 P{sub 1}, et a mesurer le temps ecoule entre ces deux instants. L'appareil repere, au cours d'une meme montee en puissance, plusieurs niveaux, P{sub 1}, P{sub 2}, P{sub 3}... etc, choisis de maniere a donner plusieurs mesures successives du temps de doublement. Il est egalement utilisable pour effectuer ces memes mesures lorsque le reacteur est en regime sous-critique. (auteur)

  18. The effect of long and short time oil shocks on economic growth in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalae; Sanaz Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Oil is one of the strategic good so that price fluctuations and shocks of it have major effects on economic growth and recession in depended countries to revenues of it. In this study, it is tried that the effect of oil price shocks investigated in two types (short and long time) on Economic growth in Iran. Its Period is from 1974 to 2006. According it, oil price uncertainty is quantized by GARCH model and is determined the effects of oil price shocks on economic growth in Iran during a short...

  19. Efficacy and short-term safety of topical Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) versus diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Marzie; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Razavi, Seyede Zahra Emami; Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Emtiazy, Majid

    2016-07-21

    Sambucus ebulus L. (S. ebulus) has had long-standing application in Traditional Persian Medicine for joint pain and for a variety of bone and joint disorders. According to traditional use of S. ebulus and its relevant pharmacologic properties, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and short-term safety of topical use of S. ebulus in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Seventy nine patients with knee OA were randomly enrolled in 2 parallel arms of a pilot randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial. The patients were treated by topical S. ebulus gel or 1% diclofenac gel, three times a day, as much as a fingertip unit for 4 weeks. Patients were assessed prior to enrollment and, then, 2 and 4 weeks subsequent to the intervention, in terms of scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) for self-grading of their knee joint pain, and according to 3 different domains of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Any observed adverse effects were also scrutinized. The mean values of WOMAC pain score, total WOMAC score and VAS score for pain of the S. ebulus group were significantly lower compared with the diclofenac group (P=0.004, P=0.04, and P<0.001, respectively). In addition, no serious adverse effect was reported. This pilot study showed that topical treatment with S. ebulus gel can be recommended for alleviating symptoms of patients with knee OA. However, longer trials involving larger samples size, are needed for achieving a comprehensive understanding about the efficacy and safety of S. ebulus in knee OA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Do TETRA (Airwave) base station signals have a short-term impact on health and well-being? A randomized double-blind provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    "Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported "electrosensitivity" and of participants who served as controls. Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself.

  1. On-current modeling of short-channel double-gate (DG) MOSFETs with a vertical Gaussian-like doping profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, S.; Tiwari Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    An analytic drain current model is presented for doped short-channel double-gate MOSFETs with a Gaussian-like doping profile in the vertical direction of the channel. The present model is valid in linear and saturation regions of device operation. The drain current variation with various device parameters has been demonstrated. The model is made more physical by incorporating the channel length modulation effect. Parameters like transconductance and drain conductance that are important in assessing the analog performance of the device have also been formulated. The model results are validated by numerical simulation results obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two dimensional device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  2. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  3. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Uenguer, Savas; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Tuerkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  4. Long time scale plasma dynamics driven by the double tearing mode in reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Azumi, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Leboeuf, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    The new nonlinear destabilization process is found in the nonlinear phase of the double tearing mode (DTM) by using the reduced MHD equations in a helical symmetry. The nonlinear destabilization causes the abrupt growth of DTM and subsequent collapse after long time scale evolution in the Rutherford-type regime. The nonlinear growth of the DTM is suddenly triggered, when the triangular deformation of magnetic islands with sharp current point at the x-point around the outer rational surface exceeds a certain value. Such structure deformation is accelerated during the nonlinear growth phase. Decreasing the resistivity increases the sharpness of the triangularity and the spontaneous growth rate in the abrupt growth phase is almost independent on the resistivity. Current point formation is also confirmed in the multi-helicity simulation, where the magnetic fields become stochastic between two rational surfaces. (author)

  5. Long time scale plasma dynamics driven by the double tearing mode in reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yasutomo; Azumi, M.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The new nonlinear destabilization process is found in the nonlinear phase of the double tearing mode(DTM) by using the reduced MHD equations in a helical symmetry. The nonlinear destabilization causes the abrupt growth of DTM and subsequent collapse after long time scale evolution in the Rutherford-type regime. The nonlinear growth of the DTM is suddenly triggered, when the triangular deformation of magnetic islands with sharp current point at the x-point around the outer rational surface exceeds a certain value. Such structure deformation is accelerated during the nonlinear growth phase. Decreasing the resistivity increases the sharpness of the triangularity and the spontaneous growth rate in the abrupt growth phase is almost independent on the resistivity. Current point formation is also confirmed in the multi-helicity simulation, where the magnetic fields become stochastic between two rational surfaces. (author)

  6. A Time of flight spectrometer for measurements of double differential neutron scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, I.; Dominguez, O.; Sarria, P. Sandin, C.

    1996-01-01

    The time -of-Flight neutron spectrometry technique by associated particle method was improved using a D-T neutron generator at Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis. This technique was implemented for double differential cross section measurements and supported by the IAEA Project CUB/01/005. An stilbene scintillation detector (dia=100 mm, length=50 mm) was used as principal neutron detector detector and was situated outside a hole in the concrete wall. This way the fligth path was extended and the scattered neutron cone accurate collimated throught the 2 m concrete wall. For the associated particle α detection a thin plastic NE-102 scint illator was used, as well as, two scintilation detectors and a long counter for the neutron flux monitoring. In this TOF neutron spectrometer (3.40 m flight path) a 1.7 nseg. temporal resolution was obtained

  7. Short time propagation of a singular wave function: Some surprising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.; Schuss, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The Schrödinger evolution of an initially singular wave function was investigated. First it was shown that a wide range of physical problems can be described by initially singular wave function. Then it was demonstrated that outside the support of the initial wave function the time evolution is governed to leading order by the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the singular points. Short-time universality appears where it depends only on a single parameter—the value at the singular point (not even on its derivatives). It was also demonstrated that the short-time evolution in the presence of an absorptive potential is different than in the presence of a nonabsorptive one. Therefore, this dynamics can be harnessed to the determination whether a potential is absorptive or not simply by measuring only the transmitted particles density.

  8. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  9. Difference-based clustering of short time-course microarray data with replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jihoon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some limitations associated with conventional clustering methods for short time-course gene expression data. The current algorithms require prior domain knowledge and do not incorporate information from replicates. Moreover, the results are not always easy to interpret biologically. Results We propose a novel algorithm for identifying a subset of genes sharing a significant temporal expression pattern when replicates are used. Our algorithm requires no prior knowledge, instead relying on an observed statistic which is based on the first and second order differences between adjacent time-points. Here, a pattern is predefined as the sequence of symbols indicating direction and the rate of change between time-points, and each gene is assigned to a cluster whose members share a similar pattern. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm to those of K-means, Self-Organizing Map and the Short Time-series Expression Miner methods. Conclusions Assessments using simulated and real data show that our method outperformed aforementioned algorithms. Our approach is an appropriate solution for clustering short time-course microarray data with replicates.

  10. Dimension reduction of frequency-based direct Granger causality measures on short time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggiridou, Elsa; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris

    2017-09-01

    The mainstream in the estimation of effective brain connectivity relies on Granger causality measures in the frequency domain. If the measure is meant to capture direct causal effects accounting for the presence of other observed variables, as in multi-channel electroencephalograms (EEG), typically the fit of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model on the multivariate time series is required. For short time series of many variables, the estimation of VAR may not be stable requiring dimension reduction resulting in restricted or sparse VAR models. The restricted VAR obtained by the modified backward-in-time selection method (mBTS) is adapted to the generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC), termed restricted GPDC (RGPDC). Dimension reduction on other frequency based measures, such the direct directed transfer function (dDTF), is straightforward. First, a simulation study using linear stochastic multivariate systems is conducted and RGPDC is favorably compared to GPDC on short time series in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Then the two measures are tested for their ability to detect changes in brain connectivity during an epileptiform discharge (ED) from multi-channel scalp EEG. It is shown that RGPDC identifies better than GPDC the connectivity structure of the simulated systems, as well as changes in the brain connectivity, and is less dependent on the free parameter of VAR order. The proposed dimension reduction in frequency measures based on VAR constitutes an appropriate strategy to estimate reliably brain networks within short-time windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental investigations of argon spark gap recovery times by developing a high voltage double pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C S; Patel, A S; Naresh, P; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C

    2014-06-01

    The voltage recovery in a spark gap for repetitive switching has been a long research interest. A two-pulse technique is used to determine the voltage recovery times of gas spark gap switch with argon gas. First pulse is applied to the spark gap to over-volt the gap and initiate the breakdown and second pulse is used to determine the recovery voltage of the gap. A pulse transformer based double pulse generator capable of generating 40 kV peak pulses with rise time of 300 ns and 1.5 μs FWHM and with a delay of 10 μs-1 s was developed. A matrix transformer topology is used to get fast rise times by reducing L(l)C(d) product in the circuit. Recovery Experiments have been conducted for 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm gap length with 0-2 bars pressure for argon gas. Electrodes of a sparkgap chamber are of rogowsky profile type, made up of stainless steel material, and thickness of 15 mm are used in the recovery study. The variation in the distance and pressure effects the recovery rate of the spark gap. An intermediate plateu is observed in the spark gap recovery curves. Recovery time decreases with increase in pressure and shorter gaps in length are recovering faster than longer gaps.

  12. Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Gimmon, Yoav; Shapiro, Amir; Debi, Ronen; Snir, Yoram; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-03-04

    Falls are common among elderly, most of them occur while slipping or tripping during walking. We aimed to explore whether a training program that incorporates unexpected loss of balance during walking able to improve risk factors for falls. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial 53 community dwelling older adults (age 80.1±5.6 years), were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 26). The intervention group received 24 training sessions over 3 months that included unexpected perturbation of balance exercises during treadmill walking. The control group performed treadmill walking with no perturbations. The primary outcome measures were the voluntary step execution times, traditional postural sway parameters and Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis. The secondary outcome measures were the fall efficacy Scale (FES), self-reported late life function (LLFDI), and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Compared to control, participation in intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking led to faster Voluntary Step Execution Times under single (p = 0.002; effect size [ES] =0.75) and dual task (p = 0.003; [ES] = 0.89) conditions; intervention group subjects showed improvement in Short-term Effective diffusion coefficients in the mediolateral direction of the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis under eyes closed conditions (p = 0.012, [ES] = 0.92). Compared to control there were no significant changes in FES, LLFDI, and POMA. An intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking can improve voluntary stepping times and balance control, both previously reported as risk factors for falls. This however, did not transferred to a change self-reported function and FES. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439451 .

  13. Short irradiation time characteristics of the inverter type X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Hara, Takamitu; Matutani, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    The linearity of the X-ray output is an important factor in radiography. It is a composite of the linearities of the X-ray tube voltage, the X-ray tube current, and the exposure time. This paper focuses on the linearity of exposure time. Non-linearity of the X-ray output for short-time exposure became a problem when the three-phase X-ray generator was introduced. This paper describes the inverter-type X-ray generator, which is expected to become predominant in the future. Previously, we investigated X-ray output linearity during short-time exposure using the technique of dynamic study. In this paper, we describe the application of a digital memory and a personal computer to further investigation. The non-linearity of the X-ray output was caused by irregular waveforms of the X-ray tube voltage found at the rise time and the fall time. When the rise time was about 0.6 ms, the non-linearity was about 2%, which is negligibly small. The non-linearity due to the fall time of the X-ray tube varied greatly according to the X-ray tube current. For the minimum irradiation time of 1 ms, 4% to 27% of the non-linearity was attributable to the fall time. The main cause was the stray capacitance of the X-ray high-voltage cables. When the X-ray tube current exceeded 400 mA, the rise time was almost equal to the fall time, and the problem did not occur. Consequently, the ideal generator should have a fall time which is equal to the rise time of the X-ray tube voltage. Strictly speaking, such a generator should have rectangular waveforms. (author)

  14. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2015-11-20

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.

  15. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.

  16. Short-time maximum entropy method analysis of molecular dynamics simulation: Unimolecular decomposition of formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Nomura, Tetsuo; Tabayashi, Kiyohiko; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi

    2008-07-01

    We performed spectral analysis by using the maximum entropy method instead of the traditional Fourier transform technique to investigate the short-time behavior in molecular systems, such as the energy transfer between vibrational modes and chemical reactions. This procedure was applied to direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations for the decomposition of formic acid. More reactive trajectories of dehydrolation than those of decarboxylation were obtained for Z-formic acid, which was consistent with the prediction of previous theoretical and experimental studies. Short-time maximum entropy method analyses were performed for typical reactive and non-reactive trajectories. Spectrograms of a reactive trajectory were obtained; these clearly showed the reactant, transient, and product regions, especially for the dehydrolation path.

  17. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  18. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  19. Short-Term Memory Loss Over Time Without Retroactive Stimulus Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent non-articulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and non-articulator...

  20. Thermonuclear Bursts with Short Recurrence Times from Neutron Stars Explained by Opacity-driven Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keek, L. [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Heger, A., E-mail: laurens.keek@nasa.gov [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2017-06-20

    Thermonuclear flashes of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars produce the frequently observed Type I X-ray bursts. It is the current paradigm that almost all material burns in a burst, after which it takes hours to accumulate fresh fuel for the next burst. In rare cases, however, bursts are observed with recurrence times as short as minutes. We present the first one-dimensional multi-zone simulations that reproduce this phenomenon. Bursts that ignite in a relatively hot neutron star envelope leave a substantial fraction of the fuel unburned at shallow depths. In the wake of the burst, convective mixing events driven by opacity bring this fuel down to the ignition depth on the observed timescale of minutes. There, unburned hydrogen mixes with the metal-rich ashes, igniting to produce a subsequent burst. We find burst pairs and triplets, similar to the observed instances. Our simulations reproduce the observed fraction of bursts with short waiting times of ∼30%, and demonstrate that short recurrence time bursts are typically less bright and of shorter duration.

  1. Quantifying complexity of financial short-term time series by composite multiscale entropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    It is significant to study the complexity of financial time series since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Multiscale entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. Due to its less reliability of entropy estimation for short-term time series at large time scales, a modification method, the composite multiscale entropy, is applied to the financial market. To qualify its effectiveness, its applications in the synthetic white noise and 1 / f noise with different data lengths are reproduced first in the present paper. Then it is introduced for the first time to make a reliability test with two Chinese stock indices. After conducting on short-time return series, the CMSE method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation and demonstrates more stable and reliable results when compared with the conventional MSE algorithm. Finally, the composite multiscale entropy of six important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  2. Neutron Spectroscopy for pulsed beams with frame overlap using a double time-of-flight technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrig, K. P.; Goldblum, B. L.; Brown, J. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Harasty, M.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.

    2018-01-01

    A new double time-of-flight (dTOF) neutron spectroscopy technique has been developed for pulsed broad spectrum sources with a duty cycle that results in frame overlap, where fast neutrons from a given pulse overtake slower neutrons from previous pulses. Using a tunable beam at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, neutrons were produced via thick-target breakup of 16 MeV deuterons on a beryllium target in the cyclotron vault. The breakup spectral shape was deduced from a dTOF measurement using an array of EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. Simulation of the neutron detection efficiency of the scintillator array was performed using both GEANT4 and MCNP6. The efficiency-corrected spectral shape was normalized using a foil activation technique to obtain the energy-dependent flux of the neutron beam at zero degrees with respect to the incoming deuteron beam. The dTOF neutron spectrum was compared to spectra obtained using HEPROW and GRAVEL pulse height spectrum unfolding techniques. While the unfolding and dTOF results exhibit some discrepancies in shape, the integrated flux values agree within two standard deviations. This method obviates neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy challenges posed by pulsed beams with frame overlap and opens new opportunities for pulsed white neutron source facilities.

  3. Hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for double photoionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A.K.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.

    2003-01-01

    The hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for study of double photoionization of helium is presented. It is closely related to the hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032711 (2002)]: both split configuration space into two regions to solve the stationary inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation associated with the one-photon ionization problem, and both apply the same treatment to the outer region. However, the two methods differ radically in their treatments of the problem in the inner region: the most recent one applies a time-dependent approach for calculating the stationary wave function, while the previous one uses a R-matrix treatment. The excellent agreement observed between the triple differential cross sections obtained from these two basically different methods provides very strong support for both of them. Importantly, the very different numerical structures of both methods might make the most recent one a better candidate for investigating the near-threshold region

  4. Time-frequency analysis of fusion plasma signals beyond the short-time Fourier transform paradigm: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, Joao P.S.; Figueiredo, Antonio C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Performing a time-frequency (t-f) analysis on actual magnetic pick-up coil data from the JET tokamak, a comparison is presented between the spectrogram and the Wigner and Choi-Williams distributions. Whereas the former, which stems from the short-time Fourier transform and has been the work-horse for t-f signal processing, implies an unavoidable trade-off between time and frequency resolutions, the latter two belong to a later generation of distributions that yield better, if not optimal joint t-f localization. Topics addressed include signal representation in the t-f plane, frequency identification and evolution, instantaneous-frequency estimation, and amplitude tracking

  5. Short-Term Change Detection in Wetlands Using Sentinel-1 Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Automated monitoring systems that can capture wetlands’ high spatial and temporal variability are essential for their management. SAR-based change detection approaches offer a great opportunity to enhance our understanding of complex and dynamic ecosystems. We test a recently-developed time serie...... certain landscape changes are detected only by either the Landsat-based or the S1-omnibus method. The S1-omnibus method shows a great potential for an automated monitoring of short time changes and accurate delineation of areas of high variability and of slow and gradual changes....

  6. Identification of the structure parameters using short-time non-stationary stochastic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczewska, Kamila; Koszela, Piotr; Śniady, PaweŁ; Korzec, Aleksandra

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to the flexural stiffness or eigenvalue frequency identification of a linear structure using a non-stationary stochastic excitation process. The idea of the proposed approach lies within time domain input-output methods. The proposed method is based on transforming the dynamical problem into a static one by integrating the input and the output signals. The output signal is the structure reaction, i.e. structure displacements due to the short-time, irregular load of random type. The systems with single and multiple degrees of freedom, as well as continuous systems are considered.

  7. Performance evaluation of the short-time objective intelligibility measure with different band importance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann Andersen, Asger; de Haan, Jan Mark; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    performance measures: root-mean-squared-error, Pearson correlation, and Kendall rank correlation. The results show substantially improved performance when fitting and evaluating on the same dataset. However, this advantage does not necessarily subsist when fitting and evaluating on different datasets. When...... with a filter bank, 2) envelopes are extracted from each band, 3) the temporal correlation between clean and degraded envelopes is computed in short time segments, and 4) the correlation is averaged across time and frequency bands to obtain the final output. An unusual choice in the design of the STOI measure...

  8. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidl

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.

  9. Automated Detection of Short Optical Transients of Astrophysical Origin in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sokołowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of short optical transients of astrophysical origin in real time is an important task for existing robotic telescopes. The faster a new optical transient is detected, the earlier follow-up observations can be started. The sooner the object is identified, the more data can be collected before the source fades away, particularly in the most interesting early period of the transient. In this the real-time pipeline designed for identification of optical flashes with the “Pi of the Sky” project will be presented in detail together with solutions used by other experiments.

  10. A characterization of persistence at short times in the WFC3/IR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Bajaj, V.; Long, K.

    2018-05-01

    Persistence in the WFC3/IR detector appears to decay as a power law as a function of time elapsed since the end of a stimulus. In this report we study departures from the power law at times shorter than a few hundreds seconds after the stimulus. In order to have better short-time cadence, we use the Multiaccum (.ima) files, which trace the accumulated charge in the pixels as function of time, rather than the final pipeline products (.flt files), which instead report the electron rate estimated via a linear fit to the accumulated charge vs. time relation. We note that at short times after the stimulus, the absolute change in persistence is the strongest, thus a linear fit to the accumulated signal (the .flt values) can be a poor representation of the strongly varying persistence signal. The already observed power-law decay of the persistence signal, still holds at shorter times, with typical values of the power law index, gamma in [-0.8,-1] for stimuli that saturate the WFC3 pixels. To a good degree of approximation, a single power law is a good fit to the persistence signal decay from 100 to 5000 seconds. We also detect a tapering-off in the power-law decay at increasingly shorter times. This change in behavior is of the order of Delta Gamma 0.02 - 0.05 when comparing power-law fits performed to the persistence signal from 0 up to 250 seconds and from 0 up to 4000 seconds after the stimulus, indicating that persistence decays slightly more rapidly as time progresses. Our results may suggest that for even shorter times, not probed by our study, the WFC3 persistence signal might deviate from a single power-law model.

  11. Adaptive synchrosqueezing based on a quilted short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Alexander; Saito, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST) has gained popularity as a method for the analysis of signals that can be broken down into multiple components determined by instantaneous amplitudes and phases. One such version of SST, based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), enables the sharpening of instantaneous frequency (IF) information derived from the STFT, as well as the separation of amplitude-phase components corresponding to distinct IF curves. However, this SST is limited by the time-frequency resolution of the underlying window function, and may not resolve signals exhibiting diverse time-frequency behaviors with sufficient accuracy. In this work, we develop a framework for an SST based on a "quilted" short-time Fourier transform (SST-QSTFT), which allows adaptation to signal behavior in separate time-frequency regions through the use of multiple windows. This motivates us to introduce a discrete reassignment frequency formula based on a finite difference of the phase spectrum, ensuring computational accuracy for a wider variety of windows. We develop a theoretical framework for the SST-QSTFT in both the continuous and the discrete settings, and describe an algorithm for the automatic selection of optimal windows depending on the region of interest. Using synthetic data, we demonstrate the superior numerical performance of SST-QSTFT relative to other SST methods in a noisy context. Finally, we apply SST-QSTFT to audio recordings of animal calls to demonstrate the potential of our method for the analysis of real bioacoustic signals.

  12. The loss of short-term visual representations over time: decay or temporal distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom

    2014-12-01

    There has been much recent interest in the loss of visual short-term memories over the passage of time. According to decay theory, visual representations are gradually forgotten as time passes, reflecting a slow and steady distortion of the memory trace. However, this is controversial and decay effects can be explained in other ways. The present experiment aimed to reexamine the maintenance and loss of visual information over the short term. Decay and temporal distinctiveness models were tested using a delayed discrimination task, in which participants compared complex and novel objects over unfilled retention intervals of variable length. Experiment 1 found no significant change in the accuracy of visual memory from 2 to 6 s, but the gap separating trials reliably influenced task performance. Experiment 2 found evidence for information loss at a 10-s retention interval, but temporally separating trials restored the fidelity of visual memory, possibly because temporally isolated representations are distinct from older memory traces. In conclusion, visual representations lose accuracy at some point after 6 s, but only within temporally crowded contexts. These findings highlight the importance of temporal distinctiveness within visual short-term memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. [Clinical characteristics of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoi, Norihiko; Higashihara, Hisayo; Inagaki, Kayoko; Sonomura, Yukiko; Komuro, Aoi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and management of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye. Clinical background and post-treatment changes of symptoms in 77 patients with short BUT -type dry eye were investigated. Treatment consisted of artificial-tear eye-drop instillation and, if necessary, the addition of a low-density-level steroid, hyaluronic acid, a low-density-level cyclopentolate prepared by ourselves and punctal plugs inserted into the upper and lower lacrimal puncta. There were three times more women than men among the patients, and the peak age of occurrence was in the twenties in the men and in the sixties in the women. Our findings show that visual display terminal (VDT) work, contact lens (CL) wear, and changes in the sex hormones may initiate subjective symptoms. Some patients had simultaneous conjunctivochalasis, allergic conjunctivitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction. Nineteen patients (24.7%) were effectively treated with eye-drop instillation alone. Thirty-seven patients (48.1%) required punctal-plug insertion, which was completely effective in only 8 of them (21.6%). Mainly young men and menopausal women contract short BUT -type dry eye. Changes in sex hormones, VDT work and CL wear may be causal, and the disease cannot be controlled by eyedrop and punctal-plug treatment alone.

  14. Research on resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Yang, Jiabin; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin; Lin, Liangzhen

    2017-06-01

    Research of the resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact is the foundation of the developing DC superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current system (VSC-HVDC), which is one of the valid approaches to solve the problems of renewable energy integration. SFCL can limit DC short-circuit and enhance the interrupting capabilities of DC circuit breakers. In this paper, under short-time DC large current impacts, the resistance features of naked tape of YBCO tape are studied to find the resistance - temperature change rule and the maximum impact current. The influence of insulation for the resistance - temperature characteristics of YBCO tape is studied by comparison tests with naked tape and insulating tape in 77 K. The influence of operating temperature on the tape is also studied under subcooled liquid nitrogen condition. For the current impact security of YBCO tape, the critical current degradation and top temperature are analyzed and worked as judgment standards. The testing results is helpful for in developing SFCL in VSC-HVDC.

  15. Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response deltatelasticity tensor, and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.

  16. A time-dependent B-spline R-matrix approach to double ionization of atoms by XUV laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Zatsarinny, O; Noble, C J; Bartschat, K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311 (United States); Schneider, B I [Physics Division, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virgina 22230 (United States)], E-mail: xiaoxu.guan@drake.edu, E-mail: oleg.zatsarinny@drake.edu, E-mail: cjn@maxnet.co.nz, E-mail: klaus.bartschat@drake.edu, E-mail: bschneid@nsf.gov

    2009-07-14

    We present an ab initio and non-perturbative time-dependent approach to the problem of double ionization of a general atom driven by intense XUV laser pulses. After using a highly flexible B-spline R-matrix method to generate field-free Hamiltonian and electric dipole matrices, the initial state is propagated in time using an efficient Arnoldi-Lanczos scheme. Test calculations for double ionization of He by a single laser pulse yield good agreement with benchmark results obtained with other methods. The method is then applied to two-colour pump-probe processes, for which momentum and energy distributions of the two outgoing electrons are presented.

  17. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during exercise on short repetition time MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Mamoru; Anno, Izumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kuno, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Itai, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    There have been many reports on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle signal intensities based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These images were obtained using T 2 -weighted MR images. The purpose of this study was to observe muscles during exercise while shortening the repetition time (TR) on spin echo images. In addition, inactive and active muscles were differentiated in the same manner. T 2 values of the tibialis anterior m. were calculated from TR=400 ms to TR=3000 ms. These values were mostly constant and didn't depend upon TR. Increases in signal intensities of the exercise muscles could be observed on the short TR (600 ms) MR images since the changes of the signal intensities mainly depend upon T 2 values. Thus, the T 2 value is useful as a quantitative index to assess the exercise muscle even on the short TR MR images. (author)

  18. Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented

  19. Short-term memory loss over time without retroactive stimulus interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M

    2008-02-01

    A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. (2004) only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent nonarticulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and nonarticulatory rehearsal without introducing interference, we presented unevenly timed stimuli for serial recall and, on some trials, required that the timing of stimuli be reproduced in the response. In those trials only, evidence of memory loss over time emerged. Further research is needed to identify whether this memory loss is decay or lost distinctiveness.

  20. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Short-Time Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-bo Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When using a long range radar (LRR to track a target with micromotion, the micro-Doppler embodied in the radar echoes may suffer from ambiguity problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on compressed sensing (CS to solve micro-Doppler ambiguity. According to the RIP requirement, a sparse probing pulse train with its transmitting time random is designed. After matched filtering, the slow-time echo signals of the micromotion target can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling of Doppler spectrum. Select several successive pulses to form a short-time window and the CS sensing matrix can be built according to the time stamps of these pulses. Then performing Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP, the unambiguous micro-Doppler spectrum can be obtained. The proposed algorithm is verified using the echo signals generated according to the theoretical model and the signals with micro-Doppler signature produced using the commercial electromagnetic simulation software FEKO.

  1. Improvement of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Short Natural Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites through Double Step Grafting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, O. A.; Rini, K. S.; Susanti, T. D.; Mustofa, R. E.; Prameswari, M. D.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    This study focused on the effect of a compatibilizer addition, maleic anhydrides (MAH) on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fiber reinforced recycled polypropylene (rPP) biocomposites. The double steps grafting process were conducted by incorporated MAH on both rPP and EFB to improve the surface adhesion between these materials, to result in a good mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility to nature. The chemical test was carried out using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectroscopy technique to evaluated grafting process. The mechanical test was investigated and found that the addition of 10 phr MAH to both rPP and EFB improved mechanical strength of the biocomposites higher than another formulas. In this study, thermal properties of biocomposites also characterized. Water absorption (WA) analysis showed the presence of EFB fiber increased the water uptake of the material.

  2. Doubling time of thymic epithelial tumours on CT: correlation with histological subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jooae; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Namkug; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soyeoun [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Se Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the doubling time (DT) of thymic epithelial tumours (TET) according to the histological subtype on CT. From January 2005 to June 2016, we enrolled 53 patients who had pathologically confirmed TET and at least two CT scans. Tumour size was measured using a two-dimensional method, and the DT was calculated. DTs were compared among histological subtypes, and factors associated with rapid tumour growth (DT <180 days) were assessed. In 42 of the 53 patients (79.2%) the tumours showed interval growth (>2 mm) during follow-up. The median DT for all tumours was 400 days (range 48-1,964 days). There were no significant differences in DT in relation to histological subtype (p = 0.177). When TETs were recategorized into three groups, i.e. low-risk thymomas (types A, AB, B1), high-risk thymomas (types B2, B3), and thymic carcinoma, DT was significantly different among the groups (median DT 436, 381 and 189 days, respectively; p = 0.031). Histological subtype (type B3 and thymic carcinoma) was the single independent predictor of rapid tumour growth. The majority of TETs grew during follow-up with variable and relatively slow growth rates. Histological features of aggressive behaviour significantly correlated with a decreased DT and rapid growth. circle The majority of thymic epithelial tumours grew during follow-up (79.2%, 42/53). (orig.)

  3. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Daniel E.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Pan, Charlie C.; Williams, Scott G.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  4. Analysis of Seasonal Signal in GPS Short-Baseline Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Jiang, Weiping; Chen, Hua; An, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yuan, Peng; Chen, Qusen

    2018-04-01

    Proper modeling of seasonal signals and their quantitative analysis are of interest in geoscience applications, which are based on position time series of permanent GPS stations. Seasonal signals in GPS short-baseline (paper, to better understand the seasonal signal in GPS short-baseline time series, we adopted and processed six different short-baselines with data span that varies from 2 to 14 years and baseline length that varies from 6 to 1100 m. To avoid seasonal signals that are overwhelmed by noise, each of the station pairs is chosen with significant differences in their height (> 5 m) or type of the monument. For comparison, we also processed an approximately zero baseline with a distance of pass-filtered (BP) noise is valid for approximately 40% of the baseline components, and another 20% of the components can be best modeled by a combination of the first-order Gauss-Markov (FOGM) process plus white noise (WN). The TEM displacements are then modeled by considering the monument height of the building structure beneath the GPS antenna. The median contributions of TEM to the annual amplitude in the vertical direction are 84% and 46% with and without additional parts of the monument, respectively. Obvious annual signals with amplitude > 0.4 mm in the horizontal direction are observed in five short-baselines, and the amplitudes exceed 1 mm in four of them. These horizontal seasonal signals are likely related to the propagation of daily/sub-daily TEM displacement or other signals related to the site environment. Mismodeling of the tropospheric delay may also introduce spurious seasonal signals with annual amplitudes of 5 and 2 mm, respectively, for two short-baselines with elevation differences greater than 100 m. The results suggest that the monument height of the additional part of a typical GPS station should be considered when estimating the TEM displacement and that the tropospheric delay should be modeled cautiously, especially with station pairs with

  5. Double parametric resonance for matter-wave solitons in a time-modulated trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baizakov, Bakhtiyor; Salerno, Mario; Filatrella, Giovanni; Malomed, Boris

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the motion of solitons in a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate, loaded into a quasi-one-dimensional parabolic potential trap, which is subjected to time-periodic modulation with an amplitude ε and frequency Ω. First, we apply the variational approximation, which gives rise to decoupled equations of motion for the center-of-mass coordinate of the soliton, ξ(t), and its width a(t). The equation for ξ(t) is the ordinary Mathieu equation (ME) (it is an exact equation that does not depend on the adopted ansatz), the equation for a(t) being a nonlinear generalization of the ME. Both equations give rise to the same map of instability zones in the (ε,Ω) plane, generated by the parametric resonances (PRs), if the instability is defined as the onset of growth of the amplitude of the parametrically driven oscillations. In this sense, the double PR is predicted. Direct simulations of the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii equation give rise to a qualitatively similar but quantitatively different stability map for oscillations of the soliton's width a(t). In the direct simulations, we identify the soliton dynamics as unstable if the instability (again, realized as indefinite growth of the amplitude of oscillations) can be detected during a time comparable with, or smaller than, the lifetime of the condensate (therefore accessible to experimental detection). Two-soliton configurations are also investigated. It is concluded that multiple collisions between solitons are elastic, and they do not affect the instability borders

  6. Neutron theory, breeding properties and doubling time in a breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Ph.; Degeling, M.

    1978-01-01

    In this work the mathematical expression of the fundamental parameters of a breeder reactor, i.e. the breeding ration BR and the doubling time TD, is established. The influences of various quantities entering the expression of these parameters and the way leading to the decrease of Tsub(D), are investigated. The decrease of Tsub(D) is classically obtained by an increase of the breeding ratio, of the core specific power and of the fuel burn-up and by a decrease of the plutonium inventory and of its residence time out of pile and of the losses in the reprocessing. For a given enrichment, the total breeding ratio is itself improved by an increase of the density and of the volumetric fraction of the fuel in the core and of the fertile material in the sheath, by a decrease of the structural material and of the number of control rods and by an increase of the thickness of the sheath. One has pointed out the influence of the flattening of the power distribution curve on the decrease of Tsub(D) and the role played in that way by the design of a heterogeneous core, in which the fertile material is judiciously arranged in small blocks in the fuel zone whose enrichment is uniform in opposite to cores with several enrichment zones. Finally a classical neutronic theory allows for the establishment of relationship between the critical size and the core composition by a one or several neutron groups model for bare cores and cores with reflectors in steady conditions. (author)

  7. Short-term wind power forecasting: probabilistic and space-time aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastu, Julija

    work deals with the proposal and evaluation of new mathematical models and forecasting methods for short-term wind power forecasting, accounting for space-time dynamics based on geographically distributed information. Different forms of power predictions are considered, starting from traditional point...... into the corresponding models are analysed. As a final step, emphasis is placed on generating space-time trajectories: this calls for the prediction of joint multivariate predictive densities describing wind power generation at a number of distributed locations and for a number of successive lead times. In addition......Optimal integration of wind energy into power systems calls for high quality wind power predictions. State-of-the-art forecasting systems typically provide forecasts for every location individually, without taking into account information coming from the neighbouring territories. It is however...

  8. Short-time beta grain growth kinetics for a conventional titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiatin, S.L.; Sukonnik, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of beta grain growth during short-time, supertransus heat treatment of Ti-5Al-4V were determined using a salt-pot technique. The finite-time, subtransus temperature transient during salt-pot heating was quantified through measurements of the heat transfer coefficient characterizing conduction across the salt-titanium interface and a simple heat conduction analysis which incorporated this heat transfer coefficient. Grain size versus time data adjusted to account for the subtransus temperature transient were successfully fit to the parabolic grain growth law d n - d 0 n = kt exp(-Q/RT) using an exponent n equal to 2.0. Comparison of the present results to rapid, continuous heat treatment data in the literature for a similar titanium alloy revealed a number of semi-quantitative similarities

  9. Response probability and response time: a straight line, the Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory, an operational definition of meaningfulness and short term memory time decay and search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2008-12-01

    The functional relationship between correct response probability and response time is investigated in data sets from Rubin, Hinton and Wenzel, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:1161-1176, 1999 and Anderson, J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn] 7:326-343, 1981. The two measures are linearly related through stimulus presentation lags from 0 to 594 s in the former experiment and for repeated learning of words in the latter. The Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory is introduced to explain this linear relationship. At stimulus presentation the words are tagged. This tagging level drops slowly with time. When a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to increase for the word to be properly identified leading to a delay in response time. The tagging time is related to the meaningfulness of the words used-the more meaningful the word the longer the tagging time. After stimulus presentation the tagging level drops in a logarithmic fashion to 50% after 10 s and to 20% after 240 s. The incorrect recall and recognition times saturate in the Rubin et al. data set (they are not linear for large time lags), suggesting a limited time to search the short term memory structure: the search time for recall of unusual words is 1.7 s. For recognition of nonsense words the corresponding time is about 0.4 s, similar to the 0.243 s found in Cavanagh (1972).

  10. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  11. Study of surfaces and surface layers on high temperature materials after short-time thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-11-01

    Being part of the plasma-wall interaction during TOKAMAK operation, erosion- and redeposition processes of First Wall materials substantially influence plasma parameters as well as the properties of the First Wall. An important redeposition process of eroded material is the formation of thin films by atomic condensation. Examinations of First Wall components after TOKAMAK operation lead to the assumption that these thin metallic films tend to agglomerate to small particles under subsequent heat load. In laboratory experiments it is shown that thin metallic films on various substrates can agglomerate under short time high heat fluxes and also under longer lasting lower thermal loads, thus verifying the ''agglomeration hypothesis''. (orig.) [de

  12. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  13. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  14. Analytical model for subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel double-material-gate MOSFETs with strained-silicon channel on silicon—germanium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari Pramod Kumar; Saramekala Gopi Krishna; Mukhopadhyay Anand Kumar; Dubey Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    The present work gives some insight into the subthreshold behaviour of short-channel double-material-gate strained-silicon on silicon—germanium MOSFETs in terms of subthreshold swing and off-current. The formulation of subthreshold current and, thereupon, the subthreshold swing have been done by exploiting the expression of potential distribution in the channel region of the device. The dependence of the subthreshold characteristics on the device parameters, such as Ge mole fraction, gate length ratio, work function of control gate metal and gate length, has been tested in detail. The analytical models have been validated by the numerical simulation results that were obtained from the device simulation software ATLAS™ by Silvaco Inc. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Road Short-Term Travel Time Prediction Method Based on Flow Spatial Distribution and the Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many short-term road travel time forecasting studies based on time series, but indeed, road travel time not only relies on the historical travel time series, but also depends on the road and its adjacent sections history flow. However, few studies have considered that. This paper is based on the correlation of flow spatial distribution and the road travel time series, applying nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression method to build a forecasting model. In aspect of spatial nearest neighbor search, three different space distances are defined. In addition, two forecasting functions are introduced: one combines the forecasting value by mean weight and the other uses the reciprocal of nearest neighbors distance as combined weight. Three different distances are applied in nearest neighbor search, which apply to the two forecasting functions. For travel time series, the nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression are applied too. Then minimizing forecast error variance is utilized as an objective to establish the combination model. The empirical results show that the combination model can improve the forecast performance obviously. Besides, the experimental results of the evaluation for the computational complexity show that the proposed method can satisfy the real-time requirement.

  16. Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Rasor, Paul; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and control individuals experience more negative health effects when exposed to base station-like signals compared with sham. Fifty-six self-reported sensitive and 120 control participants were tested in an open provocation test. Of these, 12 sensitive and 6 controls withdrew after the first session. The remainder completed a series of double-blind tests. Subjective measures of well-being and symptoms as well as physiological measures of blood volume pulse, heart rate, and skin conductance were obtained. During the open provocation, sensitive individuals reported lower levels of well-being in both the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) compared with sham exposure, whereas controls reported more symptoms during the UMTS exposure. During double-blind tests the GSM signal did not have any effect on either group. Sensitive participants did report elevated levels of arousal during the UMTS condition, whereas the number or severity of symptoms experienced did not increase. Physiological measures did not differ across the three exposure conditions for either group. Short-term exposure to a typical GSM base station-like signal did not affect well-being or physiological functions in sensitive or control individuals. Sensitive individuals reported elevated levels of arousal when exposed to a UMTS signal. Further analysis, however, indicated that this difference was likely to be due to the effect of order of exposure rather than the exposure itself.

  17. Mining biological information from 3D short time-series gene expression data: the OPTricluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchagang, Alain B; Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; Shearer, Heather; Fobert, Pierre; Huang, Yi; Zou, Jitao; Huang, Daiqing; Cutler, Adrian; Liu, Ziying; Pan, Youlian

    2012-04-04

    Nowadays, it is possible to collect expression levels of a set of genes from a set of biological samples during a series of time points. Such data have three dimensions: gene-sample-time (GST). Thus they are called 3D microarray gene expression data. To take advantage of the 3D data collected, and to fully understand the biological knowledge hidden in the GST data, novel subspace clustering algorithms have to be developed to effectively address the biological problem in the corresponding space. We developed a subspace clustering algorithm called Order Preserving Triclustering (OPTricluster), for 3D short time-series data mining. OPTricluster is able to identify 3D clusters with coherent evolution from a given 3D dataset using a combinatorial approach on the sample dimension, and the order preserving (OP) concept on the time dimension. The fusion of the two methodologies allows one to study similarities and differences between samples in terms of their temporal expression profile. OPTricluster has been successfully applied to four case studies: immune response in mice infected by malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi), systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, similarities and differences between inner and outer cotyledon in Brassica napus during seed development, and to Brassica napus whole seed development. These studies showed that OPTricluster is robust to noise and is able to detect the similarities and differences between biological samples. Our analysis showed that OPTricluster generally outperforms other well known clustering algorithms such as the TRICLUSTER, gTRICLUSTER and K-means; it is robust to noise and can effectively mine the biological knowledge hidden in the 3D short time-series gene expression data.

  18. Prevention of colonic neoplasia with polyethylene glycol: A short term randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Ramesh K; Bianchi, Laura; Kupfer, Sonia; De La Cruz, Mart; Jovanovic, Borko; Weber, Christopher; Goldberg, Michael J; Rodriguez, L M; Bergan, Raymond; Rubin, David; Tull, Mary Beth; Richmond, Ellen; Parker, Beth; Khan, Seema; Roy, Hemant K

    2018-01-01

    Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm trial where eligible subjects were randomized to 8g PEG-3350 (n = 27) or 17g PEG-3350 (n = 24), or placebo (n = 24; maltodextrin) orally for a duration of six months. Our initial primary endpoint was rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) but this was changed during protocol period to rectal mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Of the 87 patients randomized, 48 completed study primary endpoints and rectal EGFR unchanged PEG treatment. Rectal ACF had a trend suggesting potentially reduction with PEG treatment (pre-post change 1.7 in placebo versus -0.3 in PEG 8+ 17g doses, p = 0.108). Other endpoints (proliferation, apoptosis, expression of SNAIL and E-cadherin), previously noted to be modulated in rodent models, appeared unchanged with PEG treatment in this clinical trial. We conclude that PEG was generally well tolerated with the trial failing to meet primary efficacy endpoints. However, rectal ACFs demonstrated a trend (albeit statistically insignificant) for suppression with PEG. Moreover, all molecular assays including EGFR were unaltered with PEG underscoring issues with lack of translatability of biomarkers from preclinical to clinical trials. This data may provide the impetus for future clinical trials on PEG using more robust biomarkers of chemoprevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00828984.

  19. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  20. Effective description of the short-time dynamics in open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Foti, Caterina; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Trapani, Jacopo; Verrucchi, Paola; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2017-09-01

    We address the dynamics of a bosonic system coupled to either a bosonic or a magnetic environment and derive a set of sufficient conditions that allow one to describe the dynamics in terms of the effective interaction with a classical fluctuating field. We find that for short interaction times the dynamics of the open system is described by a Gaussian noise map for several different interaction models and independently on the temperature of the environment. In order to go beyond a qualitative understanding of the origin and physical meaning of the above short-time constraint, we take a general viewpoint and, based on an algebraic approach, suggest that any quantum environment can be described by classical fields whenever global symmetries lead to the definition of environmental operators that remain well defined when increasing the size, i.e., the number of dynamical variables, of the environment. In the case of the bosonic environment this statement is exactly demonstrated via a constructive procedure that explicitly shows why a large number of environmental dynamical variables and, necessarily, global symmetries, entail the set of conditions derived in the first part of the work.

  1. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  2. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PI) with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up. Methods and Materials: The records of 162 patients treated with PI for localized prostate cancer with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up were reviewed. A variety of pretreatment and posttreatment variables were examined. Patients were coded as having a PSA bounce if their PSA achieved a nadir, elevated at least 0.2 ng/mL greater than that nadir, and decreased to, or below, the initial nadir. Two definitions of biochemical failure (bF) or biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were used: the classic American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of three consecutive rises (bF3) and the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (bFn+2). Associations between a PSA bounce and the various pre- and posttreatment factors were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and the association between a PSA bounce and bF was examined with the log-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for differences in the PSA doubling time (PSADT) and the time to a PSA rise between the PSA bounce patients and the bF patients. PSADT was calculated from the nadir to the time of the first PSA rise, because this point is known first in the clinical setting. Results: The 5-year overall bRFS rate was 87% for the bF3 definition and 96% for the bFn+2 definition. A PSA bounce was experienced by 75 patients (46.3%). Patients who experienced a PSA bounce were less likely to have a bF, regardless of the bRFS definition used (bF3: p = 0.0015; bFn+2: p = 0.0040). Among the pre- and posttreatment factors, only younger age predicted for a PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0018). The use of androgen deprivation had no effect on PSA bounce. No difference was found in the PSADT between patients who had a PSA bounce and those with bF. The median PSADT for those with a PSA bounce was 8.3 months vs. 10.3 months

  3. New solutions for the short-time analysis of geothermal vertical boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, Louis; Beauchamp, Benoit [Ecole de Technologie Supereure, 1100 Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    Many models, either numerical or analytical, have been proposed to analyse the thermal response of vertical heat exchangers that are used in ground coupled heat pump systems (GCHP). In both approaches, most of the models are valid after few hours of operation since they neglect the heat capacity of the borehole. This is valid for design purposes, where the time of interest is in the order of months and years. Recently, the short time response of vertical boreholes became a subject of interest. In this paper, we present a new analytical approach to treat this problem. It solves the exact solution for concentric cylinders and is a good approximation for the familiar U-tube configuration. (author)

  4. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, S; Nara, T; Kurihara, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally. (paper)

  5. Verification of short lead time forecast models: applied to Kp and Dst forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    In the ongoing EU/H2020 project PROGRESS models that predicts Kp, Dst, and AE from L1 solar wind data will be used as inputs to radiation belt models. The possible lead times from L1 measurements are shorter (10s of minutes to hours) than the typical duration of the physical phenomena that should be forecast. Under these circumstances several metrics fail to single out trivial cases, such as persistence. In this work we explore metrics and approaches for short lead time forecasts. We apply these to current Kp and Dst forecast models. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637302.

  6. Critical dynamics of the Potts model: short-time Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roberto da; Drugowich de Felicio, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the new dynamic exponent θ of the 4-state Potts model, using short-time simulations. Our estimates θ1=-0.0471(33) and θ2=-0.0429(11) obtained by following the behavior of the magnetization or measuring the evolution of the time correlation function of the magnetization corroborate the conjecture by Okano et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 485 (1997) 727]. In addition, these values agree with previous estimate of the same dynamic exponent for the two-dimensional Ising model with three-spin interactions in one direction, that is known to belong to the same universality class as the 4-state Potts model. The anomalous dimension of initial magnetization x0=zθ+β/ν is calculated by an alternative way that mixes two different initial conditions. We have also estimated the values of the static exponents β and ν. They are in complete agreement with the pertinent results of the literature

  7. Burn-up measurements of LEU fuel for short cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereda B, C.; Henriquez A, C.; Klein D, J.; Medel R, J.

    2005-01-01

    The measurements presented in this work were made essentially at in-pool gamma-spectrometric facility, installed inside of the secondary pool of the RECH-1 research reactor, where the measured fuel elements are under 2 meters of water. The main reason for using the in-pool facility was because of its capability to measure the burning of fuel elements without having to wait so long, that is with only 5 cooling days, which are the usual times between reactor operations. Regarding these short cooling times, this work confirms again the possibility of using the 95 Zr as a promising burnup monitor, in spite of the rough approximations used to do it. These results are statistically reasonable within the range calculated using codes. The work corroborates previous results, presented in Santiago de Chile, and it suggests future improvements in that way. (author)

  8. Optimal filtering of dynamics in short-time features for music organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in customizable methods for organizing music collections. Relevant music characterization can be obtained from short-time features, but it is not obvious how to combine them to get useful information. In this work, a novel method, denoted as the Positive Constrained...... Orthonormalized Partial Least Squares (POPLS), is proposed. Working on the periodograms of MFCCs time series, this supervised method finds optimal filters which pick up the most discriminative temporal information for any music organization task. Two examples are presented in the paper, the first being a simple...... proof-of-concept, where an altosax with and without vibrato is modelled. A more complex \\$11\\$ music genre classification setup is also investigated to illustrate the robustness and validity of the proposed method on larger datasets. Both experiments showed the good properties of our method, as well...

  9. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  10. Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Lukavská, K.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-192 ISSN 0961-463X Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ZTPI * ZTPI-short * time perspective * temporal orientation * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2016

  11. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-01-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino, and Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems

  12. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  13. Influence of time-periodic potentials on electronic transport in double-well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Lei, Li; Yan, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the Floquet theorem, we have investigated single-electron photon-assisted tunneling in a double-well system using the transfer matrix technique. The transmission probability displays satellite peaks on both sides of the main resonance peaks and these satellite peaks originate from emission or absorption photons. The single-electron resonance tunneling can be controlled through changing the applied harmonically potential positions, such as driven potential in wells, in barriers, or in whole double-well systems. This advantage should be useful in the optimization of the parameters of a transmission device. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Traditional Chinese Herbal Patch for Short-Term Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG, for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n=60, SJG (n=60, or placebo patch (n=30 for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P=0.029. The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations.

  15. Growth hormone enhances fat-free mass and glutamine availability in patients with short-bowel syndrome: an ancillary double-blind, randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguy, David; Darmaun, Dominique; Duhamel, Alain; Thuillier, François; Cynober, Luc; Cortot, Antoine; Gottrand, Frédéric; Messing, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Benefits of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) alone or combined with glutamine in patients with intestinal failure because of short-bowel syndrome remain controversial. We explored effects of rhGH on whole-body protein metabolism in patients with short-bowel syndrome with intestinal failure (SBS-IF) to gain insight into its mechanism of action. Eight stable hyperphagic patients with severe SBS-IF received, in a double-blind, randomized crossover study, low-dose rhGH (0.05 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and a placebo for two 3-wk periods. Leucine and glutamine kinetics under fasting and fed conditions, fat-free mass (FFM), and serum insulin were determined on the final day of each treatment. rhGH increased FFM and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; an index of protein synthesis) (P de novo synthesis (P de novo synthesis and intestinal absorption increase glutamine availability over the physiologic range, suggesting that beneficial effects of rhGH in hyperphagic patients might be achieved without glutamine supplementation. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Photoluminescence decay dynamics in γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals: The role of exclusion distance at short time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brian; Hegde, Manu; Stanish, Paul C.; Mišković, Zoran L.; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a comprehensive theoretical model describing the photoluminescence decay dynamics at short and long time scales based on the donor-acceptor defect interactions in γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals, and quantitatively determined the importance of exclusion distance and spatial distribution of defects. We allowed for donors and acceptors to be adjacent to each other or separated by different exclusion distances. The optimal exclusion distance was found to be comparable to the donor Bohr radius and have a strong effect on the photoluminescence decay curve at short times. The importance of the exclusion distance at short time scales was confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Investigation of the motion of diesel injection jets using high-speed cinematography and short time holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisfeld, F.

    1987-01-01

    The knowledge about the penetration of diesel injection jets, particularly about the flow within the short behind the nozzle, and the arising of droplets from an injection jet is very limited. Experimental investigations are required to describe the process of penetration and spreading of the jet. The research method requires high speed cinematography and short time holography. Problems in the investigation method are described

  18. Chirped or time modulated excitation compared to short pulses for photoacoustic imaging in acoustic attenuating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, P.; Motz, C.; Lang, O.; Berer, T.; Huemer, M.

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, optically generated acoustic waves transport the information about embedded structures to the sample surface. Usually, short laser pulses are used for the acoustic excitation. Acoustic attenuation increases for higher frequencies, which reduces the bandwidth and limits the spatial resolution. One could think of more efficient waveforms than single short pulses, such as pseudo noise codes, chirped, or harmonic excitation, which could enable a higher information-transfer from the samples interior to its surface by acoustic waves. We used a linear state space model to discretize the wave equation, such as the Stoke's equation, but this method could be used for any other linear wave equation. Linear estimators and a non-linear function inversion were applied to the measured surface data, for onedimensional image reconstruction. The proposed estimation method allows optimizing the temporal modulation of the excitation laser such that the accuracy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is maximized. We have restricted ourselves to one-dimensional models, as for higher dimensions the one-dimensional reconstruction, which corresponds to the acoustic wave without attenuation, can be used as input for any ultrasound imaging method, such as back-projection or time-reversal method.

  19. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  20. Robust and Adaptive Online Time Series Prediction with Long Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online time series prediction is the mainstream method in a wide range of fields, ranging from speech analysis and noise cancelation to stock market analysis. However, the data often contains many outliers with the increasing length of time series in real world. These outliers can mislead the learned model if treated as normal points in the process of prediction. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a robust and adaptive online gradient learning method, RoAdam (Robust Adam, for long short-term memory (LSTM to predict time series with outliers. This method tunes the learning rate of the stochastic gradient algorithm adaptively in the process of prediction, which reduces the adverse effect of outliers. It tracks the relative prediction error of the loss function with a weighted average through modifying Adam, a popular stochastic gradient method algorithm for training deep neural networks. In our algorithm, the large value of the relative prediction error corresponds to a small learning rate, and vice versa. The experiments on both synthetic data and real time series show that our method achieves better performance compared to the existing methods based on LSTM.

  1. Robust and Adaptive Online Time Series Prediction with Long Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haimin; Pan, Zhisong; Tao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Online time series prediction is the mainstream method in a wide range of fields, ranging from speech analysis and noise cancelation to stock market analysis. However, the data often contains many outliers with the increasing length of time series in real world. These outliers can mislead the learned model if treated as normal points in the process of prediction. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a robust and adaptive online gradient learning method, RoAdam (Robust Adam), for long short-term memory (LSTM) to predict time series with outliers. This method tunes the learning rate of the stochastic gradient algorithm adaptively in the process of prediction, which reduces the adverse effect of outliers. It tracks the relative prediction error of the loss function with a weighted average through modifying Adam, a popular stochastic gradient method algorithm for training deep neural networks. In our algorithm, the large value of the relative prediction error corresponds to a small learning rate, and vice versa. The experiments on both synthetic data and real time series show that our method achieves better performance compared to the existing methods based on LSTM.

  2. A combination of HARMONIE short time direct normal irradiance forecasts and machine learning: The #hashtdim procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastón, Martín; Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos; Körnich, Heiner; Landelius, Tomas

    2017-06-01

    The present work describes the first approach of a new procedure to forecast Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI): the #hashtdim that treats to combine ground information and Numerical Weather Predictions. The system is centered in generate predictions for the very short time. It combines the outputs from the Numerical Weather Prediction Model HARMONIE with an adaptive methodology based on Machine Learning. The DNI predictions are generated with 15-minute and hourly temporal resolutions and presents 3-hourly updates. Each update offers forecasts to the next 12 hours, the first nine hours are generated with 15-minute temporal resolution meanwhile the last three hours present hourly temporal resolution. The system is proved over a Spanish emplacement with BSRN operative station in south of Spain (PSA station). The #hashtdim has been implemented in the framework of the Direct Normal Irradiance Nowcasting methods for optimized operation of concentrating solar technologies (DNICast) project, under the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration framework.

  3. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  4. The use of Matlab for colour fuzzy representation of multichannel EEG short time spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, C; Strungaru, R

    1998-01-01

    During the last years, a lot of EEG research efforts was directed to intelligent methods for automatic analysis of data from multichannel EEG recordings. However, all the applications reported were focused on specific single tasks like detection of one specific "event" in the EEG signal: spikes, sleep spindles, epileptic seizures, K complexes, alpha or other rhythms or even artefacts. The aim of this paper is to present a complex system being able to perform a representation of the dynamic changes in frequency components of each EEG channel. This representation uses colours as a powerful means to show the only one frequency range chosen from the shortest epoch of signal able to be processed with the conventional "Short Time Fast Fourier Transform" (S.T.F.F.T.) method.

  5. Generic short-time propagation of sharp-boundaries wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.

    2005-11-01

    A general solution to the "shutter" problem is presented. The propagation of an arbitrary initially bounded wave function is investigated, and the general solution for any such function is formulated. It is shown that the exact solution can be written as an expression that depends only on the values of the function (and its derivatives) at the boundaries. In particular, it is shown that at short times (t << 2mx2/hbar, where x is the distance to the boundaries) the wave function propagation depends only on the wave function's values (or its derivatives) at the boundaries of the region. Finally, we generalize these findings to a non-singular wave function (i.e., for wave packets with finite-width boundaries) and suggest an experimental verification.

  6. The Short-Time Behaviour of VIX Implied Volatilities in a Multifactor Stochastic Volatility Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Nicolato, Elisa; Pagliarani, Stefano

    error bounds for VIX futures, options and implied volatilities. In particular, we derive exact asymptotic results for VIX implied volatilities, and their sensitivities, in the joint limit of short time-to-maturity and small log-moneyness. The obtained expansions are explicit, based on elementary...... approximations of equity (SPX) options. However, the generalizations needed to cover the case of VIX options are by no means straightforward as the dynamics of the underlying VIX futures are not explicitly known. To illustrate the accuracy of our technique, we provide numerical implementations for a selection...... functions and they neatly uncover how the VIX skew depends on the specific choice of the volatility and the vol-of-vol processes. Our results are based on perturbation techniques applied to the infinitesimal generator of the underlying process. This methodology has been previously adopted to derive...

  7. Short time administration of antirheumatic drugs - Methotrexate as a strong inhibitor of osteoblast's proliferation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annussek Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Due to increasing use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs as first line therapy in rheumatic diseases, dental and maxillofacial practitioner should be aware of drug related adverse events. Especially effects on bone-metabolism and its cells are discussed controversially. Therefore we investigate the in vitro effect of short time administration of low dose methotrexate (MTX on osteoblasts as essential part of bone remodelling cells. Methods Primary bovine osteoblasts (OBs were incubated with various concentrations of MTX, related to tissue concentrations, over a period of fourteen days by using a previously established standard protocol. The effect on cell proliferation as well as mitochondrial activity was assessed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, imaging and counting of living cells. Additionally, immunostaining of extracellular matrix proteins was used to survey osteogenic differentiation. Results All methods indicate a strong inhibition of osteoblast`s proliferation by short time administration of low dose MTX within therapeutically relevant concentrations of 1 to 1000nM, without affecting cell differentiation of middle-stage differentiated OBs in general. More over a significant decrease of cell numbers and mitochondrial activity was found at these MTX concentrations. The most sensitive method seems to be the MTT-assay. MTX-concentration of 0,01nM and concentrations below had no inhibitory effects anymore. Conclusion Even low dose methotrexate acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoblast’s proliferation and mitochondrial metabolism in vitro, without affecting main differentiation of pre-differentiated osteoblasts. These results suggest possible negative effects of DMARDs concerning bone healing and for example osseointegration of dental implants. Especially the specifics of the jaw bone with its high vascularisation and physiological high tissue metabolism

  8. Retention time generates short-term phytoplankton blooms in a shallow microtidal subtropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    In this study it was hypothesised that increasing water retention time promotes phytoplankton blooms in the shallow microtidal Patos Lagoon estuary (PLE). This hypothesis was tested using salinity variation as a proxy of water retention time and chlorophyll a for phytoplankton biomass. Submersible sensors fixed at 5 m depth near the mouth of PLE continuously measured water temperature, salinity and pigments fluorescence (calibrated to chlorophyll a) between March 2010 and 12th of December 2011, with some gaps. Salinity variations were used to separate alternating patterns of outflow of lagoon water (salinity 24; 35% of the time). The two transition phases represented a rapid change from lagoon water outflow to marine water inflow and a more gradually declining salinity between the dominating inflow and outflow conditions. During the latter of these, a significant chlorophyll a increase relative to that expected from a linear mixing relationship was observed at intermediate salinities (10-20). The increase in chlorophyll a was positively related to the duration of the prior coastal water inflow in the PLE. Moreover, chlorophyll a increase was significantly higher during austral spring-summer than autumn-winter, probably due to higher light and nutrient availability in the former. Moreover, the retention time process operating on time scales of days influences the long-term phytoplankton variability in this ecosystem. Comparing these results with monthly data from a nearby long-term water quality monitoring station (1993-2011) support the hypothesis that chlorophyll a accumulations occur after marine inflow events, whereas phytoplankton does not accumulate during high water outflow, when the water residence time is short. These results suggest that changing hydrological pattern is the most important mechanism underlying phytoplankton blooms in the PLE.

  9. Motor Fault Diagnosis Based on Short-time Fourier Transform and Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Jia-Xin; Xie, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of mechanical equipment, the mechanical health monitoring field has entered the era of big data. However, the method of manual feature extraction has the disadvantages of low efficiency and poor accuracy, when handling big data. In this study, the research object was the asynchronous motor in the drivetrain diagnostics simulator system. The vibration signals of different fault motors were collected. The raw signal was pretreated using short time Fourier transform (STFT) to obtain the corresponding time-frequency map. Then, the feature of the time-frequency map was adaptively extracted by using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The effects of the pretreatment method, and the hyper parameters of network diagnostic accuracy, were investigated experimentally. The experimental results showed that the influence of the preprocessing method is small, and that the batch-size is the main factor affecting accuracy and training efficiency. By investigating feature visualization, it was shown that, in the case of big data, the extracted CNN features can represent complex mapping relationships between signal and health status, and can also overcome the prior knowledge and engineering experience requirement for feature extraction, which is used by traditional diagnosis methods. This paper proposes a new method, based on STFT and CNN, which can complete motor fault diagnosis tasks more intelligently and accurately.

  10. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent.

  11. Short locking time and low jitter phase-locked loop based on slope charge pump control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhongjie; Liu Youbao; Wu Longsheng; Wang Xihu; Tang Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel structure of a phase-locked loop (PLL) characterized by a short locking time and low jitter is presented, which is realized by generating a linear slope charge pump current dependent on monitoring the output of the phase frequency detector (PFD) to implement adaptive bandwidth control. This improved PLL is created by utilizing a fast start-up circuit and a slope current control on a conventional charge pump PLL. First, the fast start-up circuit is enabled to achieve fast pre-charging to the loop filter. Then, when the output pulse of the PFD is larger than a minimum value, the charge pump current is increased linearly by the slope current control to ensure a shorter locking time and a lower jitter. Additionally, temperature variation is attenuated with the temperature compensation in the charge pump current design. The proposed PLL has been fabricated in a kind of DSP chip based on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. Comparing the characteristics with the classical PLL, the proposed PLL shows that it can reduce the locking time by 60% with a low peak-to-peak jitter of 0.3% at a wide operation temperature range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. SHORT DISSIPATION TIMES OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS: AN ARTIFACT OF SELECTION EFFECTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfalzner, Susanne; Steinhausen, Manuel; Menten, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of disks around young stars, a key parameter for understanding planet formation, is most readily determined in young stellar clusters where many relatively coeval stars are located in close proximity. Observational studies seem to show that the disk frequency decreases rapidly with cluster age with <10% of cluster stars retaining their disks for longer than 2-6 Myr. Given that at least half of all stars in the field seem to harbor one or more planets, this would imply extremely fast disk dispersal and rapid planet growth. Here we question the validity of this constraint by demonstrating that the short disk dissipation times inferred to date might have been heavily underestimated by selection effects. Critically, for ages >3 Myr only stars that originally populated the densest areas of very populous clusters, which are prone to disk erosion, are actually considered. This tiny sample may not be representative of the majority of stars. In fact, the higher disk fractions in co-moving groups indicate that it is likely that over 30% of all field stars retain their disks well beyond 10 Myr, leaving ample time for planet growth. Equally, our solar system, with a likely formation time >10 Myr, need no longer be an exception but in fact typical of planetary systems

  13. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  14. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment

  15. IoT security with one-time pad secure algorithm based on the double memory technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona; Bazydło, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Secure encryption of data in Internet of Things is especially important as many information is exchanged every day and the number of attack vectors on IoT elements still increases. In the paper a novel symmetric encryption method is proposed. The idea bases on the one-time pad technique. The proposed solution applies double memory concept to secure transmitted data. The presented algorithm is considered as a part of communication protocol and it has been initially validated against known security issues.

  16. Time domain numerical calculations of the short electron bunch wakefields in resistive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanian, Andranik

    2010-10-15

    The acceleration of electron bunches with very small longitudinal and transverse phase space volume is one of the most actual challenges for the future International Linear Collider and high brightness X-Ray Free Electron Lasers. The exact knowledge on the wake fields generated by the ultra-short electron bunches during its interaction with surrounding structures is a very important issue to prevent the beam quality degradation and to optimize the facility performance. The high accuracy time domain numerical calculations play the decisive role in correct evaluation of the wake fields in advanced accelerators. The thesis is devoted to the development of a new longitudinally dispersion-free 3D hybrid numerical scheme in time domain for wake field calculation of ultra short bunches in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The basic approaches used in the thesis to solve the problem are the following. For materials with high but finite conductivity the model of the plane wave reflection from a conducting half-space is used. It is shown that in the conductive half-space the field components perpendicular to the interface can be neglected. The electric tangential component on the surface contributes to the tangential magnetic field in the lossless area just before the boundary layer. For high conducting media, the task is reduced to 1D electromagnetic problem in metal and the so-called 1D conducting line model can be applied instead of a full 3D space description. Further, a TE/TM (''transverse electric - transverse magnetic'') splitting implicit numerical scheme along with 1D conducting line model is applied to develop a new longitudinally dispersion-free hybrid numerical scheme in the time domain. The stability of the new hybrid numerical scheme in vacuum, conductor and bound cell is studied. The convergence of the new scheme is analyzed by comparison with the well-known analytical solutions. The wakefield calculations for a number of

  17. Short time series analysis of Didymosphenia geminata blooming in the Oreti River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, T.; Kilroy, C.; Larned, S.; Packman, A. I.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    The mat-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was introduced to New Zealand in 2004, and subsequently spread to many rivers on the south island. D geminata mats are exceptionally dense and thick. Extensive blooms of this introduced organism have substantially modified the benthic environment in many New Zealand rivers, but the factors that contribute to D. geminata blooming are not well understood. We synthesized a sequence of observations of D. geminata areal coverage and thickness to examine physical and chemical controls on the growth and persistence of D germinata. We analyzed the best available time series on the distribution of this organism in New Zealand, observations in the Oreti River every 15 days spanning April 2006 to May 2007. During this period, mean D. geminata coverage of the river bed was ~52% and the mean mat thickness was ~6 mm. Relationships between time-series observations of D. geminata and 13 different physical and chemical variables were analyzed using linear and nonlinear methods. Areal cover and thickness of D geminata mats were found to be influenced by both slow and fast dynamic processes. The spread of the organism, in terms of % cover, was highly correlated with conductivity, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and total nitrogen with short time lags (fast dynamics). Moreover, water clarity, cloud cover, and flow were highly correlated with % cover with long time lags, indicating that these conditions exert long-term control on D. geminata growth. Areal coverage and thickness were found to be highly correlated, but the variables associated with slow and fast dynamics of these two measures were not identical. The variables found to be highly correlated with D. germinata thickness and represented fast dynamics were temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Additionally, the variables influencing the slow dynamics of D. germinata thickness were flow, water clarity, turbidity and total phosphorous.

  18. Short Term Prediction of PM10 Concentrations Using Seasonal Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hazrul Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution modelling is one of an important tool that usually used to make short term and long term prediction. Since air pollution gives a big impact especially to human health, prediction of air pollutants concentration is needed to help the local authorities to give an early warning to people who are in risk of acute and chronic health effects from air pollution. Finding the best time series model would allow prediction to be made accurately. This research was carried out to find the best time series model to predict the PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. By considering two seasons which is wet season (north east monsoon and dry season (south west monsoon, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model were used to find the most suitable model to predict the PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan by using three error measures. Based on AIC statistics, results show that ARIMA (1, 1, 1 × (1, 0, 012 is the most suitable model to predict PM10 concentrations in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan.

  19. Short-time regularity assessment of fibrillatory waves from the surface ECG in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Martínez, Arturo; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José J

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the first non-invasive method for direct and short-time regularity quantification of atrial fibrillatory (f) waves from the surface ECG in atrial fibrillation (AF). Regularity is estimated by computing individual morphological variations among f waves, which are delineated and extracted from the atrial activity (AA) signal, making use of an adaptive signed correlation index. The algorithm was tested on real AF surface recordings in order to discriminate atrial signals with different organization degrees, providing a notably higher global accuracy (90.3%) than the two non-invasive AF organization estimates defined to date: the dominant atrial frequency (70.5%) and sample entropy (76.1%). Furthermore, due to its ability to assess AA regularity wave to wave, the proposed method is also able to pursue AF organization time course more precisely than the aforementioned indices. As a consequence, this work opens a new perspective in the non-invasive analysis of AF, such as the individualized study of each f wave, that could improve the understanding of AF mechanisms and become useful for its clinical treatment. (paper)

  20. Polynomial Phase Estimation Based on Adaptive Short-Time Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Zhang, Chunjie; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Shuhong

    2018-02-13

    Polynomial phase signals (PPSs) have numerous applications in many fields including radar, sonar, geophysics, and radio communication systems. Therefore, estimation of PPS coefficients is very important. In this paper, a novel approach for PPS parameters estimation based on adaptive short-time Fourier transform (ASTFT), called the PPS-ASTFT estimator, is proposed. Using the PPS-ASTFT estimator, both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional searches and error propagation problems, which widely exist in PPSs field, are avoided. In the proposed algorithm, the instantaneous frequency (IF) is estimated by S-transform (ST), which can preserve information on signal phase and provide a variable resolution similar to the wavelet transform (WT). The width of the ASTFT analysis window is equal to the local stationary length, which is measured by the instantaneous frequency gradient (IFG). The IFG is calculated by the principal component analysis (PCA), which is robust to the noise. Moreover, to improve estimation accuracy, a refinement strategy is presented to estimate signal parameters. Since the PPS-ASTFT avoids parameter search, the proposed algorithm can be computed in a reasonable amount of time. The estimation performance, computational cost, and implementation of the PPS-ASTFT are also analyzed. The conducted numerical simulations support our theoretical results and demonstrate an excellent statistical performance of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Multifractals embedded in short time series: An unbiased estimation of probability moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lu; Yang, Tianguang; Yin, Yanhua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2016-12-01

    An exact estimation of probability moments is the base for several essential concepts, such as the multifractals, the Tsallis entropy, and the transfer entropy. By means of approximation theory we propose a new method called factorial-moment-based estimation of probability moments. Theoretical prediction and computational results show that it can provide us an unbiased estimation of the probability moments of continuous order. Calculations on probability redistribution model verify that it can extract exactly multifractal behaviors from several hundred recordings. Its powerfulness in monitoring evolution of scaling behaviors is exemplified by two empirical cases, i.e., the gait time series for fast, normal, and slow trials of a healthy volunteer, and the closing price series for Shanghai stock market. By using short time series with several hundred lengths, a comparison with the well-established tools displays significant advantages of its performance over the other methods. The factorial-moment-based estimation can evaluate correctly the scaling behaviors in a scale range about three generations wider than the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and the basic estimation. The estimation of partition function given by the wavelet transform modulus maxima has unacceptable fluctuations. Besides the scaling invariance focused in the present paper, the proposed factorial moment of continuous order can find its various uses, such as finding nonextensive behaviors of a complex system and reconstructing the causality relationship network between elements of a complex system.

  2. Two Machine Learning Approaches for Short-Term Wind Speed Time-Series Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Ronay; Fink, Olga; Zio, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The increasing liberalization of European electricity markets, the growing proportion of intermittent renewable energy being fed into the energy grids, and also new challenges in the patterns of energy consumption (such as electric mobility) require flexible and intelligent power grids capable of providing efficient, reliable, economical, and sustainable energy production and distribution. From the supplier side, particularly, the integration of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) into the grid imposes an engineering and economic challenge because of the limited ability to control and dispatch these energy sources due to their intermittent characteristics. Time-series prediction of wind speed for wind power production is a particularly important and challenging task, wherein prediction intervals (PIs) are preferable results of the prediction, rather than point estimates, because they provide information on the confidence in the prediction. In this paper, two different machine learning approaches to assess PIs of time-series predictions are considered and compared: 1) multilayer perceptron neural networks trained with a multiobjective genetic algorithm and 2) extreme learning machines combined with the nearest neighbors approach. The proposed approaches are applied for short-term wind speed prediction from a real data set of hourly wind speed measurements for the region of Regina in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both approaches demonstrate good prediction precision and provide complementary advantages with respect to different evaluation criteria.

  3. Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks for Online Disturbance Detection in Satellite Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A satellite image time series (SITS contains a significant amount of temporal information. By analysing this type of data, the pattern of the changes in the object of concern can be explored. The natural change in the Earth’s surface is relatively slow and exhibits a pronounced pattern. Some natural events (for example, fires, floods, plant diseases, and insect pests and human activities (for example, deforestation and urbanisation will disturb this pattern and cause a relatively profound change on the Earth’s surface. These events are usually referred to as disturbances. However, disturbances in ecosystems are not easy to detect from SITS data, because SITS contain combined information on disturbances, phenological variations and noise in remote sensing data. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for online disturbance detection from SITS. The framework is based on long short-term memory (LSTM networks. First, LSTM networks are trained by historical SITS. The trained LSTM networks are then used to predict new time series data. Last, the predicted data are compared with real data, and the noticeable deviations reveal disturbances. Experimental results using 16-day compositions of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 illustrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach for online disturbance detection.

  4. Rotor-System Log-Decrement Identification Using Short-Time Fourier-Transform Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of the centrifugal compressor capability, such as large scale LNG and CO2 reinjection, the stability margin evaluation is crucial to assure the compressor work in the designed operating conditions in field. Improving the precision of parameter identification of stability is essential and necessary as well. Based on the time-varying characteristics of response vibration during the sine-swept process, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT filter was introduced to increase the signal-noise ratio and improve the accuracy of the estimated stability parameters. A finite element model was established to simulate the sine-swept process, and the simulated vibration signals were used to study the filtering effect and demonstrate the feasibility to identify the stability parameters by using Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output system identification method that combines the prediction error method and instrumental variable method. Simulation results show that the identification method with STFT filter improves the estimated accuracy much well and makes the curves of frequency response function clearer. Experiment was carried out on a test rig as well, which indicates the identification method is feasible in stability identification, and the results of experiment indicate that STFT filter works very well.

  5. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Influence of Short-time Oxidation on Corrosion Properties of Directionally Solidified Superalloys with Different Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Luo-ning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the corrosion performance on intersecting and longitudinal surfaces of unoxidized and oxidized directionally solidified superalloys, Ni-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ125 and Co-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ40M were selected. Oxidation behavior on both alloys with different orientations was investigated at 1050℃ at different times, simulating the oxidation process of vanes or blades in service; subsequent electrochemical performance in 3.5%NaCl aqueous solution was studied on two orientations of unoxidized and oxidized alloys, simulating the corrosion process of superalloy during downtime. The results show that grain boundaries and sub-boundaries of directionally solidified superalloys are susceptible to corrosion and thus longitudinal surface with lower area fraction of grain boundaries has higher corrosion resistance. Compared to intersecting surface of alloys, the structure of grain boundaries of longitudinal surface is less conducive to diffusion and thus the oxidation rate on longitudinal surface is lower. Formation of oxide layers on alloys after short-time oxidation provides protective effect and enhances the corrosion resistance.

  7. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2014-09-01

    Accurate short-term wind speed forecasting is needed for the rapid development and efficient operation of wind energy resources. This is, however, a very challenging problem. Although on the large scale, the wind speed is related to atmospheric pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal (TDD) model. This paper proposes to incorporate the geostrophic wind as a new predictor in the TDD model. The geostrophic wind captures the physical relationship between wind and pressure through the observed approximate balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis acceleration due to the Earth’s rotation. Based on our numerical experiments with data from West Texas, our new method produces more accurate forecasts than does the TDD model using air pressure and temperature for 1to 6-hour-ahead forecasts based on three different evaluation criteria. Furthermore, forecasting errors can be further reduced by using moving average hourly wind speeds to fit the diurnal pattern. For example, our new method obtains between 13.9% and 22.4% overall mean absolute error reduction relative to persistence in 2-hour-ahead forecasts, and between 5.3% and 8.2% reduction relative to the best previous space-time methods in this setting.

  8. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly

  9. Secondary Prevention of Chronic PTSD by Early and Short-Term Administration of Escitalopram: A Prospective Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah; Juven-Wetzler, Alzabeta; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Hadar; Schreiber, Gavriel; Miroshnik, Natalie; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Suliman, Sharain; Klein, Ehud

    Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event . Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to escitalopram (n = 176) or placebo (n = 177). The per-protocol analysis comprised 198 participants (escitalopram, n = 102; placebo, n = 96) who received treatment for 12 to 24 weeks and were available for follow-up at week 56. The primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), revealed no prevention effect. However, a secondary outcome, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), showed better results for the SSRI group than for the placebo group. For a subset of participants who experienced intentional trauma (missile attacks, rape, or physical assault; n = 50), the prevention effect was found on both primary and secondary measures (CAPS, PSQI and measures of depression and global illness severity). Early and short-term administration of escitalopram was not shown to prevent PTSD, although it did improve sleep quality. In a subgroup of participants who experienced intentional trauma, however, this early-treatment approach may be effective as secondary prevention. This large study is the first to investigate the preventive effect of early administration of escitalopram on PTSD. It highlights the relevance of the type of trauma (intentional vs unintentional) to the outcome. Clinical

  10. Tunneling time in fluctuating symmetric double wells: Suppression and enhancement of tunneling by spatial symmetry-preserving perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetric double-well parameters cause enhancement of tunneling at ω ∼ ω 0 while rectified sinusoidal fluctuations suppress it at ω∼(ω 0 )/2 . Research highlights: → Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetrical double-well parameters have contrasting effects on tunneling. → Sinusoidal fluctuations at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 causes resonance enhancement of tunneling, ω 0 being the 0 + ↔ 1 + transition frequency. → Under rectified sinusoidal fluctuations at a frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 suppression or coherent destruction of tunneling is observed due to barrier localization. → The observations are explained by energy-gain analysis and analysis of the time-dependent overlap amplitudes. - Abstract: We investigate how tunneling-time gets affected by spatial symmetry preserving fluctuations in the parameters determining the width, barrier height and well-depth of a symmetric double-well potential. Sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of the well-parameters are shown to have contrasting effects. Significant enhancement of tunneling is noticed when the well-parameters fluctuate sinusoidally with frequency ω ∼ ω 0 while under rectified sinusoidal perturbation, quenching of tunneling takes place at a fluctuation frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 ,ω 0 , being the frequency of the lowest transition allowed by the fluctuation induced spatial perturbation of even parity. Time-dependent Hellmann-Feynman theorem is invoked to analyze the energy changes induced by fluctuations. It turns out that the enhancement of tunneling in the sinusoidally fluctuating double well at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 is caused by transition to 1 ± levels under the barrier while in the rectified sinusoidal field at ω∼1/2 ω 0 , a two-photon like process suppresses the tunneling by inducing barrier localization.

  11. Severe symptoms of short tear break-up time dry eye are associated with accommodative microfluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaido M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Minako Kaido,1,2 Motoko Kawashima,1 Reiko Ishida,1,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Wada Eye Clinic, Chiba, 3Ishida Eye Clinic, Shizuoka, Japan Aim: Validating the hypothesis that accommodative microfluctuations (AMFs may be associated with severe symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT dry eye (DE. Methods: This study included 12 subjects with short BUT DE (age: 49.6±18.3 years. Diagnoses were performed based on the presence of DE symptoms, BUT ≤5 s, Schirmer score >5 mm, and negative keratoconjunctival epithelial damage. Tear evaluation, AMF, and functional visual acuity (VA examinations were conducted before and after DE treatment. The AMF parameters evaluated were: total high-frequency component (HFC, HFC with low accommodation for the task of staring into the distance (HFC1, HFC with high accommodation for deskwork (HFC2. A subjective questionnaire of DE symptoms was also performed. Results: Mean BUT increased from 1.9±2.0 to 6.4±2.5 s after treatment (P<0.05. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution functional VA significantly improved (from 0.19±0.19 to 0.12±0.17; P<0.05. Mean power spectrum values for total HFC and HFC1 decreased (from 61.3±5.7 to 53.8±6.6 dB and from 62.9±10.5 to 52.4±6.2 dB, respectively; P<0.05, while the mean HFC2 power spectrum values did not differ before and after treatment (P>0.05. Subjective DE symptoms were reduced in nine patients. Conclusion: Along with the improvement of BUT after treatment, DE symptoms diminished and HFC1 and functional VA improved, suggesting that tear film instability is associated with deterioration of functional VA, AMF, and DE symptoms. Keywords: accommodative microfluctuation, ciliary muscle spasm, dry eye, ocular fatigue, tear break-up time, functional visual acuity 

  12. Stabilization and analytical tuning rule of double-loop control scheme for unstable dead-time process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugon, B.; Nandong, J.; Zang, Z.

    2017-06-01

    The presence of unstable dead-time systems in process plants often leads to a daunting challenge in the design of standard PID controllers, which are not only intended to provide close-loop stability but also to give good performance-robustness overall. In this paper, we conduct stability analysis on a double-loop control scheme based on the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria. We propose to use this unstable double-loop control scheme which employs two P/PID controllers to control first-order or second-order unstable dead-time processes typically found in process industries. Based on the Routh-Hurwitz stability necessary and sufficient criteria, we establish several stability regions which enclose within them the P/PID parameter values that guarantee close-loop stability of the double-loop control scheme. A systematic tuning rule is developed for the purpose of obtaining the optimal P/PID parameter values within the established regions. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning rule is demonstrated using several numerical examples and the result are compared with some well-established tuning methods reported in the literature.

  13. Time Course Changes in Selected Biochemical Stress Indices in Broilers Exposed to Short-term Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bedáňová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time course changes in selected biochemical stress indices (corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol following short-term noise exposure at 100 dB for 28 min were studied in broilers aged 42 days. Corticosterone concentrations were found to increase during the first 10 min of noise exposure and to differ significantly from the control (background sound – 50 dB at Time 10 min and 14 min, then decreased continually and at 28 min returned to the initial prestress value. Triglyceride concentrations increased in broilers exposed to 100 dB noise during the first 12 min with a significant difference from the control at 12 min and 14 min. Glucose concentrations were higher due to 100 dB noise exposure for almost the entire period monitored, with significant differences between 100 dB and control broilers at 6 min and from 10 min to 14 min. Similarly as for the corticosterone concentration, a drop in triglycerides and glucose concentrations was seen approximately from Time 14 min and a return to the pre-stress value at 28 min. The cholesterol concentrations showed various temporal patterns with no significant difference between 100 dB and control broilers in this experiment. The pattern of response found in the study indicates that 100 dB noise represents a stress factor in broilers, however, there is the ability of broilers to adapt to an increased level of noise at this intensity after the first 14 min of exposure. The findings obtained in the study may contribute to expanding detailed knowledge of physiological stress responses to this specific noise stimulus in poultry, and could thereby be used to improve the welfare of broilers in intensive housing systems.

  14. Double absorbing boundaries for finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGrone, John, E-mail: jlagrone@smu.edu; Hagstrom, Thomas, E-mail: thagstrom@smu.edu

    2016-12-01

    We describe the implementation of optimal local radiation boundary condition sequences for second order finite difference approximations to Maxwell's equations and the scalar wave equation using the double absorbing boundary formulation. Numerical experiments are presented which demonstrate that the design accuracy of the boundary conditions is achieved and, for comparable effort, exceeds that of a convolution perfectly matched layer with reasonably chosen parameters. An advantage of the proposed approach is that parameters can be chosen using an accurate a priori error bound.

  15. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  16. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (NWU)

    2012-05-22

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.

  17. Desain dan Implementasi Variasi Dimensi Slot Pada Mikrostrip Double F Menggunakan Metode Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurista Wahyu Kirana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dirancang antena mikrostrip dengan slot double F, di mana antena ini dapat digunakan untuk perangkat wireless yang bekerja pada frekuensi multiband. Antena mikrostrip double F dirancang dengan simulasi, dipabrikasi dan diukur secara riil. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD digunakan untuk menganalisis karakteristik distribusi arus yang tersebar pada mikrostrip. Nilai parameter terbaik dari hasil simulasi untuk return loss adalah -31,09 dB pada frekuensi 2,4 GHz dan VSWR sebesar 1,057 sedangkan hasil pengukurannya sebesar -32,82 dB pada frekuensi 2,4 GHz dan VSWR sebesar 1,045. Penggunaan slot pada patch antena dan pencatuan proximity yang digunakan meningkatkan bandwidth antena sebesar 48,7% dan gain yang dihasilkan sebesar 5,97 dBi.

  18. Time-dependent B-spline R-matrix approach to double ionization of atoms by XUV laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Noble, Clifford J [Computational Science and Engineering Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Schneider, Barry I, E-mail: xiaoxu.guan@drake.ed, E-mail: klaus.bartschat@drake.ed, E-mail: bschneid@nsf.go [Physics Division, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virgina 22230 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We present an ab initio and non-perturbative time-dependent approach to the problem of double ionization of a general atom driven by intense XUV laser pulses. After using a highly flexible B-spline R-matrix method to generate field-free Hamiltonian and electric dipole matrices, the initial state is propagated in time using an efficient Arnoldi-Lanczos scheme. Example results for momentum and energy distributions of the two outgoing electrons in two-color pump-probe processes of He are presented.

  19. Experimental dissociation of individual quality, food and timing of breeding effects on double-brooding in a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin L; Dawson, Russell D

    2013-07-01

    Annual reproductive success in many species is influenced by the number of breeding attempts within a season. Although previous studies have shown isolated effects of female quality, food, and timing of breeding on the probability of female birds producing second broods, to our knowledge, none have tested the relative importance of multiple factors and their interactions using simultaneous manipulations within populations of free-living birds. In this study, we show that individual quality and timing of breeding interact to affect the probability of double-brooding in female mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides). High-quality females (those that naturally initiated clutches early in the season) were more likely to double-brood, regardless of whether their hatching date was advanced or delayed, whereas later breeding, lower quality females were much less likely to double-brood when their first attempt was delayed. This indicates that annual fecundity of poorer quality (or younger) female bluebirds may be more sensitive to seasonal variation in environmental conditions. In addition, birds that were provided with supplemental food throughout first breeding attempts were more likely to double-brood in one of the study years, suggesting that female bluebirds may be energetically limited in their capacity to initiate a second brood. Females that had their first brood delayed also had a shorter inter-brood interval and were moulting fewer feathers during second broods compared to controls, while females in better condition showed more advanced moult in second breeding attempts. Taken together, our results demonstrate the combined effects of age- or individual quality-mediated energetic trade-offs between current and future reproduction, and between investments in offspring and self-maintenance, on annual fecundity of female birds.

  20. Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

  1. Short-term visual memory for location in depth: A U-shaped function of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2017-10-01

    Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory. In contrast, accuracy did not change with delay when a tonal cue replaced the arrow cue. We hypothesized that information concerning the depths of the numerals decays over time in sensory memory, but that cued recall is aided later on by transfer to a visual memory specialized for depth. This transfer is sufficiently rapid with a tonal cue to compensate for the sensory decay, but it is slowed by the need to tag the arrow cue's depth relative to the depths of the numerals, exposing a dip when sensation has decayed and transfer is not yet complete. A model with a fixed rate of sensory decay and varied transfer rates across individuals captures the dip as well as the cue modality effect.

  2. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  3. Effectiveness of mouse minute virus inactivation by high temperature short time treatment technology: a statistical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Quesada, Guillermo Miro; Chen, Dayue

    2011-11-01

    Viral contamination of mammalian cell cultures in GMP manufacturing facility represents a serious safety threat to biopharmaceutical industry. Such adverse events usually require facility shutdown for cleaning/decontamination, and thus result in significant loss of production and/or delay of product development. High temperature short time (HTST) treatment of culture media has been considered as an effective method to protect GMP facilities from viral contaminations. Log reduction factor (LRF) has been commonly used to measure the effectiveness of HTST treatment for viral inactivation. However, in order to prevent viral contaminations, HTST treatment must inactivate all infectious viruses (100%) in the medium batch since a single virus is sufficient to cause contamination. Therefore, LRF may not be the most appropriate indicator for measuring the effectiveness of HTST in preventing viral contaminations. We report here the use of the probability to achieve complete (100%) virus inactivation to assess the effectiveness of HTST treatment. By using mouse minute virus (MMV) as a model virus, we have demonstrated that the effectiveness of HTST treatment highly depends upon the level of viral contaminants in addition to treatment temperature and duration. We believe that the statistical method described in this report can provide more accurate information about the power and potential limitation of technologies such as HTST in our shared quest to mitigate the risk of viral contamination in manufacturing facilities. Copyright © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Brnic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed.

  5. Cerebral blood flow measurement using stable xenon CT with very short inhalation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    A noninvasive, simplified method using inhalation of stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) and computed tomographic (CT) scanning to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional partition coefficient (r{lambda}) is described. Twenty-four patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and six volunteer controls inhaled 30% Xe{sup s} and 70% oxygen for 180 seconds and exhaled for 144 seconds during serial CT scanning without denitrogenation. The end-tidal Xe{sup s} concentration was continuously monitored with a thermoconductivity analyzer to determine the build-up range (A value) and build-up rate constant (K value) for arteries with the curve fitting method. The time-CT number (Hounsfield unit) curve for cerebral tissue during the Xe{sup s} washin and washout phases was used to calculate r{lambda} and rCBF using least squares curve fitting analysis. The resultant r{lambda} and rCBF map demonstrated a reliable distribution between the gray and white matter, and infarcted areas. rCBF was high in gray matter, low in white matter, and much lower in infarcted areas than in white matter. r{lambda} was high in white matter, low in gray matter, and much lower in infarcted areas. Xe{sup s} CT-CBF studies with very short inhalation of 180 seconds is a clinically useful method for evaluation of rCBF in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. (author).

  6. Forecast of electric power market to short-term: a time series approcah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Roberio Neves Pelinca da.

    1994-01-01

    Three different time series approaches are analysed by this dissertation in the Brazilian electricity markert context. The aim is to compare the predictive performance of these approaches from a simulated exercise using the main series of the Brazilian consumption of electricity: Total Consumption, Industrial Consumption, Residencial Consumption and Commercial Consumption. One concludes that these appraches offer an enormous potentiality to the short-term planning system of the Electric Sector. Among the univariate models, the results for the analysed period point out that the forecast produced by Holt-Winter's models are more accurate than those produced by ARIMA and structural models. When explanatory variables are introduced in the last models, one can notice, in general, an improvement in the predictive performance of the models, although there is no sufficient evidence to consider that they are superior to Holt-Winter's models. The models with explanatory variables can be particularly useful, however, when one intends either to build scenarios or to study the effects of some variables on the consumption of electricity. (author). 73 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies.

  8. Fecal short-chain fatty acids at different time points after ceftriaxone administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Holota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs are major products of the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Recent studies suggest that these products of microbial metabolism in the gut act as signaling molecules, influence host energy homeostasis and play major immunological roles. In the present study, defined the long-term effects of ceftriaxone administration on the fecal SCFAs concentration in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg, i.m. was administered daily for 14 days. Rats were euthanized in 1, 15 and 56 days after ceftriaxone withdrawal. Caecal weight and fecal concentration of SCFAs by gas chromatography were measured. Ceftriaxone administration induced time-dependent rats’ caecal enlargement through accumulation of undigestable substances. In 1 day after ceftriaxone withdrawal, the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total SCFAs were decreased 2.9-, 13.8-, 8.5-, 4.8-fold (P < 0.05, respectively. Concentration of valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids was below the detectable level. That was accompanied by decreased 4.3-fold anaerobic index and increased the relative amount of acetic acid (P < 0.05. In 56 days, concentration of SCFAs was still below control value but higher than in 1 day (except propionic acid. Anaerobic index was lower 1.3-fold (P < 0.05 vs. control. Conclusion: antibiotic therapy induced long-term disturbance in colonic microbiota metabolic activity.

  9. Improvement of the Original Isolation Procedure for Hormone Studies in Short-Time Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Atmaca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies indicated that hormone responsiveness of cells and metabolic activity was lost during various of experimental procedure. In the light of this observation, I aimed to investigate to obtain optimal conditions for short time cultured hepatocytes and also to determine the type of test can be used to evaluate suitablity of hepatocytes for hormones studies. During the isolation period 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml collagenase were used. Adrenaline (10-6M was used to measure sensitivity of hepatocytes to hormones and glycogenolsis was measured at the end of 2hr incubation period. Adrenaline significantly increased gylcogenolysis (Control: 0.16±0.01 mg/2hr; Adrenaline: 0.30±0.01 mg/2hr only when the 50 IU/ml collagenase was used and the viability of the cells were over 95%. Viability tests were applied to hepatocytes that obtained by using 50 IU collagenase. Cellular glutathione, methylthiazoltetrazolium reduction, lactatedehdrogenase leakage, ATP level measured to determine viability following the attachment and incubation period. No differences were observed at the end of each period.Altogether, the present study indicated that membrane integrity and metabolic function of the hepatocytes can be improved by modifying slightly the original procedure of Reese and Byard.

  10. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Josip; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Lanc, Domagoj; Krscanski, Sanjin; Brcic, Marino; Li, Qiang; Niu, Jitai

    2016-04-20

    The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed.

  11. Measurement of short transverse relaxation times by pseudo-echo nutation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maude; Moyne, Christian; Canet, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Very short NMR transverse relaxation times may be difficult to measure by conventional methods. Nutation experiments constitute an alternative approach. Nutation is, in the rotating frame, the equivalent of precession in the laboratory frame. It consists in monitoring the rotation of magnetization around the radio-frequency (rf) field when on-resonance conditions are fulfilled. Depending on the amplitude of the rf field, nutation may be sensitive to the two relaxation rates R1 and R2. A full theoretical development has been worked out for demonstrating how these two relaxation rates could be deduced from a simple nutation experiment, noticing however that inhomogeneity of the rf field may lead to erroneous results. This has led us to devise new experiments which are the equivalent of echo techniques in the rotating frame (pseudo spin-echo nutation experiment and pseudo gradient-echo experiment). Full equations of motion have been derived. Although complicated, they indicate that the sum of the two relaxation rates can be obtained very accurately and not altered by rf field inhomogeneity. This implies however an appropriate data processing accounting for the oscillations which are superposed to the echo decays and, anyway, theoretically predicted. A series of experiments has been carried out for different values of the rf field amplitude on samples of water doped with a paramagnetic compound at different concentrations. Pragmatically, as R1 can be easily measured by conventional methods, its value is entered in the data processing algorithm which then returns exclusively the value of the transverse relaxation time. Very consistent results are obtained that way.

  12. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  13. Study of the performance of collision short time approximation for neutron scattering using discrete frequency distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Oliveira, A.B.; Amorim, E.S. do; Galvao, O.B.

    1981-03-01

    Double differential cross sections for thermal neutrons, based on incoherent approximation, using continum distribution as discrete frequency set are theoretically estimated, regarding two models previously done. The FASTT computer program is used in order to obtain a numerical estimation. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Time-Based Loss in Visual Short-Term Memory Is from Trace Decay, Not Temporal Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Spiegel, Lauren R.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to why forgetting occurs in short-term memory tasks. In past work, we have shown that forgetting occurs with the passage of time, but there are 2 classes of theories that can explain this effect. In the present work, we investigate the reason for time-based forgetting by contrasting the predictions of temporal…

  15. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  16. Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT.

  17. Short-Time Structural Stability of Compressible Vortex Sheets with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Assume we start with an initial vortex-sheet configuration which consists of two inviscid fluids with density bounded below flowing smoothly past each other, where a strictly positive fixed coefficient of surface tension produces a surface tension force across the common interface, balanced by the pressure jump. We model the fluids by the compressible Euler equations in three space dimensions with a very general equation of state relating the pressure, entropy and density such that the sound speed is positive. We prove that, for a short time, there exists a unique solution of the equations with the same structure. The mathematical approach consists of introducing a carefully chosen artificial viscosity-type regularisation which allows one to linearise the system so as to obtain a collection of transport equations for the entropy, pressure and curl together with a parabolic-type equation for the velocity which becomes fairly standard after rotating the velocity according to the interface normal. We prove a high order energy estimate for the non-linear equations that is independent of the artificial viscosity parameter which allows us to send it to zero. This approach loosely follows that introduced by Shkoller et al. in the setting of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface. Although already considered by Coutand et al. [10] and Lindblad [17], we also make some brief comments on the case of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface, which is obtained from the vortex sheets problem by replacing one of the fluids by vacuum, where it is possible to obtain a structural stability result even without surface tension.

  18. Classification of brain tumours using short echo time 1H MR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, A.; Lukas, L.; Suykens, J. A. K.; Vanhamme, L.; Tate, A. R.; Howe, F. A.; Majós, C.; Moreno-Torres, A.; van der Graaf, M.; Arús, C.; Van Huffel, S.

    2004-09-01

    The purpose was to objectively compare the application of several techniques and the use of several input features for brain tumour classification using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time 1H MRS signals from patients with glioblastomas ( n = 87), meningiomas ( n = 57), metastases ( n = 39), and astrocytomas grade II ( n = 22) were provided by six centres in the European Union funded INTERPRET project. Linear discriminant analysis, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with a linear kernel and LS-SVM with radial basis function kernel were applied and evaluated over 100 stratified random splittings of the dataset into training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to measure the performance of binary classifiers, while the percentage of correct classifications was used to evaluate the multiclass classifiers. The influence of several factors on the classification performance has been tested: L2- vs. water normalization, magnitude vs. real spectra and baseline correction. The effect of input feature reduction was also investigated by using only the selected frequency regions containing the most discriminatory information, and peak integrated values. Using L2-normalized complete spectra the automated binary classifiers reached a mean test AUC of more than 0.95, except for glioblastomas vs. metastases. Similar results were obtained for all classification techniques and input features except for water normalized spectra, where classification performance was lower. This indicates that data acquisition and processing can be simplified for classification purposes, excluding the need for separate water signal acquisition, baseline correction or phasing.

  19. Effect of Initiation Time of Hydrostatic Pressure Shock on Chromosome Set Doubling of Tetraploidization in Turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangping; Lin, Zhengmei; Wu, Zhihao; Li, Jiandong; You, Feng

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the effects of initiation time on chromosome set doubling induced by hydrostatic pressure shock through nuclear phase fluorescent microscopy in turbot Scophthalmus maximus. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo and chromosome counting was used to assess induction efficiency. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at prometaphase (A group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after 11-min recovering. The first nuclear division and cytokinesis proceeded normally. During the second cell cycle, chromosomes did not enter into metaphase after prometaphase, but spread around for about 13 min, then assembled together and formed a large nucleus without anaphase separation; the second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo showed that the second mitosis of 78% A group embryo was inhibited. The result of chromosome counting showed that the tetraploidization rate of A group was 72%. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at anaphase (B group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after about 31-min recovering. Afterwards, one telophase nucleus formed without anaphase separation; the first nuclear division was inhibited. The time of the first cleavage furrow occurrence of B group embryos delayed 27 min compared with that of A group embryos. With the first cytokinesis proceeding normally, 81.3% B group embryos were at two-cell stage around the middle of the second cell cycle after treatment. Those embryos were one of the two blastomeres containing DNA and the other without DNA. The first nuclear division of those embryos was inhibited. During the third cell cycle after treatment, 65.2% of those abovementioned embryos were at four-cell stage, cytokinesis occurred in both blastomeres, and nuclear division only occurred in the blastomere containing DNA. Of those abovementioned embryos, 14.0% were at

  20. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  1. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  2. Time resolved study of the emission enhancement mechanisms in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginés, R., E-mail: roberto.sangines@ccadet.unam.mx; Sobral, H.

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of laser induced ablation plume on aluminum targets has been investigated in orthogonal pre-ablation double pulse scheme at atmospheric pressure from the earliest stages of plasma evolution. Time-resolved emission spectra from neutrals, singly- and doubly-ionized species obtained with the double pulse experiment have been compared with those from the single pulse configuration. Signal-to-noise enhancement reaches values of up to 15 depending on the analyzed species; and the lower the charge state the later its maximum signal-to-noise ratio is reached. Ablation plume dynamics was monitored from 10 ns after the plasma onset via shadowgraphy and fast-photography with narrow interference filters to follow the evolution of individual species. Results show that ionic species from the target are located at the plasma core while nitrogen from the background air is found at the plume peripheral. Initially both configurations exhibit similar ablation plume sizes and their expansions were successfully fitted with the strong explosion model for the first 500 ns. At later times a good agreement was obtained by using the drag model, which predicts that the plume expansion eventually stops due to interaction with the background gas particles. The emission enhancement measured in the double pulse scheme is discussed in terms of the models describing the plume dynamics. - Highlights: • Production of 2 + ions at the earliest stages of plasma evolution • The higher the charge state the inner the location within the ablation plume. • The expansion rate of the second (ablation) plume was measured. • Shock and drag models successfully fit the ablation shock front expansion.

  3. Time-varying auditory gain control in response to double-pulse stimuli in harbour porpoises is not mediated by a stapedial reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Emil Munch Schrøder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating animals reduce their output level and hearing sensitivity with decreasing echo delays, presumably to stabilize the perceived echo intensity during target approaches. In bats, this variation in hearing sensitivity is formed by a call-induced stapedial reflex that tapers off over time after the call. Here, we test the hypothesis that a similar mechanism exists in toothed whales by subjecting a trained harbour porpoise to a series of double sound pulses varying in delay and frequency, while measuring the magnitudes of the evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs. We find that the recovery of the ABR to the second pulse is frequency dependent, and that a stapedial reflex therefore cannot account for the reduced hearing sensitivity at short pulse delays. We propose that toothed whale auditory time-varying gain control during echolocation is not enabled by the middle ear as in bats, but rather by frequency-dependent mechanisms such as forward masking and perhaps higher-order control of efferent feedback to the outer hair cells.

  4. Construction of a flash-photolysis apparatus having a short discharge time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.

    1964-01-01

    Flash photolysis aims at reaching directly the primary mechanisms resulting from the action of light on an absorbent matter. This makes it necessary to produce a flash as short and as bright as possible. Our main effort was directed towards reducing the duration of the flash by decreasing the self-inductance of the discharge circuit. A description of this circuit and study of the characteristics of the apparatus are followed by a short description of the two analytical methods: flash spectrography and absorption spectrophotometry at a given wave-length. (author) [fr

  5. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE, and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA. The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential

  6. Technical Note: Deep learning based MRAC using rapid ultra-short echo time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Gengyan; Bradshaw, Tyler; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-05-15

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of a novel framework for MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR imaging based on deep learning via convolutional neural networks, which enables fully automated and robust estimation of a pseudo CT image based on ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat, and water images obtained by a rapid MR acquisition. MR images for MRAC are acquired using dual echo ramped hybrid encoding (dRHE), where both UTE and out-of-phase echo images are obtained within a short single acquisition (35 sec). Tissue labeling of air, soft tissue, and bone in the UTE image is accomplished via a deep learning network that was pre-trained with T1-weighted MR images. UTE images are used as input to the network, which was trained using labels derived from co-registered CT images. The tissue labels estimated by deep learning are refined by a conditional random field based correction. The soft tissue labels are further separated into fat and water components using the two-point Dixon method. The estimated bone, air, fat, and water images are then assigned appropriate Hounsfield units, resulting in a pseudo CT image for PET attenuation correction. To evaluate the proposed MRAC method, PET/MR imaging of the head was performed on 8 human subjects, where Dice similarity coefficients of the estimated tissue labels and relative PET errors were evaluated through comparison to a registered CT image. Dice coefficients for air (within the head), soft tissue, and bone labels were 0.76±0.03, 0.96±0.006, and 0.88±0.01. In PET quantification, the proposed MRAC method produced relative PET errors less than 1% within most brain regions. The proposed MRAC method utilizing deep learning with transfer learning and an efficient dRHE acquisition enables reliable PET quantification with accurate and rapid pseudo CT generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  8. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  9. Time Perspective and Identity Formation: Short-Term Longitudinal Dynamics in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Lens, Willy; Smits, Ilse; Goossens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college…

  10. Development of Speech Fluency over a Short Period of Time: Effects of Pedagogic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Campbell, Colin; McCormack, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term pedagogic intervention on development of second language (L2) fluency among learners studying English for academic purposes at a UK university. It also examines the interaction between development of fluency and complexity and accuracy. Through a pretest and posttest design, data were collected…

  11. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes. Results Short dsRNAs were generated against specific mRNAs of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus with a cytoplasmic life cycle. At nanomolar concentrations, the dsRNAs specifically abrogated expression of the corresponding viral proteins, and produced the expected mutant phenotype ex vivo. The dsRNAs did not induce an interferon response, and did not inhibit cellular gene expression. The ablation of the viral proteins correlated with the loss of the specific mRNAs. In contrast, viral genomic and antigenomic RNA, which are encapsidated, were not directly affected. Conclusions Synthetic inhibitory dsRNAs are effective in specific silencing of RNA genomes that are exclusively cytoplasmic and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. RNA-directed RNA gene silencing does not require cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of viral cDNA, and thus, will allow the generation of phenotypic null mutants of specific RNA viral genes under normal infection conditions and at any point in the infection cycle. This will, for the first time, permit functional genomic studies, attenuated infections, reverse genetic analysis, and studies of host-virus signaling pathways using a wild type RNA virus, unencumbered by any superinfecting virus.

  12. The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in collider experiments with short bunch crossing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Serbo, V.V.; Titov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in several systems of the detector KEDR at the e + e - collider VEPP-4M was performed. The relatively short bunch crossing time at VEPP-4M 60 ns leads to some problems with the use of CAMEX in the standard mode. The different ways to overcome these difficulties are investigated and compared. (orig.)

  13. 25 CFR 26.30 - Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.30 Does the Job Training...

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory for the charging kinetics of electric double layer containing room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-11-28

    Understanding the charging kinetics of electric double layers is of fundamental importance for the design and development of novel electrochemical devices such as supercapacitors and field-effect transistors. In this work, we study the dynamic behavior of room-temperature ionic liquids using a classical time-dependent density functional theory that accounts for the molecular excluded volume effects, the electrostatic correlations, and the dispersion forces. While the conventional models predict a monotonic increase of the surface charge with time upon application of an electrode voltage, our results show that dispersion between ions results in a non-monotonic increase of the surface charge with the duration of charging. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of van der Waals attraction between electrode/ionic-liquid interactions on the charging processes.

  15. Investigation on performance of all optical buffer with large dynamical delay time based on cascaded double loop optical buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Jun, Wang; Xiang-Jun, Xin; Xiao-Lei, Zhang; Chong-Qing, Wu; Kuang-Lu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Optical buffers are critical for optical signal processing in future optical packet-switched networks. In this paper, a theoretical study as well as an experimental demonstration on a new optical buffer with large dynamical delay time is carried out based on cascaded double loop optical buffers (DLOBs). It is found that pulse distortion can be restrained by a negative optical control mode when the optical packet is in the loop. Noise analysis indicates that it is feasible to realise a large variable delay range by cascaded DLOBs. These conclusions are validated by the experiment system with 4-stage cascaded DLOBs. Both the theoretical simulations and the experimental results indicate that a large delay range of 1–9999 times the basic delay unit and a fine granularity of 25 ns can be achieved by the cascaded DLOBs. The performance of the cascaded DLOBs is suitable for the all optical networks. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Feasibility of Using a Novel 2.45 GHz Double Short Distance Slot Coaxial Antenna for Minimally Invasive Cancer Breast Microwave Ablation Therapy: Computational Model, Phantom, and In Vivo Swine Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda Rubio, M. F. J.; Leija, L.

    2018-01-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) by using coaxial antennas is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. A double short distance slot coaxial antenna as a newly optimized applicator for minimally invasive treatment of breast cancer is proposed. To validate and to analyze the feasibility of using this method in clinical treatment, a computational model, phantom, and breast swine in vivo experimentation were carried out, by using four microwave powers (50 W, 30 W, 20 W, and 10 W). The finite element method (FEM) was used to develop the computational model. Phantom experimentation was carried out in breast phantom. The in vivo experimentation was carried out in a 90 kg swine sow. Tissue damage was estimated by comparing control and treated micrographs of the porcine mammary gland samples. The coaxial slot antenna was inserted in swine breast glands by using image-guided ultrasound. In all cases, modeling, in vivo and phantom experimentation, and ablation temperatures (above 60°C) were reached. The in vivo experiments suggest that this new MWA applicator could be successfully used to eliminate precise and small areas of tissue (around 20–30 mm2). By modulating the power and time applied, it may be possible to increase/decrease the ablation area. PMID:29854360

  17. Bounds of Double Integral Dynamic Inequalities in Two Independent Variables on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Saker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to establish some explicit bounds of the unknown function in a certain class of nonlinear dynamic inequalities in two independent variables on time scales which are unbounded above. These on the one hand generalize and on the other hand furnish a handy tool for the study of qualitative as well as quantitative properties of solutions of partial dynamic equations on time scales. Some examples are considered to demonstrate the applications of the results.

  18. Short echo time proton spectroscopy of the brain in healthy volunteers using an insert gradient head coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Danielsen, E R; Schneider, M

    1995-01-01

    An insert gradient head coil with built-in X, Y, and Z gradients was used for localized proton spectroscopy in the brain of healthy volunteers, using short echo time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequences. Volume of interest size was 3.4 ml, repetition time was 6.0 s, and echo times...... were 10 and 20 ms, respectively. Good quality proton spectra with practically no eddy current artefacts were acquired allowing observation of strongly coupled compounds, and compounds with short T2 relaxation times. The gradient head coil thus permits further studies of compounds such as glutamine....../glutamate and myo-inositols. These compounds were more prominent within grey matter than within white matter. Rough estimations of metabolite concentrations using water as an internal standard were in good agreement with previous reports....

  19. Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Matthew R.

    Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. Short-lived positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The short-lived radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing short-lived positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may

  20. Design and implementation of double oscillator time-to-digital converter using SFQ logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigai, T.; Ito, M.; Yoshikawa, N.; Fujimaki, A.; Terai, H.; Yorozu, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and tested a time-to-digital converter (TDC) using SFQ logic circuits. The proposed TDC consists of two sets of ring oscillators and binary counters, and a coincidence detector (CD), which detects the coincidence of the arrival of two SFQ pulses from two ring oscillators. The advantage of the proposed TDC is its simple circuit structure with wide measurement range. The time resolution of the proposed TDC is limited by the resolution of the CD, which is about 10 ps because it is made by an NDRO cell in this study. The circuits are implemented using NEC 2.5 kA/cm 2 Nb standard process and the CONNECT cell library. We have demonstrated the measurement of the propagation delay of a Josephson transmission line by the TDC with the time resolution of about 10 ps

  1. Double Scaling in the Relaxation Time in the β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Yuri V.; Onorato, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    We consider the original β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system; numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that, for a finite number of masses, a statistical equilibrium state is reached independently of the initial energy of the system. Using ensemble averages over initial conditions characterized by different Fourier random phases, we numerically estimate the time scale of equipartition and we find that for very small nonlinearity it matches the prediction based on exact wave-wave resonant interaction theory. We derive a simple formula for the nonlinear frequency broadening and show that when the phenomenon of overlap of frequencies takes place, a different scaling for the thermalization time scale is observed. Our result supports the idea that the Chirikov overlap criterion identifies a transition region between two different relaxation time scalings.

  2. Short-course versus long-course chemoradiation in rectal cancer--time to change strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G; Czito, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    There is significant debate regarding the optimal neoadjuvant regimen for resectable rectal cancer patients. Short-course radiotherapy, a standard approach throughout most of northern Europe, is generally defined as 25 Gy in 5 fractions over the course of 1 week without the concurrent administration of chemotherapy. Long-course radiotherapy is typically defined as 45 to 50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with the administration of concurrent 5-fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy and is the standard approach in other parts of Europe and the United States. At present, two randomized trials have compared outcomes for short course radiotherapy with long-course chemoradiation showing no difference in respective study endpoints. Late toxicity data are lacking given limited follow-up. Although the ideal neoadjuvant regimen is controversial, our current bias is long-course chemoradiation to treat patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer.

  3. Age and admission times as predictive factors for failure of admissions to discharge-stream short-stay units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Shankar Raju, Savitha Banagar; Hermiz, Arsalan; Vaghasiya, Milan; Vukasovic, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    Discharge-stream emergency short-stay units (ESSU) improve ED and hospital efficiency. Age of patients and time of hospital presentations have been shown to correlate with increasing complexity of care. We aim to determine whether an age and time cut-off could be derived to subsequently improve short-stay unit success rates. We conducted a retrospective audit on 6703 (5522 inclusions) patients admitted to our discharge-stream short-stay unit. Patients were classified as appropriate or inappropriate admissions, and deemed successful if discharged out of the unit within 24 h; and failures if they needed inpatient admission into the hospital. We calculated short-stay unit length of stay for patients in each of these groups. A 15% failure rate was deemed as acceptable key performance indicator (KPI) for our unit. There were 197 out of 4621 (4.3%, 95% CI 3.7-4.9%) patients up to the age of 70 who failed admission to ESSU compared with 67 out of 901 (7.4%, 95% CI 5.9-9.3%, P 70 years of age have higher rates of failure after admission to discharge-stream ESSU. Although in appropriately selected discharge-stream patients, no age group or time-band of presentation was associated with increased failure rate beyond the stipulated KPI. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Cerebral activation related to implicit sequence learning in a Double Serial Reaction Time task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, FHCE; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; de Jong, BM

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the distribution of cerebral activations related to implicitly learning a series of fixed stimulus-response combinations. In a novel - bimanual - variant of the Serial Reaction Time task (SRT), simultaneous finger movements of the two

  5. Is the non-isothermal double β-model incompatible with no time evolution of galaxy cluster gas mass fraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the depletion factor γ(z), the ratio by which the measured baryon fraction in galaxy clusters is depleted with respect to the universal mean. We use exclusively galaxy cluster data, namely, X-ray gas mass fraction (fgas) and angular diameter distance measurements from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect plus X-ray observations. The galaxy clusters are the same in both data set and the non-isothermal spherical double β-model was used to describe their electron density and temperature profiles. In order to compare our results with those from recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we suppose a possible time evolution for γ(z), such as, γ(z) =γ0(1 +γ1 z) . As main conclusions we found that: the γ0 value is in full agreement with the simulations. On the other hand, although the γ1 value found in our analysis is compatible with γ1 = 0 within 2σ c.l., our results show a non-negligible time evolution for the depletion factor, unlike the results of the simulations. However, we also put constraints on γ(z) by using the fgas measurements and angular diameter distances obtained from the flat ΛCDM model (Planck results) and from a sample of galaxy clusters described by an elliptical profile. For these cases no significant time evolution for γ(z) was found. Then, if a constant depletion factor is an inherent characteristic of these structures, our results show that the spherical double β-model used to describe the galaxy clusters considered does not affect the quality of their fgas measurements.

  6. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Poisson-process generalization for the trading waiting-time distribution in a double-auction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Silvano; Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Scalas, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, empirical analyses and computational experiments are presented on high-frequency data for a double-auction (book) market. Main objective of the paper is to generalize the order waiting time process in order to properly model such empirical evidences. The empirical study is performed on the best bid and best ask data of 7 U.S. financial markets, for 30-stock time series. In particular, statistical properties of trading waiting times have been analyzed and quality of fits is evaluated by suitable statistical tests, i.e., comparing empirical distributions with theoretical models. Starting from the statistical studies on real data, attention has been focused on the reproducibility of such results in an artificial market. The computational experiments have been performed within the Genoa Artificial Stock Market. In the market model, heterogeneous agents trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents have zero intelligence and issue random limit or market orders depending on their budget constraints. The price is cleared by means of a limit order book. The order generation is modelled with a renewal process. Based on empirical trading estimation, the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive orders is modelled by a mixture of exponential processes. Results show that the empirical waiting-time distribution can be considered as a generalization of a Poisson process. Moreover, the renewal process can approximate real data and implementation on the artificial stocks market can reproduce the trading activity in a realistic way.

  8. Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Limin; Xu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Short-time processing was employed to manipulate the amplitude, bandwidth, and temporal fine structure (TFS) in sentences. Fifty-two native-English-speaking, normal-hearing listeners participated in four sentence-recognition experiments. Results showed that recovered envelope (E) played an important role in speech recognition when the bandwidth was > 1 equivalent rectangular bandwidth. Removing TFS drastically reduced sentence recognition. Preserving TFS greatly improved sentence recognition when amplitude information was available at a rate ≥ 10 Hz (i.e., time segment ≤ 100 ms). Therefore, the short-time TFS facilitates speech perception together with the recovered E and works with the coarse amplitude cues to provide useful information for speech recognition.

  9. From Walras’ auctioneer to continuous time double auctions: a general dynamic theory of supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, J.; Bouchaud, J.-P.

    2016-12-01

    In standard Walrasian auctions, the price of a good is defined as the point where the supply and demand curves intersect. Since both curves are generically regular, the response to small perturbations is linearly small. However, a crucial ingredient is absent of the theory, namely transactions themselves. What happens after they occur? To answer the question, we develop a dynamic theory for supply and demand based on agents with heterogeneous beliefs. When the inter-auction time is infinitely long, the Walrasian mechanism is recovered. When transactions are allowed to happen in continuous time, a peculiar property emerges: close to the price, supply and demand vanish quadratically, which we empirically confirm on the Bitcoin. This explains why price impact in financial markets is universally observed to behave as the square root of the excess volume. The consequences are important, as they imply that the very fact of clearing the market makes prices hypersensitive to small fluctuations.

  10. A comparative analysis of short-range travel time prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisken, Giovanni; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing car mobility has lead to an increasing demand for traffic information. This contribution deals with information about travel times. When car drivers are provided with this type of information, the travel times should ideally be the times that they will encounter. As a result travel times

  11. Information verification cryptosystem using one-time keys based on double random phase encoding and public-key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A novel image encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and RSA public-key algorithm is proposed. The main characteristic of the system is that each encryption process produces a new decryption key (even for the same plaintext), thus the encryption system conforms to the feature of the one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. The other characteristic of the system is the use of fingerprint key. Only with the rightful authorization will the true decryption be obtained, otherwise the decryption will result in noisy images. So the proposed system can be used to determine whether the ciphertext is falsified by attackers. In addition, the system conforms to the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS) due to the combination with the RSA public-key algorithm. The simulation results show that the encryption scheme has high robustness against the existing attacks.

  12. Energy and angle resolved studies of double photo-ionisation of helium by electron time-of-flight coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viefhaus, J.; Avaldi, L.; Heiser, F.; Hentges, R.; Gessner, O.; Ruedel, A.; Wiedenhoeft, M.; Wieliczek, K.; Becker, U. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-10-28

    Helium double photo-ionization is studied by a novel coincidence technique which employs time-of-flight spectrometers. Using this technique it is possible to collect simultaneously all the electron pairs, with different energy sharing, emitted by the absorption of a single energetic incident photon. The measurements, in a configuration where the two electrons emerge at 180{sup o} relative angle, provide the more complete information on the contribution of the ungerade amplitude to the triple differential cross section and allow the establishment of a relative scale for the full coincidence angular distribution measured by other experiments at the same photon energies, but only for a few selected energy-sharing conditions. (author).

  13. Time-dependent resonant tunnelling for parallel-coupled double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Bing; Djuric, Ivana; Cui, H L; Lei, X L

    2004-01-01

    We derive the quantum rate equations for an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with two vertically coupled quantum dots embedded in each of two arms by means of the nonequilibrium Green function in the sequential tunnelling regime. Based on these equations, we investigate time-dependent resonant tunnelling under a small amplitude irradiation and find that the resonant photon-assisted tunnelling peaks in photocurrent demonstrate a combination behaviour of Fano and Lorentzian resonances due to the interference effect between the two pathways in this parallel configuration, which is controllable by threading the magnetic flux inside this device

  14. Sequential double excitations from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C., E-mail: g-schatz@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Traditional UV/vis and X-ray spectroscopies focus mainly on the study of excitations starting exclusively from electronic ground states. However there are many experiments where transitions from excited states, both absorption and emission, are probed. In this work we develop a formalism based on linear-response time-dependent density functional theory to investigate spectroscopic properties of excited states. We apply our model to study the excited-state absorption of a diplatinum(II) complex under X-rays, and transient vis/UV absorption of pyrene and azobenzene.

  15. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical observation of one time short-pulse pattern scan laser pan-retinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy and benefit of short-pulse pattern scan laser(PASCALphotocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Twenty-eight PDR patients(42 eyesunderwent short-pulse PASCAL pan-retinal photocoagulation(PRPwere analyzed.The best corrected visual acuity was ≥0.1 in 36 eyes, RESULTS: All the cases had no pain during the short-pulse PASCAL treatment.One year after treatments,the final visual acuity was improved in 6 eyes,kept stable in 28 eyes and decreased in 8 eyes; neovascularization were regressed in 18 eyes(43%, stable in 12 eyes(29%, uncontrolled in 12 eyes(29%. Five eyes(12%received vitrectomy due to vitreous hemorrhage.Compared with before operation, retina thickness in central fovea of macula and visual field had no obvious change after one-time PASCAL PRP(P>0.05. CONCLUSION:The one-time short-pulse PASCAL PRP could stabilize the progress of PDR safely, effectively and simply.

  17. Increasing Short-Stay Unplanned Hospital Admissions among Children in England; Time Trends Analysis ’97–‘06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Bottle, Alex; Gilbert, Ruth; Sharland, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background Timely care by general practitioners in the community keeps children out of hospital and provides better continuity of care. Yet in the UK, access to primary care has diminished since 2004 when changes in general practitioners' contracts enabled them to ‘opt out’ of providing out-of-hours care and since then unplanned pediatric hospital admission rates have escalated, particularly through emergency departments. We hypothesised that any increase in isolated short stay admissions for childhood illness might reflect failure to manage these cases in the community over a 10 year period spanning these changes. Methods and Findings We conducted a population based time trends study of major causes of hospital admission in children 2 days. By 2006, 67.3% of all unplanned admissions were isolated short stays <2 days. The increases in admission rates were greater for common non-infectious than infectious causes of admissions. Conclusions Short stay unplanned hospital admission rates in young children in England have increased substantially in recent years and are not accounted for by reductions in length of in-hospital stay. The majority are isolated short stay admissions for minor illness episodes that could be better managed by primary care in the community and may be evidence of a failure of primary care services. PMID:19829695

  18. Alternative of feeding for livestock of double purpose in critical times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest component in the tropical pastures is that the fiber and the obtained nitrogen is non-protein; the microorganisms of the rumen have the capacity to digest the fiber and the non-proteic nitrogen, converting then in nutritious useful. The environmental situations of the warm tropic demand these requirements. Small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. Brachiaria spp in bovines, presenting deficit of ammonia (of 4-10 mg/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mg, the animal answer, was favorable. Since young bulls are supplemented with 60 gr of urea and 300 grs. Of molasses, during 350 days, 210 Kg of weight won, against 145 Kg of brachiaria-molasses and 310 in single brachiaria. The use of urea molasses is more effective in the dry time than in the rainy one, but if there is not enough biomass, it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and no-quantity, it also stimulates the consumption; this supplement that has been suggested should be strategic according to the nutritional quality of the pasture, time of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentration of ammonia; they indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  19. Real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in a mesoporous silicon double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Manuel M.; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-04-01

    The activity of certain proteolytic enzymes is often an indicator of disease states such as cancer, stroke and neurodegeneracy, so there is a need for rapid assays that can characterize the kinetics and substrate specificity of enzymatic reactions. Nanostructured membranes can efficiently separate biomolecules, but coupling a sensitive detection method to such a membrane remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate a single mesoporous nanoreactor that can isolate and quantify in real time the reaction products of proteases. The reactor consists of two layers of porous films electrochemically prepared from crystalline silicon. The upper layer, with large pore sizes (~100 nm in diameter), traps the protease and acts as the reactor. The lower layer, with smaller pore sizes (~6 nm), excludes the proteases and other large proteins and captures the reaction products. Infiltration of the digested fragments into the lower layer produces a measurable change in optical reflectivity, and this allows label-free quantification of enzyme kinetics in real time within a volume of ~5 nl.

  20. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  1. Time-dependent screening of a positive charge distribution in metals: Excitons on an ultra-short time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, Wolf-Dieter; Ekardt, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Experiments determining the lifetime of excited electrons in crystalline copper reveal states which cannot be interpreted as Bloch states [S. Ogawa {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 55}, 10869 (1997)]. In this article we propose a model which explains these states as transient excitonic states in metals. The physical background of transient excitons is the finite time a system needs to react to an external perturbation, in other words, the time which is needed to build up a polarization cloud. ...

  2. Efficient Computation of Multiscale Entropy over Short Biomedical Time Series Based on Linear State-Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common approach to assess the dynamical complexity of a time series across multiple temporal scales makes use of the multiscale entropy (MSE and refined MSE (RMSE measures. In spite of their popularity, MSE and RMSE lack an analytical framework allowing their calculation for known dynamic processes and cannot be reliably computed over short time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method to assess RMSE for autoregressive (AR stochastic processes. The method makes use of linear state-space (SS models to provide the multiscale parametric representation of an AR process observed at different time scales and exploits the SS parameters to quantify analytically the complexity of the process. The resulting linear MSE (LMSE measure is first tested in simulations, both theoretically to relate the multiscale complexity of AR processes to their dynamical properties and over short process realizations to assess its computational reliability in comparison with RMSE. Then, it is applied to the time series of heart period, arterial pressure, and respiration measured for healthy subjects monitored in resting conditions and during physiological stress. This application to short-term cardiovascular variability documents that LMSE can describe better than RMSE the activity of physiological mechanisms producing biological oscillations at different temporal scales.

  3. Tailoring of motional states in double-well potentials by time-dependent processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerkoenen, Kari; Kaerki, Ollijuhani; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2006-01-01

    We show that the vibrational state tailoring method developed for molecular systems can be applied for cold atoms in optical lattices. The original method is based on a three-level model interacting with two strong laser pulses in a counterintuitive sequence [M. Rodriguez et al., Phys. Rev. A 62, 053413 (2000)]. Here we outline the conditions for achieving similar dynamics with single time-dependent potential surfaces. It is shown that guided switching between diabatic and adiabatic evolution has an essential role in this system. We also show that efficient and precise tailoring of motional states in optical lattices can be achieved, for instance, simply by superimposing two lattices and moving them with respect to each other

  4. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas

    2018-02-01

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  5. Influence of characteristics of time series on short-term forecasting error parameter changes in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevtsov, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of physical factors, such as temperature and others, leads to a change in the parameters of the technical object. Monitoring the change of parameters is necessary to prevent a dangerous situation. The control is carried out in real time. To predict the change in the parameter, a time series is used in this paper. Forecasting allows one to determine the possibility of a dangerous change in a parameter before the moment when this change occurs. The control system in this case has more time to prevent a dangerous situation. A simple time series was chosen. In this case, the algorithm is simple. The algorithm is executed in the microprocessor module in the background. The efficiency of using the time series is affected by its characteristics, which must be adjusted. In the work, the influence of these characteristics on the error of prediction of the controlled parameter was studied. This takes into account the behavior of the parameter. The values of the forecast lag are determined. The results of the research, in the case of their use, will improve the efficiency of monitoring the technical object during its operation.

  6. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-01-01

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  7. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  8. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  9. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  10. Experience from the transportation of irradiated WWER-440 fuel assemblies at the Kozloduy NPP site after a short cooling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, A.; Byrzev, L.; Christoskov, I.

    2003-01-01

    Results from the analysis and experimental verification of the radiation and shielding characteristics of non-standard loading patterns of the VSPOT transport cask used for transportation of irradiated fuel assemblies after a short cooling time (120 180 days) on the site of the Kozloduy NPP are presented. An additional safety criterion related to the introduced modifications to the standard procedure of using the transport cask is formulated and discussed (Authors)

  11. On the applicability of short time measurements to the determination of annual average of radon concentration in dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskiewicz, J.; Olko, P.; Swakon, J.; Bogacz, J.; Janik, M.; Mazur, D.; Mazur, J.

    1998-01-01

    The variation of radon concentration in some houses in the Krakow region was investigated in order to compare results obtained using various measuring techniques. It is concluded that short-term measurements should last at least 4 days to avoid errors exceeding 30%; that weather parameters and human activity during the measurement should be recorded; that measurements should be repeated several times under various weather conditions; that seasonal variation in the region should be taken into account. (A.K.)

  12. Use of cadmium sulphide to measure integrated dose in short-time irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimnual, S.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was made to measure the dose from a short burst of X-rays in the order of 1 second or less by means of the cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell. If protected from light, the CdS cell has a very high resistance such that it does not discharge a capacitor appreciably. But during irradiation, the resistance decreases temporarily and an amount of charge will leak from the capacitor through the Ca S cell. The result to this experiment shows that the principle works very well but it is necessary to add another fixed high resistance of about 10 7 ohms into the circuit in order to get results independent of the dose-rate. The equipment used in this experiment can measure a dose as low as 6 m R

  13. High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Lee, Heon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Suk

    2017-06-27

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm 2 active area and 18% over a 1 cm 2 active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

  14. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Sprecher, Alicia J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Zhao Zongxi [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. > The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. > Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  15. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Sprecher, Alicia J.; Zhao Zongxi; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. → The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. → Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  16. The theoretical possibility of reducing the doubling time in a fast-reactor by using heterogeneous configurations of various types of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Slesarev, I.S.; Zaritskij, S.M.; Subbotin, S.A.; Alekseev, P.N.; Zverkov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have derived approximate expressions relating the doubling time of a fast reactor using various types of fuel simultaneously to the doubling time of traditional (homogeneous) reactors in which these types of fuel are used separately. These relationships afford a means of determining the conditions in which the use of various types of fuel can result in an improved doubling time. It was established that the use of heterogeneous compositions formed from assemblies of homogeneous systems gives a notable gain in doubling time over that of any of the original homogeneous systems if the doubling times were similar to each other. This gain is fairly large even in the case of BN reactors with high fuel volume fractions. The size of the gain depends on the degree of ''differentiation'' in the neutron and thermal properties of the components of the heterogeneous reactor. An optimum proportion has been found for the assemblies taken from the original homogeneous systems, governed primarily by the ratio of fuel densities. Estimates were made of the advantages of metallic oxide compositions over the traditional compositions used in large, fast reactors of the BN type. These estimates indicate that the former can be considered as alternative homogeneous compositions with carbide or nitride fuel as far as breeding characteristics are concerned. (author)

  17. Effects of light guide and magnetic field on the characteristics of the short time measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1977-01-01

    In order to construct the nuclear life-time measurement apparatus with good energy and time resolution, consisting of DuMond type beta-ray spectrometer and plastic scintillator, experimental studies are carried out for the effects of light guide and magnetic field on the time resolution, and for the effects of μ-metal shielding on the energy resolution. It has been found that all these effects could be practically diminished. (auth.)

  18. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhibits various characteristics in different time scales, three time series were developed, named weekly, daily, and 15 min time series. After the correlation, periodicity, and stationarity analyses, time series models were constructed. Particularly, the heteroscedasticity of time series was explored to achieve better prediction performance. Finally, IMM filter algorithm was applied to combine individual forecasting models with dynamically predicted passenger demand for next interval. Different error indices were adopted for the analyses of individual and hybrid models. The performance comparison indicates that hybrid model forecasts are superior to individual ones in accuracy. Findings of this study are of theoretical and practical significance in bus scheduling.

  19. Time does not cause forgetting in short-term serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Duncan, Matthew; Brown, Gordon D A

    2004-10-01

    Time-based theories expect memory performance to decline as the delay between study and recall of an item increases. The assumption of time-based forgetting, central to many models of serial recall, underpins their key behaviors. Here we compare the predictions of time-based and event-based models by simulation and test them in two experiments using a novel manipulation of the delay between study and retrieval. Participants were trained, via corrective feedback, to recall at different speeds, thus varying total recall time from 6 to 10 sec. In the first experiment, participants used the keyboard to enter their responses but had to repeat a word (called the suppressor) aloud during recall to prevent rehearsal. In the second experiment, articulation was again required, but recall was verbal and was paced by the number of repetitions of the suppressor in between retrieval of items. In both experiments, serial position curves for all retrieval speeds overlapped, and output time had little or no effect. Comparative evaluation of a time-based and an event-based model confirmed that these results present a particular challenge to time-based approaches. We conclude that output interference, rather than output time, is critical in serial recall.

  20. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  1. FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN SHORT NOISY TIME SERIES. (R828745)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy time series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the time series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...

  2. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  3. Short message service reminder intervention doubles sexually transmitted infection/HIV re-testing rates among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, C; Knight, V; Guy, R; Wand, H; Lu, H; McNulty, A

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a short message service (SMS) reminder system on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) re-testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM). The SMS reminder programme started in late 2008 at a large Australian sexual health clinic. SMS reminders were recommended 3-6 monthly for MSM considered high-risk based on self-reported sexual behaviour. The evaluation compared HIV negative MSM who had a HIV/STI test between 1 January and 31 August 2010 and received a SMS reminder (SMS group) with those tested in the same time period (comparison group) and pre-SMS period (pre-SMS group, 1 January 2008 and 31 August 2008) who did not receive the SMS. HIV/STI re-testing rates were measured within 9 months for each group. Baseline characteristics were compared between study groups and multivariate logistic regression used to assess the association between SMS and re-testing and control for any imbalances in the study groups. There were 714 HIV negative MSM in the SMS group, 1084 in the comparison group and 1753 in the pre-SMS group. In the SMS group, 64% were re-tested within 9 months compared to 30% in the comparison group (preminders increased HIV/STI re-testing among HIV negative MSM. SMS offers a cheap, efficient system to increase HIV/STI re-testing in a busy clinical setting.

  4. The IRK time-of-flight facility for measurements of double-differential neutron emission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, A.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Vonach, H.; Winkler, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the present experimental data base of energy- and angle-differential neutron emission cross sections at 14 MeV incident-neutron energy, a new time-of-flight (TOF) facility was installed at the Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik (IRK), Vienna. The set-up was particularly designed to more precisely measure the high-energy part of the secondary neutron spectra and consists of three main components: (1) a pulsed neutron generator of Cockcroft-Walton type producing primary neutrons via the T(d,n)-reaction, (2) a tube system which can be evacuated containing the neutron flight path, the sample, collimators and the sample positioning system, and (3) the neutron detectors with the data acquisition equipment. Removing the air along the neutron flight path results in a drastic suppression of background due to air-scattered neutrons in the spectrum of the secondary neutrons. For every secondary neutron detected in the main detector, the time-of-flight, the pulse-shape information and the recoil energy are recorded in list-mode via a CAMAC system connected to a PDP 11/34 on-line computer. Using a Micro VAX, the multiparameter data are sorted and reduced to double-differential cross sections

  5. Real-time remote-controlled welding of the inspection nozzle on the Phenix double-wall tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dineghin, G. de; Baude, D.; Delmas, A.; Gauthier, A.; Gros, J.; Sommeillier, M.

    2001-01-01

    For the ultrasonic non destructive inspection of the vessel shell ring welds in the Phenix reactor, the insert of the NDT instrument needs to drill the double-wall tank, to install and weld nozzles. This last operation is realized by the way of an orbital welding installation. Considering severe environment restraints (irradiation, temperature, space,...), the welding control is made at distance (50 m). To supervise this operation, the welder requires an high quality image of the welding scene. Five nozzles of about 400 mm diameter are distributed on a 12 m-diameter tank. The junction between the nozzle and the tank present a shape of horse saddle and the passes trajectories against the tank wall show a lateral deviation of several millimeters. To take care of this deviation and of eventual geometrical defects, the welder adjust the torch position during welding. For that he needs an adapted information. The ''Laboratoire Moderne de Soudage'' inside CEA/CEREM has designed, validated and provided a new Computer-Assisted Welding for real-time remote-controlled orbital welding. Video cameras and a laser diode module were installed on the orbital installation for the watching of the welding scene. An image processing unit of new generation gives the real-time measurement of the distance between the torch and the wall tank. The control of the torch position is particularly significant to guarantee the good welding pass sequence. With this system, the position precision can reach 0,1 mm. (author)

  6. VCSELs in short-pulse operation for time-of-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Gudde, Ralph; Herper, Markus; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Smeets, Michael; Weigl, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    VCSEL arrays are the ideal light source for 3D imaging applications. The narrow emission spectrum and the ability for short pulses make them superior to LEDs. Combined with fast photodiodes or special camera chips spatial information can be obtained which is needed in diverse applications like camera autofocus, indoor navigation, 3D-object recognition, augmented reality or autonomously driving vehicles. Pulse operation at the ns scale and at low duty cycle can work with significantly higher current than traditionally used for VCSELs in continuous wave operation. With reduced thermal limitations at low average heat dissipation very high currents become feasible and tens of Watts output power have been realized with small VCSEL chips. The optical emission pattern of VCSELs can be tailored to the desired field of view using beam shaping elements. Such optical elements also enable laser safe class 1 products. A detailed analysis of the complete system and the operation mode is required to calculate the maximum permitted power for a safe system. The good VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for integrated solutions open a huge potential for VCSELs in new mass applications in the consumer and automotive markets.

  7. Short- and long-term effects of real-time medication monitoring with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on the refill adherence of people with Type 2 diabetes: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Souverein, P.C.; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Aarle, M.C.W. van; Hoek, L.S. van der; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate short- and long-term effects of real-time monitoring medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on refill adherence to oral anti-diabetic medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control

  8. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal

  9. The impact of short prehospital times on trauma center performance benchmarking: An ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James P; Mann, N Clay; Hoeft, Christopher J; Buick, Jason; Karanicolas, Paul; Rizoli, Sandro; Hunt, John P; Nathens, Avery B

    2016-04-01

    Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital times vary between regions, yet the impact of local prehospital times on trauma center (TC) performance is unknown. To inform external benchmarking efforts, we explored the impact of EMS prehospital times on the risk-adjusted rate of emergency department (ED) death and overall hospital mortality at urban TCs across the United States. We used a novel ecologic study design, linking EMS data from the National EMS Information System to TCs participating in the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) by destination zip code. This approach provided EMS times for populations of injured patients transported to TQIP centers. We defined the exposure of interest as the 90th percentile total prehospital time (PHT) for each TC. TCs were then stratified by PHT quartile. Analyses were limited to adult patients with severe blunt or penetrating trauma, transported directly by land to urban TQIP centers. Random-intercept multilevel modeling was used to evaluate the risk-adjusted relationship between PHT quartile and the outcomes of ED death and overall hospital mortality. During the study period, 119,740 patients met inclusion criteria at 113 TCs. ED death occurred in 1% of patients, and overall mortality was 7.2%. Across all centers, the median PHT was 61 minutes (interquartile range, 53-71 minutes). After risk adjustment, TCs in regions with the shortest quartile of PHTs (<53 minutes) had significantly greater odds of ED death compared with those with the longest PHTs (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.78). However, there was no association between PHT and overall TC mortality. At urban TCs, local EMS prehospital times are a significant predictor of ED death. However, no relationship exists between prehospital time and overall TC risk-adjusted mortality. Therefore, there is no evidence for the inclusion of EMS prehospital time in external benchmarking analyses.

  10. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  11. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    .013x, R2=0.98; %Reversible: y=1.008x, R2=0.95; TPD: y=1.000x, R2=0.99). Conclusion:, Scan time of myocardial perfusion scans using 82Rb can be reduced from 7 min. to 5 min. without loss of quantitative accuracy. Since patient motion is frequent in the last minutes of the scans, scan time reduction...

  12. Dead-time corrections on long-interval measurements of short-lived activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been proposed to make correction for counting losses due to dead time where the counting interval is comparable to or larger than the half-life of the activity under investigation. Counts due to background and any long-lived activity present in the source have been taken into consideration. The method is, under certain circumstances, capable of providing a valuable check on the accuracy of the dead time of the counting system. (Auth.)

  13. Association between prehospital time interval and short-term outcome in acute heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Harada, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Sakai, Tetsuo; Nagao, Ken; Sato, Naoki; Takayama, Morimasa

    2011-09-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most frequently encountered cardiovascular conditions that can seriously affect the patient's prognosis. However, the importance of early triage and treatment initiation in the setting of AHF has not been recognized. The Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Database prospectively collected information of emergency admissions to acute cardiac care facilities in 2005-2007 from 67 participating hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We analyzed records of 1,218 AHF patients transported to medical centers via emergency medical services (EMS). AHF was defined as rapid onset or change in the signs and symptoms of heart failure, resulting in the need for urgent therapy. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients were elderly (76.1 ± 11.5 years old) and male (54.1%). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.0%. The median time interval between symptom onset and EMS arrival (response time) was 64 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 26-205 minutes), and that between EMS arrival and ER arrival (transportation time) was 27 minutes (IQR 9-78 minutes). The risk-adjusted mortality increased with transportation time, but did not correlate with the response time. Those who took >45 minutes to arrive at the medical centers were at a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.31; P = .015). Transportation time correlated with risk-adjusted mortality, and steps should be taken to reduce the EMS transfer time to improve the outcome in AHF patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J., E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: faznar@unizar.es, E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ P. Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  15. Geometric patterns of time-delay plots from different cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borracci, Raúl A; Montoya Pulvet, José D; Ingino, Carlos A; Fitz Maurice, Mario; Hirschon Prado, Alfredo; Dominé, Enrique

    2017-12-27

    To date, no systematic work has been intended to describe spatio-temporal patterns of cardiac rhythms using only short series of RR intervals, to facilitate visual or computerized-aided identification of EKG motifs for use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to detect and classify eye-catching geometric patterns of Poincaré time-delay plots from different types of cardiac rhythms and arrhythmias using short-term EKG signals. Approximately 150-300 representative, consecutive beats were retrieved from 24-h Holter registers of 100 patients with different heart rhythms. Two-dimensional Poincaré charts were created, and the resulting geometric patterns were transformed into representative familiar eye-catching drawings to interpret different arrhythmias. Poincaré plot representation of RR interval data revealed a wide variety of visual patterns: (i) comet-shaped for sinus rhythm; (ii) torpedo-shaped for sinus bradycardia; (iii) cigarette-shaped for sinus tachycardia; (iv) butterfly-shaped for sinus tachycardia and isolated atrial premature complexes; (v) arrow-shaped for isolated premature complexes and inappropriate sinus tachycardia; (vi) inverted fan-shaped for sinus rhythm with frequent atrial premature complexes; (vii) tornado-shaped for atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia; and (viii) fan-shaped for atrial fibrillation. Modified Poincaré plots with smoothed lines connecting successive points could accurately classify different types of arrhythmias based on short RR interval sequence variability. Characteristic emergent patterns can be visually identified and eventually could be distinguished by an automatic classification system able to discern between arrhythmias. This work provides an alternative method to interpret time-delay plots obtained from short-term EKG signal recordings. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pompili, Riccardo; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Cianchi, A; Croia, M; Di Giovenale, D; Ferrario, M; Filippi, F; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Li, W; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Di Pirro, G; Romeo, S; Scifo, J; Shpakov, V; Vaccarezza, C; Villa, F

    2017-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  17. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompili, R; Anania, M P; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Croia, M; Giovenale, D Di; Ferrario, M; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Cianchi, A; Filippi, F; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Li, W

    2016-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC-LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations. (paper)

  18. Markov Chain Modelling for Short-Term NDVI Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepčenko Artūrs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the NDVI time series forecasting model has been developed based on the use of discrete time, continuous state Markov chain of suitable order. The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI is an indicator that describes the amount of chlorophyll (the green mass and shows the relative density and health of vegetation; therefore, it is an important variable for vegetation forecasting. A Markov chain is a stochastic process that consists of a state space. This stochastic process undergoes transitions from one state to another in the state space with some probabilities. A Markov chain forecast model is flexible in accommodating various forecast assumptions and structures. The present paper discusses the considerations and techniques in building a Markov chain forecast model at each step. Continuous state Markov chain model is analytically described. Finally, the application of the proposed Markov chain model is illustrated with reference to a set of NDVI time series data.

  19. Efficacy and cytotoxicity of a bleaching gel after short application times on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; da Silveira Vargas, Fernanda; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and correlate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of a 35 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gel after different application times on dental enamel. Enamel/dentin disks in artificial pulp chambers were placed in wells containing culture medium. The following groups were formed: G1, control (no bleaching); G2 and G3, three or one 15-min bleaching applications, respectively; and G4 and G5, three or one 5-min bleaching applications, respectively. Extracts (culture medium with bleaching gel components) were applied for 60 min on cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell metabolism (methyl tetrazolium assay) (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %) and cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) were analyzed immediately after the bleaching procedures and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal HP diffusion quantified (one-way analysis of variance/Tukey's test; α = 5 %). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated 24 h after the contact time of the extracts with the cells (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %). Tooth color was analyzed before and 24 h after bleaching using a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 0.05). Significant difference (p 0.05). The lowest amount of HP diffusion was observed in G5 (p 0.05). HP diffusion through dental tissues and its cytotoxic effects were proportional to the contact time of the bleaching gel with enamel. However, shorter bleaching times reduced bleaching efficacy. Shortening the in-office tooth bleaching time could be an alternative to minimize the cytotoxic effects of this clinical procedure to pulp tissue. However, the reduced time of bleaching agent application on enamel may not provide adequate esthetic outcome.

  20. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  1. Economic incentives of short out-of-reactor time for fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, B.W.; Haffner, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Economic benefits (primarily reduced uranium ore and enrichment expenditures) can be realized by reducing the LMFBR out-of-reactor fuel cycle time only if process cost penalties and R and D costs can be minimized. The results of the evaluation presented show the potential gross benefits of reducing the out-of-reactor time and the effects of various associated cost penalties on these benefits. The gross benefit results estimate the potential savings in electrical power generation in the next 50 years using constant 1975 dollars and discounting the costs at 7 1 / 2 percent per year

  2. Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Winding, Kamilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time...... composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group from 28...

  3. Time-resolved plasma spectroscopy of thin foils heated by a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Shepherd, R.; Fournier, K.B.; Price, D.; Lee, R.W.; Springer, P.; Peyrusse, O.; Klein, L.

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved K-shell x-ray spectra are recorded from sub-100 nm aluminum foils irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at relativistic intensities of Iλ 2 =2x10 18 W μm 2 /cm 2 . The thermal penetration depth is greater than the foil thickness in these targets so that uniform heating takes place at constant density before hydrodynamic motion occurs. The high-contrast, high-intensity laser pulse, broad spectral band, and short time resolution utilized in this experiment permit a simplified interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the radiating matter. The observed spectrum displays two distinct phases. At early time, ≤500 fs after detecting target emission, a broad quasicontinuous spectral feature with strong satellite emission from multiply excited levels is seen. At a later time, the He-like resonance line emission is dominant. The time-integrated data is in accord with previous studies with time resolution greater than 1 ps. The early time satellite emission is shown to be a signature of an initial large area, high density, low-temperature plasma created in the foil by fast electrons accelerated by the intense radiation field in the laser spot. We conclude that, because of this early time phenomenon and contrary to previous predictions, a short, high-intensity laser pulse incident on a thin foil does not create a uniform hot and dense plasma. The heating mechanism has been studied as a function of foil thickness, laser pulse length, and intensity. In addition, the spectra are found to be in broad agreement with a hydrodynamic expansion code postprocessed by a collisional-radiative model based on superconfiguration average rates and on the unresolved transition array formalism

  4. Highly efficient indoor air purification using adsorption-enhanced-photocatalysis-based microporous TiO2 at short residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    A short residence time is a key design parameter for the removal of organic pollutants in catalyst-based indoor air purification systems. In this study, we synthesized a series of TiO2 with different micropore volumes and studied their removal efficiency of indoor carbonyl pollutants at a short residence time. Our results indicated that the superior adsorption capability of TiO2 with micropores improved its performance in the photocatalytic degradation of cyclohexanone, while the photocatalytic removal of the pollutant successfully kept porous TiO2 from becoming saturated. When treated with 1 mg m(-3) cyclohexanone at a relatively humidity of 18%, the adsorption amount on microporous TiO2 was 5.4-7.9 times higher than that on P25. Removal efficiency via photocatalysis followed'the same order as the adsorption amount: TiO2-5 > TiO2-20 > TiO2-60 > TiO2-180 > P25. The advantage of microporous TiO2 over P25 became more pronounced when the residence time declined from 0.072 to 0.036 s. Moreover, as the concentration of cyclohexanone deceased from 1000 ppb to 500 ppb, removal efficiency by microporous TiO2 increased more rapidly than P25.

  5. Is the travel time of private roads too short, too long, or just right?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2012-01-01

    We consider price and service-quality setting in oligopolistic markets for congestible services, applied to the case of private roads. Previous studies show that parallel competitors set a volume/capacity ratio (and thereby a travel time or service quality) that is socially optimal if they take the

  6. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, A S; Lohse, L; Boklund, A.

    2018-01-01

    pens after 3, 5 or 7 days did not develop any signs of ASFV infection and no viral DNA was detected in blood samples obtained from these pigs within the following 3 weeks. Thus, it was shown that exposure of pigs to an environment contaminated with ASFV can result in infection. However, the time window...

  7. The Estimation of Short Time Intervals as a Function of Age and Metronome Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Donald W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The time judgments of the older participants were significantly and systematically determined by a metronome rate. Results are consistent with the notion of increased field-dependence among older persons and suggest that their greater social conformity and their inability to ignore irrelevant stimuli might also be explicable. (Author)

  8. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas

  9. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  10. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Yao Jun; Si Yang; Chen Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen Ke; Qian Yiguang; Zaray, Gyula; Bramanti, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0 mg glucose and 5.0 mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q T , metabolic enthalpy ΔH met and mass specific heat rate J Q/S , were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr > Pb > As > Co > Zn > Cd > Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  11. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Si, Yang; Chen, Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Ke; Qian, Yiguang; Zaray, Gyula; Bramanti, Emilia

    2010-01-15

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0mg glucose and 5.0mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q(T), metabolic enthalpy Delta H(met) and mass specific heat rate J(Q/S), were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr>Pb>As>Co>Zn>Cd>Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  12. Short-time effect of heavy metals upon microbial community activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Yao Jun, E-mail: yaojun@cug.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Si Yang; Chen Huilun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen Ke; Qian Yiguang [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health and School of Environmental Sciences, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zaray, Gyula [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Bramanti, Emilia [Laboratory of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Microcalorimetry was applied to assess and compare the toxic effect of heavy metals, such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn, on the soil microbial activities and community. About 1.0 g soil spiked 5.0 mg glucose and 5.0 mg ammonium sulfate, the microbial activities were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices, microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q{sub T}, metabolic enthalpy {Delta}H{sub met} and mass specific heat rate J{sub Q/S}, were calculated. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters associated with growth yield, a general order of toxicity to the soil was found to be Cr > Pb > As > Co > Zn > Cd > Cu. When soil was exposed to heavy metals, the amount of bacteria and fungi decreased with the incubation time, and the bacterial number diminished sharply. It illustrates that fungi are more tolerant, and bacteria-fungi ratio would be altered under metal stress. To determine the status of the glucose consumed, a glucose biosensor with eggshell membrane was used to measure the remaining glucose in soil sample. Results showed that the time at which glucose was consumed completely was agreed with the microcalorimetric time to a large extent, and depended on the toxicity of heavy metals as well.

  13. Physiological Correlations with Short, Medium, and Long Cycling Time-Trial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borszcz, Fernando K.; Tramontin, Artur F.; de Souza, Kristopher M.; Carminatti, Lorival J.; Costa, Vitor P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations.…

  14. D1.4 -- Short Report on Models That Incorporate Non-stationary Time Variant Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostanlen, Yves; Pedersen, Troels; Steinboeck, Gerhard

    -to-indoor environments are presented. Furthermore, the impact of human activity on the time variation of the radio channel is investigated and first simulation results are presented. Movement models, which include realistic interaction between nodes, are part of current research activities....

  15. Like a hotel, but boring: users' experience with short-time community-based residential aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eirik; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Svavarsdóttir, Margrét Hrönn; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-12-16

    The discharge process from hospital to home for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) is often complex, and most are in need of tailored and coordinated community services at home. One solution is to discharge patients to inpatient short-stay community residential aftercare (CRA). The aim of this study was to explore how patients with SMI experience a stay in CRA established in a City in Central Norway. A descriptive qualitative study with individual interviews and a group interview with 13 persons. The CRA aims to improve the discharge process from hospital to independent supported living by facilitating the establishment of health and social services and preparing the patients. The philosophy is to help patients use community resources by e.g. not offering any organized in-house activities. The main question in the interviews was "How have you experienced the stay at the CRA?" The interviews were analyzed with a thematic approach using systematic text condensation. The participants experienced the stay at the CRA "Like a hotel" but also boring, due to the lack of organized in-house activities. The patients generally said they were not informed about the philosophy of the CRA before the stay. The participants had to come up with activities outside the CRA and said they got active help from the staff to do so; some experienced this as positive, whereas others wanted more organized in-house activities like they were used to from mental health hospital stays. Participants described the staff in the CRA to be helpful and forthcoming, but they did not notice the staff being active in organizing the aftercare. The stay at the CRA was experienced as different from other services, with more freedom and focus on self-care, and lack of in-house activities. This led to increased self-activity among the patients, but some wanted more in-house activities. To prepare the patients better for the stay at the CRA, more information about the philosophy is needed in the pre

  16. Three-factor models versus time series models: quantifying time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli in cell biology and psychobiology for short longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Till D; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Cheong, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2017-06-01

    Signal integration determines cell fate on the cellular level, affects cognitive processes and affective responses on the behavioural level, and is likely to be involved in psychoneurobiological processes underlying mood disorders. Interactions between stimuli may subjected to time effects. Time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli typically lead to complex cell responses and complex responses on the behavioural level. We show that both three-factor models and time series models can be used to uncover such time-dependencies. However, we argue that for short longitudinal data the three factor modelling approach is more suitable. In order to illustrate both approaches, we re-analysed previously published short longitudinal data sets. We found that in human embryonic kidney 293 cells cells the interaction effect in the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 signalling activation by insulin and epidermal growth factor is subjected to a time effect and dramatically decays at peak values of ERK activation. In contrast, we found that the interaction effect induced by hypoxia and tumour necrosis factor-alpha for the transcriptional activity of the human cyclo-oxygenase-2 promoter in HEK293 cells is time invariant at least in the first 12-h time window after stimulation. Furthermore, we applied the three-factor model to previously reported animal studies. In these studies, memory storage was found to be subjected to an interaction effect of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol and certain antagonists acting on the alpha-1-adrenoceptor / glucocorticoid-receptor system. Our model-based analysis suggests that only if the antagonist drug is administer in a critical time window, then the interaction effect is relevant. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  17. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems

  18. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A short note on the mean exit time of the Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Lucio; Farina, Maria Antonietta

    We investigate the functional Ω↦ℰ(Ω) where Ω runs through the set of compact domains of fixed volume v in any Riemannian manifold (M,g) and where ℰ(Ω) is the mean exit time from Ω of the Brownian motion. We give an alternative analytical proof of a well-known fact on its critical points proved by McDonald: the critical points of ℰ(Ω) are harmonic domains.

  20. Antipersistent dynamics in short time scale variability of self-potential signals

    OpenAIRE

    Cuomo, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Lapenna, V.; Macchiato, M.; Ragosta, M.; Telesca, L.

    2000-01-01

    Time scale properties of self-potential signals are investigated through the analysis of the second order structure function (variogram), a powerful tool to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of observational data. In this work we analyse two sequences of self-potential values measured by means of a geophysical monitoring array located in a seismically active area of Southern Italy. The range of scales investigated goes from a few minutes to several days. It is shown that signal...

  1. Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2013), s. 24 ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : extreme life history * annual fish * explosive growth * rapid maturation * generation time * killifish * diapause * vertebrate * reaction norm * Savanna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2013 http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/4/1/24

  2. Time-Series Prediction: Application to the Short-Term Electric Energy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Lora, Alicia; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Riquelme Santos, José Cristóbal; Gómez Expósito, Antonio; Martínez Ramos, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a time-series prediction method based on the kNN technique. The proposed methodology is applied to the 24-hour load forecasting problem. Also, based on recorded data, an alternative model is developed by means of a conventional dynamic regression technique, where the parameters are estimated by solving a least squares problem. Finally, results obtained from the application of both techniques to the Spanish transmission system are compared in terms of maximum, average and ...

  3. A Short Proof of the Large Time Energy Growth for the Boussinesq System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolese, Lorenzo; Mouzouni, Charafeddine

    2017-10-01

    We give a direct proof of the fact that the L^p-norms of global solutions of the Boussinesq system in R^3 grow large as t→ ∞ for 1R+× R3. In particular, the kinetic energy blows up as \\Vert u(t)\\Vert _2^2˜ ct^{1/2} for large time. This contrasts with the case of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rapolienė, Lolita; Razbadauskas, Artūras; Sąlyga, Jonas; Martinkėnas, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65), music (50), and control (65). The geothermal group was administered 108?g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduct...

  5. Antipersistent dynamics in short time scale variability of self-potential signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ragosta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Time scale properties of self-potential signals are investigated through the analysis of the second order structure function (variogram, a powerful tool to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of observational data. In this work we analyse two sequences of self-potential values measured by means of a geophysical monitoring array located in a seismically active area of Southern Italy. The range of scales investigated goes from a few minutes to several days. It is shown that signal fluctuations are characterised by two time scale ranges in which self-potential variability appears to follow slightly different dynamical behaviours. Results point to the presence of fractal, non stationary features expressing a long term correlation with scaling coefficients which are the clue of stabilising mechanisms. In the scale ranges in which the series show scale invariant behaviour, self-potentials evolve like fractional Brownian motions with anticorrelated increments typical of processes regulated by negative feedback mechanisms (antipersistence. On scales below about 6 h the strength of such an antipersistence appears to be slightly greater than that observed on larger time scales where the fluctuations are less efficiently stabilised.

  6. Effect of parameter calculation in direct estimation of the Lyapunov exponent in short time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. López Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature about non-linear dynamics offers a few recommendations, which sometimes are divergent, about the criteria to be used in order to select the optimal calculus parameters in the estimation of Lyapunov exponents by direct methods. These few recommendations are circumscribed to the analysis of chaotic systems. We have found no recommendation for the estimation of λ starting from the time series of classic systems. The reason for this is the interest in distinguishing variability due to a chaotic behavior of determinist dynamic systems of variability caused by white noise or linear stochastic processes, and less in the identification of non-linear terms from the analysis of time series. In this study we have centered in the dependence of the Lyapunov exponent, obtained by means of direct estimation, of the initial distance and the time evolution. We have used generated series of chaotic systems and generated series of classic systems with varying complexity. To generate the series we have used the logistic map.

  7. Short-term dispersal response of an endangered Australian lizard varies with time of year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehregan Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important component in the demography of animal populations. Many animals show seasonal changes in their tendency to disperse, reflecting changes in resource availability, mating opportunities, or in population age structure at the time when new offspring enter the population. Understanding when and why dispersal occurs can be important for the management of endangered species. The pygmy bluetongue lizard is an endangered Australian species that occupies and defends single burrow refuges for extended periods of time, rarely moving far from the burrow entrance. However, previous pitfall trapping data have suggested movement of adult males in spring and of juveniles in autumn of each year. In the current study we compared behaviours of adult lizards each month, over the spring-summer activity period over two consecutive field seasons, to provide deeper understanding of the seasonal dispersal pattern. We released adult pygmy bluetongue lizards into a central area, provided with artificial burrows, within large enclosures, and monitored the behaviour and movements of the released lizards over a four day period. There was a consistent decline in time spent basking, amount of movement around burrow entrances, and rates of dispersal from the central release area from early spring to late summer. Results could be relevant to understanding and managing natural populations and for any translocation attempts of this endangered lizard species.

  8. Short-time dynamics of phenylene-rings in bisphenol based engineering thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrese-Igor, S.; Arbe, A.; Alegria, A.; Colmenero, J.; Frick, B.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently performed one of the first approaches by means of quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to the problem of identifying the molecular motions giving rise to the secondary relaxations of engineering thermoplastics. Preliminary results point to phenylene ring π-flips as the main motion causing the observed quasielastic broadening in the ∼10 -10 -10 -9 s time scale below the glass transition temperature T g . Continuing our study of sub-T g dynamics in these systems by QENS, measurements on polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) with deuterated methyl groups (d6) in the ∼10 -13 -10 -11 s time scale have been performed. The intermediate scattering function shows a smooth second decay in addition to that of vibrations and 'fast dynamics' at T > or approx. 200 K. The extrapolation of phenylene π-flip motion to faster times does not explain the decay observed. However, a non-negligible contribution of π-flips at T≥350 K in PCd6 is noticeable, whereas for PSFd6 some effect can be inferred above ∼450 K. In the temperature region where the π-flips do not contribute to the spectra we have characterised the signal by assuming a temperature dependent distribution of small angle oscillations of phenylene rings leading to an activation energy of 0.18 eV

  9. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  10. Volume doubling time and growth rate of renal cell carcinoma determined by helical CT: a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Chan Kyo; Choi, Dongil; Park, Byung Kwan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the volume doubling time (VDT) and growth rate of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) on a serial computed tomography (CT) scan. Thirty pathologically proven RCCs were reviewed with helical CT. Each tumor underwent at least two CT scans. Tumor volume was determined using an area measuring tool and the summation-of-areas technique. Growth rate was evaluated in terms of diameter and volume changes. VDT and volume growth rate were compared in relation to several factors (initial diameter, initial volume, diameter growth rate, volume growth rate, tumor grade, tumor subtype, sex or age). Mean VDT of RCCs was 505 days. Mean diameter and volume growth rate were 0.59 cm/year and 19.1 cm 3 /year, respectively. For volume and diameter growth rate, tumors ≤4 cm showed lower rates than those >4 cm (P 0.05). Volume growth rate was moderately to strongly positively correlated with initial diameter, initial volume and diameter growth rate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, small RCCs grew at a slow rate both diametrically and volumetrically. More accurate assessment of tumor growth rate and VDT may be helpful to understand the natural history of RCC. (orig.)

  11. An Improved Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Spatial Locations for Double-Wishbone Type Suspension System with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By taking account of double-wishbone independent suspension with two unequal-length arms, the coordinate values of articulated geometry are based on structural limitations and constraint equations of alignment parameters. The sensitivities of front wheel alignment parameters are analyzed using the space analytic geometry method with insight module in ADAMS® software. The multiobjective optimization functions are designed to calculate the coordinate values of hardpoints with front suspension since the effect of time delay due to wheelbase can be easily obtained by vehicle speed. The K&C characteristics have been investigated using GA solutions in the simulation environment. The camber angle decreases from 1.152° to 1.05° and toe-in angle reduces from 1.036° to 0.944°. The simulation results demonstrate that the suggested optimization method is able to satisfy the suspension motion to enhance ride comfort. Experimental results, obtained by K&C test bench, also indicate that the optimized suspension can track the desired trajectory while keeping the vehicle performance in various road conditions.

  12. Predictor of response to salvage radiotherapy in patients with PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The usefulness of PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kousaku; Azuma, Koji; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    We assessed predictors of response to salvage radiotherapy (sRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A total of 21 patients receiving sRT for PSA recurrence without systemic progression after radical prostatectomy had medical records available for retrospective review. We defined sRT as external beam radiotherapy for patients with a continuous increase in PSA level≥0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy. Response was defined as achievement of a PSA nadir of ≤0.1 ng/ml. Various pre-treatment parameters were evaluated retrospectively. The median follow-up period after sRT was 38 months. Of the 21 patients, 15 were good responders (71%). The only predictive factor was PSA doubling time (PSADT). Age and PSA level at diagnosis, Gleason score and surgical margin status were not significant predictors of response. The median PSADT in responders was 6.2 months versus 1.9 months in non-responders (P=0.019). The patients with a PSADT of ≥5 months were all responders. PSADT appears to be a good predictor of response to sRT. sRT was especially effective when PSADT was ≥5 months. (author)

  13. Volume doubling time of lung cancer detected in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Comparison with that in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cherry; Lee, Sang Min; Choe, Jooae; Chae, Eun Jin; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom

    2018-01-01

    To assess the volume doubling time (VDT) of lung cancers in IIP compared with COPD. A total of 61 patients (32 with IIP and 29 with COPD) were identified. A radiologist performed three-dimensional manual segmentation for lung cancers. VDTs were calculated and compared between two groups. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with rapid tumour growth (VDT < 90 days). The median VDT of lung cancers in IIP (78.2 days) was significantly shorter than that in COPD (126.1 days; p=0.004). Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) was the most frequent subtype, followed by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in IIP. In COPD, SqCC was the most frequent subtype, followed by adenocarcinoma. Rapid tumour growth was observed in 20 cancers from IIP, and in nine cancers from COPD (p=0.021). SCLC was significantly correlated with rapid tumour growth (p=0.038). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of IIP was the single independent predictor of rapid tumour growth (p = 0.016; odds ratio, 3.7). Lung cancers in IIP showed more rapid growth, with median VDT < 90 days. Therefore, a shorter follow-up interval (<90 days) may be necessary when CT surveillance is considered in IIP patients with suspected lung cancer. (orig.)

  14. Doubling the Spectrum of Time-Domain Induced Polarization: Removal of Harmonic Noise and Self-Potential Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, G.; Olsson, P. I.; Auken, E.; Larsen, J. J.; Maurya, P. K.; Dahlin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the IP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the soil, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows soil-type characterization. Two major limitations restrict the extraction of the spectral information of TDIP data in the field: i) the difficulty of acquiring reliable early-time measurements, in the millisecond range and ii) the self-potential drift in the measured potentials distorting the shape of the late time IP decays, in the second range. For measuring at early-times, we developed a new method for removing the powerline noise contained in the data through a model-based approach, localizing the fundamental frequency of the powerline signal in the full-waveform IP recordings. By this, we cancel both the fundamental signal and its harmonics. This noise cancellation allows the use of earlier and narrower gates, down to a few milliseconds after the current turn-off. Even earlier gates can be measured but they will be inductively "contaminated" which we at present want to avoid. A proper removal of the self-potential drift present between the potential electrodes is essential for preserving the shape of the TD decays, especially for late times. Usually constant or linear drift-removal algorithms are used, but these algorithms fail in removing the background potentials due to the polarization of the electrodes previously used for current injection. We developed a drift-removal scheme that model the polarization effect and efficiently allows for preserving the shape of the IP decays. The removal of both the harmonic noise and self-potential drift allows for doubling the usable range of TDIP data to more than three decades in time (corresponding to three decays in frequency), and will

  15. Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram

  16. Pricing decision model for new and remanufactured short-life cycle products with time-dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu San Gan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we develop a model that optimizes the price for new and remanufactured short life-cycle products where demands are time-dependent and price sensitive. While there has been very few published works that attempt to model remanufacturing decisions for products with short life cycle, we believe that there are many situations where remanufacturing short life cycle products is rewarding economically as well as environmentally. The system that we model consists of a retailer, a manufacturer, and a collector of used product from the end customers. Two different scenarios are evaluated for the system. The first is the independent situation where each party attempts to maximize his/her own total profit and the second is the joint profit model where we optimize the combined total profit for all three members of the supply chain. Manufacturer acts as the Stackelberg leader in the independently optimized scenario, while in the other the intermediate prices are determined by coordinated pricing policy. The results suggest that (i reducing the price of new products during the decline phase does not give better profit for the whole system, (ii the total profit obtained from optimizing each player is lower than the total profit of the integrated model, and (iii speed of change in demand influences the robustness of the prices as well as the total profit gained.

  17. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p memory performance (p > .05). We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings.

  18. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mette

    Full Text Available Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals.We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs. We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale.The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05, with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s (p .05.We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings.

  19. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients - A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P.B.; Szkudlarek, J.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Background: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH+GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study...... describes changes in body weight (BW) and composition, 24-h urine creatinine excretion, intestinal fatty acid absorption (total, saturated, unsaturated and EFA), and EFA status in relation to treatment with GH+GLN in s short bowel patients. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study between placebo and growth...... with baseline. Twenty-four-hour urine creatinine excretion did not differ between study periods. No changes in intestinal absorption of fatty acids were seen, and no changes in EFAs measured in plasma phospholipids were observed. Only 1 of 8 patients, who did not receive parenteral lipids, had a Holman index...

  20. Synthesising methods of layered double hydroxides and its use in the fabrication of dye Sensitised solar cell (DSSC): A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Giphin; Saravanakumar, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDH) which are anionic clay substances comprising of stacked cationic layers and interlayer anions. The cationic sheets contain octahedral structure consisting the divalent and trivalent ions in the center and hydroxyl bunches in the corners, gathered by three bonding with the neighbouring octahedra on every side of the layer. The ratio between the quantity of cations and OH- ions is 2:1, so a positive charge shows up on the layer because of the presence of trivalent cations. The interlayer space gives the compensation anions and water molecules, assuring a balanced out layered structure. The LDH materials were successfully synthesised from magnesium, aluminium, zinc and chromium chloride salts utilizing the co-precipitation technique. A Zn-Al LDH was researched as a potential sorbent material. This article reviews the recent advances in the preparation and intercalation of layered double hydroxides and its application in the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).

  1. Microbial inactivation of paprika by a high-temperature short-X time treatment. Influence on color properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Luis; Nieto-Sandoval, José M; Fernández López, José A

    2002-03-13

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) treatments have been used to destroy the bioburden of paprika. With this in mind, we have designed a device to treat samples of paprika with a gas whose temperature, pressure, and composition can be selected. Temperatures and treatment times ranged from 130 to 170 degrees C and 4 to 6 s, respectively. The survival of the most commonly found microorganisms in paprika and any alteration in extractable and superficial color were examined. Data showed that the optimum HTST conditions were 145 degrees C, 1.5 kg/cm2 of overpressure, 6 s operation time, and a thermal fluid of saturated steam. No microbial growth was detected during storage after thermal treatment. To minimize the color losses, treated (HTST) paprika samples should be kept under refrigeration.

  2. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET to the OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET are very important areas of the research. In this article, the performance analysis of the enhanced dynamic source routing protocol (OPP_DSR is introduced. This modification enables the routing process in the case when there are no connections to other mobile nodes. It also will enable the routing mechanisms when the routes, selected by routing mechanisms, are disconnected for some time. Disconnection can be for a short time and standard routing protocol DSR cannot reflect on this situation.The main idea is based on opportunistic forwarding where the nodes not only forward data but it's stored in the cache during long time. The network parameters throughput, routing load and are analysed.

  3. [Effect of short-time drought process on denitrifying bacteria abundance and N2O emission in paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Jin-Bo; Sheng, Rong; Liu, Yi; Chen, An-Lei; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate the impact of drying process on greenhouse gas emissions and denitrifying microorganisms in paddy soil, wetting-drying process was simulated in laboratory conditions. N2O flux, redox potential (Eh) were monitored and narG- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers abundances were determined by real-time PCR. N2O emission was significantly increased only 4 h after drying process began, and it was more than 6 times of continuous flooding (CF) at 24 h. In addition, narG and nosZ gene abundances were increased rapidly with the drying process, and N2O emission flux was significantly correlated with narG gene abundance (P driving microorganisms which caused the N2O emission in the short-time drought process in paddy soil.

  4. Analysis of short time-space range seismicity patterns in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imotof

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we analyze the data base obtained from the observations of the Italian Seismological Network from 1975 to 1994 by using a simple algotithm to determine the rate of occurrence of seismic events condi- tioned by the occurrence of previous events after a period of quiescence. The number of observed pairs of earthquakes depends on several parameters: the magnitude threshold of the two events, the spatial and tempo- ral ranges of the quiescence period preceding the first (non aftershock event, the time elapsed between the first and the second events and the spatial dimension of the alarm area. The Akaike information criterion was adopted to assess the optimal set of space-time parameters used in the definition of non-aftershock (events not related to a stronger previous one. In Central Italy, the rate of M ³3.8 earthquakes preceded by at least one M ~ 3.3 foreshock within 14.1 km and 2 days is 30%, while the rate of M ~ 3.3 earthquakes followed by a M ~ 3.8 mainshock in the same space time range is 7%. We observed that the probability that an earthquake of magnitude MI will be followed by an earthquake of magnitude M2 (success rate fits the law log À = a+b (Mi -M2 with b approximately equal to l. By computing the success rate for given values of magnitude threshold of the first and the second events over a dense grid of spatial coordinates, we obtained maps of this feature over the investigated area. The results of this process document variations larger than a factor of five in the success rate over the Italian territory.

  5. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo

    2015-09-01

    The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  6. Vision-based online vibration estimation of the in-vessel inspection flexible robot with short-time Fourier transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Lifei; He, Tao [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Vision-based online vibration estimation method for a flexible arm is proposed. • The vibration signal is obtained by image processing in unknown environments. • Vibration parameters are estimated by short-time Fourier transformation. - Abstract: The vibration should be suppressed if it happens during the motion of a flexible robot or under the influence of external disturbance caused by its structural features and material properties, because the vibration may affect the positioning accuracy and image quality. In Tokamak environment, we need to get the real-time vibration information on vibration suppression of robotic arm, however, some sensors are not allowed in the extreme Tokamak environment. This paper proposed a vision-based method for online vibration estimation of a flexible manipulator, which is achieved by utilizing the environment image information from the end-effector camera to estimate its vibration. Short-time Fourier Transformation with adaptive window length method is used to estimate vibration parameters of non-stationary vibration signals. Experiments with one-link flexible manipulator equipped with camera are carried out to validate the feasibility of this method in this paper.

  7. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  8. Vision-based online vibration estimation of the in-vessel inspection flexible robot with short-time Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Weidong; Xu, Lifei; He, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vision-based online vibration estimation method for a flexible arm is proposed. • The vibration signal is obtained by image processing in unknown environments. • Vibration parameters are estimated by short-time Fourier transformation. - Abstract: The vibration should be suppressed if it happens during the motion of a flexible robot or under the influence of external disturbance caused by its structural features and material properties, because the vibration may affect the positioning accuracy and image quality. In Tokamak environment, we need to get the real-time vibration information on vibration suppression of robotic arm, however, some sensors are not allowed in the extreme Tokamak environment. This paper proposed a vision-based method for online vibration estimation of a flexible manipulator, which is achieved by utilizing the environment image information from the end-effector camera to estimate its vibration. Short-time Fourier Transformation with adaptive window length method is used to estimate vibration parameters of non-stationary vibration signals. Experiments with one-link flexible manipulator equipped with camera are carried out to validate the feasibility of this method in this paper.

  9. Devolatilization kinetics of woody biomass at short residence times and high heating rates and peak temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim M.; Gadsbøll, Rasmus; Thomsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This work combines experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results to derive global kinetics for biomass (pine wood) devolatilization during heating rates on the order of 105Ks-1, bulk flow peak temperatures between 1405 and 1667K, and particle residence times below 0.1s. Experiments......Jmol-1. The accuracy of the derived global kinetics was supported by comparing predictions to experimental results from a 15kW furnace. The work emphasizes the importance of characterizing the temperature history of the biomass particles when deriving pyrolysis kinetics. The present results indicate...

  10. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Fokke G; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Hoeij, Klaske Van; Berg, Hijlkeline; Van Engelenberg, Frank A C; Van't Wout, Angelica B

    2007-03-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 minutes). The authors undertook an experiment to validate the effects of a high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process (72 degrees C for 16 seconds) on the bioburden of human milk. It was concluded that HTST is effective in the elimination of bacteria as well as of certain important pathogenic viruses.

  11. Fetal short time variation during labor: a non-invasive alternative to fetal scalp pH measurements?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiermeier, Sven; Reinhard, Joscha; Hatzmann, Hendrike; Zimmermann, Ralf C.; Westhof, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether short time variation (STV) of fetal heart beat correlates with scalp pH measurements during labor. Patients and methods: From 1279 deliveries, 197 women had at least one fetal scalp pH measurement. Using the CTG-Player®, STVs were calculated from the electronically saved cardiotocography (CTG) traces and related to the fetal scalp pH measurements. Results: There was no correlation between STV and fetal scalp pH measurements (r=−0.0592). Conclusions: Fetal ST...

  12. Short-time dynamics of random-bond Potts ferromagnet with continuous self-dual quenched disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Z. Q.; Ying, H. P.; Gu, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo simulation results of random-bond Potts ferromagnet with the Olson-Young self-dual distribution of quenched disorders in two-dimensions. By exploring the short-time scaling dynamics, we find universal power-law critical behavior of the magnetization and Binder cumulant at the critical point, and thus obtain estimates of the dynamic exponent $z$ and magnetic exponent $\\eta$, as well as the exponent $\\theta$. Our special attention is paid to the dynamic process for the $q...

  13. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  14. A short essay on quantum black holes and underlying noncommutative quantized space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Sho

    2017-01-01

    We emphasize the importance of noncommutative geometry or Lorenz-covariant quantized space-time towards the ultimate theory of quantum gravity and Planck scale physics. We focus our attention on the statistical and substantial understanding of the Bekenstein–Hawking area-entropy law of black holes in terms of the kinematical holographic relation (KHR). KHR manifestly holds in Yang’s quantized space-time as the result of kinematical reduction of spatial degrees of freedom caused by its own nature of noncommutative geometry, and plays an important role in our approach without any recourse to the familiar hypothesis, so-called holographic principle. In the present paper, we find a unified form of KHR applicable to the whole region ranging from macroscopic to microscopic scales in spatial dimension d   =  3. We notice a possibility of nontrivial modification of area-entropy law of black holes which becomes most remarkable in the extremely microscopic system close to Planck scale. (paper)

  15. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  16. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH) 2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S −1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T gt (s) via growth rate v (m s −1 ): V×S −1  = v gr ×T r . The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m 3 ), minimum and maximum doubling time T dt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S −1  = 4.46⋅10 −11 ×T dt was found, where v gr  = 4.46×10 −11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v gr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v gr >h/2π and T dt ×M×v gr 2 >h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10 −34 J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  18. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  19. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  20. Real-time remote-controlled welding of the inspection nozzle on the Phenix double-wall tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagnot, C.; Dineghin, G. de; Baude, D.; Delmas, A.; Gauthier, A. [CEA Saclay, Lab. Moderne de Soudage, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Gros, J. [Centrale Phenix, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Sommeillier, M. [Comex Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2001-07-01

    For the ultrasonic non destructive inspection of the vessel shell ring welds in the Phenix reactor, the insert of the NDT instrument needs to drill the double-wall tank, to install and weld nozzles. This last operation is realized by the way of an orbital welding installation. Considering severe environment restraints (irradiation, temperature, space,...), the welding control is made at distance (50 m). To supervise this operation, the welder requires an high quality image of the welding scene. Five nozzles of about 400 mm diameter are distributed on a 12 m-diameter tank. The junction between the nozzle and the tank present a shape of horse saddle and the passes trajectories against the tank wall show a lateral deviation of several millimeters. To take care of this deviation and of eventual geometrical defects, the welder adjust the torch position during welding. For that he needs an adapted information. The ''Laboratoire Moderne de Soudage'' inside CEA/CEREM has designed, validated and provided a new Computer-Assisted Welding for real-time remote-controlled orbital welding. Video cameras and a laser diode module were installed on the orbital installation for the watching of the welding scene. An image processing unit of new generation gives the real-time measurement of the distance between the torch and the wall tank. The control of the torch position is particularly significant to guarantee the good welding pass sequence. With this system, the position precision can reach 0,1 mm. (author)

  1. Scenario-Based Case Study Analysis of Asteroid Mitigation in the Short Response Time Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, B.; Greenaugh, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroid impact on Earth is a rare but inevitable occurrence, with potentially cataclysmic consequences. If a pending impact is discovered, mitigation options include civil-defense preparations as well as missions to deflect the asteroid and/or robustly disrupt and disperse it to an extent that only a negligible fraction remains on a threatening path (National Research Council's "Defending the Planet," 2010). If discovered with sufficient warning time, a kinetic impactor can deflect smaller objects, but response delays can rule out the option. If a body is too large to deflect by kinetic impactor, or the time for response is insufficient, deflection or disruption can be achieved with a nuclear device. The use of nuclear ablation is considered within the context of current capabilities, requiring no need for nuclear testing. Existing, well-understood devices are sufficient for the largest known Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center and the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration are collaborating to determine the critical characterization issues that define the boundaries for the asteroid-deflection options. Drawing from such work, we examine the timeline for a deflection mission, and how to provide the best opportunity for an impactor to suffice by minimizing the response time. This integrated problem considers the physical process of the deflection method (impact or ablation), along with the spacecraft, launch capability, risk analysis, and the available intercept flight trajectories. Our joint DOE/NASA team has conducted case study analysis of three distinctly different PHOs, on a hypothetical earth impacting trajectory. The size of the design reference bodies ranges from 100 - 500 meters in diameter, with varying physical parameters such as composition, spin state, and metallicity, to name a few. We assemble the design reference of the small body in question using

  2. Short-time, high temperature mechanical testing of electrically conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, R.H.; Karnes, C.H.

    1975-10-01

    Design and performance details are given for a facility which was developed to obtain the mechanical properties of materials under high heating rate or transient temperature conditions and medium strain rates. The system is shown to be applicable to materials possessing electrical resistivities ranging from that of aluminum to that of graphite without taxing the heating capability. Heating rates as high as 2000 0 K/s in graphite are attained under controlled conditions. Methods of measuring temperature and the effects of expected temperature distributions are discussed. A method for measuring strain valid for transient temperature conditions to 3000 0 K is described. Results are presented for the stress-strain behavior of 316 stainless steel and ATJ(S) graphite obtained for heating times of a few seconds. (auth)

  3. Online Identification of a Mechanical System in the Frequency Domain with Short-Time DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Nevaranta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A proper system identification method is of great importance in the process of acquiring an analytical model that adequately represents the characteristics of the monitored system. While the use of different time-domain online identification techniques has been widely recognized as a powerful approach for system diagnostics, the frequency domain identification techniques have primarily been considered for offline commissioning purposes. This paper addresses issues in the online frequency domain identification of a flexible two-mass mechanical system with varying dynamics, and a particular attention is paid to detect the changes in the system dynamics. An online identification method is presented that is based on a recursive Kalman filter configured to perform like a discrete Fourier transform (DFT at a selected set of frequencies. The experimental online identification results are compared with the corresponding values obtained from the offline-identified frequency responses. The results show an acceptable agreement and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed identification method.

  4. A short-time scale colloidal system reveals early bacterial adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Beloin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of bacteria on abiotic surfaces has important public health and sanitary consequences. However, despite several decades of study of bacterial adhesion to inert surfaces, the biophysical mechanisms governing this process remain poorly understood, due, in particular, to the lack of methodologies covering the appropriate time scale. Using micrometric colloidal surface particles and flow cytometry analysis, we developed a rapid multiparametric approach to studying early events in adhesion of the bacterium Escherichia coli. This approach simultaneously describes the kinetics and amplitude of early steps in adhesion, changes in physicochemical surface properties within the first few seconds of adhesion, and the self-association state of attached and free-floating cells. Examination of the role of three well-characterized E. coli surface adhesion factors upon attachment to colloidal surfaces--curli fimbriae, F-conjugative pilus, and Ag43 adhesin--showed clear-cut differences in the very initial phases of surface colonization for cell-bearing surface structures, all known to promote biofilm development. Our multiparametric analysis revealed a correlation in the adhesion phase with cell-to-cell aggregation properties and demonstrated that this phenomenon amplified surface colonization once initial cell-surface attachment was achieved. Monitoring of real-time physico-chemical particle surface properties showed that surface-active molecules of bacterial origin quickly modified surface properties, providing new insight into the intricate relations connecting abiotic surface physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. Hence, the biophysical analytical method described here provides a new and relevant approach to quantitatively and kinetically investigating bacterial adhesion and biofilm development.

  5. Short-term forecasting of meteorological time series using Nonparametric Functional Data Analysis (NPFDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curceac, S.; Ternynck, C.; Ouarda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to model and forecast climatic variables. In this study, Nonparametric Functional Data Analysis (NPFDA) methods are applied to forecast air temperature and wind speed time series in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The dataset consists of hourly measurements recorded for a period of 29 years, 1982-2010. The novelty of the Functional Data Analysis approach is in expressing the data as curves. In the present work, the focus is on daily forecasting and the functional observations (curves) express the daily measurements of the above mentioned variables. We apply a non-linear regression model with a functional non-parametric kernel estimator. The computation of the estimator is performed using an asymmetrical quadratic kernel function for local weighting based on the bandwidth obtained by a cross validation procedure. The proximities between functional objects are calculated by families of semi-metrics based on derivatives and Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA). Additionally, functional conditional mode and functional conditional median estimators are applied and the advantages of combining their results are analysed. A different approach employs a SARIMA model selected according to the minimum Akaike (AIC) and Bayessian (BIC) Information Criteria and based on the residuals of the model. The performance of the models is assessed by calculating error indices such as the root mean square error (RMSE), relative RMSE, BIAS and relative BIAS. The results indicate that the NPFDA models provide more accurate forecasts than the SARIMA models. Key words: Nonparametric functional data analysis, SARIMA, time series forecast, air temperature, wind speed

  6. Time perspective in hereditary cancer: psychometric properties of a short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan; Mahmut, Mehmet; Meiser, Bettina

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a 25-item short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community sample (N = 276) and in individuals with a strong family history of cancer, considering genetic testing for cancer risk (N = 338). In the community sample, individuals with high past-negative or present-fatalistic scores had higher levels of distress, as measured by depression, anxiety, and aggression. Similarly, in the patient sample, past-negative time perspective was positively correlated with distress, uncertainty, and postdecision regret when making a decision about genetic testing. Past-negative-oriented individuals were also more likely to be undecided about, or against, genetic testing. Hedonism was associated with being less likely to read the educational materials they received at their clinic, and fatalism was associated with having lower knowledge levels about genetic testing. The assessment of time perspective in individuals at increased risk of cancer can provide valuable clinical insights. However, further investigation of the psychometric properties of the short form of this scale is warranted, as it did not meet the currently accepted criteria for psychometric validation studies.

  7. Metabolic changes in the normal ageing brain: Consistent findings from short and long echo time proton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, S.; Pinker, K.; Riederer, F.; Chmelik, M.; Stadlbauer, A.; Bittsansky, M.; Mlynarik, V.; Frey, R.; Serles, W.; Bodamer, O.; Moser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Sixty three healthy subjects were measured to assess dependence of brain metabolites on age using short- and long echo time spectroscopy in different brain regions. Material and methods: Younger and elderly humans were measured with long echo time (TE = 135 ms) 3D-MR-spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) (10 subjects) and with ultra-short echo (TE = 11 ms) time 2D-MRSI (7 subjects). In addition, results from single voxel 1 H-spectroscopy (TE = 20 ms) of two cohorts of 46 healthy subjects were retrospectively correlated with age. Results: 3D-MR SI revealed reduced NAA/Cr in the older group in the frontal lobe (-22%; p < 0.01), parietal lobe (-28%; p < 0.01) and semiovale (-9%; p < 0.01) compared to the younger group. Cho/Cr was elevated in the semiovale (+35%; p < 0.01) and in the n. lentiformis (+42%; p < 0.01) in the older group. NAA/Cho was reduced in all regions measured, except the thalamus, in the older group compared to the younger group (from -21 to -49%; p < 0.01). 2D-MRSI revealed decreased total NAA (-3.1% per decade; p < 0.01) and NAA/Cr (-3.8% per decade; p < 0.01), increased total Cho (+3.6% per decade; p < 0.01) and Cho/Cr (+4.6% per decade; p < 0.01) and increased total myo-Inositol (mI, +4.7% per decade; p < 0.01) and mI/Cr (+5.4% per decade; p < 0.01) and decreased NAA/Cho (-8% per decade; p < 0.01) in semiovale WM. Results from single voxel spectroscopy revealed a significantly negative correlation of NAA/Cho in frontal (-13% per decade; p < 0.01) and in temporal lobe (-7.4% per decade; p < 0.01) as well as increased total Cr (10% per decade; p < 0.01) in frontal lobe. Other results from single voxel measurements were not significant, but trends were comparable to that from multivoxel spectroscopy. Conclusion: Age-related changes measured with long echo time and short echo time 1H-MRS were comparable and cannot, therefore, be caused by different T2 relaxation times in young and old subjects, as suggested previously

  8. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time as a progression criterion in an active surveillance programme for patients with localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brasso, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) as a progression criterion in patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS). To assess the correlation between PSAdt during AS and final histopathology after radical prostatectomy...

  9. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razbadauskas, Artūras; Sąlyga, Jonas; Martinkėnas, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65), music (50), and control (65). The geothermal group was administered 108 g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduction in the number and intensity of stress-related symptoms, a reduction in pain and general, physical, and mental fatigue, and an improvement in stress-related symptoms management, mood, activation, motivation, and cognitive functions with effect size from 0.8 to 2.3. In the music therapy group, there were significant positive changes in the number of stress symptoms, intensity, mood, pain, and activity with the effect size of 0.4 to 1.1. The researchers did not observe any significant positive changes in the control group. The comparison between the groups showed that balneotherapy was superior to music therapy and no treatment group. Conclusions. Balneotherapy is beneficial for stress and fatigue reduction in comparison with music or no therapy group. Geothermal water baths have a potential as an efficient approach to diminish stress caused by working or living conditions. PMID:27051455

  10. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Rapolienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65, music (50, and control (65. The geothermal group was administered 108 g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduction in the number and intensity of stress-related symptoms, a reduction in pain and general, physical, and mental fatigue, and an improvement in stress-related symptoms management, mood, activation, motivation, and cognitive functions with effect size from 0.8 to 2.3. In the music therapy group, there were significant positive changes in the number of stress symptoms, intensity, mood, pain, and activity with the effect size of 0.4 to 1.1. The researchers did not observe any significant positive changes in the control group. The comparison between the groups showed that balneotherapy was superior to music therapy and no treatment group. Conclusions. Balneotherapy is beneficial for stress and fatigue reduction in comparison with music or no therapy group. Geothermal water baths have a potential as an efficient approach to diminish stress caused by working or living conditions.

  11. Indications of energetic consequences of decoherence at short times for scattering from open quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decoherence of quantum entangled particles is observed in most systems, and is usually caused by system-environment interactions. Disentangling two subsystems A and B of a quantum system AB is tantamount to erasure of quantum phase relations between A and B. It is widely believed that this erasure is an innocuous process, which e.g. does not affect the energies of A and B. Surprisingly, recent theoretical investigations by different groups showed that disentangling two systems, i.e. their decoherence, can cause an increase of their energies. Applying this result to the context of neutron Compton scattering from H2 molecules, we provide for the first time experimental evidence which supports this prediction. The results reveal that the neutron-proton collision leading to the cleavage of the H-H bond in the sub-femtosecond timescale is accompanied by larger energy transfer (by about 3% than conventional theory predicts. It is proposed to interpreted the results by considering the neutron-proton collisional system as an entangled open quantum system being subject to decoherence owing to the interactions with the “environment” (i.e., two electrons plus second proton of H2.

  12. The time course of short-term hypertrophy in the absence of eccentric muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A; DeFranco, Ryan N; Grue, Katherine A; Jacobo, A Unique; Chung, Eunhee; Moon, Jordan R; DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks. Sets of 8-12 repetitions were performed to failure, and training loads were increased during each session. Subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk during training. Assessments of soreness, lean mass, echo intensity, muscle thickness, relaxed and flexed arm circumference, and isokinetic strength were performed every 72 or 96 h. Soreness, echo intensity, relaxed circumference, and peak torque data did not significantly change. Significant increases in lean mass, muscle thickness, and flexed circumference were observed within seven training sessions. Lean mass was elevated at tests #7 (+109.3 g, p = .002) and #8 (+116.1 g, p = .035), with eight different subjects showing changes above the minimal difference of 139.1 g. Muscle thickness was elevated at tests #6 (+0.23 cm, p = .004), #7 (+0.31 cm, p hypertrophy may occur in the absence of eccentric muscle damage within seven training sessions.

  13. Norwegian reference values for the Short-Form Health Survey 36: development over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv L; Bye, Asta; Aass, Nina; Fosså, Sophie D; Grotmol, Kjersti S; Kaasa, Stein; Loge, Jon Håvard; Moum, Torbjørn; Hjermstad, Marianne J

    2018-05-01

    Reference values for patient-reported outcome measures are useful for interpretation of results from clinical trials. The study aims were to collect Norwegian SF-36 reference values and compare with data from 1996 to 2002. In 2015, SF-36 was sent by mail to a representative sample of the population (N = 6165). Time trends and associations between background variables and SF-36 scale scores were compared by linear regression models. The 2015 response rate was 36% (N = 2118) versus 67% (N = 2323) in 1996 and 56% (N = 5241) in 2002. Only 5% of the youngest (18-29 years) and 27% of the oldest (>70 years) responded in 2015. Age and educational level were significantly higher in 2015 relative to 1996/2002 (p 36 scores were relatively stable across surveys, controlled for background variables. In general, the most pronounced changes in 2015 were better scores on the role limitations emotional scale (7.4 points, p 70 years. Despite societal changes in Norway the past two decades, HRQoL has remained relatively stable.

  14. Inflammatory mediators in a short-time mouse model of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Michela; Del Pizzo, Mariagiovanna; Marzocco, Stefania; Sorrentino, Rosalinda [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Ciccarelli, Michele; Iaccarino, Guido [Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi, SA (Italy); Pinto, Aldo [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Popolo, Ada, E-mail: apopolo@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is commonly used to treat a wide range of malignant tumors, but its clinical use is limited by acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. The precise mechanism underlying DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is still not completely elucidated, but cardiac inflammation seems to be involved. Effects of DOXO on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrosis have been proven only when a functional impairment has already occurred, so this study aimed to investigate the acute effect of DOXO administration in mouse heart. The results of our study demonstrated alterations in cardiac function parameters assessed by ultrasound within 24 h after a single injection of DOXO, with a cumulative effect along the increase of the dose and the number of DOXO administrations. At the same time, DOXO causes a significant production of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α and IL-6) with a concomitant reduction of IL-10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in heart tissue and increased levels of serum nitrite in DOXO-treated mice were detected. Notably, DOXO administration significantly increased nitrotyrosine expression in mouse heart. Our data support the hypothesis that these early events, could be responsible for the later onset of more severe deleterious remodeling leading to DOXO induced cardiomyopathy. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin induces echocardiographic alterations of the main cardiac functional parameters. • Doxorubicin induces increase of TNF-α and IL-6 production and iNOS expression. • Doxorubicin causes a significant reduction of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. • The doses are lower than that used in human. • Doxorubicin administration significantly increased nitrotyrosine expression.

  15. Short-time scale coupling between thermohaline and meteorological forcing in the Ría de Pontevedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Pardo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cruises were performed in May-June and October-November 1997 in the Ría de Pontevedra under strong downwelling conditions. Temperature and salinity data were recorded in short sampling periods to describe the changes in thermohaline property distribution in a short time scale. In order to obtain the residual fluxes in the Ría, a bi-dimensional non-stationary salt and thermal-energy weight averaged box-model was applied. Outputs from this kinematic model were compared with Upwelling Index, river flow and density gradient, resulting in a good multiple correlation, which proves the strong coupling between thermohaline properties and meteorological variability. Ekman forcing affects the whole area but mainly controls the dynamics of outer zones. The intensity of its effect on the circulation pattern within the Ría depends on the grade of stratification of the water bodies. River flow is more relevant in inner parts. According to estimated spatially averaged velocities, water residence time is lower than two weeks in outer parts of the Ría, and decreases toward the inner zones.

  16. Effectiveness of Combined Tear Film Therapy in Patients with Evaporative Dry Eye with Short Tear Film Breakup Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yung Hui; Kang, Yeon Soo; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; You, In Cheon; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined tear film therapy targeted to aqueous, mucin, and lipid layers in patients with refractory evaporative dry eye (EDE) with short tear film breakup time (TBUT). The patients who had EDE with short TBUT and severe symptoms refractory to artificial tears were treated with hyaluronic acid (HA) 0.15% and diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) 3% (Group 1), HA and carbomer-based lipid-containing eyedrops (Liposic EDO Gel, LPO) (Group 2), or HA, DQS, and LPO (Group 3). Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) symptom score, TBUT, Schirmer score, and corneal and conjunctival staining scores were evaluated, and noninvasive tear film breakup time (NIBUT) and tear meniscus height were measured using Keratograph ® 5 M before and 1 and 3 months after treatment. OSDI scores, VAS scores, TBUT, and NIBUT were improved at 1 and 3 months after treatment in all groups (all P film layers was most effective in improving ocular symptoms and tear film quality.

  17. The use of short-echo-time 1H MRS for childhood cerebellar tumours prior to histopathological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Lisa M.; Peet, Andrew C.; Davies, Nigel; Natarajan, Kal; MacPherson, Lesley; Foster, Katharine; Lateef, Shaheen; Sgouros, Spyridon; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Grundy, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures concentrations of metabolites in vivo and provides a powerful method for identifying tumours. MRS has not entered routine clinical use partly due to the difficulty of analysing the spectra. To create a straightforward method for interpreting short-echo-time MRS of childhood cerebellar tumours. Single-voxel MRS (1.5-T Siemens Symphony NUM4, TR/TE 1,500/30 ms) was performed at presentation in 30 children with cerebellar tumours. The MRS results were analysed for comparison with histological diagnosis. Peak heights for N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mIns) were determined and receiver operator characteristic curves used to select ratios that best discriminated between the tumour types. The method was implemented by a group of clinicians and scientists, blinded to the results. A total of 27 MRS studies met the quality control criteria. NAA/Cr >4.0 distinguished all but one of the astrocytomas from the other tumours. A combination of Cr/Cho <0.75 and mIns/NAA <2.1 separated all the medulloblastomas from the ependymomas. Peak height ratios from short-echo-time MRS can accurately predict the histopathology of childhood cerebellar tumours. (orig.)

  18. The impact of short night-time naps on performance, sleepiness and mood during a simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Short naps on night shift are recommended in some industries. There is a paucity of evidence to verify the sustained recovery benefits of short naps in the last few hours of the night shift. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the sustained recovery benefits of 30 and 10-min nap opportunities during a simulated night shift. Thirty-one healthy participants (18F, 21-35 y) completed a 3-day, between-groups laboratory study with one baseline night (22:00-07:00 h time in bed), followed by one night awake (time awake from 07:00 h on day two through 10:00 h day three) with random allocation to: a 10-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h, a 30-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h or no nap (control). A neurobehavioral test bout was administered approximately every 2 h during wake periods. There were no significant differences between nap conditions for post-nap psychomotor vigilance performance after controlling for pre-nap scores (p > 0.05). The 30-min nap significantly improved subjective sleepiness compared to the 10-min nap and no-nap control (p effect.

  19. Mapping rice-fallow cropland areas for short-season grain legumes intensification in South Asia using MODIS 250 m time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Mohammed, Irshad A.; Whitbread, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to map rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow cropland areas across South Asia, using MODIS 250 m time-series data and identify where the farming system may be intensified by the inclusion of a short-season crop during the fallow period. Rice-fallow cropland areas are those areas where rice is grown during the kharif growing season (June–October), followed by a fallow during the rabi season (November–February). These cropland areas are not suitable for growing rabi-season rice due to their high water needs, but are suitable for a short -season (≤3 months), low water-consuming grain legumes such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), black gram, green gram, and lentils. Intensification (double-cropping) in this manner can improve smallholder farmer’s incomes and soil health via rich nitrogen-fixation legume crops as well as address food security challenges of ballooning populations without having to expand croplands. Several grain legumes, primarily chickpea, are increasingly grown across Asia as a source of income for smallholder farmers and at the same time providing rich and cheap source of protein that can improve the nutritional quality of diets in the region. The suitability of rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow croplands for grain legume cultivation across South Asia were defined by these identifiers: (a) rice crop is grown during the primary (kharif) crop growing season or during the north-west monsoon season (June–October); (b) same croplands are left fallow during the second (rabi) season or during the south-east monsoon season (November–February); and (c) ability to support low water-consuming, short-growing season (≤3 months) grain legumes (chickpea, black gram, green gram, and lentils) during rabi season. Existing irrigated or rainfed crops such as rice or wheat that were grown during kharif were not considered suitable for growing during the rabi season, because the moisture/water demand of these crops is too high. The

  20. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarideh S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods: Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females, with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38, participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results: The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32 and the control group (N=29 were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively. Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid

  1. A deep learning framework for financial time series using stacked autoencoders and long-short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Yue, Jun; Rao, Yulei

    2017-01-01

    The application of deep learning approaches to finance has received a great deal of attention from both investors and researchers. This study presents a novel deep learning framework where wavelet transforms (WT), stacked autoencoders (SAEs) and long-short term memory (LSTM) are combined for stock price forecasting. The SAEs for hierarchically extracted deep features is introduced into stock price forecasting for the first time. The deep learning framework comprises three stages. First, the stock price time series is decomposed by WT to eliminate noise. Second, SAEs is applied to generate deep high-level features for predicting the stock price. Third, high-level denoising features are fed into LSTM to forecast the next day's closing price. Six market indices and their corresponding index futures are chosen to examine the performance of the proposed model. Results show that the proposed model outperforms other similar models in both predictive accuracy and profitability performance.

  2. Shorting time of magnetically insulated reflex-ion diodes from the neutral-atom charge-exchange mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.

    1981-10-01

    In a magnetically insulated diode, collision-free electrons return to the cathode and no electron current is present at the anode. Electron transport to the anode is studied in this paper. Steady-state space-charge-limited flow is assumed initially. Breakdown of ion flow occurs when static neutral atoms at the anode undergo charge exchange, which results in neutral atoms drifting across the diode. These are subsequently ionized by reflexing ions producing electrons trapped in Larmor orbits throughout the diode. These electrons drift to the anode via ionization and inelastic collisions with other neutral atoms. Model calculations compare the effects of foil and mesh cathodes. Steady-state space-charge-limited ion current densities are calculated. The neutral atom density at the cathode is determined as a function of time. The shorting time of the diode is scaled versus the electrode separation d, the diode potential V 0 , the magnetic field, and the initial concentration of static neutron atoms

  3. A deep learning framework for financial time series using stacked autoencoders and long-short term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Rao, Yulei

    2017-01-01

    The application of deep learning approaches to finance has received a great deal of attention from both investors and researchers. This study presents a novel deep learning framework where wavelet transforms (WT), stacked autoencoders (SAEs) and long-short term memory (LSTM) are combined for stock price forecasting. The SAEs for hierarchically extracted deep features is introduced into stock price forecasting for the first time. The deep learning framework comprises three stages. First, the stock price time series is decomposed by WT to eliminate noise. Second, SAEs is applied to generate deep high-level features for predicting the stock price. Third, high-level denoising features are fed into LSTM to forecast the next day’s closing price. Six market indices and their corresponding index futures are chosen to examine the performance of the proposed model. Results show that the proposed model outperforms other similar models in both predictive accuracy and profitability performance. PMID:28708865

  4. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces.

  5. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel onl....... The radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly...

  6. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces

  7. Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    George, Simon; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Hager, U.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Lunney, D.; Savreux, R.; Schwarz, Andreas S.; Schweikhard, L.; Yazidjian, C.

    2008-01-01

    High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide $^{27}$Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides $^{26}$Al and $^{38,39}$Ca have been performed by use of radio-frequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of $^{26,27}$Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed $\\beta$-emitter $^{38}$Ca as well as of the groundstate of the $\\beta$-emitter $^{26}$Al$^{m}$ confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

  8. A deep learning framework for financial time series using stacked autoencoders and long-short term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available The application of deep learning approaches to finance has received a great deal of attention from both investors and researchers. This study presents a novel deep learning framework where wavelet transforms (WT, stacked autoencoders (SAEs and long-short term memory (LSTM are combined for stock price forecasting. The SAEs for hierarchically extracted deep features is introduced into stock price forecasting for the first time. The deep learning framework comprises three stages. First, the stock price time series is decomposed by WT to eliminate noise. Second, SAEs is applied to generate deep high-level features for predicting the stock price. Third, high-level denoising features are fed into LSTM to forecast the next day's closing price. Six market indices and their corresponding index futures are chosen to examine the performance of the proposed model. Results show that the proposed model outperforms other similar models in both predictive accuracy and profitability performance.

  9. First Isochronous Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Projectile Fragments in the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlmann, J.; Geissel, H.; Hausmann, M.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Schatz, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Falch, M.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Kerscher, Th.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Loebner, K.E.G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Steck, M.; Sun, Z.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for precise mass measurements of short-lived hot nuclei is presented. These nuclei were produced via projectile fragmentation, separated with the FRS and injected into the storage ring ESR being operated in the isochronous mode. The revolution time of the ions is measured with a time-of-flight detector sensitive to single particles. This new method allows access to exotic nuclei with half-lives in the microsecond region. First results from this novel method obtained with measurements on neutron-deficient fragments of a chromium primary beam with half-lives down to 50 ms are reported. A precision of deltam/m ≤ 5 · 10 -6 has been achieved

  10. Forgotten but Not Gone: Retro-Cue Costs and Benefits in a Double-Cueing Paradigm Suggest Multiple States in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Sligte, Ilja G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM…

  11. Forgotten but not gone: Retro-cue costs and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  12. Forgotten but not gone: retro-cue cost and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  13. Preventing Preterm Birth with Progesterone in Women with a Short Cervical Length from a Low-Risk Population: A Multicenter Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van der Ven, A.J.; Kleinrouweler, C.E.; Schuit, E.; Kazemier, B.M.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; de Miranda, E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Sikkema, J.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone in reducing adverse neonatal outcome due to preterm birth (PTB) in low-risk pregnant women with a short cervical length (CL). Study Design Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of PTB

  14. A real-time artifact reduction algorithm based on precise threshold during short-separation optical probe insertion in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During neurosurgery, an optical probe has been used to guide the micro-electrode, which is punctured into the globus pallidus (GP to create a lesion that can relieve the cardinal symptoms. Accurate target localization is the key factor to affect the treatment. However, considering the scattering nature of the tissue, the “look ahead distance (LAD” of optical probe makes the boundary between the different tissues blurred and difficult to be distinguished, which is defined as artifact. Thus, it is highly desirable to reduce the artifact caused by LAD. In this paper, a real-time algorithm based on precise threshold was proposed to eliminate the artifact. The value of the threshold was determined by the maximum error of the measurement system during the calibration procession automatically. Then, the measured data was processed sequentially only based on the threshold and the former data. Moreover, 100μm double-fiber probe and two-layer and multi-layer phantom models were utilized to validate the precision of the algorithm. The error of the algorithm is one puncture step, which was proved in the theory and experiment. It was concluded that the present method could reduce the artifact caused by LAD and make the real boundary sharper and less blurred in real-time. It might be potentially used for the neurosurgery navigation.

  15. Time-dependent H-like and He-like Al lines produced by ultra-short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takako; Kato, Masatoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Shepherd, R; Young, B; More, R; Osterheld, Al

    1998-03-01

    We have performed numerical modeling of time-resolved x-ray spectra from thin foil targets heated by the LLNL Ultra-short pulse (USP) laser. The targets were aluminum foils of thickness ranging from 250 A to 1250 A, heated with 120 fsec pulses of 400 nm light from the USP laser. The laser energy was approximately 0.2 Joules, focused to a 3 micron spot size for a peak intensity near 2 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines were recorded using a 900 fsec x-ray streak camera. We calculate the effective ionization, recombination and emission rate coefficients including density effects for H-like and He-like aluminum ions using a collisional radiative model. We calculate time-dependent ion abundances using these effective ionization and recombination rate coefficients. The time-dependent electron temperature and density used in the calculation are based on an analytical model for the hydrodynamic expansion of the target foils. During the laser pulse the target is ionized. After the laser heating stops, the plasma begins to recombine. Using the calculated time dependent ion abundances and the effective emission rate coefficients, we calculate the time dependent Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines. The calculations reproduce the main qualitative features of the experimental spectra. (author)

  16. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  17. Automated forms processing - An alternative to time-consuming manual double entry of data in arthroplasty registries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2012-01-01

    , there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion=0.007 (95% CI: 0.001-0.024), (p= 0.656)), as well as double-key data entry (error proportion=0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.019), (p= 0.319)). Discussion and conclusion: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data......Background: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious....... Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. Materials and Methods: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing...

  18. Non-linear dynamical classification of short time series of the rössler system in high noise regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to -30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A' under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data.

  19. Sistem kontrol inventori pemasokan barang Secara Real Time Menggunakan Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI dan Short Message Service (SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Turang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research underlines the urgency of real-time stock replenishment control system for distributors using vendor-managed inventory. It is valuable in improving corporate performance in lowering inventory cost as well as making better customer service due to the cut made in ordering cycle. The system produces real-time information on stock available at the retailing stores. Stock replenishment can then be done by the distributor at the right time. Using Short Message Service (SMS as a one-way information channel from retailers to their distributor, the data of every transaction of the supervised item are processed by a rule-based forward-chaining inference system to determine the item’s availability in stores. Folowing steps in Rapid Application Development (RAD, the construction of this system takes place through business modeling, data modeling, process modeling of VMI system, then the application is generated and tested as a prototype. The results are: the stock replenishment control system are able to make transactional data at the stores transparent to the distributor, facilitating the continuation in stock delivery. System architecture reduces the time needed to access information about sales on supervised item by using SMS shortcut. This control system developed in stores can be operationally independent from the retailing systems. Rule-based forward-chaining inference technique processes facts on stock variations, resulting in stock replenishment notification such as normal, reserve, and depleted warning. Keywords: VMI, inventory; Stock replenishment; Rule-based reasoning; Forward-chaining system, RAD

  20. Prospects of Constraining the Dense Matter Equation of State from Timing Analysis of Pulsars in Double Neutron Star Binaries: The Cases of PSR J0737 ‒ 3039A and PSR J1757 ‒ 1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Bagchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lense-Thirring effect from spinning neutron stars in double neutron star binaries contributes to the periastron advance of the orbit. This extra term involves the moment of inertia of the neutron stars. The moment of inertia, on the other hand, depends on the mass and spin of the neutron star, as well as the equation of state of the matter. If at least one member of the double neutron star binary (better the faster one is a radio pulsar, then accurate timing analysis might lead to the estimation of the contribution of the Lense-Thirring effect to the periastron advance, which will lead to the measurement of the moment of inertia of the pulsar. The combination of the knowledge on the values of the moment of inertia, the mass and the spin of the pulsar will give a new constraint on the equation of state. Pulsars in double neutron star binaries are the best for this purpose as short orbits and moderately high eccentricities make the Lense-Thirring effect substantial, whereas tidal effects are negligible (unlike pulsars with main sequence or white-dwarf binaries. The most promising pulsars are PSR J0737 − 3039A and PSR J1757 − 1854. The spin-precession of pulsars due to the misalignment between the spin and the orbital angular momentum vectors affect the contribution of the Lense-Thirring effect to the periastron advance. This effect has been explored for both PSR J0737 − 3039A and PSR J1757 − 1854, and as the misalignment angles for both of these pulsars are small, the variation in the Lense-Thirring term is not much. However, to extract the Lense-Thirring effect from the observed rate of the periastron advance, more accurate timing solutions including precise proper motion and distance measurements are essential.

  1. Real-Time Demonstration of the Main Characteristics of Chaos in the Motion of a Real Double Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltan; Mellar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    Several studies came to the conclusion that chaotic phenomena are worth including in high school and undergraduate education. The double pendulum is one of the simplest systems that is chaotic; therefore, numerical simulations and theoretical studies of it have been given large publicity, and thanks to its spectacular motion, it has become one of…

  2. Effect of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization on milk containing low numbers of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, I R; Ball, H J; Rowe, M T

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization (72 degrees C/15 s) when low numbers (HTST pasteurization using laboratory pasteurizing units. Ten bovine strains of Myco. paratuberculosis were tested in triplicate. Culture in BACTEC Middlebrook 12B radiometric medium detected acid-fast survivors in 14.8% and 10% of HTST-pasteurized milk samples at the 10(3) and 10(2) cfu ml-1 inoculum levels, respectively, whereas conventional culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J detected acid-fast survivors in only 3.7% and 6.7% of the same milk samples. IS900-based PCR confirmed that these acid-fast survivors were Myco. paratuberculosis. No viable Myco. paratuberculosis were isolated from HTST-pasteurized milk initially containing either 10 cfu ml-1 or 10 cfu 50 ml-1.

  3. Short-time fourth-order squeezing effects in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, P S

    2003-01-01

    The concept of fourth-order squeezing of the electromagnetic field is investigated in the fundamental mode in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes under the short-time approximation based on a fully quantum mechanical approach. The coupled Heisenberg equations of motion involving real and imaginary parts of the quadrature operators are established. The possibility of obtaining fourth-order squeezing is studied. The dependence of fourth-order squeezing on the number of photons is also investigated. It is shown that fourth-order squeezing, which is a higher-order squeezing, allows a much larger fractional noise reduction than lower-order squeezing. It is shown that squeezing is greater in a stimulated process than the corresponding squeezing in spontaneous interaction. The conditions for obtaining maximum and minimum squeezing are obtained. We have also established the non-classical nature of squeezed radiation using the Glauber-Sudarshan representation

  4. Analyses of kinetic glass transition in short-range attractive colloids based on time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Takayuki; Tokuyama, Michio

    2017-03-01

    For short-range attractive colloids, the phase diagram of the kinetic glass transition is studied by time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT). Using numerical calculations, TMCT is shown to recover all the remarkable features predicted by the mode-coupling theory for attractive colloids: the glass-liquid-glass reentrant, the glass-glass transition, and the higher-order singularities. It is also demonstrated through the comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics for the binary attractive colloids that TMCT improves the critical values of the volume fraction. In addition, a schematic model of three control parameters is investigated analytically. It is thus confirmed that TMCT can describe the glass-glass transition and higher-order singularities even in such a schematic model.

  5. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Kjer, Hans Martin; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT...... receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation...... significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI comparison. The mean dosimetric deviation for photons and protons compared to the CT was about 2% and highest in the gradient dose...

  6. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  7. Improving Thin Bed Identification in Sarawak Basin Field using Short Time Fourier Transform Half Cepstrum (STFTHC) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizarul, O.; Hermana, M.; Bashir, Y.; Ghosh, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    In delineating complex subsurface geological feature, broad band of frequencies are needed to unveil the often hidden features of hydrocarbon basin such as thin bedding. The ability to resolve thin geological horizon on seismic data is recognized to be a fundamental importance for hydrocarbon exploration, seismic interpretation and reserve prediction. For thin bedding, high frequency content is needed to enable tuning, which can be done by applying the band width extension technique. This paper shows an application of Short Time Fourier Transform Half Cepstrum (STFTHC) method, a frequency bandwidth expansion technique for non-stationary seismic signal in increasing the temporal resolution to uncover thin beds and improve characterization of the basin. A wedge model and synthetic seismic data is used to quantify the algorithm as well as real data from Sarawak basin were used to show the effectiveness of this method in enhancing the resolution.

  8. Fetal short time variation during labor: a non-invasive alternative to fetal scalp pH measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiermeier, Sven; Reinhard, Joscha; Hatzmann, Hendrike; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Westhof, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether short time variation (STV) of fetal heart beat correlates with scalp pH measurements during labor. From 1279 deliveries, 197 women had at least one fetal scalp pH measurement. Using the CTG-Player, STVs were calculated from the electronically saved cardiotocography (CTG) traces and related to the fetal scalp pH measurements. There was no correlation between STV and fetal scalp pH measurements (r=-0.0592). Fetal STV is an important parameter with high sensitivity for antenatal fetal acidosis. This study shows that STV calculations do not correlate with fetal scalp pH measurements during labor, hence are not helpful in identifying fetal acidosis.

  9. Experience from transportation of irradiated WWER-440 fuel assemblies at Kozloduy NPP site after a short cooling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, A.; Byrzev, L.; Christoskov, I.

    2003-01-01

    The presented results from the computation and analysis of the radiation characteristics of the irradiated fuel assemblies by the date of their transportation according to the selected loading patterns of the VSPOT cask and following the modified technology of transportation, i.e. without replacement of the pool solution by pure condensate, as well as the corresponding experimental results, confirm the applicability of the newly introduced safety criterion for the selection of a loading pattern of the cask with irradiated fuel assemblies after a short cooling time. The comparison between measured and computed surface dose rates shows that during the procedure of transfer of irradiated fuel assemblies from the pools of Units 1 and 2 to the pools of Kozloduy NPP Units 3 and 4 all safety limits, incl. the radiation protection requirements, were met

  10. Resistance to bleomycin in cancer cell lines is characterized by prolonged doubling time, reduced DNA damage and evasion of G2/M arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available To establish, characterize and elucidate potential mechanisms of acquired bleomycin (BLM resistance using human cancer cell lines. Seven BLM-resistant cell lines were established by exposure to escalating BLM concentrations over a period of 16-24 months. IC50 values and cell doubling times were quantified using a real time cytotoxicity assay. COMET and γ-H2AX assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assessment further investigated the mechanisms of BLM resistance in these cell lines.Compared with parental cell lines, real time cytotoxicity assays revealed 7 to 49 fold increases in IC50 and a mean doubling time increase of 147 % (range 64 %-352% in BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05 for both. Higher maintenance BLM concentrations were associated with higher IC50 and increased doubling times (p<0.05. Significantly reduced DNA damage (COMET and γ-H2AX assays, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis (p<0.05 for each set of comparison following high-dose acute BLM exposure was observed in resistant sub-clones, compared with their BLM-sensitive parental counterparts. Three weeks of BLM-free culturing resulted in a partial return to BLM sensitivity in 3/7 BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05.Bleomycin resistance may be associated with reduced DNA damage after bleomycin exposure, resulting in reduced G2/M arrest, and reduced apoptosis.

  11. A Distributed Web-based Solution for Ionospheric Model Real-time Management, Monitoring, and Short-term Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, A.; Maurits, S.; Watkins, B.

    2006-12-01

    provide inputs for the next ionospheic model time step and then stored in a MySQL database as the first part of the time-specific record. The RMM then performs synchronization of the input times with the current model time, prepares a decision on initialization for the next model time step, and monitors its execution. Then, as soon as the model completes computations for the next time step, RMM visualizes the current model output into various short-term (about 1-2 hours) forecasting products and compares prior results with available ionospheric measurements. The RMM places prepared images into the MySQL database, which can be located on a different computer node, and then proceeds to the next time interval continuing the time-loop. The upper-level interface of this real-time system is the a PHP-based Web site (http://www.arsc.edu/SpaceWeather/new). This site provides general information about the Earth polar and adjacent mid-latitude ionosphere, allows for monitoring of the current developments and short-term forecasts, and facilitates access to the comparisons archive stored in the database.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6074-2 - Time for filing declarations by corporations in case of a short taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(a) are met before the 1st day of the 9th month of the short taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the 15th day of the 9th month of such short year. In the case of a short taxable year...) Example. The application of the provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example...

  13. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  14. Positive pacing strategies are utilised by elite male and female para-cyclists in short time trials in the velodrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lindsey Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilise an all-out strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001s were obtained from the C1-C3 men’s 1-km TT (n=28 and women’s 500-m TT (n=9 from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men’s 1-km TT (n=19 and women’s 500-m TT (n=12 from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men’s 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women’s 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall’s Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars

  15. Short time-scale optical variability properties of the largest AGN sample observed with Kepler/K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranzana, E.; Körding, E.; Uttley, P.; Scaringi, S.; Bloemen, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first short time-scale (˜hours to days) optical variability study of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Kepler/K2 mission. The sample contains 252 AGN observed over four campaigns with ˜30 min cadence selected from the Million Quasar Catalogue with R magnitude <19. We performed time series analysis to determine their variability properties by means of the power spectral densities (PSDs) and applied Monte Carlo techniques to find the best model parameters that fit the observed power spectra. A power-law model is sufficient to describe all the PSDs of our sample. A variety of power-law slopes were found indicating that there is not a universal slope for all AGNs. We find that the rest-frame amplitude variability in the frequency range of 6 × 10-6-10-4 Hz varies from 1to10 per cent with an average of 1.7 per cent. We explore correlations between the variability amplitude and key parameters of the AGN, finding a significant correlation of rest-frame short-term variability amplitude with redshift. We attribute this effect to the known `bluer when brighter' variability of quasars combined with the fixed bandpass of Kepler data. This study also enables us to distinguish between Seyferts and blazars and confirm AGN candidates. For our study, we have compared results obtained from light curves extracted using different aperture sizes and with and without detrending. We find that limited detrending of the optimal photometric precision light curve is the best approach, although some systematic effects still remain present.

  16. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  17. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Ren; Na Li; Zhan Wang; Yisi Liu; Xi Chen; Yuanyuan Chu; Xiangyu Li; Zhongmin Zhu; Liqiao Tian; Hao Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified?case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified...

  18. Short-Term Interferential Transabdominal Electrical Stimulation Did Not Change Oral-Rectal Transit Time in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andre Y F; Sourial, Magdy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2018-03-02

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) using interferential current (IFC) is a new therapeutic treatment for constipation. Clinical studies show that TES-IFC for 3-6 months improves colonic transit, but it is not clear if short-term stimulation affects transit or the effect requires longer to develop. The aim of this study was to determine if TES-IFC for only four days affects oral-rectal transit time in healthy pigs. Twenty-two 4-5-week old large white female piglets had transit studies during week 4 and week 5 by placing a capsule containing 18 radiopaque plastic markers in the esophagus under anesthetic followed by x-rays at 6, 30, 54, and 78 hours. Animals were randomly assigned to active or control groups. The active group received TES for 30 min daily for four days. Interferential current was applied through four electrodes (4 × 4 cm), with two para-spinal just below the last rib and two on the belly at the same level. Stimulation was at 4000 Hz and 4080-4160 Hz with currents crossing through the abdominal cavity. Whole bowel transit times ranged from 7.7 to 72.2 hours, stomach transit from transit time from 5 to 53 hours. Transit times were the same for the control (median 28.4 hours) and TES-IFC (23.0 hours) groups in the prestimulation and stimulation weeks (control 23.0, TES-IFC 19.8 hours) with no change within or between groups. Four days of half-hour TES-IFC daily in healthy 5-week-old piglets did not change oral-rectal transit time. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hanks, Gerald E.; Porter, Arthur; Brereton, Harmar; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Shipley, William U.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated whether posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) was predictive of prostate cancer mortality by testing the Prentice requirements for a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: We analyzed posttreatment PSA measurements in a cohort of 1,514 men with localized prostate cancer (T2c-4 and PSA level Cox = 0.002), PSADT Cox Cox Cox Cox = 0.4). The significant posttreatment PSADTs were also significant predictors of CSS (p Cox < 0.001). After adjusting for T stage, Gleason score and PSA, all of Prentice's requirements were not met, indicating that the effect of PSADT on CSS was not independent of the randomized treatment. Conclusions: Prostatic specific antigen doubling time is significantly associated with CSS, but did not meet all of Prentice's requirements for a surrogate endpoint of CSS. Thus, the risk of dying of prostate cancer is not fully explained by PSADT

  20. Finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization of coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions via the double power function nonlinear feedback control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between two different coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions of network nodes. The double power function nonlinear feedback control method is proposed in this paper to guarantee that the state trajectories of the response network converge to the state trajectories of the drive network according to a function matrix in a given finite time. Furthermore, in comparison with the traditional nonlinear feedback control method, the new method improves the synchronization efficiency, and shortens the finite synchronization time. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. (papers)