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Sample records for shock syndrome dss

  1. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  2. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  3. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  4. Vitamin D serostatus and dengue fever progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, E; Villar, L A; Lozano, A; Herrera, V M; Herrán, O F

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D could modulate pathways leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). We examined the associations of serum total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations in patients with uncomplicated dengue fever (DF) with risk of progression to DHF/DSS. In a case-control study nested in a cohort of DF patients who were followed during the acute episode in Bucaramanga, Colombia, we compared 25(OH)D and VDBP at onset of fever between 110 cases who progressed to DHF/DSS and 235 DF controls who did not progress. 25(OH)D concentrations were also compared between the acute sample and a sample collected >1 year post-convalescence in a subgroup. Compared with 25(OH)D ⩾75 nmol/l, adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for progression were 0·44 (0·22-0·88) and 0·13 (0·02-1·05) for 50 to 75 nmol/l (vitamin D insufficiency) and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency), respectively (P, trend = 0·003). Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were much lower post-convalescence compared with the acute episode, regardless of case status. Compared with controls, mean VDBP was non-significantly lower in cases. We conclude that low serum 25(OH)D concentrations in DF patients predict decreased odds of progression to DHF/DSS.

  5. The value of daily platelet counts for predicting dengue shock syndrome: Results from a prospective observational study of 2301 Vietnamese children with dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phung Khanh; Ngoc, Tran Van; Thu Thuy, Truong Thi; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Nhu Thuy, Tran Thi; Hoai Tam, Dong Thi; Dung, Nguyen Minh; Hanh Tien, Nguyen Thi; Thanh Kieu, Nguyen Tan; Simmons, Cameron; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection to affect humans. Although it usually manifests as a self-limited febrile illness, complications may occur as the fever subsides. A systemic vascular leak syndrome that sometimes progresses to life-threatening hypovolaemic shock is the most serious complication seen in children, typically accompanied by haemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia. Robust evidence on risk factors, especially features present early in the illness course, for progression to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is lacking. Moreover, the potential value of incorporating serial haematocrit and platelet measurements in prediction models has never been assessed. We analyzed data from a prospective observational study of Vietnamese children aged 5-15 years admitted with clinically suspected dengue to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City between 2001 and 2009. The analysis population comprised all children with laboratory-confirmed dengue enrolled between days 1-4 of illness. Logistic regression was the main statistical model for all univariate and multivariable analyses. The prognostic value of daily haematocrit levels and platelet counts were assessed using graphs and separate regression models fitted on each day of illness. Among the 2301 children included in the analysis, 143 (6%) progressed to DSS. Significant baseline risk factors for DSS included a history of vomiting, higher temperature, a palpable liver, and a lower platelet count. Prediction models that included serial daily platelet counts demonstrated better ability to discriminate patients who developed DSS from others, than models based on enrolment information only. However inclusion of daily haematocrit values did not improve prediction of DSS. Daily monitoring of platelet counts is important to help identify patients at high risk of DSS. Development of dynamic prediction models that incorporate signs, symptoms, and daily laboratory measurements, could improve

  6. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

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    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  7. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Toxic-Shock Syndrome -- 1980

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, an outbreak of a disease called Toxic Shock Syndrome made healthy women sick. CDC's disease detectives helped unravel the link between Toxic Shock Syndrome and high-absorbency tampons. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Shands, former chief of CDC's Toxic Shock Syndrome Task Force, recalls her experience working with state epidemiologists to identify the link between toxic shock syndrome and tampon use.

  8. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Toxic-Shock Syndrome -- 1980

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-03

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, an outbreak of a disease called Toxic Shock Syndrome made healthy women sick. CDC’s disease detectives helped unravel the link between Toxic Shock Syndrome and high-absorbency tampons. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Shands, former chief of CDC’s Toxic Shock Syndrome Task Force, recalls her experience working with state epidemiologists to identify the link between toxic shock syndrome and tampon use.  Created: 11/3/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/3/2017.

  9. Could peak proteinuria determine whether patient with dengue fever develop dengue hemorrhagic/dengue shock syndrome? - A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Sufi M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is a need to develop simple effective predictors that can distinguish whether a patient will progress from dengue fever (DF to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic (DHF or dengue shock syndrome (DSS. We explored whether proteinuria could be used as such a marker. Methods We included patients admitted to hospital with suspected dengue fever. Starting at enrollment until discharge, each patient's daily spot urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR was measured. We classified those with confirmed dengue infection as DF or DHF (including DSS based on WHO criteria. Peak and day of onset of proteinuria was compared between both groups. Results Compared to those with DF, patients with DHF had significantly higher median peak proteinuria levels (0.56 versus 0.08 g/day; p Conclusions Peak UPCR could potentially predict DHF in patients with dengue requiring close monitoring and treatment.

  10. Toksisk shock syndrom. Et tilfoelde hos et barn med forbroending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowski, M J; Ostergaard, G Z; Arpi, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of the toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in a burnt (scalded) child is presented. TSS is a condition most frequently associated with menstruating women using tampons. In recent years, however, increased knowledge of the syndrome has led to an increase in the number of reported cases associated...

  11. DSS / Press Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Security Service, U.S. Department of Defense Site Map | A-Z Index | Facebook | Twitter Locations Press Room Organizational Structure Careers at DSS Doing Business with DSS Frequently Asked Classification System (NCCS) National Industrial Security System (NISS) ODAA Business Management System (OBMS

  12. Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sook Ja; Choi, Yun Sun; Shin, Chung Ho; Cho, Sung Bum; Cho, Jae Min; Kim, Hyun Sook; Han, Tae Il; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) is a sudden-onset symptom complex that involves multisystem failure and includes encephalopathy, shock, coma, convulsions, prerenal azotemia, hepatic dysfunction, and bleeding coagulopathy and progressive thrombocytopenia in previously healthy infants and children. Its radiologic findings have rarely been reported, and it has not been described in Korea. We present a case of clinically diagnosed HSES, and include the CT and MRI findings

  13. Corticosteroids in the treatment of dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Maduranga, Sachith; Rajapakse, Anoja Chamarie

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in over 100 countries worldwide, and its incidence is on the rise. The pathophysiological basis for the development of severe dengue, characterized by plasma leakage and the "shock syndrome" are poorly understood. No specific treatment or vaccine is available, and careful monitoring and judicious administration of fluids forms the mainstay of management at present. It is postulated that vascular endothelial dysfunction, induced by cytokine and chemical mediators, is an important mechanism of plasma leakage. Although corticosteroids are potent modulators of the immune system, their role in pharmacological doses in modulating the purported immunological effects that take place in severe dengue has been a subject of controversy. The key evidence related to the role of corticosteroids for various manifestations of dengue are reviewed here. In summary, there is currently no high-quality evidence supporting the beneficial effects of corticosteroids for treatment of shock, prevention of serious complications, or increasing platelet counts. Non-randomized trials of corticosteroids given as rescue medication for severe shock have shown possible benefit. Nonetheless, the evidence base is small, and good-quality trials are lacking. We reiterate the need for well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials of corticosteroids for the treatment of dengue shock.

  14. Viridans streptococcal shock syndrome during bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, R; Manteiga, R; Sánchez, I; Brunet, S; Sureda, A; Badell, I; Argilés, B; Subirá, M; Bordes, R; Domingo-Albós, A

    1995-01-01

    Of 320 patients receiving a marrow transplant at the Hospital de Sant Pau between 1986 and 1992, 12% developed viridans streptococcal bacteremia during severe neutropenia. Five of these patients (13%) developed a rapidly progressive fatal shock syndrome characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, acute respiratory failure (ARDS) and septic shock early in the transplantation course (6 or 7 days posttransplantation). All patients were transplanted for acute leukemia in remission, and 2 received an allogeneic and 3 an autologous transplant. Four of these subjects were younger than 15 years of age and all had received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation as conditioning regimen for marrow transplantation. All 5 patients died, and postmortem examinations revealed diffuse pulmonary lesions characteristic of the ARDS. These observations contribute to defining the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this serious complication of intensive anticancer treatment.

  15. Left ventricular calcification following postpartum toxic shock syndrome

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    Stella C Pak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS is a rare but lethal clinical event that can occur during the postpartum period. Early recognition and intervention is critical to improve patient outcomes. This is a case of TSS complicated by cardiac arrest and left ventricular calcification. This is a case report of streptococcal TSS in a 29-year-old female in the postpartum period who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and a purpuric rash. Her hospital course was characterized by multiple organ failure, including respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, renal failure, and coagulopathy. She was found to have acute compartment syndrome, which resulted in a below-the-knee amputation. She deteriorated further after experiencing cardiac arrest and the development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with hemorrhagic transformation. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of dystrophic myocardial calcification in the left ventricle. She improved clinically but remained ventilator dependent upon discharge to an extended acute care facility. Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy can result in myocardial calcification. As dystrophic calcification can significantly affect cardiac function, clinicians should rule out cardiac calcification in patients who have had severe septic shock.

  16. Toxic shock syndrome following inguinal hernia repair: a rare condition

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    Rohit Prasad Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man developed fulminant multisystem failure 28 hours after elective repair of an inguinal hernia. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS was diagnosed. The patient recovered fully with supportive care in ICU, antibiotics, and IV human immunoglobin . To the best of our knowledge, only one case of TSS following inguinal hernia repair have ever been previously published. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 57-59 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9689

  17. [Toxic-shock syndrome. Three cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, M; D'Enfert, J; Cabane, J

    1981-06-13

    Several cases of toxic shock syndrome (T.S.S) have been recently reported from the U.S.A. Clinical features of this new syndrome include fever, desquamative scarlatiniform rash, hypotension and involvement of central nervous system, liver, kidney and muscles. More than 90% of cases are women with staphylococcic vaginitis using tampons during menstruations. A toxin produced by staphylococcus aureus is thought to be the causative agent, because the germ has been isolated in local (vaginal, pharyngeal, subcutaneous or other sites) but not systemic (blood, cerebrospinal fluid) cultures. The mortality rate is 3-10%, and relapse can occur. We report the first three french cases of T.S.S.: a 17 year old girl with typical tampon-associated vaginitis, a 36 year old woman with a postoperative peritonitis and a 20 year old man with a popliteal abscess. Staphylococcus aureus of type I or IV was identified at the site of infection in all cases, but never in blood cultures. These three patients recovered with antistaphylococcic antibiotics and supportive therapy, but local treatment of infections seems to have been of utmost importance. These cases suggest that T.S.S. can occur with several staphylococcus serotypes and confirm that this syndrome is not always associated with tampons and vaginitis.

  18. Capecitabine caused cardiogenic shock through induction of global takotsubo syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y-Hassan, Shams, E-mail: shams.younis-hassan@karolinska.se; Tornvall, Per; Törnerud, Mattias; Henareh, Loghman

    2013-01-15

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its oral pro-drug capecitabine are widely used in oncology for the treatment of various solid tumours, including colorectal cancers. Cardiotoxicity to these drugs is not an uncommon adverse effect and has been reported in 1%–18% of patients. Capecitabine has been reported to trigger mid-apical Takotsubo syndrome (TS). We describe here the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with cardiogenic shock and ECG signs of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The symptoms began 28 h after the commencement of capecitabine adjuvant therapy, following a radical right-sided hemicolectomy for low-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the caecum. Echocardiography showed severe global left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed no signs of late gadolinium enhancement. These clinical, cardiac image study findings and the course of the disease with full recovery within one week were consistent with global TS triggered by the adjuvant therapy capecitabine and presenting with a life-threatening cardiogenic shock. Moreover, we have demonstrated the speedy dynamic of the left ventricular wall motion abnormality with global TS at presentation and basal (inverted) TS findings 4 days later on.

  19. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  20. SHOCK SYNDROME IN A PATIENT WITH HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO BRAIN TUMOR

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    Andreja Sinkovič

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Shock syndrome is an acute tissue hypoperfusion. Early diagnosis and adequate symptomatic and causal treatment are mandatory. In spite of different etiologies (dehidration, bleeding, heart failure, sepsis, clinical signs and symptomes are similar (hypotension, tachicardia, tachipnoe, pallor, cold and wet skin, oliguria and metabolic acidosis. Rarely, the shock syndrome is the consequence of the adrenal insufficiency due to hypopituitarism caused by brain tumor where early treatment with hydrocortisone is urgent.Methods. This article presents a patient with a shock syndrome and multiorgan failure. Endocrinological testing and brain CT demonstrated an endocrinologically inactive tumor of hypophysis. The tumor was growing into adjacent hypophyseal tissue and causing hypopituitarism with secondary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency and deficit of both gonadotropins and growth hormone.Conclusions. Primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency are among rare causes of shock syndrome. Whenever it is suspected, estimation of serum levels of cortisol and ACTH is necessary and immediate treatment with hydrocortisone should be instituted.

  1. Necrotizing Fasciitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome from Clostridium septicum following a Term Cesarean Delivery

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    B. H. Rimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome are life-threatening conditions that can be seen after any surgical procedure. With only 4 previous published case reports in the obstetrics and gynecology literature of these two conditions occurring secondary to Clostridium septicum, we describe a case of necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome occurring after a term cesarean delivery caused by this microorganism, requiring aggressive medical and surgical intervention.

  2. Influence of the Vaginal Microbiota on Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1 Production by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    MacPhee, Roderick A.; Miller, Wayne L.; Gloor, Gregory B.; McCormick, John K.; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and...

  3. [A patient with toxic shock syndrome following correction of the nasal septum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D H; Moffie, B G; van der Mey, A G; Thompson, J

    1990-11-03

    A male aged 30 suffered from toxic shock syndrome after septorhinoplasty with positioning of a tampon. Initial treatment consisted of removing the tampon and supportive care, as a result of which the patient recovered. The patient was a carrier of Staphylococcus aureus which produced toxic shock syndrome toxin-I (TSST-I). Anti-TSST-I antibodies were already found in the serum in the initial phase of the disease.

  4. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in Brugada syndrome: Pattern in primary and secondary prevention

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    Aimé Bonny

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inappropriate shock is common in Brugada syndrome during the early periods after an ICD implantation, and seems to be more likely in asymptomatic patients. This finding may warrant a review of the indications for ICD implantation, especially in the young and apparently healthy population of patients with Brugada syndrome.

  5. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

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    Jiaqi Tang

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2 is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes only sporadic cases of meningitis and sepsis in humans. Most if not all cases of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS that have been well-documented to date were associated with the non-SS2 group A streptococcus (GAS. However, a recent large-scale outbreak of SS2 in Sichuan Province, China, appeared to be caused by more invasive deep-tissue infection with STSS, characterized by acute high fever, vascular collapse, hypotension, shock, and multiple organ failure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated this outbreak of SS2 infections in both human and pigs, which took place from July to August, 2005, through clinical observation and laboratory experiments. Clinical and pathological characterization of the human patients revealed the hallmarks of typical STSS, which to date had only been associated with GAS infection. Retrospectively, we found that this outbreak was very similar to an earlier outbreak in Jiangsu Province, China, in 1998. We isolated and analyzed 37 bacterial strains from human specimens and eight from pig specimens of the recent outbreak, as well as three human isolates and two pig isolates from the 1998 outbreak we had kept in our laboratory. The bacterial isolates were examined using light microscopy observation, pig infection experiments, multiplex-PCR assay, as well as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP and multiple sequence alignment analyses. Multiple lines of evidence confirmed that highly virulent strains of SS2 were the causative agents of both outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge for the first time, two outbreaks of STSS caused by SS2, a non-GAS streptococcus. The 2005 outbreak was associated with 38 deaths out of 204 documented human cases; the 1998 outbreak with 14 deaths out of 25 reported human cases. Most of the fatal cases were characterized by STSS; some of them by meningitis or severe

  6. Use of Hemadsorption in a Case of Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

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    Andrea Berkes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Toxic shock syndrome is a potentially fatal toxin-mediated disease. The role of toxins in this clinical entity made us hypothesize that extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb® could play a beneficial role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. This case report describes the successful treatment of toxic shock syndrome using a combination of renal replacement therapy and hemadsorption in a pediatric patient. Case Presentation. A 5-year-old girl with Down’s syndrome presented with an inflamed area surrounding an insect bite, signs of systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. As previous attempts of immune modulation therapy were unsuccessful, renal replacement therapy was supplemented by the cytokine absorber CytoSorb. Treatment using this combination was associated with a rapid and significant stabilization in the hemodynamic situation and a decrease in inflammatory mediators within hours after the initiation of therapy. The application of CytoSorb therapy was simple and safe. Conclusion. The use of extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb proved potentially beneficial by removing toxins and inflammatory mediators in this case and could therefore play a role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. Whether CytoSorb has the potential to even positively influence mortality in patients with toxic shock syndrome still needs to be confirmed.

  7. Capstone Renaissance = Simulation + Interaction + DSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Lawrence R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of integrated business policy and strategic management courses, or capstone courses, in business school curricula. A simulation game is described that incorporates the need for computer literacy, decision support systems (DSS), and interaction to effectively meet the needs for a capstone course. (14 references) (LRW)

  8. Unusual Complication of Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: Spontaneous Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Hypovolemic Shock

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    Kai-Hsiung Ko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery (SMA syndrome is an unusual form of duodenal obstruction. Complications of SMA syndrome may sometimes develop and are usually associated with marked gastric dilatation, although most complications can be corrected by supportive treatment. In this article, we report a case of severe SMA syndrome with hypovolemic shock in a 24-year-old man. Multidetector-row computed tomography with reconstructed images was performed to establish the diagnosis. Spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding is an extremely uncommon complication of SMA syndrome, and emergent surgical intervention was unavoidable in our patient. To our knowledge, no other such case has been reported in the English-language literature.

  9. Corticosteroids in the treatment of dengue shock syndrome

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    Rajapakse S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Sachith Maduranga,1 Anoja Chamarie Rajapakse21Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, UKAbstract: Dengue infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in over 100 countries worldwide, and its incidence is on the rise. The pathophysiological basis for the development of severe dengue, characterized by plasma leakage and the “shock syndrome” are poorly understood. No specific treatment or vaccine is available, and careful monitoring and judicious administration of fluids forms the mainstay of management at present. It is postulated that vascular endothelial dysfunction, induced by cytokine and chemical mediators, is an important mechanism of plasma leakage. Although corticosteroids are potent modulators of the immune system, their role in pharmacological doses in modulating the purported immunological effects that take place in severe dengue has been a subject of controversy. The key evidence related to the role of corticosteroids for various manifestations of dengue are reviewed here. In summary, there is currently no high-quality evidence supporting the beneficial effects of corticosteroids for treatment of shock, prevention of serious complications, or increasing platelet counts. Non-randomized trials of corticosteroids given as rescue medication for severe shock have shown possible benefit. Nonetheless, the evidence base is small, and good-quality trials are lacking. We reiterate the need for well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials of corticosteroids for the treatment of dengue shock.Keywords: dengue, dengue shock, shock, corticosteroids, vascular leak, thrombocytopenia

  10. [A postpartum woman with toxic shock syndrome: group A streptococcal infection, a much feared postpartum complication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Kortekaas, J.C.; Buise, M.P.; Dokter, J.; Kuppens, S.M.; Hasaart, T.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) after an invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection in the postpartum period is a much feared complication. The mortality rate of TSS with necrotizing fasciitis is 30 to 50%. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a woman with atypical

  11. Should colloid boluses be prioritized over crystalloid boluses for the management of dengue shock syndrome in the presence of ascites and pleural effusions?

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    Weerasinghe Mindu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the WHO guideline for the management of dengue fever considers the presence of ascites or pleural effusions in the diagnosis of DSS, it does not emphasize the importance of their presence when selecting fluids for resuscitation. Case presentation We highlight three patients with DSS who received boluses of crystalloids on priority basis as recommended by WHO guidelines during resuscitation. All three patients had varying degrees of third space fluid loss (ascites and pleural effusions at the time of development of DSS. Ascites and pleural effusions were detected in all 3 patients at the time of shock irrespective of whether iv fluids were given or not. All three patients had documented liver involvement at the time of shock evidenced by elevation of AST (4800 iu/L, 5000 iu/L and 1960 iu/L. One patient who had profound shock died 6 hours after admission with evidence of acute pulmonary oedema in the convalescence phase. All of them needed CPAP ventilator support and potent diuretics. Conclusions We therefore feel that resuscitation of patients with DSS who already have third space fluid accumulation with crystalloid boluses on priority basis may contribute to recovery phase pulmonary oedema.

  12. Cardiogenic shock with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ReNa-Shock ST

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    Yanina Castillo Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic shock (CS in the setting of an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a severe complication and constitutes one of the principal causes of death associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and hospital outcome of CS associated with STEMI in Argentina. The Argentine Registry of Cardiogenic Shock (ReNA-Shock was a prospective and multicenter registry of consecutive patients with CS hospitalized in 64 centers in Argentina between July 2013 and May 2015. Only those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were selected for this analysis. Of the 165 patients included in the ReNa-Shock registry, 124 presented STEMI. Median age was 64 years (IQR 25-75: 56.5-75 and 67% were men; median time from symptom onset to admission was 240 minutes (IQR 25-75: 132-720. 63% of the cases presented CS at admission. Eighty-seven percent underwent reperfusion therapy: 80% primary percutaneous intervention with a median door-to-balloon time of 110 minutes (IQR 25-75: 62-184. Inotropic agents were used in 96%; 79% required mechanical ventilation; a Swan Ganz catheter was inserted in 47% and 35% required intra-aortic balloon pumping. Most patients (59% presented multivessel disease (MV. Hospital mortality was 54%. Multivariate analysis identified that time from symptom onset to admission (> 240 min was the only independent predictor of mortality (OR: 3.04; CI 95%: 1.18-7.9. Despite using treatment strategies currently available, morbidity and mortality of STEMI complicated with CS remains high.

  13. Decompressive Abdominal Laparotomy for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in an Unengrafted Bone Marrow Recipient with Septic Shock

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    Derrick J. N. Dauplaise

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a profoundly immunocompromised (panleukopenia child with septic shock who developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS and was successfully treated with surgical decompression. Design. Individual case report. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary children's hospital. Patient. A 32-month-old male with Fanconi anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT 5 days prior to developing septic shock secondary to Streptococcus viridans and Escherichia coli ACS developed after massive fluid resuscitation, leading to cardiopulmonary instability. Interventions. Emergent surgical bedside laparotomy and silo placement. Measurements and Main Results. The patient's cardiopulmonary status stabilized after decompressive laparotomy. The abdomen was closed and the patient survived to hospital discharge without cardiac, respiratory, or renal dysfunction. Conclusions. The use of laparotomy and silo placement in an unengrafted BMT patient with ACS and septic shock did not result in additional complications. Surgical intervention for ACS is a reasonable option for high risk, profoundly immunocompromised patients.

  14. X-ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, B.K.; Ana'ev, V.M.; Kiseleva, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    X-Ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung) in 78 patients exposed to high temperature as a result of gas condensate explosion is analyzed. X-ray and morphologic fundings in these patients are compared to those in 13 similar patients in whom acute respiratory failure developed because of other causes. Morphologic basis of the4 majority of x-ray signs of acute respiratory distress has been investigated. A relationship between respiratory distress syndrome development and changes in the heart size has been revealed, which may serve the prediction criterion

  15. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

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    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  16. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium bacteria are anaerobic Gram positive spore-form-ing bacilli, known to cause distinct clinical syndromes such as botulism, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis and myonecrosis. The natural habitats of Clostridium species are soil, water and the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans....... In 5-10% of all women, Clostridium species are also found to be normal inhabitants in the microbial flora of the female genital tract. In case of a non-sexually transmitted genital tract infection, Clostridium species are isolated in 4-20%, and clostridium welchii seems to be the most common isolate....... Clostridium sordellii is rarely encountered in clinical specimens (1% of Clostridium species), but it has been described as a human pathogen with fatal potential. Two toxins, a lethal and a hemorrhagic (that antigenically and pathophysiologically appear similar to Clostridium difficile toxins B and A...

  17. State-of-the-art monitoring in treatment of dengue shock syndrome: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Steven L; Mulligan, Jane; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Grudic, Greg Z; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V; Muniz, Gary W; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Rothman, Alan L; Thomas, Stephen J; Convertino, Victor A

    2016-08-24

    Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of "shock"; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status. Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue. Waveform data were processed by the algorithm to calculate each child's Compensatory Reserve Index, where 1 represents supine normovolemia and 0 represents the circulatory volume at which hemodynamic decompensation occurs. Values between 1 and 0 indicate the proportion of reserve remaining before hemodynamic decompensation. This case report describes a 7-year-old Thai boy, another 7-year-old Thai boy, and a 9-year-old Thai boy who exhibited signs and symptoms of dengue shock syndrome; all the children had secondary dengue virus infections, documented by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The three boys experienced substantial plasma leakage demonstrated by pleural effusion index >25, ascites, and >20 % hemoconcentration. They received fluid administered intravenously; one received a blood transfusion. All three boys showed a significantly low initial Compensatory Reserve Index (≥0.20), indicating a clinical diagnosis of "near shock". Following 5 days with fluid resuscitation treatment, their Compensatory Reserve Index increased towards "normovolemia" (that is, Compensatory Reserve Index >0.75). The results from these cases demonstrate a new variation in the diagnostic capability to manage patients with dengue shock syndrome. The findings shed new light on a method that can avoid possible adverse effects of shock by noninvasive measurement of a patient's compensatory

  18. Fulminant Necrotizing Fasciitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

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    Emin UYSAL

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and life-threatening soft tissue infection that spreads rapidly and involves the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and muscle layer. The treatment is possible by initiating appropriate antibiotherapy for the clinically suspected cause and by performing surgical intervention quickly and aggressively. However, it should be known that necrotizing fasciitis is a disease that is difficult to manage despite all interventions, effective treatment protocols, and patient care. This article presents the case of a 60-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus who died of toxic shock syndrome with fulminant necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

  19. A glimpse of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from comparative genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiaqi; Dong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different......BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic...

  20. Low disease prevalence and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock rate in Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Eschen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    AimsBrugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy that predisposes to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and thereby syncope and sudden cardiac death. Prior studies characterizing BrS patients have used highly selected referral populations from tertiary centres and prevalence estimates have...... been carried out using electrocardiogram (ECG) surveys only. We aimed to identify and characterize all diagnosed BrS patients in Denmark (population 5.4 million).Methods and resultsBrugada syndrome patients were identified using several modalities including identification in all Danish tertiary......%) experienced inappropriate shocks during a median follow-up of 47 months. No patient died or experienced aborted sudden cardiac death during follow-up.ConclusionsWe report the first nationwide study of BrS patients. We found a low incidence of diagnosed definite BrS compared with estimates from ECG surveys...

  1. A case of Lemierre's syndrome with septic shock and complicated parapneumonic effusions requiring intrapleural fibrinolysis

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    Daniel P. Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre's syndrome is a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, which can lead to severe systemic illness. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 26-year-old man who suffered from pharyngitis followed by septic shock requiring intubation and vasopressor support from Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. The septic emboli to his lungs caused complicated bilateral parapneumonic effusions, which recurred after initial drainage. He required bilateral chest tubes and intrapleural tPA to successfully drain his effusions. His fever curve and overall condition improved with the resolution of his effusions and after a 33-day hospitalization, he recovered without significant disability. The severity of his illness and difficult to manage complicated parapneumonic effusions were the unique facets of this case. Using an evidence-based approach of tPA and DNase for complicated parapneumonic effusions in Lemierre's syndrome can be safe and effective.

  2. Influence of the vaginal microbiota on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Roderick A; Miller, Wayne L; Gloor, Gregory B; McCormick, John K; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and that this might represent a risk factor for the development of TSS. A S. aureus TSST-1 reporter strain was grown in the presence of vaginal swab contents collected from women with a clinically healthy vaginal status, women with an intermediate status, and those diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial supernatant challenge assays were also performed to test the effects of aerobic vaginitis (AV)-associated pathogens toward TSST-1 production. While clinical samples from healthy and BV women suppressed toxin production, in vitro studies demonstrated that Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus spp. significantly induced TSST-1 production, while some Lactobacillus spp. suppressed it. The findings suggest that women colonized by S. aureus and with AV, but not BV, may be more susceptible to menstrual TSS and would most benefit from prophylactic treatment.

  3. Clostridium sordellii as a Cause of Fatal Septic Shock in a Child with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

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    Rebekah Beyers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium sordellii is a toxin producing ubiquitous gram-positive anaerobe, mainly associated with trauma, soft tissue skin infections, and gynecologic infection. We report a unique case of a new strain of Clostridium sordellii (not present in the Center for Disease Control (CDC database infection induced toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy two-year-old male with colitis-related hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. The patient presented with dehydration, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. He was transferred to the pediatric critical care unit (PICU for initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Due to increased edema and intolerance of PD, he was transitioned to hemodialysis through a femoral vascular catheter. He subsequently developed severe septic shock with persistent leukocytosis and hypotension, resulting in subsequent death. Stool culture confirmed Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7. A blood culture was positively identified for Clostridium sordellii. Clostridium sordelli is rarely reported in children; to our knowledge this is the first case described in a pediatric patient with HUS.

  4. Varicella infection in a neonate with subsequent staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and fatal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakal Narayan; Tahazzul, Mohammad; Singh, Anita; Chandra, Surabhi

    2012-08-01

    A male term neonate, at day 23 of life, presented with vesicular lesions over the trunk, which spread to allover the body on the next day. Five days later, he started developing blistering of the skin over the trunk and extremities, which subsequently ruptured, leaving erythematous, tender raw areas with peeling of the skin. The mother had vesicular eruptions, which started on the second day of delivery and progressed over the next 3 days. Subsequently, similar eruptions were noticed in two of the siblings before affecting the neonate. On the basis of the exposure history and clinical picture, a diagnosis was made of varicella infection with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). The blood culture and the wound surface culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment included intravenous fluid, antibiotics, acyclovir and wound care. However, after 72 h of hospitalisation, the neonate first developed shock, refractory to fluid boluses, vasopressors and catecholamine along with other supports; and he then succumbed. In all neonates, staphylococcal infection with varicella can be fatal due to SSSS, the toxic shock syndrome or septicaemia.

  5. IL-2 regulates SEB induced toxic shock syndrome in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Ali Khan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS is characterized by fever, rash, hypotension, constitutional symptoms, and multi-organ involvement and is caused by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins such as Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB. SEB binds to the MHC-IIalpha chain and is recognized by the TCRbeta chain of the Vbeta8 TCR(+ T cells. The binding of SEB to Vbeta chain results in rapid activation of T cells and production of inflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 (IL-2, Interferon-gamma and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha which mediate TSS. Although IL2 was originally identified as the T cell growth factor and was proposed to contribute to T cell differentiation, its role in TSS remains unexplored.Mice were injected with D-Gal (25 mg/mouse. One hour after D-Galactosamine (D-Gal injection each mouse was injected with SEB (20 microg/mouse. Mice were then observed for 72 hrs and death was recorded at different times. We tested Interleukin-12, IFNgamma, and IL-2 deficient mice (IL-2(-/-, but only the IL-2 deficient mice were resistant to SEB induced toxic shock syndrome. More importantly reconstitution of IL-2 in IL-2 deficient mice restored the shock. Interestingly, SEB induced IL-2 production from T cells was dependent on p38MAPK activation in macrophages as inhibition of it in macrophages significantly inhibited IL-2 production from T cells.This study shows the importance of IL -2 in TSS which has not been previously explored and it also shows that regulating macrophages function can regulate T cells and TSS.

  6. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  7. Successful Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome with the Addition of Linezolid

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    Hana Rac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS. Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy. While the patient was hemodynamically stable, the patient’s wounds, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia all progressively worsened. After initiation of linezolid, the patient slowly improved clinically. The present report is the first to highlight the role of linezolid in streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and TSS not improving with standard therapy.

  8. [Group A streptococcus-induced toxic shock syndrome in pregnancy: a case report of cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kumiko; Fukuda, Taeko; Kimura, Maiko; Hagiya, Keiichi; Danmura, Masato; Nakayama, Shin; Ogura, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Makoto

    2012-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS)-induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in pregnancy is rare, but its clinical course is fulminant. The mortality rates of mother and fetus are reported to be 58 and 66%, respectively. We report a case of GAS-TSS after cesarean section. A 38-year-old pregnant woman of 38 weeks gestation was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, fever of 39 degrees C, and continuous abdominal pain with scanty genital bleeding. She had complained of sore throat several days before. One hour after admission, external fetal monitoring revealed periodic pulse deceleration to 90 x beats min(-1). The emergent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. Approximately 8 hours after the cesarean section, she developed coma, shock and respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation. Streptococcus pyogens were isolated from her blood sample and the patient met criteria for GAS-TSS. She was treated with antibiotics (penicillin and clindamycin), antithrombin III, recomodulin, catecholamins, and continuous hemodialysis with filtration of toxins. Although the patient recovered and was discharged on 63rd day, the infant died on postpartum day 4. Early recognition and intensive treatment for GAS is recommended in a late stage pregnancy with an episode of sore throat, vomiting, high fever, strong labor pain, and DIC signs.

  9. Combined etiology of anaphylactic cardiogenic shock: Amiodarone, epinephrine, cardioverter defibrillator, left ventricular assist devices and the Kounis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G Kounis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening condition which needs detailed and mediculous clinical assessment and thoughtful treatment. Several causes can join forces in order to degranulate mast cells. Amiodarone which is an iodine-containing highly lipophilic benzofuran can induce allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients. Epinephrine is a life saving drug, but in sulfite allergic patients it should be given with caution due its metabisulfite preservative. Metals covering cardiac defibrillators and pacemakers can act as antigens attached to serum proteins and induce allergic reactions. In anaphylactic shock, myocardial involvement due to vasospasm-induced coronary blood flow reduction manifesting as Kounis syndrome should be always considered. Clinically, combined treatment targeting the primary cause of anaphylaxis together with protection of cardiac tissue seems to be of paramount importance.

  10. Toxic shock syndrome due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Two case reports and a literature review in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Ryuichi; Fukuda, Saori; Ishimaru, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been spreading worldwide, including in Japan. However, few cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reported in Japan. We report 2 cases, in middle-aged women, of toxic shock syndrome due to Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via a vaginal portal of entry. The first patient had used a tampon and the second patient had vaginitis ...

  11. Clinical effect of alprostadil in patients with septic shock associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Li-ping LIU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of alprostadil in patients with septic shock associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods From January 2015 to June 2016, patients with septic shock associated with ARDS and meeting the inclusion criteria were involved in the study in department of critical care medicine in First Hospital of Lanzhou University and randomly divided into the control group and alprostadil group. The standard treatment was given in control group, alprostadil 10μg 2/d was given in alprostadil group on base of standard treatment. Monitoring indexes were recorded in 1, 3 and 6 days after enrollment. General condition of patients, APACHE Ⅱ score, ventilator conditions (PO2, PCO2, RR, PEEP, FiO2, oxygenation index, airway resistance, lung compliance, mechanical ventilation time, ICU stay time, hospital follow-up, 28-day follow-up, immune index (CD4+/CD8+, inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, IL-6 were monitored. Results Sixty-five patients were included in this study, 32 in control group and 33 in alprostadil group. At 3 and 6 days after the treatment, APACHE Ⅱ score, respiratory rate (RR, the inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2, airway resistance, and C reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT -6 and interleukin (IL-6 levels significantly decreased, compared with pretreatment and 1 day posttreatment, in the two groups and lower in alprostadil group than in the control group on the 6th day (P<0.05; at the same time, these indexes such as arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, lung compliance, oxygenation index, CD4+/CD8+ significantly increased 3 and 6 days after the treatment compared with pretreatment and 1 day posttreatment in the two groups, and on the 6th day, significantly higher in the alprostadil group than in the control group (P<0.05. Time of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay in the alprostadil group was respectively lower than that in

  12. Optic atrophy, necrotizing anterior scleritis and keratitis presenting in association with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Konstantinos I

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of optic atrophy, necrotizing anterior scleritis and keratitis presenting in a patient with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Case presentation A 43-year-old woman developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to septic arthritis of her right ankle. Streptococcus pyogenes (b-haemolyticus Group A was isolated from blood cultures and joint aspirate. She was referred for ophthalmology review as her right eye became injected and the pupil had become unresponsive to light whilst she was in the Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU. The iris appeared atrophic and was mid-dilated with no direct or consensual response to light. Three zones of sub-epithelial opacification where noted in the cornea. There where extensive posterior synechiae. Indirect ophthalmoscopy showed a pale right disc. The vision was reduced to hand movements (HM. A diagnosis of optic atrophy was made secondary to post-streptococcal uveitis. She subsequently developed a necrotizing anterior scleritis. Conclusion This case illustrates a previously unreported association of optic atrophy, necrotizing anterior scleritis and keratitis in a patient with post-streptococcal uveitis. This patient had developed Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome secondary to septic arthritis. We recommend increased awareness of the potential risks of these patients developing severe ocular involvement.

  13. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis with toxic shock syndrome and rapid fatal outcome

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    Kojić Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis (NF is a serious soft tissue infection with rapid progression of inflammatory process among superficial or deep fascia, systemic host response to infection leading to toxic shock syndrome (TSS, and multiple organ failure. Lethality is high. Case Outline. A 46-year-old male without co-morbidities was admitted to the Emergency Department with redness, swelling and pain on his right lower leg. He became sick two day s ea rlier with m alaise, chills and shivering. On admission he was hypotensive, anuric, with erythematous rash on his face, neck and chest, with acute ren al failure and elevated creatine phosphokinase level. During the next several hours, the changes on his right lower leg rapidly spread to the whole leg, followed by skin destruction and subcutaneo us bleeding, indicating NF. Aggressive antimicrobial, supportive and symptom atic therapy was initiated immediately and on the same evening surgical intervention was performed. Despite these measures, a rapid development of severe TSS, with lethal outcome, occurred in less than 40 hours after the admission. Stre ptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was isolated from the throat, skin and tissue obtained duri ng the surgery. Conclusion. Necrotizing fasciitis is a very serious disease with unpre dictable course. For that reason doctors must devote a great deal of a ttention to early, i.e. timely diagnosis of this disease, whose treatment with a multid isciplinary approach is very important.

  14. Heat shock proteins and chronic fatigue in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bårdsen, Kjetil; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Norheim, Katrine Brække; Jonsson, Grete; Omdal, Roald

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue occurs frequently in patients with cancer, neurological diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases, but the biological mechanisms that lead to and regulate fatigue are largely unknown. When the innate immune system is activated, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are produced to protect cells. Some extracellular HSPs appear to recognize cellular targets in the brain, and we hypothesize that fatigue may be generated by specific HSPs signalling through neuronal or glial cells in the central nervous system. From a cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, 20 patients with high and 20 patients with low fatigue were selected. Fatigue was evaluated with a fatigue visual analogue scale. Plasma concentrations of HSP32, HSP60, HSP72 and HSP90α were measured and analysed to determine if there were associations with the level of fatigue. Plasma concentrations of HSP90α were significantly higher in patients with high fatigue compared with those with low fatigue, and there was a tendency to higher concentrations of HSP72 in patients with high fatigue compared with patients with low fatigue. There were no differences in concentrations of HSP32 and HSP60 between the high- and low-fatigue groups. Thus, extracellular HSPs, particularly HSP90α, may signal fatigue in chronic inflammation. This supports the hypothesis that fatigue is generated by cellular defence mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hema; Smith, Debra; Turner, Claire E.; Game, Laurence; Pichon, Bruno; Hope, Russell; Hill, Robert; Kearns, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was originally described in menstruating women and linked to TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1)–producing Staphylococcus aureus. Using UK national surveillance data, we ascertained clinical, molecular and superantigenic characteristics of TSS cases. Average annual TSS incidence was 0.07/100,000 population. Patients with nonmenstrual TSS were younger than those with menstrual TSS but had the same mortality rate. Children <16 years of age accounted for 39% of TSS cases, most caused by burns and skin and soft tissue infections. Nonmenstrual TSS is now more common than menstrual TSS in the UK, although both types are strongly associated with the tst+ clonal complex (CC) 30 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus lineage, which accounted for 49.4% of all TSS and produced more TSST-1 and superantigen bioactivity than did tst+ CC30 methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Better understanding of this MSSA lineage and infections in children could focus interventions to prevent TSS in the future. PMID:29350159

  16. Congenital short QT syndrome and implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment: inherent risk for inappropriate shock delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Rainer; Wolpert, Christian; Bianchi, Francesca; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Florenzo; Bauersfeld, Urs; Borggrefe, Martin

    2003-12-01

    A congenital short QT interval constitutes a new primary electrical abnormality associated with syncope and/or sudden cardiac death. We report on the initial use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients with inherited short QT interval and discuss sensing abnormalities and detection issues. In five consecutive patients from two unrelated European families who had structurally normal hearts, excessively shortened QT intervals, and a strong positive family history of sudden cardiac death, ICDs were placed for primary and secondary prevention. Mean QT intervals were 252 +/- 13 ms (QTc 287 +/- 13 ms). Despite normal sensing behavior during intraoperative and postoperative device testing, 3 of 5 patients experienced inappropriate shock therapies for T wave oversensing 30 +/- 26 days after implantation. Programming lower sensitivities and decay delays prevented further inappropriate discharges. The congenital short QT syndrome constitutes a new clinical entity with an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Currently, ICD treatment is the only therapeutic option. In patients with short QT interval and implanted ICD, increased risk for inappropriate therapy is inherent due to the detection of short-coupled and prominent T waves. Careful testing of ICD function and adaptation of sensing levels and decay delays without sacrificing correct arrhythmia detection are essential.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock in a cat with disseminated toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Natashia A; Walker, Julie M; Manchester, Alison C; Bach, Jonathan F

    2017-07-01

    To describe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock in a cat with disseminated toxoplasmosis. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute respiratory distress. At the time of presentation it had been receiving cyclosporine for treatment of eosinophilic dermatitis. Thoracic radiographs revealed severe mixed nodular interstitial and alveolar patterns. An endotracheal wash was performed, which confirmed a diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Despite initial treatment with oxygen supplementation and intravenous clindamycin, the cat developed refractory hypoxemia and hypotension requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support within 24 hours of hospital admission. Cardiac arrest occurred 56 hours after admission. Necropsy was performed and histopathology revealed protozoal organisms disseminated throughout the heart, lungs, liver, and brain. The clinical and necropsy findings presented here are consistent with ARDS secondary to disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cat. This is the first detailed report of ARDS in a cat. Toxoplasma titer testing and antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered in cats prior to immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  18. Cardiogenic Shock: An Unusual Initial Presentation of Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Apirami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare autoimmune condition, characterized by necrotizing extravascular eosinophil rich granulomatous inflammation of the tissues and disseminated small-medium sized vessel vasculitis in a patient with bronchial asthma and tissue eosinophilia. Though pulmonary involvement is the predominant feature of CSS, extra pulmonary involvement, in particular, cardiac involvement, denotes an adverse outcome. Here we report a 50-year-old female who presented with cardiogenic shock due to an acute coronary event as the initial manifestation of CSS. A subsequent coronary angiogram revealed normal epicardial coronaries. She was a patient with bronchial asthma and developed vasculitic rash, bilateral sensory motor polyneuropathy, and migratory peripheral lung field shadows in the background of peripheral eosinophilia during the course of the illness. She was diagnosed as having CSS based on ACR criteria and aggressively treated with immunosuppressants according to her Five-Factor Score and has shown prompt response to therapy. This case report adds to the literature another rare initial presentation of CSS to the existing array of its clinical manifestations.

  19. Ways to Reduce In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Artamonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze a medical care system for acute coronary syndrome (ACS in a large city in terms of in-hospital cardiogenic shock mortality risk management. Materials and methods. The health care facility management system for a risk for cardiogenic shock (CS and its poor outcome (death was a methodological basis of this study. The information from case histories of ACS patients consecutively admitted to the Kemerovo Cardiology Dispensary (Kemerovo, Russia in the period 2006 to 2011 was used to develop an electronic database. Sampling included 19281 patients with ACS, 6537 with myocardial infarction (MI, 493 with CS. Results and discussion. The medical care system for patients with ACS encompasses an emergency team (a prehospital level, a specialized cardiac hospital (an in-hospital level with a multistage therapeutic and diagnostic process in relation the severity of a patient’s status. The management is based on the principle of continuity of care, by applying the well-defined activity algorithms through valid information exchange and risk stratification for poor outcomes of ACS. An antishock team working just in the admission unit of a hospital was set up to treat high CS risk patients. A systems approach allowed the strategy of early specialized medical care to be developed with a priority of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI as reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-elevation MI. In 2006-2011, every three patients with suspected ACS had verified MI that was com_ plicated by CS in 7.5%. In the CS group, the in-hospital mortality rates totaled 88.0% of cases; that after primary Адрес для корреспонденции (Correspondence to: PCI was 62.2%. In the examined period, the introduction of innovation clinical and organizational approaches provided a reduction in this indicator by 17.6 and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusion. The efficiency of risk management for CS and its poor outcomes in patients with ACS is

  20. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-07-14

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.

  1. Fatal invasive aspergillosis: a rare co-infection with an unexpected image presentation in a patient with dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ching; Chang, Ko; Lu, Po-Liang; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Huang-Chi

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary infiltration and pleural effusion caused by permeability syndrome are the hallmark of pulmonary manifestation of dengue cases. We report a 95-year-old chronic obstructive pulmonary disease case having dengue shock syndrome. Chest X-ray examination revealed diffuse lung infiltration. However, bilateral pneumotoceles were unexpectedly found in computed tomography (CT) images. Dengue virus type 2 infection was confirmed by virus culture, serology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Profound shock with bilateral lung infiltration developed rapidly in 2 days with supportive care and empirical ampicillin/ sulbactam. Bronchoscopy revealed a whitish plaque over bilateral upper bronchi. Biopsy via bronchoscopy revealed moulds with vascular invasion. Culture of bronchial alveolar lavage yielded Aspergillus flavus. The patient died despite amphotericin B treatment, which was started since finding the whitish plaque with bronchoscopy examination. Besides to considering capillary leakage syndrome, our case report and literature review alert clinicians that CT and bronchoscopy may help to identify the true pathogen though all cases with concurrent dengue and Aspergillus infections had fatal outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of C1-esterase inhibitor in definite and suspected streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Report of seven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhoffs, S; Luyken, J; Steuer, K; Hansis, M; Vetter, H; Walger, P

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive C1-esterase inhibitor substitution therapy on clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Observational. Medizinische Poliklinik, University of Bonn, Germany. Seven patients with direct or indirect evidence of streptococcal TSS. In addition to conventional and supportive therapy, all patients received 2-3 single doses of C1-esterase inhibitor totaling 6,000-10,000 U within the first 24 h after admission. All patients developed fulminant septic shock, multiorgan failure and/or capillary leak syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis within 10-72 h following the onset of first symptoms. Between 1 and 4 days following administration of C1-esterase inhibitor, a marked shift of fluid from extravascular to intravascular compartments took place in all but one patient, accompanied by a transient intra-alveolar lung edema and rapidly decreasing need for adrenergic agents. Six of seven patients survived. These clinical observations in a small series of patients and the favorable outcome point towards a positive effect of early and high-dose administration of C1-esterase inhibitor as adjunctive therapy in streptococcal TSS. The possible mechanism involved may be the attenuation of capillary leak syndrome (CLS) via early inactivation of complement and contact systems. Controlled studies are needed to establish an improvement of the survival rates of patients with streptococcal TSS following administration of C1-esterase inhibitor.

  3. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  4. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  5. Dietary Selenium Deficiency Exacerbates DSS-Induced Epithelial Injury and AOM/DSS-Induced Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Singh, Kshipra; Motley, Amy K.; Lintel, Mary K.; Matafonova, Elena; Bradley, Amber M.; Ning, Wei; Poindexter, Shenika V.; Parang, Bobak; Reddy, Vishruth K.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Fingleton, Barbara M.; Washington, Mary K.; Wilson, Keith T.; Davies, Sean S.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts its functions via selenoproteins. Little is known about the role of Se in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological studies have inversely correlated nutritional Se status with IBD severity and colon cancer risk. Moreover, molecular studies have revealed that Se deficiency activates WNT signaling, a pathway essential to intestinal stem cell programs and pivotal to injury recovery processes in IBD that is also activated in inflammatory neoplastic transformation. In order to better understand the role of Se in epithelial injury and tumorigenesis resulting from inflammatory stimuli, we examined colonic phenotypes in Se-deficient or -sufficient mice in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and azoxymethane (AOM) followed by cyclical administration of DSS, respectively. In response to DSS alone, Se-deficient mice demonstrated increased morbidity, weight loss, stool scores, and colonic injury with a concomitant increase in DNA damage and increases in inflammation-related cytokines. As there was an increase in DNA damage as well as expression of several EGF and TGF-β pathway genes in response to inflammatory injury, we sought to determine if tumorigenesis was altered in the setting of inflammatory carcinogenesis. Se-deficient mice subjected to AOM/DSS treatment to model colitis-associated cancer (CAC) had increased tumor number, though not size, as well as increased incidence of high grade dysplasia. This increase in tumor initiation was likely due to a general increase in colonic DNA damage, as increased 8-OHdG staining was seen in Se-deficient tumors and adjacent, non-tumor mucosa. Taken together, our results indicate that Se deficiency worsens experimental colitis and promotes tumor development and progression in inflammatory carcinogenesis. PMID:23861820

  6. A Case Report of Churg-Strauss Syndrome Presenting With Cardiogenic Shock Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Na; Su, Longxiang; Wang, Hao; Long, Yun; Pang, Cheng; Yang, Fei; Liu, Dawei

    2015-10-01

    Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) complicated with cardiogenic shock is rare. Few case reports have described successful treatment of this rare disease. However, no one has reported on the application of mechanical life support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat this life-threatening disease.A 36-year-old female with limb numbness for >10 days, chest tightness for 2 days, and worsening dyspnea for 5 h presented in the emergency room. Vital signs showed a low blood pressure (104/60 mm Hg), increased heart rate (158 bpm), and respiration rate (28 bpm). Laboratory tests revealed that eosinophil was significantly increased (WBC: 34.46 × 10/L, neutrophil: 7.56 × 10/L[21.9%], eosinophil: 23.84 × 10/L[69.2%]), and serum myocardial enzymes was abnormal (CK 1049U/L, CKMB-mass 145.1 μg/L, cTnI 16.24 μg/L). Myocardial injury (tachycardia with ST elevation) and poor heart function (LVEF 31%) were found by electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography. On the next day, cardiogenic shock had been developed as demonstrated by deteriorating the perfusion index.Churg-Strauss Syndrome with cardiogenic shock.A series of conservative therapy with drugs such as corticosteroids, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, nitrates, calcium antagonists, inotrope, and vasopressors were initiated on the day of admission. The treatment was ineffective and a cardiogenic shock developed on the next day. Thus, ECMO was initiated immediately to stabilize circulation and perfusion. At the same time, high-dose corticosteroids combined with immunosuppressive therapy were continuously used.Symptoms of cardiogenic shock were gradually improved after ECMO treatment. Elevated values of cardiac enzymes were decreased and the dose of vasoactive drugs was reduced. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was discontinued after 8 days, and the patient was eventually weaned off the ventilator. The patient was discharged after 40 days treatment.Once a CSS develops into a

  7. Effect of welding parameters on pitting behavior of GTAW of DSS and super DSS weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Paulraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effect of welding parameters on corrosion behavior of welded duplex stainless steel (DSS and super duplex stainless steel (SDSS. The effect of welding parameters, such as heat input, inter-pass temperature, cooling rate, shielding/back purging gas, on corrosion behavior was studied. DSS and SDSS pipes were welded with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process. After welding, the test samples were non-destructively tested to ensure no defects and test samples were prepared for microstructural examinations and ferrite content measurements. The root region had complex microstructure because of the repetitive heating of the zone during different weld layers. It was observed that at low heat input desirable microstructure was formed. The test samples were subjected to corrosion tests, i.e. ASTM G48 test for the determination of pitting corrosion rate, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and potentiostatic tests to verify susceptibility of the alloys to corrosion attack. DSS weldments had CPT in between 23 °C to 27 °C and SDSS weldments had CPT between 37 °C to 41 °C in potentiostatic measurements. The corrosion test results were correlated to the microstructures of the weldments. The pitting resistance of individual phases was studied and the effect of secondary austenite on corrosion attack was also observed.

  8. Radon levels in dwelling shielded spaces (DSS) in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Margaliot, M.; Riemer, T.; Shamash, S.; Even, O.; Shamai, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas is known as the major contributor to the general public exposure to ionizing radiation. The typical radon concentration in Israeli houses with a direct ground contact is about 50 Bq/m 3 , attributed mainly to soil gas penetration into the house. All newly constructed buildings (since 1991) must include Dwelling Shielded Spaces (DSS) which are rooms made of massive solid concrete, equipped with air-tight steel door and window. The DSS serve as shelters against both explosive and chemical warfare. In normal practice, the DSS serves as a conventional room in the household. Standard size DSS contain a mass of around 35 tons of concrete with typical 2 26R a activity concentration of 30 Bq/kg. This mass of concrete is expected to increase the radon concentration in the DSS room due to exhalation from the building material. Published exhalation rate values from concrete in the US and Europe vary from 0.1 to 8 mBq/m 2 sec. (0.5 - 30 Bq/m 2 h). This work presents short and long-term radon measurements performed in high-rise building DSS's. Measurements of the free exhalation rate and wall exhalation rate as well as ventilation rate in DSS are also presented and the relation between these quantities is analyzed

  9. DSS and GIS in Knowledge Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimešová Dana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is an important resource for successful decision-making process in the whole society today. The special procedures of control and management of knowledge therefore have to be used. In the area of knowledge management and knowledge engineering basic terms of these disciplines are data, information, knowledge and knowledge transformation. The knowledge can be defined as a dynamic human process of justifying personal beliefs. Knowledge is a product of successful decision-making process. Knowledge transformation is a spiralling process of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge that leads to the new knowledge. Nonaka and all show, that the combination of these two categories makes possible to conceptualise four conversion steps: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation (SECI model. Another model of knowledge creation is the Knowledge Transformation Continuum (BCI Knowledge Group that begins with the articulation of a specific instruction representing the best way that a specific task, or series of tasks, should be performed. Knowledge modelling and knowledge representation is an important field of research also in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. The definition of knowledge in Artificial Intelligence is a noticeable different, because Artificial Intelligence is typically dealing with formalized knowledge (e.g. ontology. The development of knowledge-based systems was seen as a process of transferring human knowledge to an implemented knowledge base. Decision Support Systems (DSS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and Operations Research/Management Science (OR/MS modelling process support decision-making process, therefore they also produce a new knowledge. A Decision Support Systems are an interactive computer-based systems helping decision makers complete decision process. Geographic Information Systems provide essential marketing and customer intelligence solutions that lead to better

  10. Verkkokauppa PCI DSS - standardin mukaiseksi : case Scandinavian Outdoor

    OpenAIRE

    Kiiski, Tomi

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää, mitä toimia verkkokaupalta vaaditaan PCI DSS - standardin mukaisuuteen sekä mikä PCI DSS -standardi on ja mitä se sisältää. Työn toimeksiantaja on Scandinavian Outdoor Oy. Toimeksiantajan edellinen PCI DSS -auditointi on suoritettu standardin vanhalla versiolla ja standardista on nyt uusi versio. Työn teoriaosa käsittelee yleisesti PCI DSS -standardia, sen sisältöä sekä vaatimuksia. Työn tärkeimpänä lähteenä on käytetty PCI SSC:n ju...

  11. PCI DSS: Security Standard and Security in Fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kuzin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS requirements and practices, especially it’s issues and disadvantages to achieve the main goal — security of payment cards infrastructure.

  12. PCI DSS: Security Standard and Security in Fact

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Kuzin

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requirements and practices, especially it’s issues and disadvantages to achieve the main goal — security of payment cards infrastructure.

  13. PCI DSS a practical guide to implementing and maintaining compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This newly revised, practical guide, gives you a step by step guide to achieving Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance - showing you how to create, design and build a PCI compliance framework.

  14. Security Assessment of Payment Systems under PCI DSS Incompatibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar , Şerif; Gür , Gürkan; Altay , Levent

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Malicious Behavior and Fraud; International audience; With the ubiquitous proliferation of electronic payment systems, data and application security has become more critical for financial operations. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) has been developed by the payment industry to provide a widely-applicable and definitive security compliance among all components in electronic payment infrastructure. However, the security impact of PCI DSS incompatibilities and ...

  15. The aPC treatment improves microcirculation in severe sepsis/septic shock syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donati, Abele; Damiani, Elisa; Botticelli, Laura; Adrario, Erica; Lombrano, Maria Rita; Domizi, Roberta; Marini, Benedetto; van Teeffelen, Jurgen W. G. E.; Carletti, Paola; Girardis, Massimo; Pelaia, Paolo; Ince, Can

    2013-01-01

    The role of recombinant activated protein C (aPC) during sepsis is still controversial. It showed anti-inflammatory effect and improved the microvascular perfusion in experimental models of septic shock. The present study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that recombinant aPC therapy improves the

  16. Pleural empyema and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a healthy Spanish traveler in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sakai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes causes invasive infections including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS and local infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of an invasive GAS infection with pneumonia and pleural empyema (PE followed by STSS (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and acute renal insufficiency in a healthy male adult. He received combined supportive therapies of PE drainage, anti-DIC agent, hemodialysis, and antimicrobials and eventually made a clinical recovery. GAS isolated from PE was found to have emm1/speA genes, suggestive of a pathogenic strain. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of this disease entity (pneumonia, PE, and STSS in healthy male adults as well as children and adult women.

  17. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred during postoperative radiotherapy in a cancer patient with preexisting lymphedema and chronic illness -case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Kim, Dong Min [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A case is reported of a man with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in right thigh who developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) during postoperative radiotherapy. Before radiotherapy, a patient complained wax and wane lymphedema following wide excision of tumor mass which was confirmed as MFH. He took some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) for about one month. He suffered preexisting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, diabetes and well-controlled hypertension. The patient received conventional radiotherapy to right thigh with a total dose of 32.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day. At last radiotherapy fraction, cutaneous erythematous inflammation was suddenly developed at his affected thigh. At that time, he also complained of oliguria, fever and chills. The patient was consulted to internal medicine for adequate evaluation and management. The patient was diagnosed as suggested septic shock and admitted without delay. At admission, he showed hypotension, oliguria, constipation, abnormal renal and liver function. As a result of blood culture, Streptococcus pyogenes was detected. The patient was diagnosed to STSS. He was treated with adequate intravenous antibiotics and fluid support. STSS is one of oncologic emergencies and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent loss of life. In this patient, underlying HCV infection, postoperative lymphedema, prolonged NSAID medication, and radiotherapy may have been multiple precipitating factors of STSS.

  18. Staphylococcal superantigens; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and enterotoxins in pediatric otitis media effusion: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcal superantigens (SAg's may have some role in otitis media with effusion (OME. The aim of this study was the search of staphylococcal SAg's in middle ear effusion of children with OME.  Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was done in ENT & pediatric wards upon 64 children with otitis media with effusion (OME between 1-15 years, (mean age=7.42+4 years of Rasoul Akram University Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2009-2011. Fifty six percent (36 of cases were male, 43.8% (28 were female. Staphylococcal SAg's; Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1, Staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C, D (Enzyme immune assay, AB Cam, USA were detected in middle ear effusion samples after conventional culture.Results: None type of SAg's found in 39% of OME cases, enterotoxin B found in: 22%; enterotoxin A: 17%, enterotoxin C: 15.6%, enterotoxin D: 12.5%, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1: 7.8% Mean age of cases with positive TSST-1, enterotoxin A, B, C, and D was: 1, 5, 8.6, 9.6 and 9.6 years respectively. Positive TSST had no agreement with positive enterotoxin A and C but had weak agreement with type B and D. Mean age of cases with positive TSST was one years which had significant difference with (7.9 years in cases with negative TSST test (P<0.0001.Conclusion: At least one or more type of staphylococcal toxins had found in middle ear effusion of 70% of OME cases with negative culture for Staphylococcus aureus. Even in culture negative cases, staphylococcal toxins might have some immunologic role in middle ear effusion forming. Finding the SAg's (at least one type are important for treatment of immunosuppressive or corticosteroid in cases with resistant OME.

  19. Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chi Lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol monolaurate (GML, a 12 carbon fatty acid monoester, inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production, but is degraded by S. aureus lipase. Therefore, dodecylglycerol (DDG, a 12 carbon fatty acid monoether, was compared in vitro and in vivo to GML for its effects on S. aureus growth, exotoxin production, and stability.Antimicrobial effects of GML and DDG (0 to 500 microg/ml on 54 clinical isolates of S. aureus, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE types USA200, USA300, and USA400, were determined in vitro. A rabbit Wiffle ball infection model assessed GML and DDG (1 mg/ml instilled into the Wiffle ball every other day effects on S. aureus (MN8 growth (inoculum 3x10(8 CFU/ml, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha concentrations and mortality over 7 days. DDG (50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited S. aureus growth in vitro more effectively than GML (p<0.01 and was stable to lipase degradation. Unlike GML, DDG inhibition of TSST-1 was dependent on S. aureus growth. GML-treated (4 of 5; 80% and DDG-treated rabbits (2 of 5; 40% survived after 7 days. Control rabbits (5 of 5; 100% succumbed by day 4. GML suppressed TNF-alpha at the infection site on day 7; however, DDG did not (<10 ng/ml versus 80 ng/ml, respectively.These data suggest that DDG was stable to S. aureus lipase and inhibited S. aureus growth at lower concentrations than GML in vitro. However, in vivo GML was more effective than DDG by reducing mortality, and suppressing TNF-alpha, S. aureus growth and exotoxin production, which may reduce toxic shock syndrome. GML is proposed as a more effective anti-staphylococcal topical anti-infective candidate than DDG, despite its potential degradation by S. aureus lipase.

  20. Toxic shock syndrome due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Two case reports and a literature review in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Ryuichi; Fukuda, Saori; Ishimaru, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been spreading worldwide, including in Japan. However, few cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reported in Japan. We report 2 cases, in middle-aged women, of toxic shock syndrome due to Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via a vaginal portal of entry. The first patient had used a tampon and the second patient had vaginitis due to a cleft narrowing associated with vulvar lichen sclerosus. Both patients were admitted to our hospital with septic shock and severe acute kidney injury and subsequently recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment. In our review of the literature, 8 cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were reported in Japan. In these 8 cases, the main portals of entry were the skin and respiratory tract; however, the portal of entry of Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a vaginal lesion has not been reported in Japan previously.

  1. Decission Support System (DSS dalam Auditing Untuk Apa Digunakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Puji Prasetyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Komputer semakin sering digunakan pada kantor akuntan. Tidak hanya digunakan untuk menggantikan kegiatan yang bersifat manual, tetapi juga sebagai alat bantu bagi akuntan dalam pengambilan keputusan. Keputusan yang dibuat dengan dukungan (decision support sistem komputer ini diharapkan tidak hanya akan lebih efisien, tetapi juga lebih efektif dalam mencapai tujuan. Konsekuensi-nya, bantuan semacam itu memperoleh dukungan yang luas untuk digunakan dalam auditing dan bidang pekerjaan lainnya. Apa yang menyebabkan Decision Support System (DSS digunakan adalah kemampuannya membantu akuntan dalam proses pembuatan keputusan audit. Alat ini perlu dipergunakan oleh akuntan karena profesi akuntansi berhadapan dengan pasar yang semakin besar, saingan yang lebih ketat serta tekanan hukum, sehingga auditor independen dituntut untuk mengembangkan kualitas pelayanan audit dengan harga yang lebih kompetitif.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membahas penggunaan Decision Support System (DSS dalam auditing. Pembahasan akan dimulai dengan sejarah perkembangan komputer yang kemudian disusul dengan uraian tentang decision support system (DSS. Uraian yang agak luas mengenai penggunaan DSS dalam auditing diberikan pada seksi berikutnya. Berdasarkan uraian mengenai DSS tersebut akan diberikan kesimpulan untuk mengakhiri tulisan ini.

  2. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Williams, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer.

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with toxic shock syndrome, using polyethylene infection chambers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Kirkland, J J; Best, G K

    1983-01-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) were compared with non-TSS strains of S. aureus with respect to their virulence in rabbits. When the organisms were injected into subcutaneous chambers (perforated polyethylene golf balls) to assess virulence, a rapid mortality was observed with TSS but not with non-TSS strains. Of 16 TSS strains, 11 caused lethal infections in 33 rabbits tested, and none of the 5 control strains caused mortality in 10 rabbits. This evidence of enhanced virulence associated with TSS strains did not appear to be associated with the size of the inoculum. In addition, strains which produced lethal infections appeared to do so despite a reduction in the size of the original inoculum during the first 24 h. All of the TSS strains and none of the non-TSS strains elaborated extracellular protein(s) with a neutral pI when grown in a dialyzed beef heart medium. No other physiological difference was noted between the TSS and non-TSS strains.

  4. Septic Shock due to Cytomegalovirus Infection in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth; Meyer; Grau; Loutan; Ricou

    1997-09-01

    Incidence of falciparum malaria in developed countries has increased in recent years due to tourism to tropical countries and immigration from Asia and Africa. In Switzerland, about 250 cases of malaria were reported in 1994 to the Federal Office of Health, including three cases with fatal outcome.1 The most commonly described complications of plasmodia infection are cerebral malaria, acute renal failure, and severe anemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, pulmonary involvement occurs in 3 to 10% of cases and represents the most serious complication of this infection, with a lethality of 70%.2,3 Furthermore, a pronounced general immunosuppression has been reported in malaria patients, which may predispose them to opportunistic infections.4 We report a case of Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with development of systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection leading to death. This evolution implies a severe immune deficiency associated with malaria, as previously suggested in the literature.

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis with toxic shock syndrome in 5 month old baby: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Al-Ramzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is considered to be a severe form of soft-tissue infection that is accompanied with rapidly progressive necrosis to the subcutaneous tissue layer and the superficial fascia. It is also characterized by early development of systemic toxicity. The invasive Streptococcus pyogenes is the most often encountered species as a cause of this disease. The delay in diagnosing is common as the differentiation of the evolving necrotizing fasciitis from cellulitis can be very difficult. Treatments include rapid radical debridement and administration of appropriate antibiotics. However, even with proper treatment, the mortality rate is considered to be high. We reported a 5-month-old girls with fatal necrotizing fasciitis associated with toxic shock–like syndrome due to Streptococcal infection.

  6. The Architecture of a Complex GIS & Spreadsheet Based DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Airinei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision support applications available on today market use to combine the decision analysis of historical databased on On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP products or spreadsheet pivot tables with some new reporting facilities as alerts or key performance indicators available in portal dashboards or in complex spreadsheet-like reports, both corresponding to a new approach of the field called Business Intelligence. Moreover the geographical features of GIS added to DSS applications become more and more required by many kinds of businesses. In fact they are more useful this way than as distinctive parts.The paper tries to present a certain DSS architecture based on the association between such approaches and technologies. The particular examples are meant to support all the theoretical arguments and to complete the understanding of the interaction schemas available.

  7. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Barret, Caitlyn W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer. PMID:27246042

  8. Hydrologic Drought Decision Support System (HyDroDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrologic drought decision support system (HyDroDSS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) for use in the analysis of hydrologic variables that may indicate the risk for streamflows to be below user-defined flow targets at a designated site of interest, which is defined herein as data-collection site on a stream that may be adversely affected by pumping. Hydrologic drought is defined for this study as a period of lower than normal streamflows caused by precipitation deficits and (or) water withdrawals. The HyDroDSS is designed to provide water managers with risk-based information for balancing water-supply needs and aquatic-habitat protection goals to mitigate potential effects of hydrologic drought. This report describes the theory and methods for retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis, rank correlation analysis, and drought-projection analysis. All three methods are designed to inform decisions made by drought steering committees and decisionmakers on the basis of quantitative risk assessment. All three methods use estimates of unaltered streamflow, which is the measured or modeled flow without major withdrawals or discharges, to approximate a natural low-flow regime. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis can be used by water-resource managers to evaluate relations between withdrawal plans and the potential effects of withdrawal plans on streams at one or more sites of interest in an area. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis indicates the historical risk of being below user-defined flow targets if different pumping plans were implemented for the period of record. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis also indicates the risk for creating hydrologic drought conditions caused by use of a pumping plan. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis is done by calculating the net streamflow depletions from withdrawals and discharges and applying these depletions

  9. Propensity of tampons and barrier contraceptives to amplify Staphylococcus aureusToxic shock syndrome toxin-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, P M; Hanna, B A

    1994-01-01

    Although the incidence of reported cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) has declined in recent years, the disease continues to occur in menstruating women using the newer, less-absorbent tampons or barrier contraceptives. Extant tampons and other vaginal devices were tested for the ability to induce TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) by a TSS strain of Staphylococcus aureus MN8, a known high-toxin producer. Tested for the first time were 20 varieties of tampons, including 2 all-cotton brands newly introduced in the United States, a polyurethane contraceptive sponge, a latex diaphragm, and a polymer menstrual collection cup. All products were washed in sterile distilled water prior to use to reduce the effect of leachable chemicals. Duplicate experiments with unwashed products were also performed. Entire tampons and other test products were immersed in brain heart infusion broth plus yeast extract (BHIY) and inoculated with S. aureus MN8, a known TSST-1 producer. After incubation, the culture supernatants were assayed for TSST-1 by gel immunodiffusion. Except for all-cotton tampons, greater amounts of TSST-1 were detected in the supernatant fluid of washed tampons than detected in those which were not washed. While TSST-1 levels in unwashed non-cotton tampons ranged from 0.5 to 8 microg/ml, when these products were washed, TSST-1 levels increased to 2-32 microg/ml. In all-cotton tampons, whether washed or not, there was no detectable TSST-1. The propensity for all-cotton tampons not to amplify TSST-1 in vitro suggests they would lower the risk for tampon-associated TSS.

  10. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population.Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, were analyzed. Women with PCOS were found to have significantly higher fasting insulin (FI levels, as well as Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR (P < 0.05. Identically, markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, Nitric oxide (NO and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP were markedly increased when compared to controls (P < 0.05. Elevated serum Hsp70 was positively correlated with IR, oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS, even after adjustment for age, BMI and gynecologic inflammation (GI. The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis yielded notably different discriminative value for PCOS, with or without an addition of Hsp70 (areas under the curves were 0.884 (95% CI 0.822-0.946 vs. 0.822 (95% CI 0.744-0.900; P for difference = 0.015.Increased serum Hsp70 levels are associated with the combination of IR, oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS individuals, which provides supportive evidence that Hsp70 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of circulating Hsp70, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of PCOS and its long-term health cost.

  11. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Meng, Jie; Xu, Mengjing; Zhang, Shun; Ghose, Bishwajit; Liu, Jun; Yao, Ping; Yan, Hong; Wang, Di; Liu, Liegang

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population. Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, were analyzed. Women with PCOS were found to have significantly higher fasting insulin (FI) levels, as well as Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (P oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), Nitric oxide (NO)) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)) were markedly increased when compared to controls (P oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS, even after adjustment for age, BMI and gynecologic inflammation (GI). The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis yielded notably different discriminative value for PCOS, with or without an addition of Hsp70 (areas under the curves were 0.884 (95% CI 0.822-0.946) vs. 0.822 (95% CI 0.744-0.900); P for difference = 0.015). Increased serum Hsp70 levels are associated with the combination of IR, oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS individuals, which provides supportive evidence that Hsp70 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of circulating Hsp70, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of PCOS and its long-term health cost.

  12. Emergence of Streptococcus pyogenes emm102 causing toxic shock syndrome in Southern Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Nong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS is an uncommon but life-threatening disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. METHODS: To understand the clinical and molecular characteristics of STSS, we analyzed clinical data and explored the emm types, superantigen genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of causative S. pyogenes isolates obtained between 2005 and 2012. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients with STSS were included in this study. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range: 9-83 years, and 81.1% were male. The most prevalent underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (45.3%. Skin and soft-tissue infection accounted for 86.8% of STSS. The overall mortality rate was 32.1%. Underlying diseases had no statistical impact on mortality. A total of 19 different emm types were identified. The most prevalent emm type was emm102 (18.9%, followed by emm11 (17%, emm1 (11.3%, emm87 (9.4%, and emm89 (7.5%. There was no statistically significant association between emm type and a fatal outcome. Among the superantigen genes, speB was the most frequently detected one (92.5%, followed by smeZ (90.6%, speG (81.1%, speC (39.6%, and speF (39.6%. The majority of emm102 strains were found to have speB, speC, speG, and smeZ. The presence of speG was negatively associated with a fatal outcome (P = 0.045. CONCLUSIONS: Our surveillance revealed the emergence of uncommon emm types, particularly emm102, causing STSS in southern Taiwan. Characterization of clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of STSS will improve our understanding of this life-threatening disease.

  13. A Novel Porcine Model of Septic Shock Induced by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, we developed a novel porcine model of septic shock induced by ARDS due to severe MRSA pneumonia with characteristic hyperdynamic and hypodynamic phases in 24 h, which mimicked the hemodynamic changing of septic shock in human.

  14. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  15. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  16. SOCOM Training and Rehearsal System (STRS) Process Improvement and Decision Support System (DSS) Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crossland, Neal; Broussard, Steve

    2005-01-01

    ...) Process Improvement and Decision Support System (DSS) Development. Discussion sequence is: Why the study? Objectives; Areas of inquiry; Study products; Observations; Recommendations; Decision Support System.

  17. NKS NordDSS - report from workshop on the use of Decision Support Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyve, J.E. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Nuclear preparedness and response authorities in the Nordic countries are using decision support systems (DSS) as part of their operational capability. A DSS compile, display and analyse data that makes up the current and future radiological state of an emergency. ARGOS and RODOS are the two most common systems in use in the Nordic region. The aim of of the NordDSS workshop was to gather Nordic and international experts on DSS, and share knowledge and experience. The workshop brought together 22 experts for two days in Copenhagen. (author)

  18. NKS NordDSS - report from workshop on the use of Decision Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyve, J.E.

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear preparedness and response authorities in the Nordic countries are using decision support systems (DSS) as part of their operational capability. A DSS compile, display and analyse data that makes up the current and future radiological state of an emergency. ARGOS and RODOS are the two most common systems in use in the Nordic region. The aim of of the NordDSS workshop was to gather Nordic and international experts on DSS, and share knowledge and experience. The workshop brought together 22 experts for two days in Copenhagen. (author)

  19. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  20. WAR DSS: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm is constructed as a decision support system (DSS) in the design of chemical manufacturing facilities. The WAR DSS is a software tool that can help reduce the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical...

  1. Dss1 interaction with Brh2 as a regulatory mechanism for recombinational repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qingwen; Kojic, Milorad; Cao, Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    Brh2, the BRCA2 ortholog in Ustilago maydis, enables recombinational repair of DNA by controlling Rad51 and is in turn regulated by Dss1. Interplay with Rad51 is conducted via the BRC element located in the N-terminal region of the protein and through an unrelated domain, CRE, at the C terminus....... Mutation in either BRC or CRE severely reduces functional activity, but repair deficiency of the brh2 mutant can be complemented by expressing BRC and CRE on different molecules. This intermolecular complementation is dependent upon the presence of Dss1. Brh2 molecules associate through the region...... overlapping with the Dss1-interacting domain to form at least dimer-sized complexes, which in turn, can be dissociated by Dss1 to monomer. We propose that cooperation between BRC and CRE domains and the Dss1-provoked dissociation of Brh2 complexes are requisite features of Brh2's molecular mechanism...

  2. Use of the Impella Device for Acute Coronary Syndrome Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock - Experience From a Single Heart Center With Analysis of Long-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco Robin; Köhler, Herdis; Wachter, Astrid; Bleckmann, Annalen; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Impella is a microaxial rotary pump that is placed across the aortic valve to expel aspirated blood from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta; it can be used in cardiogenic shock. While previous studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of the Impella device, more clinically relevant data are necessary, especially with regard to outcomes. We screened our database of Impella patients in our heart center and found 68 consecutive patients who underwent Impella implantation due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) complicated by cardiogenic shock. Data were evaluated with regard to baseline and procedural characteristics and also included an assessment of the short-term and long-term outcomes. The majority of patients (74%) suffered from an ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 59% of patients received the Impella device during the initial coronary angiography. In the remaining cases, Impella implantation was performed at a later time, most commonly after IABP implantation. Patient characteristics were not significantly different between both groups. The predominantly implanted device was an Impella 2.5. Mortality in the severely ill patient population remained high, but univariate/multivariate analyses identified significant risk factors. Interestingly, delayed initiation of Impella support was an independent predictor of higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.157; P=.04) within the Impella patient cohort. This large series of patients with ACS complicated by cardiogenic shock who underwent Impella implantation provides information on the relevant risk factors for mortality. Early (compared with delayed) initiation of Impella support was a predictor of improved survival in this population of patients.

  3. The effects of wet cupping on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and heat shock protein 27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Gang, Li Zhi; Saghebi, Seyed Ahmad; Mohammadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Mohammadi, Ghazaleh; Ferns, Gordan A; Ghanbarzadeh, Majid; Razmgah, Gholamreza Ghayour; Ramazani, Zahra; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Esmaily, Habibollah; Bahrami Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Azizi, Hoda

    2014-08-01

    It has previously been reported that increased level of serum heat shock proteins (Hsps) antibody in patients with metabolic syndrome. It is possible that the expression of Hsp and inflammatory markers can be affected by cupping and traditional Chinese medicine. There is a little data investigating the effects of cupping on markers of inflammation and Hsp proteins, hence, the objective of this study was evaluation of the effects of wet cupping on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Hsp27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Serum Hs-CRP and Hsp27 antibody titers were assessed in samples from 126 patients with metabolic syndrome (18-65 years of age) at baseline, and after 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. One hundred and twenty-six patients were randomly divided into the experimental group treated with wet cupping combined with dietary advice, and the control group treated with dietary advice alone using a random number table. Eight patients in case group and five subjects in control groups were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and a repeated measure ANCOVA. Serum hs-CRP titers did not change significantly between groups (p>0.05) and times (p=0.27). The same result was found for Hsp27 titers (p>0.05). Wet-cupping on the interscapular region has no effect on serum hs-CRP and Hsp27 patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Typhi–Induced Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Teenage Patient Treated With High-Dose Dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Brosset Ugas MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is commonly characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Rare complications include intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, delirium, obtundation, and septic shock. Herein we describe the case of a previously healthy 16-year-old male without history of travel, diagnosed with typhoid fever complicated by septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-dose dexamethasone. This case details severe complications of typhoid fever that are uncommonly seen in developed countries, and the successful response to high-dose dexamethasone as adjunct therapy. High-dose dexamethasone treatment has reportedly decreased Salmonella Typhi mortality, but controlled studies specifically performed in children are lacking, and most reports of its use are over 30 years old and all have originated in developing countries. Providers should include Salmonella Typhi in the differential diagnosis of the pediatric patient with fever, severe abdominal pain, and enteritis, and be aware of its potentially severe complications and the limited data on safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapies that can be considered in addition to antibiotics.

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Mediated Toxicity Inhibited by Neutralizing Antibodies Late in the Course of Continual in Vivo and in Vitro Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Stich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS results from the host’s overwhelming inflammatory response and cytokine storm mainly due to superantigens (SAgs. There is no effective specific therapy. Application of immunoglobulins has been shown to improve the outcome of the disease and to neutralize SAgs both in vivo and in vitro. However, in most experiments that have been performed, antiserum was either pre-incubated with SAg, or both were applied simultaneously. To mirror more closely the clinical situation, we applied a multiple dose (over five days lethal challenge in a rabbit model. Treatment with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 neutralizing antibody was fully protective, even when administered late in the course of the challenge. Kinetic studies on the effect of superantigen toxins are scarce. We performed in vitro kinetic studies by neutralizing the toxin with antibodies at well-defined time points. T-cell activation was determined by assessing T-cell proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation, determination of IL-2 release in the cell supernatant (ELISA, and IL-2 gene activation (real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Here we show that T-cell activation occurs continuously. The application of TSST-1 neutralizing antiserum reduced IL-2 and TNFα release into the cell supernatant, even if added at later time points. Interference with the prolonged stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines is likely to be in vivo relevant, as postexposure treatment protected rabbits against the multiple dose lethal SAg challenge. Our results shed new light on the treatment of TSS by specific antibodies even at late stages of exposure.

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Prevention of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Pulmonary Contusion and Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Contusion and Hemorrhagic Shock PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Schreiber, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 Blood Systems...extubated the animals was not logistically or physically feasible. To improve the welfare of the animal and consistency in the model, we revised our model

  7. Promotion of BRCA2-Dependent Homologous Recombination by DSS1 via RPA Targeting and DNA Mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weixing; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; San Filippo, Joseph; Maranon, David G; Jimenez-Sainz, Judit; Fontenay, Gerald V; Kwon, Youngho; Leung, Stanley G; Lu, Lucy; Jensen, Ryan B; Chazin, Walter J; Wiese, Claudia; Sung, Patrick

    2015-07-16

    The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is thought to facilitate the handoff of ssDNA from replication protein A (RPA) to the RAD51 recombinase during DNA break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination. However, we find that RPA-RAD51 exchange requires the BRCA2 partner DSS1. Biochemical, structural, and in vivo analyses reveal that DSS1 allows the BRCA2-DSS1 complex to physically and functionally interact with RPA. Mechanistically, DSS1 acts as a DNA mimic to attenuate the affinity of RPA for ssDNA. A mutation in the solvent-exposed acidic domain of DSS1 compromises the efficacy of RPA-RAD51 exchange. Thus, by targeting RPA and mimicking DNA, DSS1 functions with BRCA2 in a two-component homologous recombination mediator complex in genome maintenance and tumor suppression. Our findings may provide a paradigm for understanding the roles of DSS1 in other biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the development of a decision support system (DSS) to prioritize engineered nanoparticles for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, Hans J. P.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Bakker, Martine; Kroese, E. Dinant; Meent, Dik van de; Bourgeois, Francois; Lokers, Rob; Ham, Henk van der; Verhelst, Lieke

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have gained huge commercial interest because of their unique and size-related physicochemical properties. The diversity and complexity of ENPs is increasing with the introduction of next generation nanoparticles. The current approaches are not able to assess the safety of all types and applications of ENPs. Therefore, we are developing a decision support system (DSS) that helps to identify those ENPs and applications that should get priority in the risk assessment. This DSS smartly uses existing knowledge in publicly available databases. With the aid of vocabularies, knowledge rules and logic reasoning new knowledge will be derived. In this paper, the procedure for a DSS is described. Since this system is open by design, others can re-use and extend the DSS content, and newly developed DSS tools can be easily accommodated, which will make the DSS more effective over the years. Data of newly emerging studies will be used for the validation of the DSS. The results will benefit regulating authorities and scientists focussing on the development of inherently safe ENPs

  9. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS induces necrotizing enterocolitis-like lesions in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ginzel

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is an inflammatory bowel disease of preterm human newborns with yet unresolved etiology. An established neonatal murine model for NEC employs oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS combined with hypoxia/hypothermia. In adult mice, feeding dextran sodium sulfate (DSS represents a well-established model for experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Here we investigated the effect of DSS administration on the neonatal murine intestine in comparison with the established NEC model.3-day-old C57BL/6J mice were either fed formula containing DSS or LPS. LPS treated animals were additionally stressed by hypoxia/hypothermia twice daily. After 72 h, mice were euthanized, their intestinal tissue harvested and analyzed by histology, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. For comparison, adult C57BL/6J mice were fed with DSS for 8 days and examined likewise. Untreated, age matched animals served as controls.Adult mice treated with DSS exhibited colonic inflammation with significantly increased Cxcl2 mRNA expression. In contrast, tissue inflammation in neonatal mice treated with DSS or LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia was present in colon and small intestine as well. Comparative analysis of neonatal mice revealed a significantly increased lesion size and intestinal Cxcl2 mRNA expression after DSS exposure. Whereas LPS administration mainly induced local neutrophil recruitment, DSS treated animals displayed increased monocytes/macrophages infiltration.Our study demonstrates the potential of DSS to induce NEC-like lesions accompanied by a significant humoral and cellular immune response in the small and large intestine of neonatal mice. The new model therefore represents a good alternative to LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia administration requiring no additional physical stress.

  10. Application of decision support systems (DSS) to the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, R.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors set out to investigate the potential of DSS for radioactive waste management. It is argued that DSS has proven to be successful in environmental problem solving in general. It is further argued that radioactive waste management shares many characteristics with this broader field of environmental problem solving. This is illustrated by discussing some examples of the spatial, multi-objective and policy-related characteristics of the management problem. This then leads to the conclusion that a number of radioactive waste management problems seem suitable for representation in a DSS framework

  11. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  12. Implementing the Payment Card Industry (PCI Data Security Standard (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O' Raw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Underpinned by the rise in online criminality, the payment card industry (PCI data security standards (DSS were introduced which outlines a subset of the core principals and requirements that must be followed, including precautions relating to the software that processes credit card data. The necessity to implement these requirements in existing software applications can present software owners and developers with a range of issues. We present here a generic solution to the sensitive issue of PCI compliance where aspect orientated programming (AOP can be applied to meet the requirement of masking the primary account number (PAN. Our architecture allows a definite amount of code to be added which intercepts all the methods specified in the aspect, regardless of future additions to the system thus reducing the amount of work required to the maintain aspect. We believe that the concepts here will provide an insight into how to approach the PCI requirements to undertake the task. The software artefact should also serve as a guide to developers attempting to implement new applications, where security and design are fundamental elements that should be considered through each phase of the software development lifecycle and not as an afterthought.

  13. Validation and comparison of dispersion models of RTARC DSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.; Pospisil, M.

    2004-01-01

    RTARC DSS (Real Time Accident Release Consequences - Decision Support System) is a computer code developed at the VUJE Trnava, Inc. (Stubna, M. et al, 1993). The code calculations include atmospheric transport and diffusion, dose assessment, evaluation and displaying of the affected zones, evaluation of the early health effects, concentration and dose rate time dependence in the selected sites etc. The simulation of the protective measures (sheltering, iodine administration) is involved. The aim of this paper is to present the process of validation of the RTARC dispersion models. RTARC includes models for calculations of release for very short (Method Monte Carlo - MEMOC), short (Gaussian Straight-Line Model) and long distances (Puff Trajectory Model - PTM). Validation of the code RTARC was performed using the results of comparisons and experiments summarized in the Table 1.: 1. Experiments and comparisons in the process of validation of the system RTARC - experiments or comparison - distance - model. Wind tunnel experiments (Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Muenchen) - Area of NPP - Method Monte Carlo. INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) - short/medium - Gaussian model and multi tracer atmospheric experiment - distances - PTM. Model Validation Kit - short distances - Gaussian model. STEP II.b 'Realistic Case Studies' - long distances - PTM. ENSEMBLE comparison - long distances - PTM (orig.)

  14. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  15. The Concept of Data Collection and Processing System for Audit according to the PCI DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Makrushin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the research are verification procedures meet the requirements of the standard of the documents supporting the information security standard in the payment card industry (PCI DSS.

  16. 2-D Crustal thermal structure along Thuadara–Sindad DSS profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thuadara–Sindad Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile which runs almost in the N–S direction ... These studies include four Deep Seis- ... Geology and tectonic frame work ..... alous high-velocity layer at shallow crustal depths in the.

  17. Effects of Early Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration on E-Selectin, Hemodynamic Stability, and Ventilatory Function in Patients with Septic-Shock-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-biao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of 72-hour early-initiated continuous venovenous hemofiltration (ECVVH treatment in patients with septic-shock-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (not acute kidney injury, AKI with regard to serum E-selectin and measurements of lung function and hemodynamic stability. Methods. This prospective nonblinded single institutional randomized study involved 51 patients who were randomly assigned to receive or not receive ECVVH, an ECVVH group (n=24 and a non-ECVVH group (n=27. Besides standard therapies, patients in ECVVH group underwent CVVH for 72 h. Results. At 0 and 24 h after initiation of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI, and E-selectin level were not significantly different between groups (all P>0.05. Compared to non-ECVVH group, PaO2/FiO2 is significantly higher and EVLWI and E-selectin level are significantly lower in ECVVH group (all P<0.05 at 48 h and 72 h after initiation of treatment. The lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in intensive care unit (ICU were shorter in ECVVH group (all P<0.05, but there was no difference in 28-day mortality between two groups. Conclusions. In patients with septic-shock-induced ARDS (not AKI, treatment with ECVVH in addition to standard therapies improves endothelial function, lung function, and hemodynamic stability and reduces the lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in ICU.

  18. On DSS Implementation in the Dynamic Model of the Digital Oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, Iakov S.; Khisamutdinov, Maksim V.; Kalyaev, Anatoly I.

    2018-02-01

    Decision support systems (DSS), especially based on the artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are been widely applied in different domains nowadays. In the paper we depict an approach of implementing DSS in to Digital Oil Field (DOF) dynamic model structure in order to reduce the human factor influence, considering the automation of all production processes to be the DOF model clue element. As the basic tool of data handling we propose the hybrid application on artificial neural networks and evolutional algorithms.

  19. DYNAMICS OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN-70 SYNTHESIS IN LUNGS DEPENDS ON THE STAGE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Prutkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS was reproduced in a rat model, by means of intratracheal instillation of granulocyte lysates (a method protected by Russian patent. Expression of HSP-70 in lung cells was determined by immunohistochemical technique at each ARDS stage. A significant increase of HSP-70 expression by all cell types was revealed during exudative stage, being more intensive in alveolocytes type 1, and less expressed in endothelium. During proliferative stage of the disorder, a decreased HSP-70 expression was noted in all cell populations. At these terms, it proved to be high in neutrophils and alveveolocytes type 1, whereas lower expression was registered in endothelium. At fibrotic stage, HSP-70 synthesis remained at high levels in neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts and alveolocytes type 1. Endothelium and alveolocytes type 2 exhibited a recurrent increase at fibrotic stage of ARDS, however it did not reach the values typical to the initial stage of the syndrome.

  20. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  1. A DSS for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Basil D; Papathanasiou, Jason; Bournaris, Thomas; Voudouris, Kostas

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions developed in the framework of the Interreg-Archimed project entitled WaterMap (development and utilization of vulnerability maps for the monitoring and management of groundwater resources in the ARCHIMED areas). Its aim is to optimize the production plan of an agricultural region taking in account the available resources, the environmental parameters, and the vulnerability map of the region. The DSS is based on an optimization multicriteria model. The spatial integration of vulnerability maps in the DSS enables regional authorities to design policies for optimal agricultural development and groundwater protection from the agricultural land uses. The DSS can further be used to simulate different scenarios and policies by the local stakeholders due to changes on different social, economic, and environmental parameters. In this way, they can achieve alternative production plans and agricultural land uses as well as to estimate economic, social, and environmental impacts of different policies. The DSS is computerized and supported by a set of relational databases. The corresponding software has been developed in a Microsoft Windows XP platform, using Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access, and the LINDO library. For demonstration reasons, the paper includes an application of the DSS in a region of Northern Greece.

  2. Prophylactic role of curcumin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Hossam M M; Hemeida, Ramadan A; El-Bahrawy, Ali I M; Hamada, Farid M A

    2009-06-01

    We have addressed in this study the possible protective role of the main principle of turmeric pigment; curcumin on a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (3% W/V) in drinking water to male Swiss albino rats for 5 consecutive days. DSS challenge induced UC model that was well characterized morphologically and biochemically. DSS produced shrinkage of colon length and increased the relative colon weight/length ratio accompanied by mucosal edema and bloody stool. Histologically, DSS produced submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and crypt abscess as well as epithelioglandular hyperplasia. The model was confirmed biochemically, and the test battery entailed elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and colonic activity of myleoperoxidase (MPO). Colonic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and its substrate concentration; GSH, were notably reduced, while lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and total nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased. Prior administration of curcumin (100mg/kg, IP) for 7 consecutive days ahead of DSS challenge mitigated the injurious effects of DSS and ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results suggest that curcumin could possibly have a protective role in ulcerative colitis probably via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO.

  3. Frequency of enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, and biofilm formation genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with mastitis in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F N; Belo, N O; Costa, E A; Andrade, G I; Pereira, L S; Carvalho, I A; Santos, R L

    2018-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the microorganisms more frequently associated with subclinical bovine mastitis. S. aureus may produce several virulence factors. This study aimed at determining the frequency of virulence factors such as enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and ica adhesion genes. In addition, we assessed antimicrobial drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis. A total of 88 cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis were sampled, resulting in 38 S. aureus isolates, from which 25 (65.78%) carried toxin genes, including seb, sec, sed, tst, and icaD adhesion gene. These S. aureus isolates belong to 21 ribotypes and three S. aureus strains belonged to the same ribotype producing ica adhesion gene. Approximately 90% of S. aureus strains obtained in our study demonstrated multiple resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The most efficacious antimicrobial agents against the isolates were gentamicin, amoxicillin, and norfloxacin. Gentamicin was the most efficacious agent inhibiting 78.95% of the S. aureus isolates. The least efficacious were penicillin, streptomycin, and ampicillin. Our results can help in understanding the relationship between virulence factors and subclinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. Further research about diversity of S. aureus isolates and genes responsible for the pathogenicity of subclinical mastitis is essential.

  4. Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with toxic shock syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosami, Koki; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sagara, Yuka; Minami, Kensuke; Matsumura, Masami

    2016-04-18

    Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a mild encephalopathy caused by various pathological processes, but encephalopathy due to bacteria is rare. We report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman who on receiving chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer developed an altered mental status and dysarthria soon after fever from infection of a subcutaneous implantable port. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in her blood cultures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an ovoid lesion in the central portion of the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC). Although hypotension was not observed, we diagnosed probable toxic shock syndrome (TSS) based on fever (temperature: >38.9 °C), altered mental status, erythema, desquamation, thrombocytopenia, liver dysfunction, and creatine phosphokinase elevation. We administered antimicrobial therapy and her neurological symptoms improved gradually. The lesion in the SCC completely disappeared on MRI 7 days after disease onset. We diagnosed this case as MERS caused by S. aureus bacteremia with TSS. This is the first report of such a case, and we suggest that when a TSS patient presents with neurological symptoms, the possibility of MERS should be considered.

  5. "DK Crush" Technique for a Tightly Stenosed Conjoined SVG Lesion in a Patient with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Chang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Su, Chieh-Shou

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery bifurcation disease of saphenous venous graft (SVG) is extremely rare. SVG disease remains a challenging lesion to treat because of increased morbidity and mortality with repeated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), high rates of periprocedural complications, and in-stent restenosis or occlusion requiring repeat revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the first reported case of using the "DK crush" technique to treat an inverted Y-shaped SVG bifurcation disease in a patient with a prior CABG and new-onset acute coronary syndrome. Arising from our treatment, favorable immediate and mid-term angiographic and clinical outcomes were obtained. Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG); "DK crush" technique; Saphenous venous graft (SVG).

  6. Sex Differences in the Effect of Resveratrol on DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Wagnerova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol studied for its possible protective properties in inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, it has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors. In the present study, we aimed to investigate possible diverse effects of resveratrol on female and male mice in DSS-induced colitis. Thirty-seven C57BL/6 mice (21 female and 16 male were divided into three groups for each sex. The first group received pure water (CTRL. The other two groups received 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis from which one group was treated with resveratrol (DSS + RSV. Intake of 1.5% DSS caused weight loss in all DSS groups compared to control mice. Weight loss, stool consistency, and discomfort did not show any protective effect of resveratrol in males and showed even adverse effects in females. In females, the activity of myeloperoxidase was lower compared to that in males. However, colon length and spleen weight showed no sex differences, which can indicate the induction of only mild colitis in mice. Resveratrol did not have any effect on TNF-alpha levels. Taken together, these results for the first time propose possible diverse effects of resveratrol in DSS-induced colitis model depending on the sex of the animal. However, this conclusion must be confirmed by further analyses.

  7. Design and analysis of stochastic DSS query optimizers in a distributed database system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Query optimization is a stimulating task of any database system. A number of heuristics have been applied in recent times, which proposed new algorithms for substantially improving the performance of a query. The hunt for a better solution still continues. The imperishable developments in the field of Decision Support System (DSS databases are presenting data at an exceptional rate. The massive volume of DSS data is consequential only when it is able to access and analyze by distinctive researchers. Here, an innovative stochastic framework of DSS query optimizer is proposed to further optimize the design of existing query optimization genetic approaches. The results of Entropy Based Restricted Stochastic Query Optimizer (ERSQO are compared with the results of Exhaustive Enumeration Query Optimizer (EAQO, Simple Genetic Query Optimizer (SGQO, Novel Genetic Query Optimizer (NGQO and Restricted Stochastic Query Optimizer (RSQO. In terms of Total Costs, EAQO outperforms SGQO, NGQO, RSQO and ERSQO. However, stochastic approaches dominate in terms of runtime. The Total Costs produced by ERSQO is better than SGQO, NGQO and RGQO by 12%, 8% and 5% respectively. Moreover, the effect of replicating data on the Total Costs of DSS query is also examined. In addition, the statistical analysis revealed a 2-tailed significant correlation between the number of join operations and the Total Costs of distributed DSS query. Finally, in regard to the consistency of stochastic query optimizers, the results of SGQO, NGQO, RSQO and ERSQO are 96.2%, 97.2%, 97.45 and 97.8% consistent respectively.

  8. The development of an EDSS: Lessons learned and implications for DSS research

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gayar, O.; Deokar, A.; Michels, L.; Fosnight, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project is focused on providing renewable energy (RE) planning resources to the public. Examples include wind, solar, and hydro assessments. SWERA DSS consists of three major components. First, SWERA 'Product Archive' provides for a discovery DSS upon which users can find and access renewable energy data and supporting models. Second, the 'Renewable Resource EXplorer' (RREX) component serves as a web-based, GIS analysis tool for viewing RE resource data available through the SWERA Product Archive. Third, the SWERA web service provides computational access to the data available in the SWERA spatial database through a location based query, and is also utilized in the RREX component. We provide a discussion of various design decisions used in the construction of this EDSS, followed by project experiences and implications for EDSS and broader DSS research. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  9. Impact of basal diet on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Pereira, Bruno; Fraisse, Didier; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis is a widely used model for inflammatory bowel disease. However, various factors including nutrition may affect the development of this colitis. This study aimed to compare and characterize the impact of purified and non-purified basal diets on the development of DSS-induced colitis in the rat. Wistar rats were fed a non-purified or a semi-synthetic purified diet for 21 days. Colitis was then induced in half of the rats by administration of DSS in drinking water (4% w/v) during the last 7 days of experimentation. At the end of the experimental period, colon sections were taken for histopathological examination, determination of various markers of inflammation (myeloperoxidase: MPO, cytokines) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and glutathione reductase: GRed activities), and evaluation of the expression of various genes implicated in this disorder. DSS ingestion induced a more marked colitis in animals receiving the purified diet, as reflected by higher histological score and increased MPO activity. A significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities was also observed in rats fed the purified diet. Also, in these animals, administration of DSS induced a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, various genes implicated in inflammation were over-expressed after ingestion of DSS by rats fed the purified diet. These results show that a purified diet promotes the onset of a more severe induced colitis than a non-purified one, highlighting the influence of basal diet in colitis development.

  10. Targeting TREM-1 signaling in the presence of antibiotics is effective against Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS caused by Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis, a major swine pathogen, is also a severe threat to human health. Infection with highly virulent strains of S. suis can cause human Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS, which is associated with high serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and a high mortality rate. Our previous study indicated that highly virulent S. suis infection could activate the TREM-1 signaling pathway, which promotes host clearance of S. suis during early infection. However, it remained to be elicited whether TREM-1 signaling could be a target against STSLS in the presence of antibiotic. In the present study, mice were infected with a highly virulent S. suis strain and then treated with rTREM-1 (the recombinant extracellular domain of TREM-1 to block TREM-1 signaling, antibiotics, both rTREM-1 and antibiotics, or PBS. The survival rates, clinical signs, serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and serum bacterial loads were evaluated. Treatment with rTREM-1 could aggravate the outcome of infection as described previously. Although the conventional treatment with antibiotics contributed to effective S. suis clearance, it did not improve survival significantly. In comparison, due to the reduction of the exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, treatment combined with rTREM-1 and antibiotics not only led to efficient bacterial clearance but also alleviated inflammation. In conclusion, TREM-1 signaling contributed to severe inflammatory response and benefited S. suis clearance. Therefore, blocking TREM-1 signaling could still be a target for the treatment of STSLS in the presence of antibiotics.

  11. A Development-Oriented IS Evaluation Approach: Case Demonstration for DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (IS development research needs a broader conceptual lens for evaluating IS design qualities. Most conventional IS evaluation approaches are focused on narrow objectives, such as the process and content rather than the development process as a whole. This paper describes a qualitative evaluation of a new approach that extends evaluation strategies to incorporate development phases, specifically within decision support systems (DSS development. The conceptual approach is based on a mental model from the design science research paradigm and evaluates DSS development at various design checkpoints. This paper also describes qualitative findings on the applicability of the conceptual approach in a socio-technical design context.

  12. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  13. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  14. Postdiarrheal Shiga Toxin-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Similar to Septic Shock Síndrome urémico hemolítico símil shock séptico, posterior a diarrea mediada por toxina shiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Valles

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response of host endothelial cells is included in the development of vascular damage observed in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection, resulting in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. The response to a non-conventional treatment for a group of D+ HUS (diarrhea positive HUS patients, with clinical hemodynamic parameters of septic shock was evaluated in this prospective study (1999-2003. Twelve children 2.8 ± 0.6 years old, with D+ HUS produced by E. coli infection with serological evidence of Shiga toxin, presenting severe unstable hemodynamic parameters and neurological dysfunction at onset, were studied. The protocol included fresh frozen plasma infusions, methylprednisolone pulses (10mg/k/day for three consecutive days and plasma exchange for five days, starting after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. The twelve patients with increased pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score: 18 ± 2 after admission to intensive care unit (ICU, required dialysis for 17.4 ± 4 days, mechanical ventilator assistance for 10 ± 1 days and early inotropic drugs support for 10.5 ± 1 days. Neurological dysfunction included generalized tonic-clonic seizures lasting for 5.4 ± 1 days, n:8. Focal seizures were present in the remaining patients. Dilated cardiomyopathy was present in 6 children. Eight children suffered hemorrhagic colitis. Nine patients survived. Within one year of the injury, neurological sequelae, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS 3 and 4, were present in two patients, chronic renal failure in one patient. We suggest that early introduction of this protocol could benefit D+ HUS patients with hemodynamic instability and neurological dysfunction at onset. Further studies are likely to elucidate the mechanisms involved in this early adverse clinical presentation of D+ HUS patients.La respuesta inflamatoria de la célula endotelial se incluye en el desarrollo del daño vascular observado en la infección por Escherichia coli

  15. Decision Support System (DSS) for prevention of Botrytis in tomato in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.; Nannes, L.; Bokhoven, van E.H.; Buwalda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Interreg project ‘Gezonde Kas’ a decision support system (DSS) for Botrytis risk in tomato was developed. This report fi rst summarizes existing knowledge on botrytis in tomato. The quantitative relationships are subsequently laid down in computer code. This code formed

  16. Brh2-Dss1 interplay enables properly controlled recombination in Ustilago maydis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojic, Milorad; Zhou, Qingwen; Lisby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    after DNA damage was almost fully restored by a chimeric form of Brh2 having a DNA-binding domain from RPA70 fused to the Brh2 N-terminal domain, but Rad51 focus formation and mitotic recombination were elevated above wild-type levels. The results provide evidence for a mechanism in which Dss1 activates...

  17. No Ameliorating Effect of Surfactant Protein D on DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Anders Bathum; Pilecki, Bartosz; Husby, Steffen

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are disorders associated to a pathological immune response. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is part of the innate host defense and has known anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesize that SP-D dampens dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by reducing innate...

  18. Afforest sDSS: a metamodel based spatial decision support system for afforestation of agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliams, S.; Orshoven, van J.; Muys, B.; Kros, J.; Heil, G.W.; Deursen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept and structure of the Spatial Decision Support System AFFOREST sDSS dealing with environmental performance (EP) of afforestation on agricultural land in northwestern Europe, is presented. EP is defined in terms of three environmental impact categories: (1) carbon sequestration (2)

  19. Antenna servo control system characterization: Rate loop analysis for 34-m antenna at DSS 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, J. A.; Cox, D. G.; Smith, H. K.; Engel, J. H.; Ahlstrom, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The elevation and azimuth servo rate loops at the 34-m High Efficiency Deep Space Station 15 (DSS 15) are described. Time and frequency response performance criteria were measured. The results are compared to theoretically deduced performance criteria. Unexpected anomalies in the frequency response are observed and identified.

  20. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  1. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  3. Use of porcine vaginal tissue ex-vivo to model environmental effects on vaginal mucosa to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Catherine C.; Baccam, Mekhine; Mantz, Mary J.; Osborn, Thomas W.; Hill, Donna R.; Squier, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) is a rare, recognizable, and treatable disease that has been associated with tampon use epidemiologically. It involves a confluence of microbial risk factors (Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce the superantigen—TSST-1), as well as environmental characteristics of the vaginal ecosystem during menstruation and host susceptibility factors. This paper describes a series of experiments using the well-characterized model of porcine vaginal mucosa ex-vivo to assess the effect of these factors associated with tampon use on the permeability of the mucosa. The flux of radiolabeled TSST-1 and tritiated water ( 3 H 2 O) through porcine vaginal mucosa was determined at various temperatures, after mechanical disruption of the epithelial surface by tape stripping, after treatment with surfactants or other compounds, and in the presence of microbial virulence factors. Elevated temperatures (42, 47 and 52 °C) did not significantly increase flux of 3 H 2 O. Stripping of the epithelial layers significantly increased the flux of labeled toxin in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzalkonium chloride (0.1 and 0.5%) and glycerol (4%) significantly increased the flux of 3 H 2 O but sodium lauryl sulfate at any concentration tested did not. The flux of the labeled toxin was significantly increased in the presence of benzalkonium chloride but not Pluronic® L92 and Tween 20 and significantly increased with addition of α-hemolysin but not endotoxin. These results show that the permeability of porcine vagina ex-vivo to labeled toxin or water can be used to evaluate changes to the vaginal environment and modifications in tampon materials, and thus aid in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Model assessed local effects of tampon use on vaginal mucosa. • Risks were evaluated using two tracers to assess permeability in an ex vivo model. • Mechanical damage to the epithelial surface increased tracer penetration. • Surfactants increased

  4. Use of porcine vaginal tissue ex-vivo to model environmental effects on vaginal mucosa to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Catherine C.; Baccam, Mekhine [Feminine Care Global Product Stewardship, 6110 Center Hill Road, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Mantz, Mary J. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Osborn, Thomas W.; Hill, Donna R. [Feminine Care Product Development, 6110 Center Hill Road, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Squier, Christopher A. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) is a rare, recognizable, and treatable disease that has been associated with tampon use epidemiologically. It involves a confluence of microbial risk factors (Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce the superantigen—TSST-1), as well as environmental characteristics of the vaginal ecosystem during menstruation and host susceptibility factors. This paper describes a series of experiments using the well-characterized model of porcine vaginal mucosa ex-vivo to assess the effect of these factors associated with tampon use on the permeability of the mucosa. The flux of radiolabeled TSST-1 and tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) through porcine vaginal mucosa was determined at various temperatures, after mechanical disruption of the epithelial surface by tape stripping, after treatment with surfactants or other compounds, and in the presence of microbial virulence factors. Elevated temperatures (42, 47 and 52 °C) did not significantly increase flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Stripping of the epithelial layers significantly increased the flux of labeled toxin in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzalkonium chloride (0.1 and 0.5%) and glycerol (4%) significantly increased the flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O but sodium lauryl sulfate at any concentration tested did not. The flux of the labeled toxin was significantly increased in the presence of benzalkonium chloride but not Pluronic® L92 and Tween 20 and significantly increased with addition of α-hemolysin but not endotoxin. These results show that the permeability of porcine vagina ex-vivo to labeled toxin or water can be used to evaluate changes to the vaginal environment and modifications in tampon materials, and thus aid in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Model assessed local effects of tampon use on vaginal mucosa. • Risks were evaluated using two tracers to assess permeability in an ex vivo model. • Mechanical damage to the epithelial surface increased tracer penetration.

  5. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  6. Epimicrobiota associated with the decay and recovery of Orbicella corals exhibiting Dark Spot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS is one of the most common diseases of boulder corals in the Caribbean. It presents as sunken brown lesions in coral tissue, which can spread quickly over coral colonies. With this study, we tested the hypothesis that similar to other coral diseases, DSS is a dysbiosis characterized by global shifts in the coral microbiome. Because Black Band Disease (BBD was sometimes found following DSS lesions, we also tested the hypothesis that DSS is a precursor of BBD. To track disease initiation and progression 24 coral colonies were tagged. Of them five Orbicella annularis corals and three O. faveolata corals exhibited DSS lesions at tagging. Microbiota of lesions and apparently healthy tissues from DSS-affected corals over the course of 18 months were collected. Final visual assessment showed that five of eight corals incurred substantial tissue loss while two corals remained stable and one appeared to recover from DSS lesions. Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated no significant differences in bacterial community composition associated with healthy tissue or DSS lesions. The epimicrobiomes of both healthy tissue and DSS lesions contained high relative abundances of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs assigned to Halomonas, an unclassified gammaproteobacterial genus, Moritella, an unclassified Rhodobacteraceae genus, Renibacterium, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was not significantly different between samples when grouped by tissue type (healthy tissue vs. DSS lesion, coral species, collection month, or the overall outcome of DSS-affected corals (substantial tissue loss vs. stable/recovered. Two of the tagged corals with substantial tissue loss also developed BBD during the 18-month sampling period. The bacterial community of the BBD layer was distinct from both healthy tissue and DSS lesions, with high relative abundances of the presumed BBD pathogen

  7. Disaster Metrics: Evaluation of de Boer's Disaster Severity Scale (DSS) Applied to Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; McCord, Caitlin M; Sherak, Raphael A G; Hsu, Edberdt B; Kelen, Gabor D

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative measurement of the medical severity following multiple-casualty events (MCEs) is an important goal in disaster medicine. In 1990, de Boer proposed a 13-point, 7-parameter scale called the Disaster Severity Scale (DSS). Parameters include cause, duration, radius, number of casualties, nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community. Hypothesis This study aimed to examine the reliability and dimensionality (number of salient themes) of de Boer's DSS scale through its application to 144 discrete earthquake events. A search for earthquake events was conducted via National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and US Geological Survey (USGS) databases. Two experts in the field of disaster medicine independently reviewed and assigned scores for parameters that had no data readily available (nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community), and differences were reconciled via consensus. Principle Component Analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows Version 22.0 (IBM Corp; Armonk, New York USA) to evaluate the reliability and dimensionality of the DSS. A total of 144 individual earthquakes from 2003 through 2013 were identified and scored. Of 13 points possible, the mean score was 6.04, the mode = 5, minimum = 4, maximum = 11, and standard deviation = 2.23. Three parameters in the DSS had zero variance (ie, the parameter received the same score in all 144 earthquakes). Because of the zero contribution to variance, these three parameters (cause, duration, and radius) were removed to run the statistical analysis. Cronbach's alpha score, a coefficient of internal consistency, for the remaining four parameters was found to be robust at 0.89. Principle Component Analysis showed uni-dimensional characteristics with only one component having an eigenvalue greater than one at 3.17. The 4-parameter DSS, however, suffered from restriction of scoring range on both parameter and scale levels. Jan de Boer

  8. DSS colitis promotes tumorigenesis and fibrogenesis in a choline-deficient high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwa, Koichi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-29

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients progress to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several lines of evidence indicate that accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and disruption of gut microbiota play contributory roles in HCC. Moreover, in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice, a high-fat diet increases portal LPS level and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this diet-induced NASH model requires at least 50 weeks for carcinogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased intestinal permeability would aggravate liver inflammation and fibrosis and accelerate tumorigenesis in a diet-induced NASH model. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat (CDHF) diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The DSS group was fed CDHF and intermittently received 1% DSS in the drinking water. Exposure to DSS promoted mucosal changes such as crypt loss and increased the number of inflammatory cells in the colon. In the DSS group, portal LPS levels were elevated at 4 weeks, and the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI in the fecal microbiota were elevated. In addition, levels of serum transaminase, number of lobular inflammatory cells, F4/80 staining-positive area, and levels of inflammatory cytokines were all elevated in the DSS group. Liver histology in the DSS group revealed severe fibrosis at 12 weeks. Liver tumors were detected in the DSS group at 12 weeks, but not in the other groups. Thus, DSS administration promoted liver tumors in a CDHF diet-induced NASH mouse over the short term, suggesting that the induction of intestinal inflammation and gut disruption of microbiota in NASH promote hepatic tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A DSS based on GIS and Tabu search for solving the CVRP: The Tunisian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Faiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP is a well known optimization problem applied in numerous applications. It consists of delivering items to some geographically dispersed customers using a set of vehicles operating from a single depot. As the CVRP is known to be NP-hard, approximate methods perform well when generating promising sub-optimal solutions in a reasonable computation time. In this paper, we develop a Decision Support System (DSS for solving the CVRP that integrates a Geographical Information System (GIS enriched by a Tabu search (TS module. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed DSS in terms of CPU runtime and minimized traveled distance, we apply it on a large-sized real case. The results are then highlighted in a cartographic format using Google Maps.

  10. Decision Support System (DSS) for prevention of Botrytis in tomato in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, de, P.H.B.; Nannes, L.; Bokhoven, van, E.H.; Buwalda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Interreg project ‘Gezonde Kas’ a decision support system (DSS) for Botrytis risk in tomato was developed. This report fi rst summarizes existing knowledge on botrytis in tomato. The quantitative relationships are subsequently laid down in computer code. This code formed the basis of a dynamic simulation model to predict the risk on botrytis in a tomato crop. The model requires input from the climate computer of the greenhouse, and can also manage input from manual ...

  11. Predicting the surface roughness in the dry machining of duplex stainless steel (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut onto surface roughness after DSS turning process. The study included developing a mathematical model to determine the surface roughness. Verification research has been carried out on CNC lathe; hence the test plan has been adjusted to the possibility of programmable machines controlling GE Fanuc Series 0-T. The comparison of results obtained by given experimental plan was performed in industrial company.

  12. Sepsis and Septic Shock Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bracken A; Betzold, Richard D; May, Addison K

    2017-12-01

    Three therapeutic principles most substantially improve organ dysfunction and survival in sepsis: early, appropriate antimicrobial therapy; restoration of adequate cellular perfusion; timely source control. The new definitions of sepsis and septic shock reflect the inadequate sensitivity, specify, and lack of prognostication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment more effectively prognosticates in sepsis and critical illness. Inadequate cellular perfusion accelerates injury and reestablishing perfusion limits injury. Multiple organ systems are affected by sepsis and septic shock and an evidence-based multipronged approach to systems-based therapy in critical illness results in improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  14. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS- Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Pandurangan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione reductase (GR, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P<0.05. In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3Y705 pathways.

  15. Pterostilbene 4′-β-Glucoside Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis via Induction of Tristetraprolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterostilbene, a dimethyl ester analog of resveratrol, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and alters cell proliferation. Tristetraprolin (TTP promotes the degradation of proinflammatory mediators via binding to adenosine and uridine- (AU- rich elements (ARE located in the 3′-untranslated regions of mRNAs. Here, we utilized pterostilbene 4′-β-glucoside (4-PG, a compound derived from pterostilbene, to investigate whether it has anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis via TTP enhancement. TTP expression was increased in 4-PG dose- and time-dependent manners in RAW264.7 cells. The production of proinflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-α, was reduced by 4-PG in vitro. To investigate the role of TTP in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG, we used DSS-induced colitis in TTP WT and KO mice as models. The expression levels of TTP and proinflammatory cytokines were determined in serum and colon tissue. 4-PG increased the expression of TTP while suppressing proinflammatory cytokines both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that treatment with 4-PG mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG on DSS-induced colitis via enhancing TTP expression.

  16. GeVaDSs – decision support system for novel Genetic Vaccine development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazewicz Jacek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of a uniform way for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of vaccine candidates under development led us to set up a standardized scheme for vaccine efficacy and safety evaluation. We developed and implemented molecular and immunology methods, and designed support tools for immunization data storage and analyses. Such collection can create a unique opportunity for immunologists to analyse data delivered from their laboratories. Results We designed and implemented GeVaDSs (Genetic Vaccine Decision Support system an interactive system for efficient storage, integration, retrieval and representation of data. Moreover, GeVaDSs allows for relevant association and interpretation of data, and thus for knowledge-based generation of testable hypotheses of vaccine responses. Conclusions GeVaDSs has been tested by several laboratories in Europe, and proved its usefulness in vaccine analysis. Case study of its application is presented in the additional files. The system is available at: http://gevads.cs.put.poznan.pl/preview/(login: viewer, password: password.

  17. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Khanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

  18. Shock cardiogénico asociado a un programa nutricional inapropiado: síndrome de realimentación Cardiogenic shock associated with an inappropriate nutritional programme: re-feeding syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    C. Campos-Ferrer; M. Cervera-Montes; A. Romero; S. Borrás; E. Gómez; C. Ricart

    2004-01-01

    Se han comunicado situaciones de paro cardíaco en pacientes con desnutrición proteico-calórica en los que se iniciaba aporte de nutrientes de manera incontrolada. El reconocimiento de la asociación entre el aporte de alimentos en estas circunstancias y los eventos clínicos graves, generalmente trastornos del ritmo cardíaco, llevó a describirlo como "síndrome de realimentación". Presentamos un caso de influencia respiratoria aguda grave y shock cardiogénico en una paciente de 44 años con desnu...

  19. Analysis of Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard [PCI DSS] Compliance by Confluence of COBIT 5 Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Ukidve; Ds S SMantha; Milind Tadvalkar

    2017-01-01

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) aims to enhance the security of cardholder data and is required when cardholder data or authentication data are stored, processed or transmitted. The implementation of enabling processes from COBIT 5 can complement compliance to PCI DSS. COBIT 5 assists enterprises in governance and management of enterprise IT and, at the same time, supports the need to meet security requirements with supporting processes and management activities. Th...

  20. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  1. Application of a participative process for DSS development in soil remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Blanco-Velázquez, Francisco; Muñoz-Vallés, Sara; Anaya-Romero, María

    2017-04-01

    A wide range of current legislation concerning environmental protection and public health at the national and international level include mandatory actions related to site characterization and the implementation of effective soil remediation measures. The efficiency, in terms of reliability and costs, of this kind of assessment, involves the development and linkage of integrated-harmonized databases, simulating models and specialization tools. So far, no data/knowledge engineering technologies in the academy or market provides the possibility for simulating soil remediation processes for hypothetic spatio-temporal scenarios in a harmonized manner across Europe. In this context, under the framework of RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of Soils in Europe through Land Care) project, we are designing a Decision Support System (DSS) comprising a large database of knowledge including soil, climatic and socio-economic attributes, focused on soil remediation techniques that allows the user to automatically perform a more accurate quantifying of soil pollution, spatial identification of vulnerable zones and formulation of action programs to deal with the particular problem under scenarios of climate and land-use changes. The pilot study area is the Guadiamar valley (SW Spain) where the main threat is soil contamination, after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Consequently, the area was subjected to a large-scale phyto-management project, including the removal of sludge and topsoil, the addition of amendments, and plantation of native shrubs and trees. The objective of this research is to test the feasibility of the DSS concept as well as the likelihood to establish a solid high-potential innovation tool, aligned with the scientific and market strategy and within a European

  2. Implementation of GIS-DSS PRANA within sustainable rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsalo, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Analysis of the current situation in contaminated farms and settlements of Bryansk region is based on the monitoring data and model estimates. Model assessments of agricultural produce contamination, doses to the local population, radiological risk and results of countermeasure (CM) implementation have been carried out with the use of PRANA GIS-DSS. Applied Geographic Information System (GIS) PRANA is a Decision Support System (DSS) for implementation within the rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories. PRANA has been introduced for practical use in Bryansk as a GIS-DSS system for monitoring networking support and countermeasure analysis. The main blocks of the PRANA DSS are: libraries of electronic maps, including different layers of vector maps of landuse for all contaminated districts of Bryansk region: Novozybkov, Klintsy, Gordeevsky, Krasnogorsky, Zlynkovsky and Klimovsky (more than 30000 polygons of vector electronic maps); databases (radioecological, ecological, economic, demographic and other monitoring data and model parameters, including attributive information of vector electronic maps); model blocks for assessing: contamination of agricultural production, external and internal doses to the local population, radiological risks and corresponding results of CMs implementation; evaluation of CMs effectiveness and decision-making support an protection of the population and rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories both on local and regional/district levels (from separate settlement/field up to group of settlements/farms and region as a whole). The following 'risk indices' are considered within decision-making an Risk Based Land Management (RBLM) with the use of PRANA DSS: surface density contamination of territory with radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr); contamination of agricultural production (plant growing and animal husbandry, including farm and private production); external and internal doses to the local population

  3. Dihydrotanshinone I, a natural product, ameliorates DSS-induced experimental ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanling; Wu, Xiaxia; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuanfu; Shi, Jingshan; Chen, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum with increasing morbidity in recent years. 15,16-dihydrotanshinone Ӏ (DHT) is a natural product with multiple bioactivities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanisms of DHT on UC. Dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) was administrated in drinking water for 7 days to induce UC in mice. DHT (10 and 25 mg/kg) significantly alleviated DSS-induced body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) scores, and improved histological alterations of colon tissues. DHT inhibited the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colon tissues and decreased serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Furthermore, increased expression of kinases receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and decreased expression of caspase-8 in colon tissues were partially restored by DHT. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, DHT significantly inhibited generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2. In addition, increased expression of iNOS, COX-2, and phosphorylated RIP1, RIP3, MLKL in response to LPS plus Z-VAD (LZ) were also suppressed by DHT. DHT had no effect on TNF-α + BV6 + Z-VAD (TBZ) induced phosphorylation of RIPs and MLKL in HT29 cells. Especially, DHT showed no effect on LZ and TBZ-induced necroptosis in RAW264.7 and HT29 cells, respectively. In summary, DHT alleviated DSS-induced UC in mice by suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and regulating RIPs-MLKL-caspase-8 axis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microhardness changes gradient of the duplex stainless steel (DSS surface layer after dry turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the gradient of microhardness changes as a function of the distance from the material surface after turning with a wedge provided with a coating with a ceramic intermediate layer. The investigation comprised the influence of cutting speed on surface integrity microhardness in dry machining. The tested material was duplex stainless steel (DSS with two-phase, ferritic-austenitic structure. The tests have been performed under production conditions during machining of parts for electric motors and deep-well pumps.

  5. The impact of Ag nanoparticles on the parameters of DSS- cells sensitized by Z907

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrayev, N Kh; Aimukhanov, A K; Zeinidenov, A K

    2016-01-01

    Research of influence of Ag nanoparticles are in-process undertaken on absorption and on parameters CVC DSS-cells sensitized Z907. It is set that with the height of concentration Ag nanoparticles in tape to the concentration of 0.3% wt%. the absorbance of Z907 in a short-wave stripe grew to the value 1,6. It is set that under reaching the concentration of Ag nanoparticles in the cell of value the 0.3% wt%. efficiency of cell increased to 2.2%. (paper)

  6. Energy consumption analysis of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    This report continues the energy consumption analysis and verification study of the tracking stations of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, and presents an audit of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS 13). Due to the non-continuous radioastronomy research and development operations at the station, estimations of energy usage were employed in the energy consumption simulation of both the 9-meter and 26-meter antenna buildings. A 17.9% decrease in station energy consumption was experienced over the 1979-1981 years under study. A comparison of the ECP computer simulations and the station's main watt-hour meter readings showed good agreement.

  7. LandCaRe-DSS - model based tools for irrigation management under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wilkinson, Kristina; Cassel, Martin; Scherzer, Jörg; Köstner, Barbara; Berg, Michael; Grocholl, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a strong influence on agricultural systems in the future. It will be important for decision makers and stakeholders to assess the impact of climate change at the farm and regional level in order to facilitate and maintain a sustainable and profitable farming infrastructure. Climate change impact studies have to incorporate aspects of uncertainty and the underlying knowledge is constantly expanding and improving. Decision support systems (DSS) with flexible data bases are therefore a useful tool for management and planning: different models can be applied under varying boundary conditions within a conceptual framework and the results can be used e.g. to show the effects of climate change scenarios and different land management options. Within this project, the already existing LandCaRe DSS will be further enhanced and improved. A first prototype had been developed for two regions in eastern Germany, mainly to show the effects of climate change on yields, nutrient balances and farm economy. The new model version will be tested and applied for a region in north-western Germany (Landkreis Uelzen) where arable land makes up about 50% of overall land-use and where 80 % of the arable land is already irrigated. For local decision makers, it will be important to know how water demand and water availability are likely to change in the future: Is more water needed for irrigation? Is more water actually available for irrigation? Will the existing limits for ground water withdrawal be sufficient for farmers to irrigate their crops? How can the irrigation water demand be influenced by land management options like the use of different crops and varieties or different farming and irrigation techniques? The main tasks of the project are (I) the integration of an improved irrigation model, (II) the development of a standardized interface to apply the DSS in different regions, (III) to optimize the graphical user interface, (IV) to transfer and

  8. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  9. FATAL GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL TOXIC SHOCK-LIKE SYNDROME IN A CHILD WITH VARICELLA: REPORT OF THE FIRST WELL DOCUMENTED CASE WITH DETECTION OF THE GENETIC SEQUENCES THAT CODE FOR EXOTOXINS SPE A AND B, IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZTAJNBOK Jaques

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy seven-year-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit because of toxaemia associated with varicella. He rapidly developed shock and multisystem organ failure associated with the appearance of a deep-seated soft tissue infection and, despite aggressive treatment, died on hospital day 4. An M-non-typable, spe A and spe B positive Group A Streptococcus was cultured from a deep soft tissue aspirate. The criteria for defining Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome were fulfilled. The authors discuss the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this disease as well as some unusual clinical findings related to this case.

  10. Prevention of Chronic Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS in Mice Treated with FR91

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter R. M. Lombardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main treatments currently used in humans to fight cancer is chemotherapy. A huge number of compounds with antitumor activity are present in nature, and many of their derivatives are produced by microorganisms. However, the search for new drugs still represents a main objective for cancer therapy, due to drug toxicity and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. In animal models, a short-time oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to ulcerative colitis (UC. However, the pathogenic factors responsible for DSS-induced colitis and the subsequent colon cancer also remain unclear. We investigated the effect of FR91, a standardized lysate of microbial cells belonging to the Bacillus genus which has been previously shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects, against intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice during 5 weeks by oral administration 2% (DSS. Morphological changes in the colonic mucosa were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry methods. Adenocarcinoma and cryptal cells of the dysplastic epithelium showed cathenin-β, MLH1, APC, and p53 expression, together with increased production of IFN-γ. In our model, the optimal dose response was the 20% FR91 concentration, where no histological alterations or mild DSS-induced lesions were observed. These results indicate that FR91 may act as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation in mice DSS-induced colitis.

  11. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  12. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative troponin and death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest and new heart failure in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS): insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Sanjit S; Shenkman, Heather; Brieger, David; Fox, Keith A; Yan, Andrew T; Eagle, Kim A; Steg, P Gabriel; Lim, Ki-Dong; Quill, Ann; Goodman, Shaun G

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the extent of quantitative troponin elevation predicted mortality as well as in-hospital complications of cardiac arrest, new heart failure and cardiogenic shock. 16,318 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) were included. The maximum 24 h troponin value as a multiple of the local laboratory upper limit of normal was used. The population was divided into five groups based on the degree of troponin elevation, and outcomes were compared. An adjusted analysis was performed using quantitative troponin as a continuous variable with adjustment for known prognostic variables. For each approximate 10-fold increase in the troponin ratio, there was an associated increase in cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) (1.0, 2.4, 3.4, 5.9 and 13.4%; p<0.001 for linear trend), cardiogenic shock (0.5, 1.4, 2.0, 4.4 and 12.7%; p<0.001), new heart failure (2.5, 5.1, 7.4, 11.6 and 15.8%; p<0.001) and mortality (0.8, 2.2, 3.0, 5.3 and 14.0%; p<0.001). These findings were replicated using the troponin ratio as a continuous variable and adjusting for covariates (cardiac arrest, sustained VT or VF, OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.74; cardiogenic shock, OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.18; and new heart failure, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.71). The degree of troponin elevation was predictive of early mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81; p<0.001 for days 0-14) and longer term mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30, p=0.001 for days 15-180). The extent of troponin elevation is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality.

  14. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  15. A Decision Support System (DSS for Project Management in the Bio-diesel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European biodiesel industry is currently facing several challenges affecting the profitability of investment projects in the industry. Among these challenges are higher prices for oilseeds, which are the main input for biodiesel production, lower fiscal support by national governments for biodiesel producers and high price volatility of oil markets. Thus identifying all opportunities for optimizing the value chain and lower the production cost of biodiesel is a main requirement for an efficient project management in the biodiesel industry. The paper addresses this topic by developing a decision support system tailored to the needs of Romanian investors in biodiesel production. The system optimizes the main activities of the biodiesel value chain and supports the decision making process at management level. In addition the DSS enables the user to perform sensitivity analysis based on varying various input parameter.

  16. Validation of dispersion model of RTARC-DSS based on ''KIT'' field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the performance of the Gaussian dispersion model RTARC-DSS (Real Time Accident Release Consequences - Decision Support System) at the 'Kit' field experiments. The Model Validation Kit is a collection of three experimental data sets from Kincaid, Copenhagen, Lillestrom and supplementary Indianopolis experimental campaigns accompanied by software for model evaluation. The validation of the model has been performed on the basis of the maximum arc-wise concentrations using the Bootstrap resampling procedure the variation of the model residuals. Validation was performed for the short-range distances (about 1 - 10 km, maximum for Kincaid data set - 50 km from source). Model evaluation procedure and amount of relative over- or under-prediction are discussed and compared with the model. (author)

  17. Modelling decision support and uncertainty for large transport infrastructure projects: The CLG-DSS model of the Øresund Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    2007-01-01

    and Freight Transport (CLG), the CLG-DSS model, is based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) embedded in a wider multi-criteria analysis (MCA) by some principles for composite modelling assessment (COSIMA). The CLG-DSS model is set-up to make use of scenario analysis (SA) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS...

  18. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  19. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  20. Bridging EOS remote sensing measurements and fire emissions, smoke dispersion, and air quality DSS in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Ruixin Yang; Swarvanu Dasgupta; Sanjeeb Bhoi; Menas Kafatos

    1999-01-01

    Fire eniissions, smoke dispersiotl. ancl air quality are very important for fire fighting and planing of prescribed burning. BlueskyRATNS (BSR) is a comprehenisive and state-of-the-art Decision Support System (DSS) for fire managers and air quality managers to plan fiiels treatments and support state air qiiality smoke regulatory actions, especially related to...

  1. The Role of Decision Support System (DSS) in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Anchala (Raghupathy); M.P. Pinto (Maria); A. Shroufi (Amir); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); J. Sanderson (Jean); L.A. Johnson (Laura); P. Blanco (Patricia); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The potential role of DSS in CVD prevention remains unclear as only a few studies report on patient outcomes for cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies was done using

  2. Deep structure of crust and the upper mantle of the Mendeleev Rise on the Arktic­-2012 DSS profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kashubin, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Artemieva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    During high­latitude combined geological and geophysical expedition “Arctic­-2012”, deep seismic sounding (DSS) with ocean bottom seismometers were carried out in the Arctic Ocean along the line 740 km long, crossing the Mendeleev Rise at about 77° N. Crustal and upper mantle Vp­velocity and Vp...

  3. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  4. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  5. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2 deletion protects bone health of mice with DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Dobie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD often present with poor bone health. The development of targeted therapies for this bone loss requires a fuller understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Although bone loss in IBD is multifactorial, the altered sensitivity and secretion of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in IBD is understood to be a critical contributing mechanism. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2, a well-established negative regulator of GH signaling, is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, it is likely that SOCS2 expression represents a critical mediator through which proinflammatory cytokines inhibit GH/IGF-1 signaling and decrease bone quality in IBD. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS model of colitis, we reveal that endogenously elevated GH function in the Socs2−/− mouse protects the skeleton from osteopenia. Micro-computed tomography assessment of DSS-treated wild-type (WT mice revealed a worsened trabecular architecture compared to control mice. Specifically, DSS-treated WT mice had significantly decreased bone volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular number, and a resulting increase in trabecular separation. In comparison, the trabecular bone of Socs2-deficient mice was partially protected from the adverse effects of DSS. The reduction in a number of parameters, including bone volume, was less, and no changes were observed in trabecular thickness or separation. This protected phenotype was unlikely to be a consequence of improved mucosal health in the DSS-treated Socs2−/− mice but rather a result of unregulated GH signaling directly on bone. These studies indicate that the absence of SOCS2 is protective against bone loss typical of IBD. This study also provides an improved understanding of the relative effects of GH/IGF-1 signaling on bone health in experimental colitis, information that is essential before these drugs are

  6. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Zonulin transgenic mice show altered gut permeability and increased morbidity/mortality in the DSS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Craig; Lan, Jinggang; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-06-01

    Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice. IP was measured in vivo and ex vivo, and weight, histology, and survival were monitored. To mechanistically link zonulin-dependent impairment of small intestinal barrier function with clinical outcome, Ztm were treated with the zonulin inhibitor AT1001 added to drinking water in addition to DSS. We observed increased morbidity (more pronounced weight loss and colitis) and mortality (40-70% compared with 0% in WT) at 11 days post-DSS treatment in Ztm compared with WT mice. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements showed an increased IP at baseline in Ztm compared to WT mice, which was exacerbated by DSS treatment and was associated with upregulation of zonulin gene expression (fourfold in the duodenum, sixfold in the jejunum). Treatment with AT1001 prevented the DSS-induced increased IP both in vivo and ex vivo without changing zonulin gene expression and completely reverted morbidity and mortality in Ztm. Our data show that zonulin-dependent small intestinal barrier impairment is an early step leading to the break of tolerance with subsequent development of CIDs. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Capsulotomy for treatment of compartment syndrome in patients with post extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy renal hematomas: safe and effective, but also advisable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazal, Andreas; Schnoeller, Thomas J; Baechle, Christian; Steinestel, Julie; Jentzmik, Florian; Steffens, Sandra; Hirning, Christian; Schrader, Mark; Schrader, Andres J

    2014-07-08

    To examine whether surgical decompression of hematomas by capsulotomy can help to improve long-term renal function following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). This study retrospectively identified 7 patients who underwent capsulotomy for post SWL renal hematomas between 2008 and 2012. The control group comprised 8 conservatively treated patients. The median follow-up time was 22 months. The two groups were comparable in age, gender, body mass index, risk factors for developing hematomas (renal failure, urinary flow impairment, indwelling ureteral stent and diabetes mellitus) and the selected SWL modalities. Hematoma size was also similar. However, significantly more patients in the surgical group had purely intracapsular hematomas (85.7% vs. 37.5%) without a potentially pressure-relieving capsular rupture. There were no significant differences in the post-interventional drop in hemoglobin, rise in retention parameters or drop in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). No capsulotomy-related complications were observed, but surgery required a significantly longer hospital stay than conservative management (median, 9 days vs. 5 days). The two groups also showed comparable recovery of renal function at long-term follow-up (median change in GFR from baseline, 97.1% and 97.8%, respectively). Since renal function did not differ between the two treatment groups, the conservative management remains the standard treatment for post-SWL renal hematoma.

  9. Action of arginine for protection of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Maria Emilia Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of immunomodulators, such as arginine, in the regulation of inflammatory responses and trophism of the intestinal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms action of arginine (pretreatment or treatment) in experimental model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 5 groups: Control group (C): standard diet and water; Arginine group (ARG): diet supplementation with arginine and water; Colitis group (COL): standard diet and DSS solution; Pretreated group (PT): diet supplementation with arginine before and during colitis induction; Treated group (T): diet supplementation with arginine during colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. After this, all the mice were euthanized and blood, organs and intestinal fluid were collected for carrying out analyzes. Parameters such as intestinal permeability (IP), bacterial translocation (BT), histological analysis (histological score, morphometric analysis, collagen and mucins stain), nitrate and nitrite, cytokines and chemokines, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate and oxidative stress were performed. The ARG group did not show difference compared to group C in the investigated parameters (C vs ARG: p> 0.05). The COL group showed increased IP (C vs COL: p < 0.05) and BT (C vs COL: p <0.05). In the histological analysis, the COL group showed severe inflammation and reduction the crypts length. In addition, in the group COL observed increase infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in the colon, increase cytokine IL-17 and chemokine KC in serum and oxidative stress in the colon (COL vs C: p <0.05). In the arginine-supplemented groups (PT and T) was observed decrease IP and BT to blood, liver and lung (PT and T vs Col: p <0.05). Histological analysis showed that the arginine (PT and T) preserved the intestinal mucosa and crypts

  10. Propolis from Different Geographic Origins Suppress Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of DSS-Induced Colitis is Associated with Decreased Bacteroides spp. in the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Li, Qiangqiang; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Leu, Richard K Le; Conlon, Michael A; Wu, Liming; Hu, Fuliang

    2018-06-11

    Dietary supplementation with polyphenol-rich propolis can protect against experimentally-induced colitis. We examined whether different polyphenol compositions of Chinese propolis (CP) and Brazilian propolis (BP) influences their ability to protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS analysis confirmed that polyphenol compositions of CP and BP were dissimilar. Rats were given CP or BP by gavage (300 mg/kg body weight) throughout the study, starting 1 week prior to DSS treatment for 1 week followed by 3 d without DSS. CP and BP significantly reduced the colitis disease activity index relative to controls not receiving propolis, prevented significant DSS-induced colonic tissue damage and increased resistance to DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress as shown by reduced malonaldehyde levels and increased T-AOC levels. CP and BP significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic apoptosis. Colonic inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were suppressed by CP and BP, whereas only BP induced expression of TGF-β. CP, not BP, increased the diversity and richness of gut microbiota populations. Both forms of propolis significantly reduced populations of Bacteroides spp. Despite the dissimilar polyphenol compositions of CP and BP, their ability to protect against DSS-induced colitis is similar. Nevertheless, some different physiological impacts were observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  12. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  13. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  14. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  15. A cytochrome P450, OsDSS1, is involved in growth and drought stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Undan, Jerwin R; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yoshida, Kakoto; Undan, Jesusa Q; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya; Yokota, Takao; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2015-05-01

    Cytochrome P450s are among the largest protein coding gene families in plant genomes. However, majority of the genes remain uncharacterized. Here, we report the characterization of dss1, a rice mutant showing dwarfism and reduced grain size. The dss1 phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous point mutation we identified in DSS1, which is member of a P450 gene cluster located on rice chromosome 3 and corresponds to the previously reported CYP96B4/SD37 gene. Phenotypes of several dwarf mutants characterized in rice are associated with defects in the biosynthesis or perception of the phytohormones gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs). However, both GA and BR failed to rescue the dss1 phenotype. Hormone profiling revealed the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, as well as significant reductions in GA19 and GA53 levels, precursors of the bioactive GA1, in the mutant. The dss1 contents of cytokinin and auxins were not significantly different from wild-type plants. Consistent with the accumulation of ABA and metabolites, germination and early growth was delayed in dss1, which also exhibited an enhanced tolerance to drought. Additionally, expressions of members of the DSS1/CYP96B gene cluster were regulated by drought stress and exogenous ABA. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling revealed, among others, that cell wall-related genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were up- and down-regulated in dss1, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that DSS1 mediates growth and stress responses in rice by fine-tuning GA-to-ABA balance, and might as well play a role in lipid metabolism.

  16. Oral administration of Lentinus edodes β-glucans ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice via MAPK-Elk-1 and MAPK-PPARγ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Limin; Lin, Qinlu; Yang, Tao; Nie, Ying; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bo; Shen, Junjun; Liang, Ying; Tang, Yiping; Luo, Feijun

    2016-11-09

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of β-glucans from Lentinus edodes, and its molecular mechanism, the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis model of mice and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell inflammation model were used in this study. 40 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS (DSS treated only), DSS + low-βGs (500 mg kg -1 d -1 ) and DSS + high-βGs (1000 mg kg -1 d -1 ). The body weight of the mice with Lentinus edodes β-glucan supplementation increased significantly compared to the DSS group and the disease activity index (DAI) was improved in both βG-treated groups. Compared with the DSS group, histopathological analysis showed that the infiltration of inflammatory cells of both βG-treated groups decreased significantly in colonic tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of β-glucans decreases the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inhibits the expression of iNOS and several inflammatory factors: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as nitric oxide (NO) of the colonic tissues. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is closely related to the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. In the DSS-induced colitis model and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell model, βGs inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and blocked the phosphorylation of JNK/ERK1/2 and p38; βGs also suppress the phosphorylation of Elk-1 at Ser84 and the phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser112. Altogether, these results suggest that Lentinus edodes βGs could inhibit the DSS-induced ulcerative colitis and decrease inflammatory factor expressions. The molecular mechanism may be involved in suppressing MAPK signaling and inactivation of Elk-1 and activation of PPARγ.

  17. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  18. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  19. Designing a Decision Support System (DSS for Supplier Selection in Multiple Discount Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Shahrezaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at developing original components of Decision Support System (DSS in order to support the evaluation and selection of suppliers in multi products having limited capacity. To achieve this purpose, researchers have proposed three different models based on which suppliers allow selecting their own desired type of discount. Firstly based on the performed studies, some criteria have been suggested for evaluating the suppliers’ capability. These criteria will be selected by the buyer with respect to the purchase condition and type of the industry, and their importance level will be determined. Then based on multi-criteria decision models, evaluation of all the suppliers will be done. In this study fuzzy numbers are applied so as to translate qualitative criteria into quantitative one. Suppliers have been ranked according to the scores they have gained and the selection share of each from the whole quantity has been determined based on the multi-objective mathematical model. The existing model has exerted practical ways such as taking loans with determined interest as well as certain variables in order to compensate the shortage of budget the buyer encounters with. Outputs, which are, the selective suppliers and orders assigned to each of them are also to be considered by using Genetic Algorithm in MATLAB software for three parts in Emersan Company accordingly.

  20. Decision Support System (DSS) for MSMA Integrated Stormwater Management Ecohydrology for Sustainable Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohiyaden, H. A.; Haris, H.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has known to have several adverse impacts towards hydrological cycle due to increasing impervious surface and degradation of water quality in stormwater runoff. In the past, urban waterways have been confined to narrow river corridors with the channels canalised and concrete and other synthetic materials forming the bed and banks of the river. Apart from that, stormwater pollutants such as litter, debris and sediments in drainage system are common problems that can lead to flooding and the degradation of water quality. To solve this problem, implementing stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. This judgment of using BMPs depends on not only relevant theoretical considerations, but also a large amount of practical experience and the availability of relevant data, as well. To fulfil this task, the so-called Decision Support System (DSS) in MSMA Design Aid and Database system are able to assist engineers and developers in management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert level judgment procure some repetitive and large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment. One of the advantages of an expert system is that it provides automation of expert-level judgement using availability of checking tools system.

  1. New methods to measure and model logistics and goods effects by the use of the CLG-DSS Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the assessment and modelling of so-called logistics and goods effects (LG-effects) as part of a wider economic analysis by use of the developed CLG-DSS model. The results presented are based an on-going study, Task 9 about evaluation modelling and decision support systems (DSS......) in the Centre for Logistics and Goods Transport (CLG) 2001-2005 funded by the Danish Council for Technical-Scientific Research (STVF). Within the area of research on logistics the interaction between logistics and transportation is of great relevance. Task 9 and other recent studies have found that several...... companies are taking account of logistics and transport by setting up, among other things, specific departments to improve their handling. Some aspects in the transport sector concerning goods movement and consequences have not so far got the attention they deserve. In CLG Task 9 four LG-effects have been...

  2. Integrating economy, ecology and uncertainty in an oil-spill DSS: The Prestige accident in Spain, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Kai W.; Liu, Xin

    2006-12-01

    Major accidental oil spills still affect sensitive marine areas and shorelines around the world, constituting a challenge for operational as well as strategic contingency management. As a rationale basis for addressing both issues we here propose a Decision Support System (DSS) consisting of a combination of modelling and evaluation methods which in particular assesses various impacts on habitats and local economies. By integrating the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with wind and current forecasts, environmental GIS data and multi-criteria analysis techniques, the DSS is able to rank different response actions to a chemical or oil spill. In this study, the usefulness of the approach is tested by hindcasting the Prestige accident off the coast of Spain in 2002. In particular, the short- to mid-term economic and ecological consequences of different mitigation measures are estimated. We identified clearly one worst option matching the actual decision taken by the responsible parties and one or two almost equally well performing routes. Two procedures of including uncertainty at various stages of the DSS are tested. The first method averages ensembles of outcomes between each modelling/evaluation stage, while the second one preserves the entire degree of freedom till the final ranking procedure. Results in the Prestige case turned out to be rather insensitive against both ways to account for uncertainties. The robustness as well as clarity of the DSS has the potential to enhance the efficiency of decision making even in politically sensitive situations. Limitations as well as ongoing improvements of the system are highlighted, in particular emphasizing linkages to environmental economics.

  3. FLIRE DSS: A web tool for the management of floods and wildfires in urban and periurban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochilakis, Giorgos; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Varella, Vassiliki; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Eftychidis, Giorgos; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Papathanasiou, Chrysoula; Karavokyros, George; Aivazoglou, Maria; Makropoulos, Christos; Mimikou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A web-based Decision Support System, named FLIRE DSS, for combined forest fire control and planning as well as flood risk management, has been developed and is presented in this paper. State of the art tools and models have been used in order to enable Civil Protection agencies and local stakeholders to take advantage of the web based DSS without the need of local installation of complex software and their maintenance. Civil protection agencies can predict the behavior of a fire event using real time data and in such a way plan its efficient elimination. Also, during dry periods, agencies can implement "what-if" scenarios for areas that are prone to fire and thus have available plans for forest fire management in case such scenarios occur. Flood services include flood maps and flood-related warnings and become available to relevant authorities for visualization and further analysis on a daily basis. When flood warnings are issued, relevant authorities may proceed to efficient evacuation planning for the areas that are likely to flood and thus save human lives. Real-time weather data from ground stations provide the necessary inputs for the calculation of the fire model in real-time, and a high resolution weather forecast grid supports flood modeling as well as the development of "what-if" scenarios for the fire modeling. All these can be accessed by various computer sources including PC, laptop, Smartphone and tablet either by normal network connection or by using 3G and 4G cellular network. The latter is important for the accessibility of the FLIRE DSS during firefighting or rescue operations during flood events. All these methods and tools provide the end users with the necessary information to design an operational plan for the elimination of the fire events and the efficient management of the flood events in almost real time. Concluding, the FLIRE DSS can be easily transferred to other areas with similar characteristics due to its robust architecture and its

  4. Pilot Operation of Ex-core Neutron Sensors of Divers Shutdown System (DSS) Unit 2 Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakshtonis, Z.; Krivoshei, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Ignalina Safety Assessment, which was completed in December 1996, recommended the installation of a diverse shutdown system on the 2nd unit at Ignalina. During the PPR-2004 in the DSS project are created two independent shutdown systems by separating the absorber rods into two independent groups as follows: 1. One system (designated AZ) consists of the existing 24 BAZ rods and 49 AZ/BSM rods that together are used for reliable reactor shutdown (including Control and Protection System (CPS) circuit voiding accident). This system performs the emergency protection function. 2. The other system (designated BSM) comprises the remaining absorber rods and the 49 AZ/BSM rods. Thus 49 AZ/BSM rods are actuated from AZ initiating equipment as well as from BSM initiating equipment. The BSM system performs the normal reactor shutdown function and is able to ensure long-term maintenance of the reactor in the sub-critical state. Along with implementation of DSS was modernized existing Emergency Process Protection System, which was divided into two independent Sets of initiating equipment. The DSS is independent and diverse initiating equipment from the existing 1st Set equipment; with each set having its own independent in-core and ex-core sensors for measurement of neutron flux and process parameters. The 2nd Set of initiating equipment for measuring ex-core neutron flux, was modernized with new design of 4 Ex-Core detectors each have a single low level neutron flux detector and two high range neutron detectors. They are comprising: 1. A fission chamber which operates in pulse mode to cover the low flux levels. 2. A compensated ionisation chamber in current mode to operate at high flux level. This detector is doubled to give a measurement of the axial deviation. Two detectors are enough to produce the axial power deviation. The results of testing and analysis of pilot operation of ex-core neutron sensors of DSS will be shown on the Report. (author)

  5. Exosomes Derived from Dendritic Cells Treated with Schistosoma japonicum Soluble Egg Antigen Attenuate DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–150 nm small membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular medium via cells that function as a mode of intercellular communication. Dendritic cell (DC-derived exosomes modulate immune responses and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, Schistosoma japonicum eggs show modulatory effects in a mouse model of colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from DCs treated with S. japonicum soluble eggs antigen (SEA; SEA-treated DC exosomes would be useful for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exosomes were purified from the supernatant of DCs treated or untreated with SEA and identified via transmission electron microscopy, western blotting and NanoSight. Acute colitis was induced via the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water (5.0%, wt/vol. Treatment with exosomes was conducted via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.; 50 μg per mouse from day 0 to day 6. Clinical scores were calculated based on weight loss, stool type, and bleeding. Colon length was measured as an indirect marker of inflammation, and colon macroscopic characteristics were determined. Body weight loss and the disease activity index of DSS-induced colitis mice decreased significantly following treatment with SEA-treated DC exosomes. Moreover, the colon lengths of SEA-treated DC exosomes treated colitis mice improved, and their mean colon macroscopic scores decreased. In addition, histologic examinations and histological scores showed that SEA-treated DC exosomes prevented colon damage in acute DSS-induced colitis mice. These results indicate that SEA-treated DC exosomes attenuate the severity of acute DSS-induced colitis mice more effectively than DC exosomes. The current work suggests that SEA-treated DC exosomes may be useful as a new approach to treat IBD.

  6. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  7. Alfven shock trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  8. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  9. Decision-making support on rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories based on the use of site-specific PRANA DSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Mirzeabassov, O.A.; Okhrimenko, I.V.; Pichugina, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) PRANA is a Decision Support System (DSS) for countermeasure analysis in agriculture in the long-term period of liquidating the consequences of a nuclear accident. However, though PRANA(-98) is used at the Chernobyl Department (Ministry of Agriculture) and at the Bryansk Centre of Agrochemical Radiology for practical needs, but its possibilities are limited by the questions of agriculture. Conceptual requirements to GIS-DSSs, which are some considerable extension of the PRANA(-98) and meet all the main demands to DSSs for practical use, research and training on rehabilitation of contaminated territories, were elaborated in contacts with interested parties in Russia: Ministry of Agriculture, Minatom, Emercom, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science and Administration of Bryansk region. Realisation of the planned requirements and tasks have been achieved not through developing the only universal system, but through creating several GIS-DSSs (family of PRANA systems, each of them is intended for analysis of specific range of problems): - GIS-DSS for practical use (with introduction at appropriate Ministries and Centres); - GIS-DSS for research and for scientific and practical estimations; - GIS-DSS for training of the specialists; - GIS-DSS as well as computer realisation of thematic blocks for use as lectures, seminars and tests/questionnaires for aims of education (students, specialists); - elements of distributed systems and remote access to components of GIS-DSS (for practical use, training and education). The following sections, which have been realised in accordance with the chosen level of the system, represent in the aggregate a basis of each GIS-DSS indicated above: - databases (radioecological, economic, demographic and other monitoring data); - libraries of electronic maps (including different layers of vector maps of land use for territories under consideration); - spatial analysis of various data from databases

  10. Produção de enterotoxinas e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas na mastite bovina Production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nader Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C, D and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of São Paulo State, Brazil. Off 72 isolates, 38 (52.8% produced SEA, 38 (52.8% SEB, 32 (44.4% SED, 28 (38.9% SEC and 27 (37.5% TSST-1. From the 72 strains, 66 (91.7% produced, at least, one or more toxin, including TSST-1.

  11. Caracterización molecular de Streptococcus pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Traverso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes es el agente causal de varias enfermedades comunes entre las que se incluyen la faringoamigdalitis, la escarlatina y el impétigo. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha registrado mundialmente un resurgimiento de casos de enfermedad invasora y síndrome de shock tóxico estreptocócico (SSTE. El propósito del presente trabajo fue estudiar la diversidad genética, los factores de virulencia (genes spe, sme, ssa y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos de 10 cepas de S. pyogenes causantes de enfermedad invasora y SSTE. Los aislamientos fueron recuperados de hemocultivos de pacientes internados en el Hospital Santamarina y en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco (Tandil, Argentina entre diciembre de 2000 y abril de 2005. Predominaron 2 patrones de electroforesis en campo pulsante. El más frecuente comprendió 5 aislamientos del tipo emm1-T1, con perfil de toxinas speA, speB, speF, speG y smeZ. El segundo patrón más frecuente incluyó 2 aislamientos tipo emm3-TNT (speB, speF, speG. Estos dos tipos (emm1 y emm3 fueron los prevalentes en las infecciones invasoras. Las otras tres cepas correspondieron a los tipos emm49-TNT (speB, speC, speF, speG, emm75-T25 (speB, speF, speG y emm83-TNT (speB, speF, speG, ssa, smeZ. Se encontró diversidad genética entre las cepas aisladas, pero todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, cefotaxima, eritromicina, clindamicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina y rifampicina. Por tal motivo, aún es válido el tratamiento empírico con penicilina asociada a clindamicina.Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of common human diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever and impetigo. Nevertheless, the past decades have witnessed a worldwide resurgence in invasive disease and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence gene distribution (spe, sme and ssa genes and susceptibility pattern of 10 S. pyogenes isolates

  12. A geospatial soil-based DSS to reconcile landscape management and land protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Piero; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; D'Antonio, Amedeo; De Michele, Carlo; Iamarino, Michela; Langella, Giuliano; Florindo Mileti, Antonio; Pileri, Paolo; Vingiani, Simona; Terribile, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of UN Agenda 2030 may represent a great opportunity to place soil science at the hearth of many Sustainable Development Goals (e.g. SDGs 2, 3, 13, 15, 15.3, 16.7). On the other side the high complexity embedded in the factual implementation of SDG and many others ambitious objectives (e.g. FAO goals) may cause new frustrations if these policy documents will not bring real progresses. The scientific communities are asked to contribute to disentangle this complexity and possibly identifying a "way to go". This may help the large number of European directives (e.g. WFD, EIA), regulations and communications aiming to achieve a better environment but still facing large difficulties in their full implementation (e.g. COM2015/120; COM2013/683). This contribution has the motivation to provide a different perspective, thinking that the full implementation of SDGs and integrated land policies requires to challenge some key overlooked issues including full competence (and managing capability) about the landscape variability, its multi-functionalities (e.g. agriculture / environment) and its dynamic nature (many processes, including crops growth and fate of pollutants, are dynamic); moreover, it requires to support actions at a very detailed local scale since many processes and problems are site specific. The landscape and all the above issues have the soil as pulsing heart. Accordingly, we aim to demonstrate the multiple benefits in using a smart geoSpatial Decision Support System (S-DSS) grounded on soil modelling, called SOILCONSWEB (EU LIFE+ project and its extensions). It is a freely-accessible web platform based on a Geospatial Cyber-Infrastructure (GCI) and developed in Valle Telesina (South Italy) over an area of 20,000 ha. It supports a multilevel decision-making in agriculture and environment including the interaction with other land uses (such as landscape and urban planning) and thus it simultaneously delivers to SDGs 2, 3, 13, 15, 15.3, 16.7.

  13. Hydroeconomic DSS for optimal hydrology-oriented forest management in semiarid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Prats, A.; del Campo, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2016-12-01

    In semiarid regions like the Mediterranean, managing the upper-catchment forests for water provision goals (hydrology-oriented silviculture) offers a strategy to increase the resilience of catchments to droughts and lower precipitation and higher evapotranspiration due to climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management on vegetation water use and groundwater recharge is particularly important in those regions. Despite the essential role that forests play in the water cycle on the provision of water resources, this contribution is often neither quantified nor explicitly valued. The aim of this work is to develop a novel decision support system (DSS) based on hydro-economic modelling, for assessing and designing the optimal integrated forest and water management for forested catchments. Hydro-economic modelling may support the design of economically efficient strategies integrating the hydrologic, engineering, environmental and economic aspects of water resources systems within a coherent framework. The optimization model explicitly integrates changes in water yield (increase n groundwater recharge) induced by the management of forest density, and the value of the additional water provided to the system. This latter component could serve as an indicator for the design of a "payment for environmental services" scheme in which groundwater beneficiaries could contribute towards funding and promoting efficient forest management operations. Besides, revenues from timber logging are also articulated in the modelling. The case study was an Aleppo pine forest in south-western Valencia province (Spain), using a typical 100-year rotation horizon. The model determines the optimal schedule of thinning interventions in the stands in order to maximize the total net benefits in the system (timber and water). Canopy cover and biomass evolution over time were simulated using growth and yield allometric equations specific for the species in Mediterranean conditions

  14. Frondanol, a Nutraceutical Extract from Cucumaria frondosa, Attenuates Colonic Inflammation in a DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep B. Subramanya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J were given 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. The colitis group received oral Frondanol (100 mg/kg body weight/per day by gavage and were compared with a control group and the DSS group. Disease activity index (DAI and colon histology were scored for macroscopic and microscopic changes. Colonic tissue length, myeloperoxidase (MPO concentration, neutrophil and macrophage marker mRNA, pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins, and their respective mRNAs were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. The tissue content of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 was also measured using ELISA. Frondanol significantly decreased the DAI and reduced the inflammation-associated changes in colon length as well as macroscopic and microscopic architecture of the colon. Changes in tissue MPO concentrations, neutrophil and macrophage mRNA expression (F4/80 and MIP-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α both at the protein and mRNA level were significantly reduced by Frondanol. The increase in content of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4 induced by DSS was also significantly inhibited by Frondanol. It was thus found that Frondanol supplementation attenuates colon inflammation through its potent anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  16. COSIMA-DSS Evaluation System: A new Decision Support System for Large-Scale Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new decision support model COSIMA-DSS that examines socio-economic feasibility risks involved in the implementation of transport infrastructure projects. The model makes use of conventionally cost-benefit analysis embedded within a wider multi-criteria analysis. The basic...... approach set out in the paper looks upon the mix between so-called “hard” and “soft” evaluation criteria. Finally, a Monte-Carlo simulation is used to take account of the varying information relating to the different criteria....

  17. FLIRE DSS: A web tool for the management of floods and wildfires in urban and periurban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochilakis Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A web-based Decision Support System, named FLIRE DSS, for combined forest fire control and planning as well as flood risk management, has been developed and is presented in this paper. State of the art tools and models have been used in order to enable Civil Protection agencies and local stakeholders to take advantage of the web based DSS without the need of local installation of complex software and their maintenance. Civil protection agencies can predict the behavior of a fire event using real time data and in such a way plan its efficient elimination. Also, during dry periods, agencies can implement “what-if” scenarios for areas that are prone to fire and thus have available plans for forest fire management in case such scenarios occur. Flood services include flood maps and flood-related warnings and become available to relevant authorities for visualization and further analysis on a daily basis. When flood warnings are issued, relevant authorities may proceed to efficient evacuation planning for the areas that are likely to flood and thus save human lives. Real-time weather data from ground stations provide the necessary inputs for the calculation of the fire model in real-time, and a high resolution weather forecast grid supports flood modeling as well as the development of “what-if” scenarios for the fire modeling. All these can be accessed by various computer sources including PC, laptop, Smartphone and tablet either by normal network connection or by using 3G and 4G cellular network. The latter is important for the accessibility of the FLIRE DSS during firefighting or rescue operations during flood events. All these methods and tools provide the end users with the necessary information to design an operational plan for the elimination of the fire events and the efficient management of the flood events in almost real time. Concluding, the FLIRE DSS can be easily transferred to other areas with similar characteristics due to its

  18. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  19. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  20. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  1. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously

  2. The Inflammatory Sequelae of Aortic Balloon Occlusion in Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    respectively. There was a trend toward greater vasopressor use (P ¼ 0.183) and increased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (P ¼ 0.052) across the...Jansen JO. Intra operative correction of acidosis , coagulopathy and hypothermia in combat casualties with severe haemorrhagic shock. Anaesthesia...noncompressible torso hemorrhage. J Trauma 2011;71:S131. [19] Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the

  3. The use of AQUATOOL DSS applied to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Jiménez-Fernández, Pedro; Solera, Abel; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Currently, water accounts are one of the next steps to be implemented in European River Basin Management Plans. Building water accounts is a complex task, mainly due to the lack of common European definitions and procedures. For their development, when data is not systematically measured, simulation models and estimations are necessary. The main idea of this paper is to present a new approach which enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS) to fill in the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts presented in the System of Economic and Environmental Accounts for Water (SEEAW). The case study is the Vélez River Basin, located in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain. In addition to obtaining the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts in this river basin, we present here the indicators as a result thereof. These indicators cover many critical aspects of water management, showing a general description of the river basin and allowing decision-makers to characterise the pressures on water resources. As a general conclusion, the union of AQUATOOL DSS and SEEAW will provide more complete information to decision-makers and it enables to introduce these methodological decisions in order to guarantee consistency and comparability of the results between different river basins.

  4. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  5. Collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  6. Shocks near Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  7. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  8. Shock formation of HCO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  9. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  10. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases.

  11. A new screening instrument for disability in low-income and middle-income settings: application at the Iganga-Mayuge Demographic Surveillance System (IM-DSS), Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Galiwango, Edward; Kadobera, Daniel; Bentley, Jacob A; Bishai, David; Wegener, Stephen; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-12-19

    The measurement of disability in low-income countries is recognised as a major deficiency in health information systems, especially in Africa. The Iganga and Mayuge Demographic Surveillance System (IM-DSS) in Uganda provides a special opportunity to develop population-based data to inform national health policies and evaluate innovations in assessing the burden of disability in Uganda. In this study, we apply a new instrument to screen for physical disabilities at the IM-DSS. The study utilised a modified version of the short set of questions proposed by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. The instrument was applied at the household level and information was collected on all individuals over the age of 5, who were residents of the IM-DSS. The study was based at the IM-DSS, which covers the parts of Iganga and Mayuge districts in Eastern Uganda. 57,247 individuals were included in the survey, with 51% of the study population being women. Activity limitations The overall prevalence of physical disability at the IM-DSS was 9.4%, with vision being the most common type of difficulty reported in this population, and communication being least prevalent. Disability was less likely to be observed among males than their female counterparts (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81; pdisability and increasing age, as well as disability and decreasing household wealth status. This study shows that the modified short set of questions can be readily applied in a DSS setting to obtain estimates on the prevalence and types of disability at the population level. This instrument could be adapted for use to screen for disability in other LMIC settings, providing estimates that are comparable across different global regions and populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Dengue Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Transmission of the Dengue Virus Dengue is transmitted between people by the ... the vectors is too infrequent to sustain transmission. Dengue is an Emerging Disease The four dengue viruses ...

  13. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  14. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  15. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  16. Technology shocks matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  17. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  18. Shocks in fragile matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  19. Aplicación de los sistemas de soporte a la decisión (DSS en el comercio electrónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ruiz G.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de soporte a la decisión (DSS y el comercio electrónico (CE han surgido como áreas individuales. Sin embargo, actualmente, y desde hace unos años, los DSS y el CE se han fusionado para traer mayores ventajas y valor agregado a los clientes. Es sabido que existen diversos tipos de DSS y de categorías y modelos de negocio de CE. Por tal razón, la aplicabilidad de una área sobre la otra se expande a las posibles combinaciones que se puedan realizar entre esta diversidad de categorías. Algunos ejemplos representativos están relacionados con, por ejemplo, los sitios de subastas que a través de la aplicación de a- gentes inteligentes se pueda saber sobre cuál producto ofertar o cuándo y dónde vender; los portales web para clientes y em- pleados, los DSS permiten controlar la información de la empresa a la que pueden acceder y de esta forma tomar decisiones; las tiendas virtuales se pueden afectar positivamente con la aplicación de data mining y data warehouse; en los sistemas de ser- vicio al cliente se podrían usar complejos algoritmos de predicción y análisis “qué sucedería si” para identificar oportunidades de ingresos en mercados competitivos; y un sinnúmero más de aplicaciones, en donde el limite es la imaginación. Se requiere que las investigaciones en DSS/CE sean continuas debido al constante surgimiento de nuevos modelos de negocio y de subsiste- mas DSS. Para cada uno, las aplicaciones pueden ser variadas y aportar de forma bidireccional. Los nuevos mecanismos de in- teracción y los esfuerzos por satisfacer al cliente son también el centro de inspiración para nuevas aplicaciones de sistemas DSS en el comercio electrónico.

  20. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  1. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  2. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  3. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  4. Tension pneumocephalus mimicking septic shock: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Caroline; Mahta, Ali; Wheeler, Lee Adam; Tsiouris, A John; Kamel, Hooman

    2018-02-01

    Tension pneumocephalus can lead to rapid neurologic deterioration. We report for the first time its association with aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock and the efficacy of prompt neurosurgical intervention and critical care support in treating this condition. A 64-year-old man underwent 2-stage olfactory groove meningioma resection. The patient developed altered mental status and gait instability on postoperative day 6. Imaging showed significant pneumocephalus. The patient subsequently developed worsening mental status, respiratory failure, and profound shock requiring multiple vasopressors. Bedside needle decompression, identification and repair of the cranial fossa defect, and critical care support led to improved mental status and reversal of shock and multiorgan dysfunction. Thorough evaluation revealed no evidence of an underlying infection. In this case, tension pneumocephalus incited an aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock. Prompt neurosurgical correction of pneumocephalus and critical care support not only improved neurologic status, but also reversed shock. Such a complication indicates the importance of close monitoring of patients with progressive pneumocephalus.

  5. Tension pneumocephalus mimicking septic shock: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tension pneumocephalus can lead to rapid neurologic deterioration. We report for the first time its association with aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock and the efficacy of prompt neurosurgical intervention and critical care support in treating this condition. A 64-year-old man underwent 2-stage olfactory groove meningioma resection. The patient developed altered mental status and gait instability on postoperative day 6. Imaging showed significant pneumocephalus. The patient subsequently developed worsening mental status, respiratory failure, and profound shock requiring multiple vasopressors. Bedside needle decompression, identification and repair of the cranial fossa defect, and critical care support led to improved mental status and reversal of shock and multiorgan dysfunction. Thorough evaluation revealed no evidence of an underlying infection. In this case, tension pneumocephalus incited an aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock. Prompt neurosurgical correction of pneumocephalus and critical care support not only improved neurologic status, but also reversed shock. Such a complication indicates the importance of close monitoring of patients with progressive pneumocephalus.

  6. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  7. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  8. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  9. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  10. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  11. Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report 2 cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Case report of 2 patients, 1 with an acute and 1 with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pretreatment and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial culture results after oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

  12. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  15. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  16. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  17. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  18. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  19. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Markku S; Buerke, M.; Cohen-Solal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently bee...

  20. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  1. Penyusunan Panduan Pengelolaan Keamanan Informasi Untuk Firewall Configuration Berdasarkan Kerangka Kerja PCI DSS v.3.1 dan COBIT 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Puji Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information security systems must be protected from all attacks and interuptions by an unauthorized user. Firewall is a mechanism that can be applied to improve the security information which done by filtering data packets that enter and exit the network. IT governance is needed to manage good information security. IT governance can use to make the arrangement of guidelines for the management of information security. This research aims to create a reference guide to information security such as an information security management guide for firewall configuration that refers to the framework of PCI DSS v.3.1 and COBIT 5 by taking a case study at the DSIK Universitas Airlangga.Arrangement of guidelines for information security management for firewall configuration will be done in three stages. The first stage was the arrangement of information security management procedures for firewall configuration which consists of mapping analysis stage process, arrangement procedure’s stage and determining roles and job description’s stage. In the second stage was the verification of the information security management guidance using a questionnaire. The third stage was improvement of the information security management guidance. These improvements was done to correct deficiencies that were produced when verification. The verification results show that 42.86% of respondents said that management guidelines are operationally very easy to be implemented.

  2. Perancangan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi di BAPAPSI Pemkab Bandung Menggunakan framework COBIT 5 Pada Domain EDM dan DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rati Amanda Fajrin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has an important role to support the implementation of public information. Bandung regency government has one of the bodies, named BAPAPSI. The existing problems in BAPAPSI, especially in PPI are uneven internet network in all districts, bad internet connection, bad handling of the incident, and the procurement of servers that do not support the use of the application in BAPAPSI. Therefore, 7 lifecycle COBIT 5 methodology is used to solve the problems in BAPAPSI. COBIT 5 provides complete, comprehensive guidelines in helping organizations to achieve the effective use of IT. The first stage in this research is assess capability level, then the next stage are mapping governance objective, enterprise goals, IT Related Goals and IT Process on COBIT 5. So, the results are the priority process on EDM04 and DSS01 domain to be analyzed and to design procedure IT governance using COBIT 5. This research also recommends the target of organizational structure in accordance with the needs of the Bandung regency government.

  3. Evaluating the role of vegetation on the transport of contaminants associated with a mine tailing using the Phyto-DSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Resendiz, Omar; Rosa, Guadalupe de la; Cruz-Jimenez, Gustavo; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Robinson, Brett H.

    2011-01-01

    We identified contaminants associated with the Cata mine tailing depot located in the outskirts of the city of Guanajuato, Mexico. We also investigated strategies for their phytomanagement. Silver and antimony were present at 39 and 31 mg kg -1 , respectively, some twofold higher than the Dutch Intervention Values. Total and extractable boron (B) occurred at concentrations of 301 and 6.3 mg L -1 , respectively. Concentrations of B in soil solution above 1.9 mg L -1 have been shown to be toxic to plants. Plant growth may also be inhibited by the low concentrations of extractable plant nutrients. Analysis of the aerial portions of Aloe vera (L. Burm.f.) revealed that this plant accumulates negligible concentrations of the identified contaminants. Calculations using a whole system model (Phyto-DSS) showed that establishing a crop of A. vera would have little effect on the drainage or leaching from the site. However, this plant would reduce wind and water erosion and potentially produce valuable cosmetic products. In contrast, crops of poplar, a species that is tolerant to high soil B concentrations, would mitigate leaching from this site. Alternate rows of trees could be periodically harvested and be used for timber or bioenergy.

  4. Evaluating the role of vegetation on the transport of contaminants associated with a mine tailing using the Phyto-DSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano-Resendiz, Omar [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Rosa, Guadalupe de la, E-mail: delarosa@quijote.ugto.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz-Jimenez, Gustavo [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Chemistry Department and Environmental Science and Engineering, Ph.D. Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., 79968 El Paso, TX (United States); Robinson, Brett H. [Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 84 Lincoln, Canterbury 7646 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-15

    We identified contaminants associated with the Cata mine tailing depot located in the outskirts of the city of Guanajuato, Mexico. We also investigated strategies for their phytomanagement. Silver and antimony were present at 39 and 31 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, some twofold higher than the Dutch Intervention Values. Total and extractable boron (B) occurred at concentrations of 301 and 6.3 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of B in soil solution above 1.9 mg L{sup -1} have been shown to be toxic to plants. Plant growth may also be inhibited by the low concentrations of extractable plant nutrients. Analysis of the aerial portions of Aloe vera (L. Burm.f.) revealed that this plant accumulates negligible concentrations of the identified contaminants. Calculations using a whole system model (Phyto-DSS) showed that establishing a crop of A. vera would have little effect on the drainage or leaching from the site. However, this plant would reduce wind and water erosion and potentially produce valuable cosmetic products. In contrast, crops of poplar, a species that is tolerant to high soil B concentrations, would mitigate leaching from this site. Alternate rows of trees could be periodically harvested and be used for timber or bioenergy.

  5. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  6. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  8. Bacterial Feeders, the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the Flagellate Cercomonas longicauda, have different Effects on Outcome of Competition among the Pseudomonas Biocontrol Strains CHA0 and DSS73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Nybroe, Ole; Winding, Anne

    2009-01-01

    How bacterial feeding fauna affects colonization and survival of bacteria in soil is not well understood, which constrains the applicability of bacterial inoculants in agriculture. This study aimed to unravel how food quality of bacteria and bacterial feeders with different feeding habits (the......50090 or one of two biocontrol strains P. fluorescens CHA0 or Pseudomonas sp. DSS73) or combinations of two bacterial strains. DSM50090 is a suitable food bacterium, DSS73 is of intermediate food quality, and CHA0 is inedible to the bacterial feeders. Bacterial and protozoan cell numbers were measured...... predation pressure. Hence, the results suggested that the outcome of competition among bacteria depended on their ability to cope with the prevailing bacterial predator....

  9. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  10. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  11. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  12. The Shock Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  13. The Impact of the Sepsis-3 Septic Shock Definition on Previously Defined Septic Shock Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Sarah A; Puskarich, Michael A; Glass, Andrew F; Guirgis, Faheem; Jones, Alan E

    2017-09-01

    The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) recently recommended changes to the definitions of sepsis. The impact of these changes remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the outcomes of patients meeting Sepsis-3 septic shock criteria versus patients meeting the "old" (1991) criteria of septic shock only. Secondary analysis of two clinical trials of early septic shock resuscitation. Large academic emergency departments in the United States. Patients with suspected infection, more than or equal to two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg after fluid resuscitation. Patients were further categorized as Sepsis-3 septic shock if they demonstrated hypotension, received vasopressors, and exhibited a lactate greater than 2 mmol/L. We compared in-hospital mortality in patients who met the old definition only with those who met the Sepsis-3 criteria. Four hundred seventy patients were included in the present analysis. Two hundred (42.5%) met Sepsis-3 criteria, whereas 270 (57.4%) met only the old definition. Patients meeting Sepsis-3 criteria demonstrated higher severity of illness by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (9 vs 5; p definition demonstrated significant mortality benefit following implementation of a quantitative resuscitation protocol (35% vs 10%; p = 0.006). In this analysis, 57% of patients meeting old definition for septic shock did not meet Sepsis-3 criteria. Although Sepsis-3 criteria identified a group of patients with increased organ failure and higher mortality, those patients who met the old criteria and not Sepsis-3 criteria still demonstrated significant organ failure and 14% mortality rate.

  14. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  15. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  16. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  17. Intestinal Anti-inflammatory Effects of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in DSS-Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Fábrega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN is a probiotic strain with proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. However, the microbial factors that mediate these beneficial effects are not fully known. Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs as a direct pathway for delivering selected bacterial proteins and active compounds to the host. In fact, vesicles released by gut microbiota are emerging as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis mouse model was used to investigate the potential of EcN OMVs to ameliorate mucosal injury and inflammation in the gut. The experimental protocol involved pre-treatment with OMVs for 10 days before DSS intake, and a 5-day recovery period. Oral administration of purified EcN OMVs (5 μg/day significantly reduced DSS-induced weight loss and ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. OMVs treatment counteracted altered expression of cytokines and markers of intestinal barrier function. This study shows for the first time that EcN OMVs can mediate the anti-inflammatory and barrier protection effects previously reported for this probiotic in experimental colitis. Remarkably, translation of probiotics to human healthcare requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in probiotic–host interactions. Thus, OMVs, as a non-replicative bacterial form, could be explored as a new probiotic-derived therapeutic approach, with even lower risk of adverse events than probiotic administration.

  18. Aspectos relevantes dos SAD nas organizações: um estudo exploratório Relevant aspects from DSS in organizations: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zenaide Clericuzi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A informação vem auxiliando as organizações a alcançarem seus objetivos num ambiente de crescente concorrência, exigindo delas rapidez, flexibilidade e alta percepção. A abrangência cada vez maior do uso dos Sistemas de Apoio à Decisão (SAD como suporte na solução de problemas tem como proposta o processamento de informação para reduzir a incerteza e resolver conflitos. Este artigo tem como objetivo fazer uma investigação sobre os SAD nas organizações brasileiras. Para tal, foi conduzida uma pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, sobre o assunto, foram utilizados questionários que investigaram os SAD nas empresas brasileiras e aspectos relevantes destes sistemas.Information is supporting organizations to reach theirs objectives. Competition is increasing in organizational environment, requiring capability, flexibility and high perception. Decision Support Systems (DSS are becoming greater as a tool for solution of problems, processing information to reduce uncertain in decision problems and deciding conflicts. The objective of this paper is reports a study about DSS in organizations. For such an empirical investigation of literature in DSS and an empirical research were done. Questionnaires had been used to investigate the relevant aspects of SAD in the Brazilian companies.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corthier Gérard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 manganese-dependant catalase (MnKat in Lb. casei BL23 successfully enhances its survival when exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of this antioxidative Lb. casei strain in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced moderate colitis. Results Either Lb. casei BL23 MnKat- or MnKat+ was administered daily to mice treated with DSS for 10 days. In contrast to control mice treated with PBS for which DSS induced bleeding diarrhea and mucosal lesions, mice treated with both Lb. casei strains presented a significant (p Conclusion No contribution of MnKat to the protective effect from epithelial damage has been observed in the tested conditions. In contrast, these results confirm the high interest of Lb. casei as an anti-inflammatory probiotic strain.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tatiana; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Fourage, Christel; Hoebler, Christine; Corthier, Gérard; Langella, Philippe

    2007-07-20

    Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 manganese-dependant catalase (MnKat) in Lb. casei BL23 successfully enhances its survival when exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of this antioxidative Lb. casei strain in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced moderate colitis. Either Lb. casei BL23 MnKat- or MnKat+ was administered daily to mice treated with DSS for 10 days. In contrast to control mice treated with PBS for which DSS induced bleeding diarrhea and mucosal lesions, mice treated with both Lb. casei strains presented a significant (p casei as an anti-inflammatory probiotic strain.

  1. Flt3/Flt3L Participates in the Process of Regulating Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunoregulation between dendritic cells (DCs and regulatory T cells (T-regs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC. Recent research showed that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3 and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L were involved in the process of DCs regulating T-regs. The DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human UC. In this study, we observe the disease activity index (DAI and histological scoring, detect the amounts of DCs and T-regs and expression of Flt3/Flt3L, and investigate Flt3/Flt3L participating in the process of DCs regulating T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that the reduction of Flt3 and Flt3L expression may possibly induce colonic immunoregulatory imbalance between CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Flt3/Flt3L participates in the process of regulating DCS and T-regs in the pathogenesis of UC, at least, in the acute stage of this disease.

  2. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  3. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  4. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  5. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  6. Generalized DSS shell for developing simulation and optimization hydro-economic models of complex water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Harou, Julien J.; Andreu, Joaquin

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure management at the river basin scale. These models simultaneously analyze engineering, hydrology and economic aspects of water resources management. Two new tools have been designed to develop models within this approach: a simulation tool (SIM_GAMS), for models in which water is allocated each month based on supply priorities to competing uses and system operating rules, and an optimization tool (OPT_GAMS), in which water resources are allocated optimally following economic criteria. The characterization of the water resource network system requires a connectivity matrix representing the topology of the elements, generated using HydroPlatform. HydroPlatform, an open-source software platform for network (node-link) models, allows to store, display and export all information needed to characterize the system. Two generic non-linear models have been programmed in GAMS to use the inputs from HydroPlatform in simulation and optimization models. The simulation model allocates water resources on a monthly basis, according to different targets (demands, storage, environmental flows, hydropower production, etc.), priorities and other system operating rules (such as reservoir operating rules). The optimization model's objective function is designed so that the system meets operational targets (ranked according to priorities) each month while following system operating rules. This function is analogous to the one used in the simulation module of the DSS AQUATOOL. Each element of the system has its own contribution to the objective function through unit cost coefficients that preserve the relative priority rank and the system operating rules. The model incorporates groundwater and stream-aquifer interaction (allowing conjunctive use simulation) with a wide range of modeling options, from lumped and analytical approaches to parameter-distributed models (eigenvalue approach). Such

  7. MTGR1 Is Required for Tumorigenesis in the Murine AOM/DSS Colitis-Associated Carcinoma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Fingleton, Barbara; Williams, Amanda; Ning, Wei; Fischer, Melissa A.; Washington, Mary K.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid Translocation Gene, Related-1 (MTGR1) CBFA2T2 is a member of the Myeloid Translocation Gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. The remaining two family members, MTG8 (RUNX1T1) and MTG16 (CBFA2T3) are identified as targets of chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mtgr1−/− mice have defects in intestinal lineage allocation and wound healing. Moreover, these mice show signs of impaired intestinal stem cell function. Based on these phenotypes, we hypothesized that MTGR1 may influence tumorigenesis arising in an inflammatory background. We report that Mtgr1−/− mice were protected from tumorigenesis when injected with azoxymethane (AOM) and then subjected to repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Tumor cell proliferation was comparable, but Mtgr1−/− tumors had significantly higher apoptosis rates. These phenotypes were dependent on epithelial injury, the resultant inflammation, or a combination of both as there was no difference in aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or tumor burden when animals were treated with AOM as the sole agent. Gene expression analysis indicated that Mtgr1−/− tumors had significant upregulation of inflammatory networks, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for immune cell subsets revealed a marked multilineage increase in infiltrates, consisting predominately of CD3+ and natural killer T (NKT) cells as well as macrophages. Transplantation of wild type (WT) bone marrow into Mtgr1−/− mice, and the reciprocal transplant, did not alter the phenotype, ruling out an MTGR1 hematopoietic cell-autonomous mechanism. Our findings indicate that MTGR1 is required for efficient inflammatory carcinogenesis in this model, and implicate its dysfunction in colitis-associated carcinoma. This represents the first report functionally linking MTGR1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:21303973

  8. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Shock in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...... failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. RESULTS: We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100...

  10. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  11. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  12. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  13. Impact of a shift in nuchal translucency measurements on the detection rate of first-trimester Down syndrome screening: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Nicolas; Salomon, Laurent J; Muller, Françoise; Dreux, Sophie; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Coquel, Philippe; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Dommergues, Marc

    2018-01-01

    To assess the distribution of nuchal translucency (NT) measurements following a national policy without credentialing and its impact on first-trimester Down syndrome screening (DSS) detection rate. All first-trimester DSS data recorded in France (2010-2014) were collected by the laboratories in charge via an Internet database (https://www.bionuqual.org/echo.php). There was no minimal requirement for image quality to allow sonographers to enter the screening process. A subgroup of DSS with complete DS follow-up corresponded to 1614 sonographers. Based on the distribution of maternal age, DS detection rate was calculated and split as a function of the distribution of NT multiple of the median (MoM). Four thousand nine hundred forty-three sonographers performed 2,337,372 NT measurements. Median NT expressed in MoM was 0.83. Screenings with complete follow-up consisted of 197,417 screenings, in which DSS detection rates were respectively 70.4%, 70.9%, 79.4%, 87.7%, and 79.5% for the following median NT MoM ranges: 0.99 (trend χ = 12.21; P = .0158). In France, following a policy of quality assessment without standardized credentialing, the distribution of NT measurements did not fit the expected distribution. Down syndrome detection rate was 10% lower in screenings by sonographers with a median NT < 0.80 MoM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  15. Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.

  16. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  17. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  18. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  19. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  20. DSS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FROWEIN, JC; POSTMA, TJBM

    1992-01-01

    Information technology in relation to organizational diagnosis and organizational change is the subject of extensive and increasing discussion. A condition for change is insight into organizational problems. This paper discusses the relation between the concepts ''problem'', ''decision making'' and

  1. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartquist, T.W.; Oppenheimer, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km s -1 Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H 2 S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds

  2. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  3. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  4. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  5. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...

  6. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...

  7. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  8. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  9. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  10. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  11. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  12. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  13. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  14. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  15. Analysis of shock implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C. (Polytechnic Inst. of New York, Brooklyn (USA))

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant ..gamma... To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient over the whole classical interval 1<..gamma..

  16. Organ distribution of radiolabeled enteric Escherichia coli during and after hemorrhagic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redan, J.A.; Rush, B.F.; McCullough, J.N.; Machiedo, G.W.; Murphy, T.F.; Dikdan, G.S.; Smith, S.

    1990-01-01

    Translocation of intestinal bacteria to the blood during hemorrhagic shock (HS) has been confirmed in rats and humans. The current study was designed to trace the path of translocated intestinal bacteria in a murine HS model. Thirty-one rats were gavaged with 1,000,000 counts of viable 14C oleic acid-labeled Escherichia coli. Forty-eight hours later the animals were bled to 30 mmHg until either 80% of their maximal shed blood was returned or 5 hours of shock had elapsed and they were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate as previously described. Control animals were cannulated but not shocked. Eight rats immediately after shock and resuscitation, 6 rats 24 hours after shock, 3 rats 48 hours after shock, and 4 animals that died in shock had their heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and serum harvested, cultured, and radioactive content measured. Translocated enteric bacteria are found primarily in the lung immediately after shock with redistribution to the liver and kidney 24 hours later. Animals surviving to 48 hours were capable of eliminating the majority of the bacteria from their major organ systems. Positive cultures for E. coli were also found in the blood, lung, liver, and kidney. We speculate that the inflammatory response stimulated by the bacteria in these organs may contribute to the multiple-organ failure syndrome seen after HS

  17. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  18. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  19. Effect of vitamin C on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated early colon cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hee-Jin; Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Eunju; Shin, Jae-Ho; Seok, Pu Reum; Woo, Moon Jea; Kim, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on inflammation, tumor development, and dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated early colon cancer mouse model. Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with AOM [10 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] and given two 7-d cycles of 2% DSS drinking water with a 14 d inter-cycle interval. Vitamin C (60 mg/kg b.w. and 120 mg/kg b.w.) was supplemented by gavage for 5 weeks starting 2 d after the AOM injection. The vitamin C treatment suppressed inflammatory morbidity, as reflected by disease activity index (DAI) in recovery phase and inhibited shortening of the colon, and reduced histological damage. In addition, vitamin C supplementation suppressed mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β , and IL-6 , and reduced expression of the proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, compared to observations of AOM/DSS animals. Although the microbial composition did not differ significantly between the groups, administration of vitamin C improved the level of inflammation-related Lactococcus and JQ084893 to control levels. Vitamin C treatment provided moderate suppression of inflammation, proliferation, and certain inflammation-related dysbiosis in a murine model of colitis associated-early colon cancer. These findings support that vitamin C supplementation can benefit colonic health. Long-term clinical studies with various doses of vitamin C are warranted.

  20. Computer Based ex-ante Evaluation of the Planned Railway Line between Copenhagen and Ringsted by use of a Decision Support System named COSIMA-DSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Landex, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an appraisal study concerning the extension of the main railway line between Copenhagen and Ringsted by use of a software system named COSIMA-DSS. The modelling system is based upon a multi-methodological approach combining a cost-benefit analysis together with a multi......-criteria analysis. One of the key impacts in cost-benefit analyses is the time benefit which depends on the timetabling. The paper describes some of the challenges related to the calculation of the time benefits and how the time benefits can be implemented in the decision support system. At the end of the paper...

  1. Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit; Nielsen, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing......-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi....

  2. Loss of PACS-2 delays regeneration in DSS-induced colitis but does not affect the ApcMin model of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah L.; Schwarz, Jeanette; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    in these processes. Specifically, we analyzed the role of Pacs2- deficiency in a DSS-induced colitis model as well as in the genetic ApcMin colon cancer model. We now report that loss of PACS-2 delays tissue regeneration after colonic injury with little effect on key inflammatory parameters. We did however...... not observe any apparent effects on tumor formation driven by excessive proliferative signaling downstream from APC-deficiency. Our findings reveal that the role of PACS- 2 in regulating ADAM17-mediated shedding is not an obligate requirement for the epithelium to respond to the strong inflammatory...

  3. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  4. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  5. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  6. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  7. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  8. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  9. Cardiogenic shock caused by a left midventricular obstruction during refeeding in a patient with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoko; Kioka, Hidetaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Saori; Momose, Kota; Ohtani, Tomohito; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Wasa, Masafumi; Nakatani, Satoshi; Sakata, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    Refeeding syndrome occurs when reinstating nutrition to severely malnourished patients. It can sometimes be fatal, particularly as a result of cardiac involvement such as congestive heart failure and arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to report a case of cardiogenic shock that occurred during refeeding in a patient with anorexia nervosa (AN). The cardiogenic shock was due to a previously unrecognized mechanism, namely a transient left midventricular obstruction that completely disappeared after treatment. A 46-y-old woman with AN who had followed a carbohydrate- and a fat-deficient diet for >10 y was hospitalized for dyspnea on exertion. She had severely impaired cardiac systolic function on admission and was considered high risk for refeeding syndrome. During a stepwise increase of calories, she showed no electrolyte or mineral abnormalities characteristic of refeeding syndrome. After intravenous administration of a fat emulsion, the patient suffered from cardiogenic shock due to an unexpected mechanism, namely a left midventricular obstruction caused by cardiac hypercontraction, a thickened left ventricular wall, and intravascular volume depletion. With cessation of the fat emulsion and initiation of volume repletion she recovered from shock immediately and her echocardiogram returned to normal by discharge. This case illustrated a novel cause of cardiogenic shock during refeeding and the need for caution during the intravenous administration of a fat emulsion in patients with initial left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gloag

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  11. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  12. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  13. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.

  14. Massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Kamphausen, Thomas; Bajanowski, Thomas; Trübner, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    A 76-year-old male suffering from nephrolithiasis developed a shock syndrome 5 days after extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). CT scan of the abdomen showed massive haemorrhage around the right kidney. Although nephrectomy was performed immediately, the haemorrhage could not be controlled. Numerous units of erythrocytes were transfused, but the patient died. The autopsy revealed massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage around the right kidney. The kidney showed a subcapsular haematoma and a rupture of the capsule. The right renal artery was dissected. The inferior vena cava was lacerated. Accordingly, a hemorrhagic shock as the cause of death was determined, which might mainly have resulted from the laceration of the inferior vena cava due to ESWL. ESWL seems to be a relatively non-invasive modality, but one of its severe complications is perirenal hematoma. The injuries of the blood vessels might have been caused by excessive shock waves. Subsequently, anticoagulation therapy had been resumed 3 days after EWSL, which might have triggered the haemorrhage. Physicians should note that a haemorrhage after an ESWL can occur and they should pay attention to the postoperative management in aged individuals especially when they are under anticoagulation therapy.

  15. TUMOR-GROWTH DELAY BY LASER-GENERATED SHOCK-WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.; Löwik, C. W.; Donkers, L. H.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of laser-generated shock waves (L-SW) was investigated on a human renal cell carcinoma, RC-8, grown subcutaneously in the nu/nu mouse. The RC-8 is characterized by the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) associated with profound cachexia, increase of

  16. Abrupt reflow enhances cytokine-induced proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells during simulated shock and resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ranran; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Kamps, Jan A. A. M.; van Meurs, Matijs; Molema, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    Circulatory shock and resuscitation are associated with systemic hemodynamic changes, which may contribute to the development of MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In this study, we used an in vitro flow system to simulate the consecutive changes in blood flow as occurring during

  17. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  18. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  19. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  20. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  1. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  2. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  3. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  4. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  5. Differential intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius in DSS mouse colitis: impact on microRNAs expression and microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Vezza, Teresa; Utrilla, M Pilar; Chueca, Natalia; Garcia, Federico; Olivares, Mónica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2017-11-01

    To compare the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of two probiotics Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius in mouse colitis, focusing on their impact on selected miRNAs and microbiota composition. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10): non-colitic, DSS colitic and two colitic groups treated with probiotics (5 × 10 8 CFU/mouse/day). Both probiotics ameliorated macroscopic colonic damage. They improved the colonic expression of markers involved in the immune response, and the expression of miR-155 and miR-223. L. fermentum also restored miR-150 and miR-143 expression, also linked to the preservation of the intestinal barrier function. Besides, these beneficial effects were associated with the amelioration of the microbiota dysbiosis and a recovery of the SCFAs- and lactic acid-producing bacterial populations, although only L. fermentum improved Chao richness, Pielou evenness and Shannon diversity. Moreover, L. fermentum also restored the Treg cell population in MLNs and the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Both probiotics exerted intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-mouse colitis, maybe due to their ability to restore the intestinal microbiota homeostasis and modulate the immune response. L. fermentum showed a greater beneficial effect compared to L. salivarius, which makes it more interesting for future studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Physicochemical and nutraceutical properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves and their effects in an in vivo AOM/DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Nuñez, M L; Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gallegos-Corona, M A; González de Mejía, E; Loarca-Piña, G

    2018-03-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is a plant that has generated great interest in recent years because of its attributed medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds of moringa leaves (MO) and evaluate their effect on a colorectal carcinogenesis model. Twenty-four male CD-1 mice were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 fed with basal diet (negative control/NC); Group 2 received AOM/DSS (positive control); Groups 3 and 4 were fed with basal diet supplemented with moringa leaves (2.5% w/w and 5% w/w, respectively) for 12weeks. Moringa leaves exhibited a high content of dietary fiber (~18.75%) and insoluble dietary fiber (2.29%). There were identified 9 phenolic compounds whereas the chlorogenic and ρ-coumaric acid showed the higher contents (44.23-63.34μg/g and 180.45-707.42μg/g, respectively). Moringa leaves decreased the activity of harmful fecal enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, tryptophanase and urease up to 40%, 43%, 103% and 266%, respectively) as well tumors incidence in male CD1-mice (~50% with 5% w/v of moringa dose). These findings suggest that the bioactive compounds of moringa such as total dietary fiber and phenolic compounds may have chemopreventive capacity. This is the first study of the suppressive effect of moringa leaves in an in vivo model of AOM/DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soybean and fish oil mixture increases IL-10, protects against DNA damage and decreases colonic inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Patrícia O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It was investigated whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could influence colonic injury, tissue DNA damage, cytokines and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and plasma corticosterone in DSS-induced colitis rats. Male weaning Wistar rats were fed for 47 days with an AIN-93 diet with control (C, fish (F or a mixture of fish and soybean oil (SF. The colitis was induced from day 36 until day 42 by 3% DSS in drinking water. On day 48, blood samples were collected for corticosterone determination. The distal colon was excised for histological analysis and to quantify the cytokine (IL-4, IL-10 and INF-γ, MPO and DNA damage. The disease activity index (DAI was recorded daily during colitis induction. The DAI, MPO, histological analyses showed decreases only in the SF group compared with the C group. IL-10 was increased and DNA damage was reduced in the groups F and SF, and an inverse correlation between these variables was found. There were no differences in corticosterone, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Soybean and fish oil mixture may be effective in improving colonic injury and DNA damage, and it could be an important complementary therapy in UC to reduce the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and prevent colorectal cancer.

  8. In-Depth Analysis of Exoproteomes from Marine Bacteria by Shotgun Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: the Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 Case-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Armengaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms secrete into their extracellular environment numerous compounds that are required for their survival. Many of these compounds could be of great interest for biotechnology applications and their genes used in synthetic biology design. The secreted proteins and the components of the translocation systems themselves can be scrutinized in-depth by the most recent proteomic tools. While the secretomes of pathogens are well-documented, those of non-pathogens remain largely to be established. Here, we present the analysis of the exoproteome from the marine bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 grown in standard laboratory conditions. We used a shotgun approach consisting of trypsin digestion of the exoproteome, and identification of the resulting peptides by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Three different proteins that have domains homologous to those observed in RTX toxins were uncovered and were semi-quantified as the most abundantly secreted proteins. One of these proteins clearly stands out from the catalogue, representing over half of the total exoproteome. We also listed many soluble proteins related to ABC and TRAP transporters implied in the uptake of nutrients. The Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 case-study illustrates the power of the shotgun nano-LC-MS/MS strategy to decipher the exoproteome from marine bacteria and to contribute to environmental proteomics.

  9. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  11. Sepsis and septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  12. A web-based spatial decision supporting system (S-DSS) for grapevine quality: the viticultural tool of the SOILCONS-WEB Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Piero; Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Langella, Giuliano; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Florindo Mileti, Antonio; Minieri, Luciana; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The SOILCONSWEB Project aims to create a decision support system operating at the landscape scale (Spatial-DSS) for the protection and the management of soils in both agricultural and environmental issues; it is a cyber-infrastructure built on remote servers operating through the web at www.landconsultingweb.eu. It includes - among others - a series of tools specifically designed to a Viticulture aiming at high quality wines production. The system is realized thanks to a collaboration between the University of Naples Federico II, CNR ISAFoM, Ariespace srl and SeSIRCA-Campania Region within a 5-years LIFE+ project funded by European Community. The system includes tools based on modelling procedures at different level of complexity some of which specifically designed for viticulture issues. One of the implemented models arise from the original desktop based SWAP model (Kroes et al, 2008). It can be run "on the fly" through a very user friendly web-interface. The specific tool, thanks to the model based on the Richard's equation can produce data on vineyard water stress, simulating the soil water balances of the different soil types within an area of interest. Thanks to a specific program developed within the project activities, the Spatial-DSS every day acquires punctual weather data and automatically spatialize them with geostatistical approaches in order to use the data as input for the SPA (Soil Plant Atmosphere ) model running. In particular for defining the upper boundary condition (rainfall and temperatures to estimate ET0 by the Hargraves model). Soil hydraulic properties (47 soil profiles within the study area), also essential for modelling simulation, were measured in laboratory using the Wind's approach or estimated through HYPRES PTF. Water retention and hydraulic conductivity relationships were parameterized according to the van Genuchten-Mualem model; Decision makers (individuals, groups of interests and public bodies) through the DSS can have real

  13. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  14. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  15. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  16. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  17. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  18. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  19. Detecção da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina Detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F.T. Cardoso

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE A, B, C e D em 127 amostras de S. aureus, isoladas de amostras de leite proveniente de vacas com mastite no Estado de Minas Gerais, entre 1994 e 1997. A verificação da produção de toxinas foi feita pela técnica de sensibilidade ótima em placa. Das 127 amostras testadas, 60 (47% eram produtoras de TSST-1 e 54 (43% produtoras de SE, 38 amostras produziram SED (30%, 24 SEB (19%, 8 SEC (6% e 4 SEA (3%. Estes resultados trazem preocupações quanto à saúde pública pela alta prevalência de amostras de S. aureus produtoras de TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas em isolamentos a partir de leite de vacas com mastite.A total of 127 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C and D. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. The toxins were detected using the optimum-sensitivity plate method. Of 127 isolates, 60 (47% produced TSST-1 and 54 (43% produced SE, 38 (30% produced SED, 24 (19% SEB, 8 (6% SEC and 4 (3% enterotoxin A..

  20. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  1. Aarskog syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  2. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  3. Cushing's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    宗, 友厚; 伊藤, 勇; 諏訪, 哲也; 武田, 純; MUNE, Tomoatsu

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature.

  4. Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...

  5. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a description of Thermal Shock in Pressurized conditions (PTS), and its influence in the treatment of the integrity of the pressure vessel (RPV) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and/or of a Heavy water Pressurized water Reactor (PHWR) is made. Generally, the analysis of PTS involves a process of three stages: a-) Modeling with a System Code of relevant thermohydraulics transients in reference with the thermal shock; b-) The local distribution of temperatures in the downcomer and the heat transference coefficients from the RPV wall to the fluid, are determined; c-) The fracture mechanical analysis. These three stages are included in this work: Results with the thermohydraulics code Relap5/mod.3, are obtained, for a LOCA scenario in the hot leg of the cooling System of the Primary System of the CAN-I reactor. The method used in obtaining results is described. A study on the basis of lumped parameters of the local evolutions of the temperature of the flow is made, in the downcomer of the reactor pressure vessel. The purpose of this study is to determine how the intensification of the stress coefficient, varies in function of the emergency injected water during the thermohydraulic transients that take place under the imposed conditions in the postulated scene. Specially, it is considered a 50 cm 2 break, located in the neighborhoods of the pressurized with the corresponding hot leg connection. This size is considered like the most critical. The method used to obtain the results is described. The fracture mechanical analysis is made. From the obtained results we confirmed that we have a simple tool of easy application in order to analyze phenomena of the type PTS in the postulated scenes by break in the cold and hot legs of the primary system. This methodology of calculus is completely independent of the used ones by the Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) in the analysis of the PTS phenomena in the CAN-I. The results obtained with the adopted

  6. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 153. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and other systemic complications of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  7. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  8. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  9. Prediction of massive bleeding. Shock index and modified shock index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terceros-Almanza, L J; García-Fuentes, C; Bermejo-Aznárez, S; Prieto-Del Portillo, I J; Mudarra-Reche, C; Sáez-de la Fuente, I; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the predictive value of the Shock Index and Modified Shock Index in patients with massive bleeding due to severe trauma. Retrospective cohort. Severe trauma patient's initial attention at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 14 years that were admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) form January 2014 to December 2015. We studied the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PV+ and PV-), positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics) and the area under the same (AUROC) for prediction of massive hemorrhage. 287 patients were included, 76.31% (219) were male, mean age was 43,36 (±17.71) years and ISS was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-34). The overall frequency of massive bleeding was 8.71% (25). For Shock Index: AUROC was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.84 to 0.94), with an optimal cutoff at 1.11, Se was 91.3% (95% CI: 73.2 to 97.58) and Sp was 79.69% (95% CI: 74.34 to 84.16). For the Modified Shock Index: AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.95), with an optimal cutoff at 1.46, Se was 95.65% (95% CI: 79.01 to 99.23) and Sp was 75.78% (95% CI: 70.18 to 80.62). Shock Index and Modified Shock Index are good predictors of massive bleeding and could be easily incorporated to the initial workup of patients with severe trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  11. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  12. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  13. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity

  14. Why the Nature of Oil Shocks Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaia, Elizaveta; Hubert, Paul; Creel, Jerome

    2009-03-01

    This article studies the impact of oil shocks on the macro-economy in two ways insofar unexploited in the literature. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and it explicitly accounts for the potentially changing nature of oil shocks. Based on an original world GDP series and a grouping of oil shocks according to their nature, we find that oil supply shocks negatively impact world growth, contrary to oil demand shocks, pro-cyclical in their nature. This result is robust at the national level for the US. Furthermore, endogenous monetary policy is shown to have no counter-cyclical effects in the context of an oil demand shock. (authors)

  15. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  16. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  17. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  18. Shock compression of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  19. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  20. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  1. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Srutkova

    Full Text Available Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis.Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952 and CCDM 372 (Bl 372 were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo.The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum.We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD.

  2. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  3. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  4. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  5. Drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...

  6. Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Michael John

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for

  7. "Driverless" Shocks in the Interplanetary Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lara, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many interplanetary shocks have been detected without an obvious driver behind them. These shocks have been thought to be either blast waves from solar flares or shocks due to sudden increase in solar wind speed caused by interactions between large scale open and closed field lines of the Sun. We investigated this problem using a set of interplanetary shock detected {\\it in situ} by the Wind space craft and tracing their solar origins using low frequency radio data obtained by the Wind/WAVES experiment. For each of these "driverless shocks" we could find a unique coronal mass ejections (CME) event observed by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraphs. We also found that these CMEs were ejected at large angles from the Sun-Earth line. It appears that the "driverless shocks" are actually driver shocks, but the drivers were not intercepted by the spacecraft. We conclude that the interplanetary shocks are much more extended than the driving CMEs.

  8. Shock and Vibration. Volume 1, Issue 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilkey, Walter D

    1994-01-01

    ..., and earthquake engineering. Among the specific areas to be covered are vibration testing and control, vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics, shock hardenings, modal technology, shock testing, data acquisition, fluid...

  9. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  10. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion,  Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...

  11. Inferior vena cava obstruction and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megri Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock is one of the most challenging life-threatening conditions with high mortality and morbidity; the outcomes are highly dependent on the early detection and management of the condition. Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the Intensive Care Unit. While not as common as other subsets of shock, obstructive shock is a significant subtype due to well defined mechanical and pathological causes, including tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. We are presenting a patient with obstructive shock due to inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to extensive deep venous thrombosis. Chance of survival from obstructive shock in our patient was small; however, there was complete and immediate recovery after treatment of the obstruction on recognizing the affected vessels. This case alerts the practicing intensivist and the emergency medicine physician to consider occlusion of the great vessels other than the pulmonary artery or aorta as causes of obstructive shock.

  12. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  13. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yang; Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-22

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis.

  14. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  15. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  16. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  17. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  18. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  19. Collisionless Electrostatic Shock Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    equations with piston -like boundary conditions gives a solution for the shock behavior. • Assumes cold upstream ions, therefore neglecting shock...temperature ratio (>10) – Wave Train Wavelength – Shock-Front Mach Number – Reflected Ion Beam Velocity Gathering Experiment Data – Double Plasma Device...experimental shock data. • Inconsistencies in published 1969 double -plasma device data hampered validation. Future Work: Extension to Moderately

  20. Shock waves in gas and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, K.

    1996-01-01

    A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)

  1. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  2. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  3. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  4. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  5. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Interstellar turbulence and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Random deflections of shock fronts propagated through the turbulent interstellar medium can produce the strong electro-density fluctuations on scales l> or approx. =10 13 cm inferred from pulsar radio scintillations. The development of turbulence in the hot-phase ISM is discussed

  7. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  8. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  9. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a monotherapy for urolithiasis in patients with solitary kidney and to determine the factors that may affect its results. Patients and Methods Using the Dornier MFL 5000 lithotriptor, 106 patients with solitary kidney (80 men and 26 women) were treated for ...

  10. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    : steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation

  12. Presença de Staphylococcus spp. produtores de enterotoxinas e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico em manipuladores de queijo de cabra Presence of Staphylococcus strains producer of enterotoxins and toxic shock toxin syndrome isolated from goat's cheese handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Rapini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Agruparam-se 167 cepas de Staphylococcus, isoladas de diferentes sítios (fossas nasais, orofaringe, palma das mãos e leitos subungueais, de dois manipuladores de queijos de leite de cabra, em pools (45, de acordo com a similaridade da espécie e o local de origem, e testou-se o seu potencial de produção de enterotoxinas (SE A, B, C e D, e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1. Constatou-se que 62,2% dos pools foram capazes de produzir, de forma individual ou associada, SEA (33,3%; SEB (46,7%; SEC (8,9%; SED (4,4% e TSST-1 (4,4%. Dos pools enterotoxigênicos, 96,4% corresponderam a espécies coagulase negativa (Staphylococcus epidermidis e Staphylococcus cohnii. A capacidade de produção de SE e de TSST-1 pelas cepas de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas dos manipuladores, além de reafirmar sua importância na transmissão de intoxicações de origem alimentar, enfatiza a necessidade imprescindível da adoção de condutas higiênicas e sanitárias durante a manipulação do alimento.A total of 167 strains of Staphylococcus isolated from nasal cavities, oropharynx, palm of hands and subunguial of two goat's cheese handlers were collected. The strains were pooled (45 according to the species similarity and place of origin and tested for the production of enterotoxins (SE A, B, C, D and toxic shock toxin syndrome (TSST-1. It was observed that 62.2% of the pools presented the capacity to produce, individually or in association, SEA (33.3%; SEB (46.7%; SEC (8.9%; SED (4.4% and TSST-1 (4.4%. From the enterotoxigenic pools, 96.4% corresponded to species negative coagulase (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus cohnii. The capacity to produce SE and TSST-1 by Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from food handlers reaffirms its hole on the transmission of food poisoning, beyond emphasizing the indispensable necessity of the adoption of satisfactory hygienic and sanitary procedures during the food manufacture.

  13. The use of mice as animal model for testing acute toxicity (LD-50 of toxic shock syndrome toxin Utilização de camundongos como modelo animal para a verificação da toxicidade aguda da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity test (LD-50 using toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 was tested in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and Swiss mice. Animals (n = 10 were intraperitoneally injected with TSST-1 (0.01-10.0µg/mouse followed 4h later by potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (75.0µg of LPS - E. coli O111:B4 and cumulative mortality was recorded over 72h. Control animals received either TSST-1 or LPS alone. The data were submitted to qui-Square test and acute toxicity test was calculated by probit analysis (confidence limits expressed as µg toxin/kg. BALB/c mice was the most sensitive (20.0µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.0-92.0 followed by C57BL/6 (38.5µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.11- 401.6. Data from Swiss mice was not conclusive, indicating only low sensitivity. Selection of the animal model and standardization of the experiment are fundamental for the development of serum neutralization tests used for final quality control of vaccine production.A toxicidade aguda (DL-50 da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 foi testada em linhagens de camundongos BALB/c, C57BL/6 e Suíça. Os animais (n=10 inoculados intraperitoneal com doses crescentes de toxina (0,01 - 10,0µg/animal receberam 4h após 75µg de LPS (E. coli O111: B4. A toxicidade aguda (DL50 foi observada por um período de 72h e os dados submetidos ao teste de qui- quadrado. Os resultados e os limites de confiança foram expressos em µg de toxina/kg. A linhagem BALB/c apresentou maior sensibilidade (20µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,0- 92,0, seguida da C57BL/6 (38,5µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,11 - 401,6. A amplitude dos limites de confiança deve-se à natureza da toxina, ao mecanismo de ação, a via de inoculação e ao animal utilizado. A seleção do modelo animal e a padronização do experimento são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de testes de soro neutralização para fins de controle de qualidade do processo de produção de vacinas.

  14. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  15. Shock waves in relativistic nuclear matter, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.

    1979-02-01

    The relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot relations are developed for a 3-dimensional plane shock and a 3-dimensional oblique shock. Using these discontinuity relations together with various equations of state for nuclear matter, the temperatures and the compressibilities attainable by shock compression for a wide range of laboratory kinetic energy of the projectile are calculated. 12 references

  16. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active ga...

  17. Low back pain: conservative treatment with artificial shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosk, J; Voloshin, A S

    1985-03-01

    A new method of conservative treatment for low back pain (LBP) was studied by follow-up investigation of 382 patients during the last five years. The attempt to reduce repetitive impulsive intervertebral impact in the troublesome S1-L5-4 area by significant improvement of the foot's attenuational capacity through artificial viscoelastic shock absorbing was prompted by the authors' work on decreased capability of LBP spines to attenuate axially propagated walking stresses. Viscoelastic shoe inserts were used in addition to light flexible shoes as artificial shock absorbing devices. Maximal amplitudes of bone oscillation during walking were reduced by about 40% by the viscoelastic inserts. Rapid and surprisingly significant improvement of pain syndrome and patient mobility occurred in about 80% of the patients. The accelerographic patterns recorded on a sacrum of patient with LBP were unusual for a healthy subject; they usually disappeared after treatment in LBP cases. Results suggested that poor walking impact attenuation was a true cause for prolonging intervertebral structures overstrain and consequent degeneration. It seemed logical that as spine damage could be explained primarily by prolonged impulsive overstrain, treatment must include viscoelastic inserts which increase foot shock absorbing capacity and help cushion the spine.

  18. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  19. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  20. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig

    2015-01-01

    shocks have been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, predictors and management of inappropriate shocks in the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry, which collects S-ICD implantation information and follow-up data from clinical centers in Europe and New Zealand. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 21 ± 13...... xyphoid to V6) reduced the risk. Reprogramming or optimization of SVT treatment after the first clinical event of inappropriate shock was successful in preventing further inappropriate shocks for cardiac oversensing and SVT events. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate shocks, mainly due to cardiac oversensing...

  1. Perpendicular relativistic shocks in magnetized pair plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Grassi, Anna; Grech, Mickael

    2018-04-01

    Perpendicular relativistic (γ0 = 10) shocks in magnetized pair plasmas are investigated using two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. A systematic survey, from unmagnetized to strongly magnetized shocks, is presented accurately capturing the transition from Weibel-mediated to magnetic-reflection-shaped shocks. This transition is found to occur for upstream flow magnetizations 10-3 10-2, it leaves place to a purely electromagnetic precursor following from the strong emission of electromagnetic waves at the shock front. Particle acceleration is found to be efficient in weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks in agreement with previous works, and is fully suppressed for σ > 10-2. Diffusive Shock Acceleration is observed only in weakly magnetized shocks, while a dominant contribution of Shock Drift Acceleration is evidenced at intermediate magnetizations. The spatial diffusion coefficients are extracted from the simulations allowing for a deeper insight into the self-consistent particle kinematics and scale with the square of the particle energy in weakly magnetized shocks. These results have implications for particle acceleration in the internal shocks of AGN jets and in the termination shocks of Pulsar Wind Nebulae.

  2. Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Bingham, D.; Goh, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10 14 W cm −2 to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code

  3. Exploratory laser-driven shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1977-11-01

    We show the results of a feasibility study for investigating shock structure and for measuring equation-of-state parameters using high-energy, short-pulse lasers. We discuss the temporal and spatial structure of the luminosity from laser-driven shock unloading in aluminum foils. We demonstrate that shock velocity can be measured by observing the time interval between shock emergence across two thicknesses and show data for shocks of 1.3 and 2.1 Mbar. The fact that we observe shock fronts cleanly breaking through steps as small as 3 μm indicates that the shock front thickness is very small in the few megabar region; this is the first experimental verification that these fronts are not more than a few micrometers thick. We present approximate measurements of free-surface velocity. Finally, we speculate on the use of these techniques to obtain detailed equation-of-state data

  4. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  5. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  6. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  7. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  8. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  9. Trauma as a case of hypovolemic shock: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTODUCTION: Background shock syndrome represents an acute generalized disorder perfusion of all organ systems that result in disturbance of metabolism of cells. The time required to develop the shock through all its phases varies from patient to patient. In related to the health status and the ability of the organism to compensate disorder. As shock develops, the process accelerates the circulatory system is unable to provide an adequate amount of blood tissues. The performance cellular hypoxia and cell death. The objective of this paper is to describe the diagnosis, prevention shock and adequately care for patients with respect guide of good clinical medicine in primary health care. DESCRIPTION CASE:A man aged 74 years, was brought in ambulant around 23:15 h. The patient states that he hurt his left lower leg about 19 30 h, the cow kicked him while he was performing work in the barn. Status / conscious, occasionally disoriented, afebrile, pale, cold sweat, respirations Vitals: TA 90/60 mmHg, BLS 22,6mmol/l, HR 131/min., SpO2 92% , auscultatory findings: cardiac arrhythmic action, quieter tones, accelerated, normal breathing sum ECG HR 131 / min, BDG, negative T in V1, signs HLK. Local signs: on the left tibia, lateral side: there is lacero seriously injuries 25/30 cm in length and 5.6 cm depth of extensive bleeding . Tibia fully alterity coloured and cooler than other one: Sanitation injuries solution of NaCl 0.9% tamponade, rewind, amp. metoclopramide iv 1x1, 0.9% NaCl solution 500 ml infusion, Transport, Transportation time from the beginning to hosptal 30 min. DISCUSSION: This case is described to hours of bleeding due to injuries sustained impact of lower leg, cause by animal, in a patient aged 74 years, which has led to the deteriorated state of health, deterioration, generally condition, hypovolemia and origin shock. Considering that the patient did not report the doctor, comes to the development of compensatory phase shock with symptoms

  10. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    , respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects...... of these cases include: - sudden onset with influenza-like symptoms in previously healthy women - progressive refractory hypotension - local and spreading tissue edema - absence of fever Laboratory findings include: - marked leukocytosis - elevated hematocrit. This paper reports the seventh fatal postpartum C...

  11. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  12. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  14. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  15. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  16. Caplan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (RP; also known as Caplan syndrome) is swelling (inflammation) and scarring of the ... avoid exposure to inorganic dust. Alternative Names RP; Caplan syndrome; Pneumoconiosis - rheumatoid; Silicosis - rheumatoid pneumoconiosis; Coal worker's ...

  17. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  18. Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt

  19. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ... have also been reported. × Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ...

  20. Felty syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  1. Bartter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000308.htm Bartter syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bartter syndrome is a group of rare conditions that affect ...

  2. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other possible long-term consequences of the syndrome. Children with Pendred syndrome should start early treatment to gain communication skills, such as learning sign language or cued speech or learning to ...

  3. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supports a broad program of basic and clinical research on all types of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome. Study of the genetic defects responsible for Dravet syndrome and related ... Publications Definition Dravet ...

  4. Action of arginine for protection of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS); Acao da arginina na protecao da colite ulcerativa induzida por sulfato de sodio dextrano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maria Emilia Rabelo

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of immunomodulators, such as arginine, in the regulation of inflammatory responses and trophism of the intestinal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms action of arginine (pretreatment or treatment) in experimental model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 5 groups: Control group (C): standard diet and water; Arginine group (ARG): diet supplementation with arginine and water; Colitis group (COL): standard diet and DSS solution; Pretreated group (PT): diet supplementation with arginine before and during colitis induction; Treated group (T): diet supplementation with arginine during colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. After this, all the mice were euthanized and blood, organs and intestinal fluid were collected for carrying out analyzes. Parameters such as intestinal permeability (IP), bacterial translocation (BT), histological analysis (histological score, morphometric analysis, collagen and mucins stain), nitrate and nitrite, cytokines and chemokines, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate and oxidative stress were performed. The ARG group did not show difference compared to group C in the investigated parameters (C vs ARG: p> 0.05). The COL group showed increased IP (C vs COL: p < 0.05) and BT (C vs COL: p <0.05). In the histological analysis, the COL group showed severe inflammation and reduction the crypts length. In addition, in the group COL observed increase infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in the colon, increase cytokine IL-17 and chemokine KC in serum and oxidative stress in the colon (COL vs C: p <0.05). In the arginine-supplemented groups (PT and T) was observed decrease IP and BT to blood, liver and lung (PT and T vs Col: p <0.05). Histological analysis showed that the arginine (PT and T) preserved the intestinal mucosa and crypts

  5. Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.

  6. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic shocks in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Part one develops the mathematical and physical theory of one-dimensional, time-independent subalfvenic flow in partially ionized gas with magnetic fields, for application to shocks in molecular clouds. Unlike normal gas-dynamic shocks, the neutral flow may be continuous and cool if the gas radiates efficiently and does not self-ionize. Analytic solutions are given in the limit that the neutral gas is either adiabatic or isothermal (cold). Numerical techniques are developed and applied to find the neutral flow under general circumstances. Part two extends the theory and results of part one in three ways: (1) to faster, superalfvenic flow, (2) to complex gases containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, electrons and neutrals, and (3) to the entire range in (Omega tau), the ratio of charged particle damping time to gyroperiod, expected in gas flows in molecular clouds

  8. Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  9. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  10. Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) × Definition Aicardi syndrome is a rare genetic ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) View Full Definition Treatment There is no ...

  11. δ- and γ-tocopherols inhibit phIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by protection against early cellular and DNA damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jayson X; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Wang, Hong; Yu, Siyuan; Chi, Eric; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Yang, Chung S

    2017-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, are a family of fat-soluble compounds that exist in alpha (α-T), beta (β-T), gamma (γ-T), and delta (δ-T) variants. A cancer preventive effect of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies. However, past animal studies and human intervention trials with α-T, the most active vitamin E form, have yielded disappointing results. A possible explanation is that the cancer preventive activity of α-T is weak compared to other tocopherol forms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of δ-T, γ-T, and α-T (0.2% in diet) in a novel colon cancer model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. PhIP/DSS treatments induced multiple polypoid tumors, mainly tubular adenocarcinomas, in the middle to distal colon of the hCYP1A mice after 10 wk. Dietary supplementation with δ-T and γ-T significantly reduced colon tumor formation and suppressed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (i.e., 8-oxo-dG and nitrotyrosine) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3) in tumors and adjacent tissues. By administering δ-T at different time periods, we obtained results suggesting that the inhibitory effect of δ-T against colon carcinogenesis is mainly due to protection against early cellular and DNA damages caused by PhIP. α-T was found to be ineffective in inhibiting colon tumors and less effective in attenuating the molecular changes. Altogether, we demonstrated strong cancer preventive effects of δ-T and γ-T in a physiologically relevant model of human colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MHD shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, D. F.; Hollenbach, David J.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers survey shock solutions of a partially ionized gas with a magnetic field. The gas is modeled by interacting neutral, ion, electron and charged grain components. They employ a small neutral-ion chemical network to follow the dissociation and ionization of the major species. Cooling by molecular hydrogen (rotational, vibrational and dissociation), grains and dipole molecules is included. There are three basic types of solutions (C, C asterisk, and J) and some more complicated flows involving combinations of the basic types. The initial preshock conditions cover hydrogen nuclei densities of 1 less than n less than 10(exp 10) cm(-3) and shock velocities of 5 less than v(sub s) less than 60 km/s. The magnetic field is varied over 5 decades and the sensitivity of the results to grain parameters, UV and cosmic ray fluxes is ascertained. The parameter space is quite complicated, but there exist some simple divisions. When the initial ionization fraction is small (chi sub i less than 10(-5)), there is a sharp transition between fully C solutions at low velocity and strong J solutions at high velocity. When the initial ionization fraction is larger, C asterisk and/or very weak J shocks are present at low velocities in addition to the C solutions. The flow again changes to strong J shocks at high velocities. When the ionization fraction is large and the flow is only slightly greater than the bulk Alfven velocity, there is a complicated mixture of C, C asterisk and J solutions.

  13. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  14. Coronal mass ejection shock fronts containing the two types of intermediate shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinolfson, R.S.; Hundhausen, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two dimensions are used to demonstrate the formation of both types of intermediate shocks in a single shock front for physical conditions that are an idealization of those expected to occur in some observed coronal mass ejections. The key to producing such a shock configuration in the simulations is the use of an initial atmosphere containing a magnetic field representative of that in a coronal streamer with open field lines overlying a region of closed field lines. Previous attempts using just open field lines (perpendicular to the surface) produced shock configurations containing just one of the two intermediate shock types. A schematic of such a shock front containing both intermediate shock types has been constructed previously based solely on the known properties of MHD shocks from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations and specific requirements placed on the shock solution at points along the front where the shock normal and upstream magnetic field are aligned. The shock front also contains, at various locations along the front, a hydrodynamic (nonmagnetic) shock, a switch-on shock, and a fast shock in addition to the intermediate shocks. This particular configuration occurs when the shock front speed exceeds the upstream (preshock) intermediate wave speed but is less than a critical speed defined in the paper (equation 1) along at least some portion of the shock front. A distinctive feature of the front is that it is concave upward (away from the surface) near the region where the field in the preshock plasma is normal to the front of near the central portion of the shock front

  15. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  16. Differential diagnostic value of procalcitonin in surgical and medical patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clec'h, Christophe; Fosse, Jean-Philippe; Karoubi, Philippe; Vincent, Francois; Chouahi, Imad; Hamza, Lilia; Cupa, Michel; Cohen, Yves

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether different diagnostic and prognostic cutoff values of procalcitonin should be considered in surgical and in medical patients with septic shock. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne teaching hospital, France. All patients with septic shock or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 48 hrs after admission. None. Patients were allocated to one of the following groups: group 1 (surgical patients with septic shock), group 2 (surgical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome), group 3 (medical patients with septic shock), and group 4 (medical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome). Procalcitonin at study entry was compared between group 1 and group 2 and between group 3 and group 4 to determine the diagnostic cutoff value in surgical and in medical patients, respectively. Procalcitonin was compared between survivors and nonsurvivors from group 1 and group 3 to determine its prognostic cutoff value. One hundred forty-three patients were included: 31 in group 1, 36 in group 2, 36 in group 3, and 40 in group 4. Median procalcitonin levels (ng/mL [interquartile range]) were higher in group 1 than in group 3 (34.00 [7.10-76.00] vs. 8.40 [3.63-24.70], p = .01). In surgical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 9.70 ng/mL, with 91.7% sensitivity and 74.2% specificity. In medical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 1.00 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Procalcitonin was a reliable early prognostic marker in medical but not in surgical patients with septic shock. A cutoff value of 6.00 ng/mL had 76% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for separating survivors from nonsurvivors. The diagnostic cutoff value of procalcitonin was higher in surgical than in medical patients. Early procalcitonin was of prognostic interest in medical patients.

  17. Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-20

    Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.

  18. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  19. Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established

  20. Dravets syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Rasmussen, Niels Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2010-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is an epileptic syndrome of infancy and early childhood. Most cases of Dravet syndrome seem to be due to a genetic defect causing the sodium channel to malfunction. We describe the main features of the syndrome. This epilepsy is medically intractable, but we call attention...... to the fact that some medications are of benefit and some could exacerbate the condition. Early recognition of the syndrome including by genetic testing could possibly improve outcome and reduce the need for other specialized investigations. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Feb-22...

  1. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a young man with Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Weinkouff; Huynh, Khiem Dinh; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are very rare in Marfan syndrome. We present a case with a young non-smoking and normotensive male with Marfan syndrome, who developed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm that presented with rupture to the retroperitoneal cavity causing life-threatening bleeding shock...

  2. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fruit Juice Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Contributes to the Maintenance of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in DSS Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Designing of a Decision Support System (DSS for resource allocation with genetic algorithm approach (Case Study: Central Library of Tarbiat Modares University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasanzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of information is one of the main responsibilities of a manager. In case there is a limitation in the available resources, the issue of resources allocation is raised. Universities and post graduate centers have faced limitations in accessing resources such as budget, human resources, physical space, etc. This problem results in inappropriate use of the approved budget in buying and sharing the different types of information resources, lack of easy access to information resources by users, and users’ dissatisfaction. This paper is intended to see whether the model of genetic algorithm can be used in helping library heads of university to develop a support system for the proper allocation of resources. The data of the central library of a university as the main core of DSS through using genetic algorithm in MATLAB was used in order to come up with a better distribution of effective resources. Research methodology used in this paper was field study and survey. The findings indicated that genetic algorithm was successful in achieving this end.

  4. A study of biodiversity using DSS method and seed storage protein comparison of populations in two species of Achillea L. in the west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intarspecific and interspecific variations are the main reserves of biodiversity and both are important sources of speciation. On this basis, identifing and recognizing the intra and interspecific variations is important in order to recognition of biodiversity. This research was done to study biodiversity and electrophoresis comparison of seed storage proteins in the populations of the two species of the genus Achillea in Hamadan and Kurdistan provinces using of the method of determination of special station (DSS. For this purpose, 12 and 9 special stations were selected for the species A. tenuifolia and A. biebresteinii using the data published in the related flora. Seed storage proteins were extracted and then studied using electrophoresis techniques (SDS-PAGE. In survey of all special stations, 120 plant species were distinguished as associated species. The results of the floristic data for the both species determined six distinctive groups that indicated the existence of intraspecific diversity in this species. The result of analysis of ecological data and seed storage proteins for the two species was in accordance with the floristic data and showed six distinctive groups. The existence of the bands of no. 4, 5, 8, 12 and 13 in the special stations of A. tenuifolia and the bands of 14, 15 and 16 in the special stations of A. biebresteinii o separated the populations of the species in two quite different and distinctive groups.

  5. Computer simulations of collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contributions of particle computer simulations to the understanding of the physics of magnetic shock waves in collisionless plasmas is presented. The emphasis is on the relation between the computer simulation results, spacecraft observations of shocks in space, and related theories, rather than on technical aspects of the numerics. It is shown that much has been learned from the comparison of ISEE spacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and particle computer simulations concerning the quasi-perpendicular, supercritical shock (ion scale structure, ion reflection mechanism and ultimate dissipation processes). Particle computer simulations have also had an appreciable prospective role in the investigation of the physics of quasi-parallel shocks, about which still little is known observationally. Moreover, these numerical techniques have helped to clarify the process of suprathermal ion rejection by the shock into the foreshock, and the subsequent evolution of the ions in the foreshock. 95 references

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  7. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  8. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  9. Contagem de Staphylococcus sp. e detecção de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas e toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de leite cru refrigerado Staphylococcus sp. counting and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock toxin syndrome from cooled raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Lamaita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se 80 amostras de leite cru refrigerado a 4°C e estocado por 48 horas em tanques refrigeradores de propriedades rurais do estado de Minas Gerais quanto à contagem e identificação de Staphylococcus sp. e detecção de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1. Staphylococcus sp. foi detectado em 100% das amostras de leite de tanque refrigerador em contagens que variaram de 1,0 × 10(5 a 2,5 × 10(7 UFC/ml (média = 5,60 log UFC/ml; s = 0,53 e CV = 9,5%. Isolaram-se e identificaram-se 436 estirpes como: S. aureus, S hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, S. cohnii, S. sciuri, S. schleirferi e S. delphini. As estirpes de mesmo perfil bioquímico, oriundas da mesma amostra, foram agrupadas (pools e induzidas a produzir SE e TSST-1. A detecção dessas enterotoxinas foi feita pelo método optimum sensitivity plate, usando-se técnica de celofane sobre ágar. Identificou-se a produção de SEA, SEB, SEC, SED e de TSST-1 em percentuais variados. Dos 138 pools preparados, 91 produziram, pelo menos, uma toxina isoladamente ou em associação a outras toxinas. Dos pools enterotoxigênicos, 24,6% eram coagulase positiva e 41,3%, coagulase negativa. A confirmação de estirpes enterotoxigênicas de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa isoladas de amostras de leite é importante em relação à saúde pública.In order to count and identify Staphylococcus sp., the detection of the Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE and toxic shock toxin syndrome (TSST-1, 80 raw milk samples cooled at 4°C and stored in bulk tanks for 48 hours in different farms from Minas Gerais State were analyzed. Staphylococcus sp. was observed in all samples and the counts varied from 1.0 × 10(5 to 2.5 × 10(7 CFU/ml (mean = 5.60 log CFU/ml; sd = 0.53 and CV = 9.46 %. A total of 436 strains of Staphylococcus were isolated and identified as S. aureus, S hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, S. cohnii, S. sciuri, S. schleirferi and S

  10. Role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. EL‐Nawawy

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock.

  11. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions.

  12. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions. 184 refs

  13. Nonequilibrium chemistry in shocked molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, E.R.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The gas phase chemistry is studied behind a 10 km s -1 shock propagating into a dense molecular cloud. Our principal conclusions are that the concentrations of certain molecules (CO, NH 3 , HCN, N 2 ) are unperturbed by the shock; other molecules (H 2 CO, CN, HCO + ) are greatly decreased in abundance; and substantial amounts of H 2 O, HCO, and CH 4 are produced. Approximately 10 6 yr (independent of the density) must elapse after shock passage before chemical equilibrium is attained

  14. Reaction effects in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the reaction of accelerated particles back on the shock wave in the diffusive-shock-acceleration model of cosmic-ray generation are investigated theoretically. Effects examined include changes in the shock structure, modifications of the input and output spectra, scattering effects, and possible instabilities in the small-scale structure. It is pointed out that the latter two effects are applicable to any spatially localized acceleration mechanism. 14 references

  15. PIV tracer behavior on propagating shock fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, Fyodor N; Mursenkova, Irina V; Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at the quantitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a velocity field near the front of a propagating shock wave and the study of the dynamics of liquid tracers crossing the shock front. For this goal, a shock tube with a rectangular cross-section (48  ×  24 mm) was used. The flat shock wave with Mach numbers M  =  1.4–2.0 propagating inside the tube channel was studied as well as an expanding shock wave propagating outside the channel with M  =  1.2–1.8 at its main axis. The PIV imaging of the shock fronts was carried out with an aerosol of dioctyl sebacate (DEHS) as tracer particles. The pressures of the gas in front of the shock waves studied ranged from 0.013 Mpa to 0.1 MPa in the series of experiments. The processed PIV data, compared to the 1D normal shock theory, yielded consistent values of wake velocity immediately behind the plain shock wave. Special attention was paid to the blurring of the velocity jump on the shock front due to the inertial particle lag and peculiarities of the PIV technique. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysis and correction of the PIV data on the shock fronts, based on equations of particle-flow interaction. By application of this algorithm, the effective particle diameter of the DEHS aerosol tracers was estimated as 1.03  ±  0.12 μm. A number of different formulations for particle drag were tested with this algorithm, with varying success. The results show consistency with previously reported experimental data obtained for cases of stationary shock waves. (paper)

  16. [Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul'chavenya, E V; Shevchenko, S Yu; Brizhatyuk, E V

    2016-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis is a prevalent urologic disease, but treatment outcomes are not always satisfactory. As a rule, chronic prostatitis results in chronic pelvic pain syndrome, significantly reducing the patient's quality of life. Open pilot prospective non-comparative study was conducted to test the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) using Aries (Dornier) machine in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) of IIIb category. A total of 27 patients underwent ESWL as monotherapy, 2 times a week for a course of 6 sessions. Exposure settings: 5-6 energy level (by sensation), the frequency of 5 Hz, 2000 pulses per session; each patient received a total energy up to 12000 mJ. per procedure. Treatment results were evaluated using NIH-CPSI (National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) upon completing the 3 week course of 6 treatments and at 1 month after ESWT. Immediately after the ESWT course positive trend was not significant: pain index decreased from 9.1 to 7.9, urinary symptom score remained almost unchanged (4.2 at baseline, 4.1 after treatment), quality of life index also showed a slight improvement, dropping from 7.2 points to 6.0. Total NIH-CPSI score decreased from 20.5 to 18.0. One month post-treatment pain significantly decreased to 3.2 points, the urinary symptom score fell to 2.7 points, the average quality of life score was 3.9 points. ESWT, performed on Aries (Dornier) machine, is highly effective as monotherapy in patients with category IIIb chronic prostatitis.

  17. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. Radio emission from coronal and interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observational data on coronal and interplanetary (IP) type II burst events associated with shock-wave propagation are reviewed, with a focus on the past and potential future contributions of space-based observatories. The evidence presented by Cane (1983 and 1984) in support of the hypothesis that the coronal (metric) and IP (kilometric) bursts are due to different shocks is summarized, and the fast-drift kilometric events seen at the same time as metric type II bursts (and designated shock-accelerated or shock-associated events) are characterized. The need for further observations at 0.5-20 MHz is indicated. 20 references

  19. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, Nicholas H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulkarni, Akshay G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorscher, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Habing, Clayton D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mathis, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beller, Zachary J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  20. Irreversible thermodynamics of overdriven shocks in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    An isotropic solid capable of transporting heat and of undergoing dissipative plastic flow, is treated. The shock is assumed to be a steady wave, and any phase changes or macroscopic inhomogeneities which might be induced by the shock are neglected. Under these conditions it is established that for an overdriven shock, no solution is possible without heat transport, and when the heat transport is governed by the steady conduction equation, no solution is possible without plastic dissipation as well. Upper and lower bounds are established for the thermodynamic variables, namely the shear stress, temperature, entropy, plastic strain, and heat flux, as functions of compression through the shock

  1. The source of real and nominal exchange rate fluctuations in Thailand: Real shock or nominal shock

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Binh

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the source of exchange rate fluctuations in Thailand. We employed a structural vector auto-regression (SVAR) model with the long-run neutrality restriction of Blanchard and Quah (1989) to investigate the changes in real and nominal exchange rates from 1994 to 2015. In this paper, we assume that there are two types of shocks which related to exchange rate movements: real shocks and nominal shocks. The empirical analysis indicates that real shocks are the fundamental compon...

  2. Model for shock wave chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, xorder partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  3. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  4. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  5. Refeeding syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal medical condition that may affect malnourished patients in response to an inappropriately rapid overfeeding. This commonly occurs following the institution of nutritional support, especially parenteral or enteral nutrition. The most characteristic pathophysiology of refeeding syndrome relates to the rapid consumption of phosphate after glucose intake and subsequent hypophosphatemia. Refeeding syndrome can manifest as either metabolic changes (hypokala...

  6. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  7. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  8. Reye's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that contain aspirin. Some hospitals and medical facilities conduct newborn screenings for fatty acid oxidation disorders to determine which children are at greater risk of developing Reye's syndrome. ...

  9. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  10. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Resources for Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is one of the most common inherited ... FAQ Top of page Additional Resources For Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Marfan ...

  11. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  12. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Action You are here Home › Retinal Diseases Listen Usher Syndrome What is Usher syndrome? How is Usher syndrome ... available? Are there any related diseases? What is Usher Syndrome? Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  13. Shock compression profiles in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    An investigation of the shock compression properties of high-strength ceramics has been performed using controlled planar impact techniques. In a typical experimental configuration, a ceramic target disc is held stationary, and it is struck by plates of either a similar ceramic or by plates of a well-characterized metal. All tests were performed using either a single-stage propellant gun or a two-stage light-gas gun. Particle velocity histories were measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR) at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a calibrated VISAR window material. Peak impact stresses achieved in these experiments range from about 3 to 70 GPa. Ceramics tested under shock impact loading include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. This report compiles the VISAR wave profiles and experimental impact parameters within a database-useful for response model development, computational model validation studies, and independent assessment of the physics of dynamic deformation on high-strength, brittle solids.

  14. Shock-resistant scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A unique scintillation detector unit is disclosed which employs a special light transfer and reflector means that encases and protects the scintillator crystal against high g forces. The light transfer means comprises a flexible silicon rubber optical material bonded between the crystal and the optical window and having an axial thickness sufficient to allow the scintillator to move axially inside the container under high g forces without destroying the bonds. The reflector means comprises a soft elastic silicone rubber sleeve having a multiplicity of closely arranged tapered protrusions radiating toward and engaging the periphery of the scintillator crystal to cushion shocks effectively and having a reflective material, such as aluminum oxide powder, in the spaces between the protrusions. The reflector means provides improved shock absorption because of the uniform support and cushioning action of the protrusions and also provides the detector with high efficiency. The silicon rubber composition is specially compounded to include a large amount of aluminum oxide which enables the rubber to function effectively as a light reflector

  15. Pattern of Presentation of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is the sequential failure of several organ systems after a trigger event, like sepsis, massive transfusions, burns, trauma and cardiogenic shock. Aim and Objectives- The pattern of presentation of multiple organ dysfunction and the risk factors associated with multiple organ ...

  16. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  17. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  18. Extracellular Vesicles From the Helminth Fasciola hepatica Prevent DSS-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis in a T-Lymphocyte Independent Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Roig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease has led to the quest of empirically drug therapies, combining immunosuppressant agents, biological therapy and modulators of the microbiota. Helminth parasites have been proposed as an alternative treatment of these diseases based on the hygiene hypothesis, but ethical and medical problems arise. Recent reports have proved the utility of parasite materials, mainly excretory/secretory products as therapeutic agents. The identification of extracellular vesicles on those secreted products opens a new field of investigation, since they exert potent immunomodulating effects. To assess the effect of extracellular vesicles produced by helminth parasites to treat ulcerative colitis, we have analyzed whether extracellular vesicles produced by the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica can prevent colitis induced by chemical agents in a mouse model. Adult parasites were cultured in vitro and secreted extracellular vesicles were purified and used for immunizing both wild type C57BL/6 and RAG1-/- mice. Control and immunized mice groups were treated with dextran sulfate sodium 7 days after last immunization to promote experimental colitis. The severity of colitis was assessed by disease activity index and histopathological scores. Mucosal cytokine expression was evaluated by ELISA. The activation of NF-kB, COX-2, and MAPK were evaluated by immunoblotting. Administration of extracellular vesicles from F. hepatica ameliorates the pathological symptoms reducing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interfering with both MAPK and NF-kB pathways. Interestingly, the observed effects do not seem to be mediated by T-cells. Our results indicate that extracellular vesicles from parasitic helminths can modulate immune responses in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, exerting a protective effect that should be mediated by other cells distinct from B

  19. The ''injection problem'' for quasiparallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zank, G. P.; Rice, W. K. M.; le Roux, J. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Webb, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    For a particle to be accelerated diffusively at a shock by the first-order Fermi acceleration mechanism, the particle must be sufficiently energetic that it can scatter across all the micro- and macrostructure of the shock, experiencing compression between the converging upstream and downstream states. This is the well-known ''injection problem.'' Here the interaction of ions with the ramp of a quasiparallel shock is investigated. Some ions incident on the shock experience specular reflection, caused either by the cross-shock electrostatic potential or by mirroring as the magnetic field is bent and compressed through the ramp. Scattering of reflected ions by self-generated and pre-existing turbulence in the region upstream of the shock then acts to trap backstreaming ions and return them to the ramp, where some experience further reflections. Such repeated reflections and scattering energize a subpopulation of ions up to energies sufficiently large that they can be diffusively shock accelerated. Two ion distributions are considered: pickup ions which are assumed to be described by a shell distribution, are thermal solar wind ions which may be described by a kappa distribution. Injection efficiencies are found analytically to be very high for pickup ions and much lower for thermal solar wind ions, suggesting that this injection mechanism, stochastic reflected ion or SRI acceleration, is a natural precursor for the acceleration of the anomalous cosmic ray component at a quasiparallel shock. While significantly less efficient, SRI acceleration is also viable for thermal solar wind ions described by a kappa distribution

  20. PRECURSORS TO INTERSTELLAR SHOCKS OF SOLAR ORIGIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory/JHU, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Ness, N. F. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Burlaga, L. F., E-mail: donald-gurnett@uiowa.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the “foreshock” that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.