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Sample records for shock generates harder

  1. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  2. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  3. Turbulent energy generated by accelerations and shocks

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1986-01-01

    The turbulent energy generated at the interface between two fluids undergoing a constant acceleration or a shock is calculated. Assuming linear density profiles in the mixed region we find E/sub turbulent//E/sub directed/ = 2.3A 2 % (constant acceleration) and 9.3A 2 % (shock), where A is the Atwood number. Diffusion models predict somewhat less turbulent energy and a density profile with a tail extending into the lower density fluid. Eddy sizes are approximately 27% (constant acceleration) and 17% (shock) of the mixing depth into the heavier fluid. 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  5. Enstrophy generation in a shock-dominated turbulence

    Miura, Hideaki.

    1995-09-01

    A mechanism of enstrophy generation is investigated numerically in a shock-dominated turbulence driven by a random external force which has only the compressible component. Enstrophy is generated, especially on collision of shock, as a pair of vortex tube of opposite sense of rotation behind curved shocks. The roles of various terms in enstrophy equation are clarified in enstrophy generation process. Generation of enstrophy is enhanced by strong alignment of each term of the enstrophy equation with the vorticity vector. (author)

  6. Simple model for decay of laser generated shock waves

    Trainor, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model is derived to calculate the hydrodynamic decay of laser-generated shock waves. Comparison with detailed hydrocode simulations shows good agreement between calculated time evolution of shock pressure, position, and instantaneous pressure profile. Reliability of the model decreases in regions of the target where superthermal-electron preheat effects become comparable to shock effects

  7. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  8. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  9. Formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves

    Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The process of formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves is described by a hydrodynamic model. Measurements of shock velocities are performed on copper foils for incident intensities between 3 x 10/sup 11/ and 3 x 10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/, with the use of piezoelectric detectors. Maximum induced pressures are found between 0.5 and 1.2 Mbar in the intensity range considered. Analysis of the results with the shock-evolution model outlines the importance of the decay process of laser-generated shocks.

  10. Improvement of an installation to generate shock waves

    1974-04-29

    An installation to generate a shock wave in a fluid layer is described. A water projectile is moved at a high velocity. It leaves behind an underpressure in which the adjacent water implodes, therby generating the desired shock wave. The installation is characterized by a tube-shaped hull in which a piston can move freely. One side of the hull is connected to the pressure-generator chamber of the piston. (6 claims)

  11. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Sakawa Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  12. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  13. Heating and generation of suprathermal particles at collisionless shocks

    Thomsen, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Collisionless plasma shocks are different from ordinary collisional fluid shocks in several important respects. They do not in general heat the electrons and ions equally, nor do they produce Maxwellian velocity distributions downstream. Furthermore, they commonly generate suprathermal particles which propagate into the upstream region, giving advance warning of the presence of the shock and providing a ''seed'' population for further acceleration to high energies. Recent space observations and theory have revealed a great deal about the heating mechanisms which occur in collisionless shocks and about the origin of the various suprathermal particle populations which are found in association with them. An overview of the present understanding of these subjects is presented herein. 83 refs., 8 figs

  14. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  15. Spectrally modified chirped pulse generation of sustained shock waves

    McGrane, S.D.; Moore, D.S.; Funk, D.J.; Rabie, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for generating shock waves with 10-20 ps risetime followed by >200 ps constant pressure, using spectrally modified (clipped) chirped laser pulses. The degree of spectral clipping alters the chirped pulse temporal intensity profile and thereby the time-dependent pressure (tunable via pulse energy) generated in bare and nitrocellulose-coated Al thin films. The method is implementable in common chirped amplified lasers, and allows synchronous probing with a <200 fs pulse

  16. Generation of missiles and destructive shock fronts and their consequences

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general review is given of the generation of missiles and shock fronts from vessels and turbines and the formation and generation of deflagration and detonation waves in the atmosphere after the release of inflammable material. The considerations involved in evaluation the penetration of steel and concrete structures and the effects of pressure waves are presented with particular emphasis on dimensional analysis. The formation and ignition of flammable vapour clouds is considered and the distinction drawn between simple combustion, deflagration and detonation. The rates of release and impulse loadings on vessels resulting from holes or splits are also reviewed. (author)

  17. Multi-shocks generation and collapsing instabilities induced by competing nonlinearities

    Crosta, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We investigate dispersive shock dynamics in materials with competing cubic-quintic nonlinearities. Whitham theory of modulation, hydrodynamic analysis and numerics demonstrate a rich physical scenario, ranging from multi-shock generation to collapse.

  18. "Harder and Harder"? Is Mainstream Pornography Becoming Increasingly Violent and Do Viewers Prefer Violent Content?

    Shor, Eran; Seida, Kimberly

    2018-04-18

    It is a common notion among many scholars and pundits that the pornography industry becomes "harder and harder" with every passing year. Some have suggested that porn viewers, who are mostly men, become desensitized to "soft" pornography, and producers are happy to generate videos that are more hard core, resulting in a growing demand for and supply of violent and degrading acts against women in mainstream pornographic videos. We examined this accepted wisdom by utilizing a sample of 269 popular videos uploaded to PornHub over the past decade. More specifically, we tested two related claims: (1) aggressive content in videos is on the rise and (2) viewers prefer such content, reflected in both the number of views and the rankings for videos containing aggression. Our results offer no support for these contentions. First, we did not find any consistent uptick in aggressive content over the past decade; in fact, the average video today contains shorter segments showing aggression. Second, videos containing aggressive acts are both less likely to receive views and less likely to be ranked favorably by viewers, who prefer videos where women clearly perform pleasure.

  19. CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION IN AN EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED IONIZING SHOCK

    Boswell, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    Different aspects of the plasma generated in a gas contained in a tube due to detonation of a small explosive charge located at one end of the tube are presented. The motion of the charged particles within the plasma is monitored using Rogowski coils. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy the temperature and species in the detonation products and compressed gas behind the shock wave are recorded. From the spectral lines of the emission profiles the temperatures and electron density were evaluated to be in the vicinity of 7,000 K and 5x10 22 m -3 . An ultra fast wave traveling down the guide tube ahead of the hydrodynamic shock and causing any charged particles there to move fast enough to be detected by the Rogowski coils was recorded. From the measurements the phase velocity of the wave was calculated at 525 km/s when krypton filled the tube, and 1300 km/s in the case of argon. The temperature and density measurements are consistent with the data reported in the literature for similar tests. The electrostatic pulse measurements are a new phenomena not previously observed.

  20. Variable capacity utilization, ambient temperature shocks and generation asset valuation

    Tseng, Chung-Li; Dmitriev, Alexandre [Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhu, Wei [Optim Energy, 225 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX 75062 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This paper discusses generation asset valuation in a framework where capital utilization decisions are endogenous. We use real options approach for valuation of natural gas fueled turbines. Capital utilization choices that we explore include turning on/off the unit, operating the unit at increased firing temperatures (overfiring), and conducting preventive maintenance. Overfiring provides capacity enhancement which comes at the expense of reduced maintenance interval and increased costs of part replacement. We consider the costs and benefits of overfiring in attempt to maximize the asset value by optimally exercising the overfire option. In addition to stochastic processes governing prices, we incorporate an exogenous productivity shock: ambient temperature. We consider how variation in ambient temperature affects the asset value through its effect on gas turbine's productivity. (author)

  1. New generation of free-piston shock tunnels

    Morrison, W. R. B.; Stalker, R. J.; Duffin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to three free-piston driven hypersonic tunnels under construction that will greatly enhance existing test capabilities. The tunnel being built at Caltech will feature energy capabilities about 40 percent higher than those of the world's largest operational free-piston tunnel to date. The second tunnel under construction will allow full-size engine hardware at near-orbital speeds. The third facility is a high-performance expansion tube that will be capable of generating high enthalpy flows at speeds of up to 9 km/sec. It will provide flows with dissociation levels much lower than are attainable with a reflected shock tunnel, approaching actual flight conditions. A table shows the tunnels' characteristics.

  2. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  3. Theoretical parameters of powerful radio galaxies. II. Generation of MHD turbulence by collisionless shock waves

    Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases

  4. Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion

    Theobald, W.; Seka, W.; Lafon, M.; Anderson, K. S.; Hohenberger, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Edgell, D. H.; Yaakobi, B.; Shvydky, A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nora, R.; Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Casner, A.; Reverdin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ribeyre, X.; Vallet, A. [Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications) UMR 5107 F-33400 Talence (France); Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments on the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' OMEGA laser have been carried out to produce strong shocks in solid spherical targets with direct laser illumination. The shocks are launched at pressures of several hundred Mbars and reach Gbar upon convergence. The results are relevant to the validation of the shock-ignition scheme and to the development of an OMEGA experimental platform to study material properties at Gbar pressures. The experiments investigate the strength of the ablation pressure and the hot-electron production at incident laser intensities of ∼2 to 6 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2} and demonstrate ablation pressures exceeding 300 Mbar, which is crucial to developing a shock-ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility. The timing of the x-ray flash from shock convergence in the center of the solid plastic target is used to infer the ablation and shock pressures. Laser–plasma instabilities produce hot-electrons with a moderate temperature (<100 keV). The instantaneous conversion efficiencies of laser power into hot-electron power reached up to ∼15% in the intensity spike. The large amount of hot electrons is correlated with an earlier x-ray flash and a strong increase in its magnitude. This suggests that hot electrons contribute to the augmentation of the shock strength.

  5. MAGNETIC-RECONNECTION GENERATED SHOCK WAVES AS A DRIVER OF SOLAR SURGES

    Yang, Heesu; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Hyungmin; Song, Dong-uk; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-sun

    2014-01-01

    We found that a surge consists of multiple shock features. In our high-spatiotemporal spectroscopic observation of the surge, each shock is identified with the sudden appearance of an absorption feature at the blue wings of the Ca II 8542 Å line and Hα line that gradually shifts to the red wings. The shock features overlap with one another with the time interval of 110 s, which is much shorter than the duration of each shock feature, 300-400 s. This finding suggests that the multiple shocks might not have originated from a train of sinusoidal waves generated by oscillations and flows in the photosphere. As we found the signature of the magnetic flux cancelations at the base of the surge, we conclude that the multiple shock waves in charge of the surge were generated by the magnetic reconnection that occurred in the low atmosphere in association with the flux cancelation

  6. Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLI) pose challenges to aeronautical engineers because they create regions of adverse pressure gradients as a result of the...

  7. Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in ...

    to generation of shock wave in the dusty plasma described as collisionless shock wave. ... Trans- forming to the frame of the wave with velocity λ ζ = x λd -λωpdt =X -λT. (2) .... Jd =0, there exists steady state (apart from the initial state) defined.

  8. On the stability of bow shocks generated by red supergiants: the case of IRC -10414

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Langer, N.; Mackey, J.; Boumis, P.; Mohamed, S.

    2014-03-01

    In this Letter, we explore the hypothesis that the smooth appearance of bow shocks around some red supergiants (RSGs) might be caused by the ionization of their winds by external sources of radiation. Our numerical simulations of the bow shock generated by IRC -10414 (the first-ever RSG with an optically detected bow shock) show that the ionization of the wind results in its acceleration by a factor of 2, which reduces the difference between the wind and space velocities of the star and makes the contact discontinuity of the bow shock stable for a range of stellar space velocities and mass-loss rates. Our best-fitting model reproduces the overall shape and surface brightness of the observed bow shock and suggests that the space velocity and mass-loss rate of IRC -10414 are ≈50 km s-1 and ≈10-6 M⊙ yr-1, respectively, and that the number density of the local interstellar medium is ≈3 cm-3. It also shows that the bow shock emission comes mainly from the shocked stellar wind. This naturally explains the enhanced nitrogen abundance in the line-emitting material, derived from the spectroscopy of the bow shock. We found that photoionized bow shocks are ≈15-50 times brighter in optical line emission than their neutral counterparts, from which we conclude that the bow shock of IRC -10414 must be photoionized.

  9. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Dudžák, Roman; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Krůs, Miroslav; Labate, L.; Levato, Tadzio; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Margarone, Daniele; Marocchino, A.; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Nicolai, Ph.; O’Dell, T.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, Oldřich; Rhee, Y.-J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Sawicka, Magdalena; Schiavi, A.; Skála, Jiří; Šmíd, Michal; Spindloe, Ch.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy; Vinci, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), 032710-032710 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : High-pressure shocks * shock ignition * inertial confinement fusion * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869715

  10. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Shocks

    Nishikawa, Ken-IchiI.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G.

    2004-01-01

    Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (m) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.

  11. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation in Relativistic Shocks

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.

  12. Experimental Shock Damage Risk Assessment for New Generation TAS-B Plasmic Propulsion Unit

    Garnier, J.; De Fruytier, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the results of the shock test campaign conducted by TAS-B to qualify the PPU Mk2 unit in regards of increased shock levels.This unit supplies and controls two Plasma Thrusters used for satellite orbit keeping and attitude control. The PPU Mk2 unit mechanical design is based on a modular architecture. The different modules are mounted on a baseplate insuring thermal spreading and improved equipment flatness. The unit dimensions are 390 x 190 x 190 mm3 for a total mass of 11.5 kg.The PPU Mk2 contains several components sensitive to shock like specific inductors, transformers and relays. Due to an increasing of the shock specification in regards of the previous generation of PPU, it has been proposed to assess the good withstanding of these components and in order to mitigate the risks on the Qualification Model, a preliminary shock test has been performed on a Structural Model. This model is fully representative of the flight equipment in terms of mechanical interfaces and has been designed to have the same mechanical behaviour (same mass and main modes). Critical components have been embedded in this structural model in order to test their shock withstanding. Preliminary to this Structural Model, qualification at sensitive components levels has been performed through vibrations, shocks (half-sine) and thermal cycling. Evolution of the electrical main parameters has been followed to detect any degradation of the performance during this test campaigns.Then, the structural model has been instrumented to acquire the global behaviour of the equipment. Success criteria have been defined concerning mechanical behaviour before and after shocks, admissible electrical variations, visual inspections.After calibration phasis of the test bench, the shock test of the PPU Mk2 SM has been successfully conducted. The good test results allowed applying these shock levels confidently on the PPU Mk2 EQM model.

  13. Laser-generated shock wave attenuation aimed at microscale pyrotechnic device design

    Hyeonju Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To meet the rising demand for miniaturizing the pyrotechnic device that consists of donor/acceptor pair separated by a bulkhead or a thin gap, the shock initiation sensitivity in the microscale gap test configuration is investigated. For understanding the shock attenuation within a gap sample (304 stainless steel thickness of 10∼800 μm, the laser-generated shock wave in water confinement is adopted. The shock properties are obtained from the free surface velocity by making use of a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR. Analytical models for plasma generation in a confined geometry and for evolution and decay of shock waves during the propagation are considered. The shape and amplitude of the laser-driven initial pressure load and its attenuation pattern in the gap are effectively controlled for targeting the microscale propagation distance and subsequent triggering pressure for the acceptor charge. The reported results are important in the precise controlling of the shock strength during the laser initiation of microscale pyrotechnic devices.

  14. On the Generation of Hydrodynamic Shocks by Mixed Beams and Occurrence of Sunquakes in Flares

    Zharkova, Valentina; Zharkov, Sergei

    2015-11-01

    Observations of solar flares with sunquakes by space- and ground-based instruments reveal essentially different dynamics of seismic events in different flares. Some sunquakes are found to be closely associated with the locations of hard X-ray (HXR) and white-light (WL) emission, while others are located outside either of them. In this article we investigate possible sources causing a seismic response in a form of hydrodynamic shocks produced by the injection of mixed (electron plus proton) beams, discuss the velocities of these shocks, and the depths where they deposit the bulk of their energy and momentum. The simulation of hydrodynamic shocks in flaring atmospheres induced by electron-rich and proton-rich beams reveals that the linear depth of the shock termination is shifted beneath the level of the quiet solar photosphere on a distance from 200 to 5000 km. The parameters of these atmospheric hydrodynamic shocks are used as initial condition for another hydrodynamic model developed for acoustic-wave propagation in the solar interior (Zharkov, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 431, 3414, 2013). The model reveals that the depth of energy and momentum deposition by the atmospheric shocks strongly affects the propagation velocity of the acoustic-wave packet in the interior. The locations of the first bounces from the photosphere of acoustic waves generated in the vicinity of a flare are seen as ripples on the solar surface, or sunquakes. Mixed proton-dominated beams are found to produce a strong supersonic shock at depths 200 - 300 km under the level of the quiet-Sun photosphere and in this way produce well-observable acoustic waves, while electron-dominated beams create a slightly supersonic shock propagating down to 5000 km under the photosphere. This shock can only generate acoustic waves at the top layers beneath the photosphere since the shock velocity very quickly drops below the local sound speed. The distance Δ of the first bounce of the generated acoustic waves

  15. Observation of a flare-generated shock wave at 9.7 AU by Pioneer 10

    Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.; Collard, H.R.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.; Warwick, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The period March 15 to May 15, 1976, was declared in advance to be the internationally recognized Study of Traveling Interplanetary Phenomena Interval II. A variety of ground- and space-based equipment was requested to make coordinated studies during this part of the minimum of solar cycle 20. Following an absence of solar activity for a long period, several type II radio bursts on March 20, 1976, produced by two solar flares behind the east limb heralded a series of solar interplanetary, and terrestrial events. These solar radio astronomical observations were followed by non-Io-associated radio emission from Jupiter and solar wind plasma detection at Pioneer 10 at 9.7 AU of an apparent shock wave on March 30 and April 9, 1976, respectively. In view of the fact that the solar flares on March 20 were essentially at central meridian with respect to Jupiter and Pioneer 10 and also that the sun was extremely inactive prior to that date we consider the circumstantial evidence that at least one solar-flare-generated shock wave propagated to the position of Pioneer 10. The average velocities of this shock wave, together with the inferred type II velocity, support previous observations and theory concerning the rapid deceleration and survival of interplanetary shock waves to distances at least as large as approx.10 AU. It is therefore believed that dissipation (other than that within shocks themselves) plays an insignificant role in shock wave dynamics within the solar wind

  16. TUMOR-GROWTH DELAY BY LASER-GENERATED SHOCK-WAVES

    de Reijke, T. M.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.; Löwik, C. W.; Donkers, L. H.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of laser-generated shock waves (L-SW) was investigated on a human renal cell carcinoma, RC-8, grown subcutaneously in the nu/nu mouse. The RC-8 is characterized by the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) associated with profound cachexia, increase of

  17. Development and performance evaluation of an electromagnetic-type shock wave generator for lipolysis

    Liang, S. M., E-mail: liangsm@cc.feu.edu.tw; Yang, Z. Y. [Department of Industrial Design, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan City 744, Taiwan (China); Chang, M. H. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    This study aims at the design and development of electromagnetic-type intermittent shock wave generation in a liquid. The shock wave generated is focused at a focal point through an acoustic lens. This hardware device mainly consists of a full-wave bridge rectifier, 6 capacitors, a spark gap, and a flat coil. A metal disk is mounted in a liquid-filled tube and is placed in close proximity to the flat coil. Due to the repulsive force existing between the coil and disk shock waves are generated, while an eddy current is induced in the metal disk. Some components and materials associated with the device are also described. By increasing the capacitance content to enhance electric energy level, a highly focused pressure can be achieved at the focal point through an acoustic lens in order to lyse fat tissue. Focused pressures were measured at the focal point and its vicinity for different operation voltages. The designed shock wave generator with an energy intensity of 0.0016 mJ/mm{sup 2} (at 4 kV) and 2000 firings or higher energy intensities with 1000 firings is found to be able to disrupt pig fat tissue.

  18. Development and performance evaluation of an electromagnetic-type shock wave generator for lipolysis.

    Liang, S M; Chang, M H; Yang, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the design and development of electromagnetic-type intermittent shock wave generation in a liquid. The shock wave generated is focused at a focal point through an acoustic lens. This hardware device mainly consists of a full-wave bridge rectifier, 6 capacitors, a spark gap, and a flat coil. A metal disk is mounted in a liquid-filled tube and is placed in close proximity to the flat coil. Due to the repulsive force existing between the coil and disk shock waves are generated, while an eddy current is induced in the metal disk. Some components and materials associated with the device are also described. By increasing the capacitance content to enhance electric energy level, a highly focused pressure can be achieved at the focal point through an acoustic lens in order to lyse fat tissue. Focused pressures were measured at the focal point and its vicinity for different operation voltages. The designed shock wave generator with an energy intensity of 0.0016 mJ/mm(2) (at 4 kV) and 2000 firings or higher energy intensities with 1000 firings is found to be able to disrupt pig fat tissue.

  19. Electric gun: a new method for generating shock pressures in excess of 1 TPa

    Steinberg, D.; Chau, H.; Dittbenner, G.; Weingart, R.

    1978-01-01

    By combining the electrically-driven, flying-plate, high-explosive initiator with well-known gas-gun technology, a novel method of generating and measuring shock pressures greater than 1 TPa has been developed. Called the electric gun, this system is competitive with laser or nuclear-driven, shock-wave, equation-of-state experiments in the 1 to 5 TPa range. Compared to those other methods, it has the advantage of simplicity, high precision, and low cost. In addition, its small size and low total energy allow it to be easily contained for experiments with toxic materials

  20. Supersonic liquid jets: Their generation and shock wave characteristics

    Pianthong, K.; Zakrzewski, S.; Behnia, M.; Milton, B. E.

    The generation of high-speed liquid (water and diesel fuel) jets in the supersonic range using a vertical single-stage powder gun is described. The effect of projectile velocity and mass on the jet velocity is investigated experimentally. Jet exit velocities for a set of nozzle inner profiles (e.g. straight cone with different cone angles, exponential, hyperbolic etc.) are compared. The optimum condition to achieve the maximum jet velocity and hence better atomization and mixing is then determined. The visual images of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity about 2000 m/s) were obtained by the shadowgraph method. This provides better understanding of each stage of the generation of the jets and makes the study of their characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. In the experiments, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air wave ahead of the projectile. To clarify the processes inside the section, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile travelling inside and leaving the pressure relief section at a velocity of about 1100 m/s.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Three Clinical Lithotripters Employing Different Shock Wave Generators.

    Faragher, Stuart Roy; Cleveland, Robin O; Kumar, Sunil; Wiseman, Oliver J; Turney, Benjamin W

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that shock wave lithotripsy machines vary in their ability to fragment standardized artificial urinary calculi. An in vitro test configuration was used to fragment synthetic U-30 Gypsum (U.S. Gypsum, Chicago, IL) stones (mean length 7.1 ± 0.2 mm, mean diameter 6.5 ± 0.07 mm, mean mass 299 ± 16 mg) using the Sonolith i-sys (EDAP TMS, Vaulx-en-Velin, France), Modulith SLX F2 (Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland), and Piezolith 3000 (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) lithotripters. Gypsum stones were placed at the nominal focus and treated with 250, 500, or 1000 shocks. The residual mass following passage through a 2-mm wire mesh was measured and compared using ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer HSD test. There was no statistically significant difference between the Modulith SLX F2 and Piezolith 3000 lithotripters for 250 and 1000 shock treatments (p = 0.34 and 0.31, respectively). The Piezolith 3000 demonstrated the most favorable stone mass reduction for 500 shock treatments (187.4 ± 45.2 mg). The Sonolith i-sys was found to be significantly less effective than the other lithotripters for all shockwave conditions. Furthermore, performance of the Sonolith i-sys decreased beyond a threshold generator electrode age of 6000 shocks. This in vitro study found considerable variability in the ability of lithotripters to fragment synthetic urinary calculi. Synthetic stones were employed to provide a repeatable means of assessing variability in fragmentation efficiency of lithotripters. The Modulith SLX F2 and Piezolith 3000 are broadly equal and resulted in greater fragmentation efficiencies than the Sonolith i-sys. The performance of the Sonolith i-sys deteriorates at 6000 shocks, before the specified lifetime of 20,000 shocks.

  2. Vorticity generation and evolution in shock-accelerated density-stratified interfaces

    Yang, X.; Chern, I.; Zabusky, N.J.; Samtaney, R.; Hawley, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of direct numerical simulations of inviscid planar shock-accelerated density-stratified interfaces in two dimensions are presented and compared with shock tube experiments of Haas [(private communication, 1988)] and Sturtevant [in Shock Tubes and Waves, edited by H. Gronig (VCH, Berlin, 1987), p. 89] . Heavy-to-light (''slow/fast or s/f) and light-to-heavy (''fast/slow,'' or f/s) gas interfaces are examined and early-time impulsive vorticity deposition and the evolution of coherent vortex structures are emphasized and quantified. The present second-order Godunov scheme yields excellent agreement with shock-polar analyses at early time. A more physical vortex interpretation explains the commonly used (i.e., linear paradigm) designations of ''unstable'' and ''stable'' for the f/s and s/f interfaces, respectively. The later time events are Rayleigh--Taylor like and can be described in terms of the evolution of a vortex layer (large-scale translation and rotation): asymmetric tip vortex ''roll-up'' and ''binding;'' layer ''instability;'' convective mixing; and baroclinic vorticity generation from secondary shock--interface interactions

  3. Generation and Micro-scale Effects of Electrostatic Waves in an Oblique Shock

    Goodrich, K.; Ergun, R.; Schwartz, S. J.; Newman, D.; Johlander, A.; Argall, M. R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D. J.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of large amplitude (>100 mV/m), high frequency (≤1 kHz), electrostatic waves observed by MMS during an oblique bow shock crossing event. The observed waves primarily consist of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and oblique ion plasma waves (IPWs). ESWs typically include nonlinear structures such as double layers, ion phase-space holes, and electron phase-space holes. Oblique IPWs are observed to be similar to ion acoustic waves, but can propagate up to 70° from the ambient magnetic field direction. Both wave-modes, particularly IPWs, are observed to have very short wavelengths ( 100 m) and are highly localized. While such wave-modes have been previously observed in the terrestrial bow shock, instrumental constraints have limited detailed insight into their generation and their effect on their plasma shock environment. Analysis of this oblique shock event shows evidence that ESWs and oblique IPWs can be generated through field-aligned currents associated with magnetic turbulence and through a counterstreaming ion instability respectively. We also present evidence that this wave activity can facilitate momentum exchange between ion populations, resulting in deceleration of incoming solar wind, and localized electron heating.

  4. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG'S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG'S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria

  5. Laser-generated shock-wave experiments in metals above 1 TPa

    Trainor, R.J.; Shaner, J.W.; Auerbach, J.M.; Phillion, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some initial experiments are described which form part of a new program aimed at significantly extending the range of high pressures and densities which may be explored in laboratory equation-of-state (EOS) experiments. These experiments will utilize high-energy lasers, such as those employed in the Laser Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), to generate intense shock waves in materials of interest

  6. Shock wave generation in laser ablation studied using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjoedahl, Mikael [Division of Experimental Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)], E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se, E-mail: per.gren@ltu.se, E-mail: mikael.sjodahl@ltu.se

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the shock wave induced by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm and pulse duration 12 ns) on a polycrystalline boron nitride (PCBN) ceramic target under atmospheric air pressure. A special setup based on using two synchronized wavelengths from the same laser for processing and measurement simultaneously has been introduced. Collimated laser light ({lambda} = 532 nm) passed through the volume along the target and digital holograms were recorded for different time delays after processing starts. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps showing the propagation of the shock wave generated by the process. The location of the induced shock wave front was observed for different focusing and time delays. The amount of released energy, i.e. the part of the incident energy of the laser pulse that is eventually converted to a shock wave has been estimated using the point explosion model. The released energy is normalized by the incident laser pulse energy and the energy conversion efficiency between the laser pulse and PCBN target has been calculated at different power densities. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency seems to be constant around 80% at high power densities.

  7. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    Romain, J P; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T D; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm sup - sup 2. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm sup - sup 2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  8. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    Romain, J P [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Bonneau, F [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Dayma, G [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Boustie, M [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Resseguier, T de [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Combis, P [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2002-11-11

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm{sup -2}. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm{sup -2}, the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  9. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    Romain, J P; Bonneau, F; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T de; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm -2 . The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence -2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface

  10. Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This

  11. Elisabeth Harder-Gersdorff : In memoriam / Otto-Heinrich Elias

    Elias, Otto-Heinrich, 1932-

    2007-01-01

    Elisabeth-Harder-Gersdorffi uurimistöö keskmes olid varauusaegse Ida- ja Läne-Euroopa majandus- ja sotsiaalsuhted. Ta on raamatu "Zwischen Rubel und Reichstaler. Soziales Bezugsfeld und geographische Reichweite des Revaler Wechselmarktes 1762-1800" autor

  12. Influence of water conductivity on shock waves generated by underwater electrical wire explosion

    Liu, Ben; Wang, Deguo; Guo, Yanbao

    2018-01-01

    The new application of electrical explosion of wire (EEW) used in petroleum industry is to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Because of the complex environment underground, the effect of underground water conductivity on EEW should be considered. This work describes the effect of water conductivities on discharge current, voltage and shock waves. It was found that the effect of water conductivity contains two parts. One is the shunt effect of saline water, which can be considered as a parallel load with the copper wire between the electrodes connected to the discharge circuit. The peak pressure of shock waves are gradually decrease with the increase of water conductivity. The other is the current loss through saline water directly to the ground ends without flowing through the electrodes. The shunt effect is the main factor affecting the wire discharge process. As the charging voltage increased, the energy loss caused by these two parts are all reduced. These indicate that increasing the charging voltage to a certain value will increase the energy efficiency to generate a more powerful shock waves in conductive water.

  13. Bow Shock Generator Current Systems: MMS Observations of Possible Current Closure

    Hamrin, M.; Gunell, H.; Lindkvist, J.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi-perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y > 0 (MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north-south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

  14. Laser-Generated Shocks and Bubbles as Laboratory-Scale Models of Underwater Explosions

    Theodore G. Jones

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater shocks and bubbles were generated using a high energy pulsed laser system. The advantages of this experimental approach are: (1 precisely controlled and measured experimental conditions; (2 improved diagnostics, including extensive imaging capabilities; (3 unique experiments, including a simultaneously detonated line charge; and (4 the ability to provide validation quality data for hydrodynamic simulation codes. Bubble sensitivity to variation of several experimental parameters was examined. Numerical simulations were performed corresponding to the experimental shots, showing that empirical bubble theory, experimental bubble data, and simulations were all in good agreement.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of the mechanical strength of titanium/composite bonding using laser-generated shock waves

    Ducousso, M.; Bardy, S.; Rouchausse, Y.; Bergara, T.; Jenson, F.; Berthe, L.; Videau, L.; Cuvillier, N.

    2018-03-01

    Intense acoustic shock waves were applied to evaluate the mechanical strength of structural epoxy bonds between a TA6V4 titanium alloy and a 3D woven carbon/epoxy composite material. Two bond types with different mechanical strengths were obtained from two different adhesive reticulations, at 50% and 90% of conversion, resulting in longitudinal static strengths of 10 and 39 MPa and transverse strengths of 15 and 35 MPa, respectively. The GPa shock waves were generated using ns-scale intense laser pulses and reaction principles to a confined plasma expansion. Simulations taking into account the laser-matter interaction, plasma relaxation, and non-linear shock wave propagation were conducted to aid interpretation of the experiments. Good correlations were obtained between the experiments and the simulation and between different measurement methods of the mechanical strength (normalized tests vs laser-generated shock waves). Such results open the door toward certification of structural bonding.

  16. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G., E-mail: jaggie@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  17. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  18. Modeling of the plasma generated in a rarefied hypersonic shock layer

    Farbar, Erin D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a rigorous numerical model is developed to simulate the plasma generated in a rarefied, hypersonic shock layer. The model uses the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to treat the particle collisions and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to simulate the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner. The model is applied to compute the flow along the stagnation streamline in front of a blunt body reentering the Earth's atmosphere at very high velocity. Results from the rigorous DSMC-PIC model are compared directly to the standard DSMC modeling approach that uses the ambipolar diffusion approximation to simulate the plasma dynamics. It is demonstrated that the self-consistent computation of the plasma dynamics using the rigorous DSMC-PIC model captures many physical phenomena not accurately predicted by the standard modeling approach. These computations represent the first assessment of the validity of the ambipolar diffusion approximation when predicting the rarefied plasma generated in a hypersonic shock layer.

  19. Two-temperature hydrodynamics of laser-generated ultrashort shock waves in elasto-plastic solids

    Ilnitsky, Denis K; Migdal, Kirill P; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Inogamov, Nail A; Petrov, Yurii V; Anisimov, Sergey I; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khishchenko, Konstantin V

    2014-01-01

    Shock-wave generation by ultrashort laser pulses opens new doors for study of hidden processes in materials happened at an atomic-scale spatiotemporal scales. The poorly explored mechanism of shock generation is started from a short-living two-temperature (2T) state of solid in a thin surface layer where laser energy is deposited. Such 2T state represents a highly non-equilibrium warm dense matter having cold ions and hot electrons with temperatures of 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the melting point. Here for the first time we present results obtained by our new hybrid hydrodynamics code combining detailed description of 2T states with a model of elasticity together with a wide-range equation of state of solid. New hydro-code has higher accuracy in the 2T stage than molecular dynamics method, because it includes electron related phenomena including thermal conduction, electron-ion collisions and energy transfer, and electron pressure. From the other hand the new code significantly improves our previous version of 2T hydrodynamics model, because now it is capable of reproducing the elastic compression waves, which may have an imprint of supersonic melting like as in MD simulations. With help of the new code we have solved a difficult problem of thermal and dynamic coupling of a molten layer with an uniaxially compressed elastic solid. This approach allows us to describe the recent femtosecond laser experiments.

  20. Narrative theory: II. Self-generated and experimenter-provided negative income shock narratives increase delay discounting.

    Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Bickel, Warren K

    2018-04-01

    Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer. Individuals then completed a task of delay discounting and measures of affective response to narratives, as well as rating various narrative qualities such as personal relevance and vividness. Consistent with past research, narratives of negative income shock increased delay discounting compared to control narratives. No significant differences existed in delay discounting after self-generating compared to reading experimenter-provided narratives. Positive affect was lower and negative affect was higher in response to narratives of job loss, but affect measures did not differ based on whether narratives were experimenter-provided or self-generated. All narratives were rated as equally realistic, but self-generated narratives (whether negative or neutral) were rated as more vivid and relevant than experimenter-provided narratives. These results indicate that the content of negative income shock narratives, regardless of source, consistently drives short-term choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Shock waves and cavitation bubbles in water and isooctane generated by Nd:YAG laser: experimental and theoretical results

    Muller, Milos; Garen, Walter; Koch, Sandra; Marsik, Frantisek; Neu, Walter; Saburov, Eduado

    2004-04-01

    Temporal evolution of laser generated cavitation bubbles and shock waves were studied. Q-switched Nd-Yag laser pulses at 1064 nm are focused into the liquid. An Imager 3 CCD camera with multi exposure mode allows recording of 10 images with minimal exposure delay of 100 ns and minimal exposure time of 100 ns. Illumination is provided by xenon flash lamp for single exposure (shock wave recording) and by halogen lamp for multi exposure mode (bubble recording). Distilled water and a retrograde fluid, isooctane, have been under investigation to identify the differences in the cavitation process and shock wave propagation. The calculation of the shock wave velocities in water and isooctane are based on image recording at constant exposure time of 100 ns and using laser differential interferometry. Strong differences of bubble oscillation were observed in water and isooctane. Gilmore's model is used for numerical simulation of bubble dynamics.

  2. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)

  3. Generation of shock/discontinuity compound structures through magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail

    Weng, C. J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. C. [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Longtan 325, Taiwan (China); Lee, L. C. [Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Chao, J. K. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    We use 1-D hybrid code to simulate the generation and evolution of MHD discontinuities associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet. It is found that the leakage of slow shock (SS) downstream particles to upstream region tends to increase the ion parallel temperature and temperature anisotropy with {beta}{sub i||}/{beta}{sub i Up-Tack } Much-Greater-Than 1, where {beta}{sub i||}({beta}{sub i Up-Tack }) is the ion parallel (perpendicular) beta. As a result, the propagation speed of rotational discontinuity (RD) is highly reduced and RD becomes attached to SS, leading to formation of various compound structures in the reconnection outflow region. Four types of compound structure are found in our simulations: (a) RD-SS compound structure: the RD is attached to the leading part of SS, (b) SS-RD (DD) compound structure: RD is attached to the rear part of SS, (c) SS-RD-SS compound structure: RD is trapped inside SS, and (d) switch-off slow shock (SSS) with a rotational wave train. The type of compound structure generated depends on initial ion beta {beta}{sub i0} and magnetic shear angle {phi}. RD tends to move in front of SS to form an RD-SS compound structure for cases with low {beta}{sub i0}. RD stays behind SS and form an SS-RD (DD) compound structure for large {beta}{sub i0}. The SS-RD-SS compound structure is formed for intermediate values of {beta}{sub i0}. When the shear angle is 180 Degree-Sign , SSS with a wave train is formed.

  4. Comparison of acoustic shock waves generated by micro and nanosecond lasers for a smart laser surgery system

    Nguendon Kenhagho, Hervé K.; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; C. Cattin, Philippe; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of acoustic shock wave will guarantee efficient tissue differentiation as feedback to reduce the probability of undesirable damaging (i.e. cutting) of tissues in laser surgery applications. We ablated hard (bone) and soft (muscle) tissues using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and a microsecond pulsed Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm. When the intense short ns-pulsed laser is applied to material, the energy gain causes locally a plasma at the ablated spot that expands and propagates as an acoustic shock wave with a rarefaction wave behind the shock front. However, when using a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser for material ablation, the acoustic shock wave is generated during the explosion of the ablated material. We measured and compared the emitted acoustic shock wave generated by a ns-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser measured by a calibrated microphone. As the acoustic shock wave attenuates as it propagates through air, the distance between ablation spots and a calibrated microphone was at 5 cm. We present the measurements on the propagation characteristics of the laser generated acoustic shock wave by measuring the arrival time-of-flight with a calibrated microphone and the energy-dependent evolution of acoustic parameters such as peak-topeak pressure, the ratio of the peak-to-peak pressures for the laser induced breakdown in air, the ablated muscle and the bone, and the spectral energy.

  5. Comprehensive study on the pressure dependence of shock wave plasma generation under TEA CO2 laser bombardment on metal sample

    Marpaung, A.M.; Kurniawan, H.; Tjia, M.O.; Kagawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the dynamical process taking place in the plasma generated by a TEA CO 2 laser (400 mJ, 100 ns) on a zinc target when surrounded by helium gas of pressure ranging from 2 Torr to 1 atm. Plasma characteristics were examined in detail on the emission lines of Zn I 481.0 nm and He I 587.6 nm by means of an unique time-resolved spatial distribution technique in addition to an ordinary time-resolved emission measurement technique. The results reveal, for the first time, persistent shock wave characteristics in all cases throughout the entire pressure range considered. Further analysis of the data has clarified the distinct characteristics of laser plasmas generated in different ranges of gas pressure. It is concluded that three types of shock wave plasma can be identified; namely, a target shock wave plasma in the pressure range from 2 Torr to around 50 Torr; a coupling shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 50 Torr to 200 Torr and a gas breakdown shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 200 Torr to 1 atm. These distinct characteristics are found to be ascribable to the different extents of the gas breakdown process taking place at the different gas pressures. These results, obtained for a TEA CO 2 laser, will provide a useful basis for the analyses of plasmas induced by other lasers. (author)

  6. Generation of Two Successive Shock Waves Focusedto a Common Focal Point

    Šunka, Pavel; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Beneš, J.; Poučková, P.; Kašpar, J.; Bodnár, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 1382-1385 ISSN 0093-3813. [International Power Modulator Conference. Washington D.C., 14.5.2006-18.5.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cavitation collpse * double shocks * focused shock waves * liver injury * secondary shocks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2006

  7. An Experimental Study into the Scaling of an Unswept-Sharp-Fin-Generated Shock/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction.

    1983-01-01

    Influence Scaling of 2D and 3D Shock/Turbulent ioundary Layer Interactions at Compression Corners." AIM Paper 81-334, January 1981. 5. Kubota, H...generating 3D shock wave/boundary layer interactions 2 Unswept sharp fin interaction and coordinate system 3 Cobra probe measurements of Peake (4) at Mach 4...were made by two Druck 50 PSI transducers, each in- stalled in a computer-controlled 48-port Model 48J4 Scani- valve and referenced to vacuum. A 250

  8. Generation of Pc 1 waves by the ion temperature anisotropy associated with fast shocks caused by sudden impulses

    Mandt, M.E.; Lee, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Observations have reported on the high correlation of Pc 1 events with magnetospheric compressions. A number of mechanisms have been suggested for the generation of the Pc 1 waves. In this paper, the authors propose a new mechanism which leads to the generation of Pc 1 waves. The interaction of a dynamic pressure pulse (Δρυ 2 ) with the Earth's bow shock leads to the formation of a weak fast mode shock propagating into the magnetosheath. The shock wave can pass right through a tangential discontinuity (magnetopause) and into the magnetosphere, without disturbing either of the structures. In a quasi-perpendicular geometry, the shock wave exhibits anisotropic heating with T perpendicular > T parallel . This anisotropy drives unstable ion cyclotron waves which they believe can contribute to the generation of the Pc 1 waves which are detected. The viability of the mechanism is demonstrated with simulations. This mechanism could explain peak in the occurrence of observed Pc 1 waves in the postnoon sector where a field-aligned discontinuity in the solar wind would most often be parallel to the magnetopause surface due to the average Parker spiral magnetic field configuration

  9. Generation of scaled protogalactic seed magnetic fields in laser-produced shock waves.

    Gregori, G; Ravasio, A; Murphy, C D; Schaar, K; Baird, A; Bell, A R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Bingham, R; Constantin, C; Drake, R P; Edwards, M; Everson, E T; Gregory, C D; Kuramitsu, Y; Lau, W; Mithen, J; Niemann, C; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Reville, B; Robinson, A P L; Ryutov, D D; Sakawa, Y; Yang, S; Woolsey, N C; Koenig, M; Miniati, F

    2012-01-25

    The standard model for the origin of galactic magnetic fields is through the amplification of seed fields via dynamo or turbulent processes to the level consistent with present observations. Although other mechanisms may also operate, currents from misaligned pressure and temperature gradients (the Biermann battery process) inevitably accompany the formation of galaxies in the absence of a primordial field. Driven by geometrical asymmetries in shocks associated with the collapse of protogalactic structures, the Biermann battery is believed to generate tiny seed fields to a level of about 10(-21) gauss (refs 7, 8). With the advent of high-power laser systems in the past two decades, a new area of research has opened in which, using simple scaling relations, astrophysical environments can effectively be reproduced in the laboratory. Here we report the results of an experiment that produced seed magnetic fields by the Biermann battery effect. We show that these results can be scaled to the intergalactic medium, where turbulence, acting on timescales of around 700 million years, can amplify the seed fields sufficiently to affect galaxy evolution.

  10. Cinema in Jamaica - Legacy of The Harder They Come

    Sabrina Ceccato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream cinema representing Jamaica and Jamaicans has always made use of clichés and stereotypes. The emergence of a local Jamaican cinema—beginning in 1972 with Perry Henzell’s movie—immediately started to give a new image of the country and its inhabitants. From The Harder They Come up to most recent movies, Jamaican cinema has used consistent style, techniques, and themes to give a new vision of the country. Jamaican movies may have low production value, but they provide a more authentic representation of Jamaica’s culture. Viewing Jamaican movies gives the audience a sense of a small but growing cinematic tradition.

  11. Observation of a spark channel generated in water with shock wave assistance in plate-to-plate electrode configuration

    Stelmashuk, V., E-mail: vitalij@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    When a high voltage pulse with an amplitude of 30 kV is applied to a pair of disk electrodes at a time when a shock wave is passing between them, an electrical spark is generated. The dynamic changes in the spark morphology are studied here using a high-speed framing camera. The primary result of this work is the provision of experimental evidence of plasma instability that was observed in the channel of the electric spark.

  12. Design and Implementation of a High-Voltage Generator with Output Voltage Control for Vehicle ER Shock-Absorber Applications

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-oscillating high-voltage generator is proposed to supply voltage for a suspension system in order to control the damping force of an electrorheological (ER fluid shock absorber. By controlling the output voltage level of the generator, the damping force in the ER fluid shock absorber can be adjusted immediately. The shock absorber is part of the suspension system. The high-voltage generator drives a power transistor based on self-excited oscillation, which converts dc to ac. A high-frequency transformer with high turns ratio is used to increase the voltage. In addition, the system uses the car battery as dc power supply. By regulating the duty cycle of the main switch in the buck converter, the output voltage of the buck converter can be linearly adjusted so as to obtain a specific high voltage for ER. The driving system is self-excited; that is, no additional external driving circuit is required. Thus, it reduces cost and simplifies system structure. A prototype version of the actual product is studied to measure and evaluate the key waveforms. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified based on experimental results.

  13. Decay of a laser generated shock wave in an aluminium target

    Werdiger, M.

    1993-09-01

    When a shock wave arrives at the near surface of a solid material, a radical and fast change occurs in the reflection properties of the material. The phenomenon is used in the present work in order to develop a new way to measure the transit time of a shock wave in a target. A 10 milliwatt He:Ne laser is directed toward the rear surface of the target. The reflected beam arrives at a photo-diode with a fast rise time of 150 psec which detects the instant of the change in the reflection. This technique, called 'continuous back lightning', is used in experiments with aluminium foil thickness in the range of 40μm ≤x≥ 1000μm. The shock wave is induced by a laser pulse of an intensity of 3*10 13 W/cm 2 . The results show two main physical regimes: in the first one 40μ ≤x≥ 210μm, there is a constant shock wave velocity which in our experiments was measured to be (12.81±0.67)km/s. In the second range of the thickness where 300μm there is a decay of the shock velocity. For x ≥ 210μm the geometry is one dimensional for our experimental conditions, while for x ≥ 300μm the 1-D geometry changes to 2 dimensional (2-D) geometry. The 2-D shock wave decay asymptotically (x→∞ to an acoustic wave. shock wave is described by a pressure scaling as x -n (n is a positive constant). The phenomenological equation of the state is taken to be P=A**u s + B*u s 2 +Bu s , where P is the pressure, u s - the shock velocity, A and B are constants. Applying our experimental results to the solution of the differential equation in this model A*x 2 ± B*x=C*x -n yields a value of n in the range 3.16 ≤n≥ 3.51. This pressure scaling law agrees with the self-similar solution of a concentrated impact on a surface between two media. This situation is well simulated by the laser deposition energy on a metal surface. In the experiment a 5% accuracy is achieved. Such a good accuracy has not been achieved so far in a laser induced shock-wave measurements in solids. (author). 52 refs

  14. First simultaneous measurements of waves generated at the bow shock in the solar wind, the magnetosphere and on the ground

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Yeoman, T. K.; Fear, R. C.; Behlke, R.; Lucek, E. A.; Engebretson, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    On 5 September 2002 the Geotail satellite observed the cone angle of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) change to values below 30° during a 56 min interval between 18:14 and 19:10 UT. This triggered the generation of upstream waves at the bow shock, 13 RE downstream of the position of Geotail. Upstream generated waves were subsequently observed by Geotail between 18:30 and 18:48 UT, during times the IMF cone angle dropped below values of 10°. At 18:24 UT all four Cluster satellites simultaneously observed a sudden increase in wave power in all three magnetic field components, independent of their position in the dayside magnetosphere. We show that the 10 min delay between the change in IMF direction as observed by Geotail and the increase in wave power observed by Cluster is consistent with the propagation of the IMF change from the Geotail position to the bow shock and the propagation of the generated waves through the bow shock, magnetosheath and magnetosphere towards the position of the Cluster satellites. We go on to show that the wave power recorded by the Cluster satellites in the component containing the poloidal and compressional pulsations was broadband and unstructured; the power in the component containing toroidal oscillations was structured and shows the existence of multi-harmonic Alfvénic continuum waves on field lines. Model predictions of these frequencies fit well with the observations. An increase in wave power associated with the change in IMF direction was also registered by ground based magnetometers which were magnetically conjunct with the Cluster satellites during the event. To the best of our knowledge we present the first simultaneous observations of waves created by backstreaming ions at the bow shock in the solar wind, the dayside magnetosphere and on the ground.

  15. Color surface-flow visualization of fin-generated shock wave boundary-layer interactions

    Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.

    1990-03-01

    Kerosene-lampblack mixtures with addition of a ground colored chalk were used in an experiment on visualizing surface flows of swept shock boundary-layer interactions. The results show that contrasting colors intensify the visualization of different regions of the interaction surface, and help the eye in following the fine streaks to locate the upstream influence. The study confirms observations of the separation occurring at shock strength below accepted values. The superiority of the reported technique over the previous monochrome technique is demonstrated.

  16. Dome-shaped PDC cutters drill harder rock effectively

    Moran, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that rock mechanics and sonic travel time log data indicate that bits with convex-shaped polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters can drill harder rock formations than comparable bits with flat PDC cutters. The Dome-shaped cutters have drilled carbonate formations with sonic travel times as small as 50 μsec/ft, compared to the standard cutoff of 75 μsec/ft for flat PCD cutters. Recent field data from slim hole wells drilled in the Permian basin have shown successful applications of the 3/8-in. Dome cutter in the Grayburg dolomite with its sonic travel times as low as 50-55 μsec/ft and compressive strengths significantly greater than the standard operating range for PDC bit applications. These field data indicate that the Dome cutters can successfully drill hard rock. The convex cutter shape as good impact resistance, cuttings removal, heat dissipation, and wear resistance

  17. An experimental study of three-dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interactions generated by sharp fins

    Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a sharp fin with leading edge sweepback was investigated. The incoming flow was at Mach 2.96 and at a unit Reynolds number of 63 x 10 to the 6th power 0.1 m. The approximate incoming boundary layer thickness was either 4 mm or 17 mm. The fins used were at 5 deg, 9 deg and 15 deg incidence and had leading edge sweepback from 0 deg to 65 deg. The tests consisted of surface kerosene lampblack streak visualization, surface pressure measurements, shock wave shape determination by shadowgraphs, and localized vapor screen visualization. The upstream influence lengths of the fin interactions were correlated using viscous and inviscid flow parameters. The parameters affecting the surface features close to the fin and way from the fin were also identified. Essentially, the surface features in the farfield were found to be conical.

  18. Effect of Shock Waves Generated by Pulsed Electric Discharges in Water on Yeast Cells and Virus Particles

    Girdyuk, A. E.; Gorshkov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kolikov, V. A.; Snetov, V. N.; Shneerson, G. A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal parameters of the electric pulses and shock waves generated by them for the soft destruction of the virus and yeast envelopes with no changes in the structure of antigenic surface albumin and in the cell morphology in order to use them to produce antivirus vaccines and in biotechnology. The pulse electric discharges in water have been studied for different values of amplitude, pulse duration and the rate of the rise in the current. A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the optimal parameters of pulsed electric charges and shock waves for the complete destruction of the yeast cell envelopes and virus particles at a minimum of pulses.

  19. Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energies of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser beam were determined experimentally. The experiments were performed with the use of targets prepared from a number of metals, such as aluminum, copper, silver and lead (which belong to different periods of the periodic table) under irradiation by pulses of the first and third harmonics of the PALS iodine laser at a radiation intensity of approximately 10 14 W/cm 2 . It was found that, for heavy metals, like for light solid materials, the fraction of laser radiation energy converted into the energy of a shock wave under irradiation by a laser pulse of the third harmonic considerably (by a factor of 2-3) exceeds the fraction of laser radiation energy converted under irradiation by a laser pulse of the first harmonic. The influence of radiation processes on the efficiency of conversion of the laser energy into the energy of the shock wave was analyzed

  20. Shock Waves Generated by an Electrical Discharge on Composite Electrode Immersed in Water With Different Conductivities

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Hoffer, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2012), s. 1907-1912 ISSN 0093-3813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Corona * impedance matching * shock waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2012 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6205646&contentType=Journals+%26+ Magazines &queryText%3Dstelmashuk

  1. Generation of sub-gigabar-pressure shocks by a hyper-velocity impact in the collider driven by laser-induced cavity pressure

    Badziak, J.; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.

    2018-02-01

    The generation of high-pressure shocks in the newly proposed collider in which the projectile impacting a solid target is driven by the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) mechanism is investigated using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of parameters of the shock generated in the target by the impact of a gold projectile on the impacted target material and the laser driver energy is examined. It is found that both in case of low-density (CH, Al) and high-density (Au, Cu) solid targets the shock pressures in the sub-Gbar range can be produced in the LICPA-driven collider with the laser energy of only a few hundreds of joules, and the laser-to-shock energy conversion efficiency can reach values of 10 - 20 %, by an order of magnitude higher than the conversion efficiencies achieved with other laser-based methods used so far.

  2. Corona-like multistreamer discharge in water for cylindrical shock wave generation

    Prukner, Václav; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Martínková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), s. 342-348 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Shock wave in water * Corona-like multi-streamer discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  3. Enhanced shock wave generation via pre-breakdown acceleration using water electrolysis in negative streamer pulsed spark discharges

    Lee, Kern; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method for enhancement of shock waves generated from underwater pulsed spark discharges with negative (anode-directed) subsonic streamers, for which the pre-breakdown process is accelerated by preconditioning a gap with water electrolysis. Hydrogen microbubbles are produced at the cathode by the electrolysis and move towards the anode during the preconditioning phase. The numbers and spatial distributions of the microbubbles vary with the amplitude and duration of each preconditioning pulse. Under our experimental conditions, the optimum pulse duration is determined to be ˜250 ms at a pulse voltage of 400 V, where the buoyancy force overwhelms the electric force and causes the microbubbles to be swept out from the water gap. When a high-voltage pulse is applied to the gap just after the preconditioning pulse, the pre-breakdown process is significantly accelerated in the presence of the microbubbles. At the optimum preconditioning pulse duration, the average breakdown delay is reduced by 87% and, more importantly, the energy consumed during the pre-breakdown period decreases by 83%. This reduced energy consumption during the pre-breakdown period, when combined with the morphological advantages of negative streamers, such as thicker and longer stalks, leads to a significant improvement in the measured peak pressure (˜40%) generated by the underwater pulsed spark discharge. This acceleration of pre-breakdown using electrolysis overcomes the biggest drawback of negative subsonic discharges, which is slow vapor bubble formation due to screening effects, and thus enhances the efficiency of the shock wave generation process using pulsed spark discharges in water.

  4. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s{sup −1} and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s{sup −1} after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s{sup −1}) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  5. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Innes, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s −1 and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s −1 after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s −1 ) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the Z pinch plasma as a source of power pulse of soft X radiation for generation of shock waves in condensed targets

    Grabovskij, E.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Vorob'ev, O.Yu.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Lebedev, M.E.; Fortov, V.E.; Frolov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of processes occurring in Z-pinch plasma under conditions initiating a powerful pulse of soft X-radiation. The main attention is focused on double liner circuit designs. Estimations of power of radiation and spectrum are studied. The results are used to simulate processes occurring at generation of shock waves under the effect of soft X-radiation on the target. Experiments to generate shock waves with up to 3 Mbar amplitude pressure in lead under the effect of soft X-radiation were conducted using Angara-5 plant. 24 refs., 9 figs

  7. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ''Part 71'' (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G's at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G's was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.)

  9. High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement; Generation de hautes pressions par choc laser: application a la mesure d'equations d'etat

    Benuzzi, A

    1997-12-15

    This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 {mu}m. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)

  10. Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter using shock waves

    Kadlecová, Hedvika; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2017), 1-10, č. článku 89. ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma physics * gravitational wave generation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2016

  11. Experimental study of fast electron transport and of the propagation of shock waves generated by laser in the framework of inertial fusion

    Sakaki, T.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents 3 experiments carried out within the framework of inertial fusion. The first experiment was devoted to the study of fast electron beam transport in a compressed target. The implosion of the target with a cylindrical geometry was carried out with the GEKKO XII laser facility (ILE Osaka, Japan). The fast electron beam was generated by the LFEX laser (∼10"1"9 W/cm"2) and its propagation through the compressed cylinder was observed with several X-ray diagnostics. This experiment showed the guiding effect of the electron beam resulting from self-generated magnetic fields. Furthermore, the results of this experiment were in good agreement with numerical simulations. Two other experiments were performed to study the propagation of strong shock waves created by lasers in a plasma. They were carried out with different laser systems. In the first experiment with the Gekko XII laser, we observed the creation and the propagation of two successive shock waves in an ablation plasma in CH and Be. The objective of characterizing the amplification of a transmitted shock by the collision of two counter-propagating shocks has been partially realized. The comparison of the experimental results with the hydrodynamic simulations enabled us to confirm an amplification of the shock by a factor 2 in pressure in the condition of this experiment. The shot with a Be target allowed the development and validation of the diagnostic method of X-ray radiography for shock wave propagation. The second experiment was performed with PHELIX GSI laser (Darmstadt, Germany). The purpose of this experiment was to study the generation of strong shocks. They were applied to study the equation of state of carbon in the WDM state. The condition of pressure and density for the carbon were obtained by deducing the pressure and the velocity of the shock wave chronometric diagnostics employed in this experiment. In this experiment, diamond was at the metallic liquid phase with a pressure

  12. Study of a nonlinear system with shocks under broadband excitation. Application to a steam generator tube

    Thenint, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The steam generator is a heat exchanger and participates to the nuclear safety. Energy is transferred from the primary to the secondary fluid through many U-tubes maintained vertically by support plates. A sludge deposit tends to modify the boundary conditions and the secondary fluid flow. A fluid-elastic instability can then occur and lead to quick tube ruin. This thesis seeks a better understanding of the effect of contact nonlinearity on the dynamics of a tube in-air intermittently impacting the support plates and its consequences in regards with instability. The use of discretized contact conditions with circular obstacles distributed over the thickness of the plates and the use of enriched reduction bases allow quick and relevant nonlinear numerical simulations. These simulations are well correlated with experimental measurements and valid even with strong nonlinearity or negative modal damping. The evolution of power spectral densities (PSD) with growing excitation amplitude is analyzed: padding of the anti-resonances, peak shift and spread. It is then shown that an apparent stiffness associated with a permanent bilateral contact is pertinent to describe these transitions. In the case of an unstable linear system, one demonstrates that the nonlinearity keeps the responses bounded or stabilised, thus paving the way for future work with real or simulated fluid flows. (author)

  13. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2013-07-31

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, {lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy E{sub L} = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-{mu}m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35{+-}1.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 36 km s{sup -1}. In the experiment with four laser beams (for E{sub L} = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30{+-}3.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 30 km s{sup -1}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  14. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study

    Chen, Sonia Chien-I

    2018-01-01

    Background Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. Methods A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain in...

  15. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  16. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  17. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  18. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  19. Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2007), s. 793-802 ISSN 1063-7761 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Grant - others:HPC Europa(XE) RII3-CT-2003-506350 Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : shock waves * laser radiation * laser plasma * inertial confinement * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.075, year: 2007

  20. Pre-plasma effect on energy transfer from laser beam to shock wave generated in solid target

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Kalinowska, Z.; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Folpini, G.; Maheut, Y.; Baffigi, F.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Cristoforetti, G.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kasperczuk, A.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Labate, L.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Rosinski, M.; Skála, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), 012708/1-012708/7 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Energy transfer * laser ablation * shock waves * plasma waves * laser beam effects Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/21/1/10.1063/1.4862784

  1. Generation of narrow energy spread ion beams via collisionless shock waves using ultra-intense 1 um wavelength laser systems

    Albert, Felicie; Pak, A.; Kerr, S.; Lemos, N.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Pollock, B. B.; Haberberger, D.; Froula, D.; Gauthier, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Longman, A.; Manzoor, L.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.; Fiuza, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report on electrostatic collisionless shock wave acceleration experiments that produced proton beams with peak energies between 10-17.5 MeV, with narrow energy spreads between Δ E / E of 10-20%, and with a total number of protons in these peaks of 1e7-1e8. These beams of ions were created by driving an electrostatic collisionless shock wave in a tailored near critical density plasma target using the ultra-intense ps duration Titan laser that operates at a wavelength of 1 um. The near critical density target was produced through the ablation of an initially 0.5 um thick Mylar foil with a separate low intensity laser. A narrow energy spread distribution of carbon / oxygen ions with a similar velocity to the accelerated proton distribution, consistent with the reflection and acceleration of ions from an electrostatic field, was also observed. This work was supported by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program under project 15-LW-095, and the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.

  2. Efficacy of second generation lithotriptors: a multicenter comparative study of 2,206 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments with the Siemens Lithostar, Dornier HM4, Wolf Piezolith 2300, Direx Tripter X-1 and Breakstone lithotriptors

    Bierkens, A. F.; Hendrikx, A. J.; de Kort, V. J.; de Reyke, T.; Bruynen, C. A.; Bouve, E. R.; Beek, T. V.; Vos, P.; Berkel, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become the treatment of choice for urinary calculi. The good results of the first generation Dornier HM3 lithotriptor stimulated the development of second generation machines. A multicenter trial is presented involving the Siemens Lithostar, Dornier

  3. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness ∼50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics

  4. Unified model of plasma formation, bubble generation and shock wave emission in water for fs to ns laser pulses (Conference Presentation)

    Liang, Xiao-Xuan; Freidank, Sebastian; Linz, Norbert; Paltauf, Günther; Zhang, Zhenxi; Vogel, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    We developed modeling tools for optical breakdown events in water that span various phases reaching from breakdown initiation via solvated electron generation, through laser induced-plasma formation and temperature evolution in the focal spot to the later phases of cavitation bubble dynamics and shock wave emission and applied them to a large parameter space of pulse durations, wavelengths, and pulse energies. The rate equation model considers the interplay of linear absorption, photoionization, avalanche ionization and recombination, traces thermalization and temperature evolution during the laser pulse, and portrays the role of thermal ionization that becomes relevant for T > 3000 K. Modeling of free-electron generation includes recent insights on breakdown initiation in water via multiphoton excitation of valence band electrons into a solvated state at Eini = 6.6 eV followed by up-conversion into the conduction band level that is located at 9.5 eV. The ability of tracing the temperature evolution enabled us to link the model of laser-induced plasma formation with a hydrodynamic model of plasma-induced pressure evolution and phase transitions that, in turn, traces bubble generation and dynamics as well as shock wave emission. This way, the amount of nonlinear energy deposition in transparent dielectrics and the resulting material modifications can be assessed as a function of incident laser energy. The unified model of plasma formation and bubble dynamics yields an excellent agreement with experimental results over the entire range of investigated pulse durations (femtosecond to nanosecond), wavelengths (UV to IR) and pulse energies.

  5. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  6. Women’s Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia

    Xuetao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women’s health care (WHC utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01. In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95% CI = 0.14 (0.04–0.54, who used illicit drugs (AOR (95% CI = 0.42 (0.19–0.92 and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95% CI = 0.97 (0.95–0.99, were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women’s holistic health.

  7. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  8. Are minimally invasive procedures harder to acquire than conventional surgical procedures?

    Hiemstra, Ellen; Kolkman, Wendela; le Cessie, Saskia; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2011-01-01

    It is frequently suggested that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is harder to acquire than conventional surgery. To test this hypothesis, residents' learning curves of both surgical skills are compared. Residents had to be assessed using a general global rating scale of the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills) for every procedure they performed as primary surgeon during a 3-month clinical rotation in gynecological surgery. Nine postgraduate-year-4 residents collected a total of 319 OSATS during the 2 years and 3 months investigation period. These assessments concerned 129 MIS (laparoscopic and hysteroscopic) and 190 conventional (open abdominal and vaginal) procedures. Learning curves (in this study defined as OSATS score plotted against procedure-specific caseload) for MIS and conventional surgery were compared using a linear mixed model. The MIS curve revealed to be steeper than the conventional curve (1.77 vs. 0.75 OSATS points per assessed procedure; 95% CI 1.19-2.35 vs. 0.15-1.35, p < 0.01). Basic MIS procedures do not seem harder to acquire during residency than conventional surgical procedures. This may have resulted from the incorporation of structured MIS training programs in residency. Hopefully, this will lead to a more successful implementation of the advanced MIS procedures. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Collisionless shock waves

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  10. Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  11. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  12. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  13. Shock absorber

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  14. Quantum paradox of choice: More freedom makes summoning a quantum state harder

    Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    The properties of quantum information in space-time can be investigated by studying operational tasks, such as "summoning," in which an unknown quantum state is supplied at one point and a call is made at another for it to be returned at a third. Hayden and May [arXiv:1210.0913] recently proved necessary and sufficient conditions for guaranteeing successful return of a summoned state for finite sets of call and return points when there is a guarantee of at most one summons. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions when there may be several possible summonses and complying with any one constitutes success, and we demonstrate the existence of an apparent paradox: The extra freedom makes it strictly harder to complete the summoning task. This result has practical applications for distributed quantum computing and cryptography and implications for our understanding of relativistic quantum information and its localization in space-time.

  15. Working harder to obtain more snack foods when wanting to eat less.

    Giesen, Janneke C A H; Havermans, Remco C; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Strafaci, Silvana; Jansen, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates individual differences in the reinforcing value of snack food. More specifically, it was investigated whether differences in restraint status are associated with differences in working for high-caloric snack food. Thirty-six unrestrained non-dieters, twenty restrained non-dieters and fifteen current dieters performed a concurrent schedules task in which they had the option to work for points for either snack food or fruit and vegetables. By progressively increasing the "price" of the snack foods (i.e., the amount of work required to obtain extra snack points) the relative reinforcing value of snack food was determined. As hypothesized, restrained non-dieters worked harder and current dieters worked less hard to obtain snack food as compared to unrestrained non-dieters.

  16. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Unknown

    to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...

  17. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  18. Ultrasound shock wave generator with one-bit time reversal in a dispersive medium, application to lithotripsy

    Montaldo, Gabriel; Roux, Philippe; Derode, Arnaud; Negreira, Carlos; Fink, Mathias

    2002-02-01

    The building of high-power ultrasonic sources from piezoelectric ceramics is limited by the maximum voltage that the ceramics can endure. We have conceived a device that uses a small number of piezoelectric transducers fastened to a cylindrical metallic waveguide. A one-bit time- reversal operation transforms the long-lasting low-level dispersed wave forms into a sharp pulse, thus taking advantage of dispersion to generate high-power ultrasound. The pressure amplitude that is generated at the focus is found to be 15 times greater than that achieved with comparable standard techniques. Applications to lithotripsy are discussed and the destructive efficiency of the system is demonstrated on pieces of chalk.

  19. demystifying the shock of shocking

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  20. Hypovolemic shock

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  2. Shock absorber

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  3. Why it is harder to run RoboCup in South Africa

    Alexander Ferrein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Robots are widely used as a vehicle to spark interest in science and technology in learners. A number of initiatives focus on this issue, for instance, the Roberta Initiative, the FIRST Lego League, the World Robot Olympiad and RoboCup Junior. Robotic competitions are valuable not only for school learners but also for university students, as the RoboCup initiative shows. Besides technical skills, the students get some project exposure and experience what it means to finish their tasks on time. But qualifying students for future high-tech areas should not only be for students from developed countries. In this article, we present our experiences with research and education in robotics within the RoboCup initiative, in Germany and South Africa; we report on our experiences with trying to get the RoboCup initiative in South Africa going. RoboCup has a huge support base of academic institutions in Germany; this is not the case in South Africa. We present our ‘north–south’ collaboration initiatives in RoboCup between Germany and South Africa and discuss some of the reasons why we think it is harder to run RoboCup in South Africa.

  4. Why don't you try harder? An investigation of effort production in major depression.

    Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin

    Full Text Available Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder, associated with reduced approach behavior. It remains unclear whether the difficulty in energising behavior relates to abnormal emotional states or to a flattened response to potential rewards, as suggested by several neuroimaging studies. Here, we aimed to demonstrate a specific incentive motivation deficit in major depression, independent of patients' emotional state. We employed a behavioral paradigm designed to measure physical effort in response to both emotional modulation and incentive motivation. Patients did exert more effort following emotionally arousing pictures (whether positive or negative but not for higher monetary incentives, contrary to healthy controls. These results show that emotional and motivational sources of effort production are dissociable in pathological conditions. In addition, patients' ratings of perceived effort increased for high incentives, whereas controls' ratings were decreased. Thus, depressed patients objectively behave as if they do not want to gain larger rewards, but subjectively feel that they try harder. We suggest that incentive motivation impairment is a core deficit of major depression, which may render everyday tasks abnormally effortful for patients.

  5. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study

    2018-01-01

    Background Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. Methods A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain insightful inputs from deeper probing. Taiwan was selected as a typical case study, given its aging population, advanced technology, and comprehensive health care system. This study investigated 38 stakeholders in the health care ecosystem through in-depth interviews and focus groups, which provides an open, flexible, and enlightening way to study complex, dynamic, and interactive situations through informal conversation or a more structured, directed discussion. Results First, respondents indicated that the use of technology can enable seamless patient care and clinical benefits such as flexibility in time management. Second, the results suggested that a leader’s vision, authority, and management skills might influence success in health care innovation. Finally, the results implied that both internal and external organizational governance are highly relevant for implementing technology-based innovation in health care. Conclusions This study provided Taiwanese perspectives on how to intelligently use technology to benefit health care and debated the perception that technology prevents human interaction between clinicians and patients. PMID:29301736

  6. It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science.

    Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  7. Management of functional Sprint Fidelis leads at cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator generator replacement: a novel option for preventing inappropriate shocks from lead failure in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death.

    Zhu, Dennis W X; Chu, Matthew M; House, Chad M

    2017-12-01

    In patients with a functional Sprint Fidelis lead at generator replacement, the manufacturer recommended to either continue to use the existing lead or replace it with a new lead. For those patients who continue to use a functional Fidelis lead, the risk of inappropriate shocks remains present if the lead fails in the future. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach at the time of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) generator replacement in patients with a functional bipolar left ventricular (LV) lead for prevention of inappropriate shocks from future Fidelis lead failure. During the procedure, the pace/sense IS-1 connection pin of the functional Fidelis lead was intentionally inserted into the LV port of the new CRT-D generator, while the existing bipolar LV lead IS-1 connection pin was inserted into the right ventricular (RV) pace/sense port. After such switching, the existing bipolar LV lead was used for functional LV pacing/sensing, while the Fidelis lead was used for functional RV pacing and high voltage shock only and could no longer be used for the purpose of sensing and detecting. This approach precluded oversensing and inappropriate shocks should the functional Fidelis lead fail in the future. Six fragile patients, who were not considered suitable candidates for lead replacement, underwent the alternative approach. During a follow-up of 35 ± 23 months, the CRT-D system functioned normally in five patients. The Fidelis lead fractured in one patient 7 months after generator replacement. The malfunction was detected promptly and the defected lead was replaced. No inappropriate detections or shock was triggered. In CRT-D patients with a functional Fidelis lead and a bipolar LV lead, switching of the Fidelis lead pace/sense IS-1 pin with the bipolar LV lead IS-1 pin at generator replacement did not affect normal system function. This novel approach may be valuable in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death for

  8. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  9. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  10. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  11. Toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  12. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study.

    Chen, Sonia Chien-I

    2018-01-04

    Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain insightful inputs from deeper probing. Taiwan was selected as a typical case study, given its aging population, advanced technology, and comprehensive health care system. This study investigated 38 stakeholders in the health care ecosystem through in-depth interviews and focus groups, which provides an open, flexible, and enlightening way to study complex, dynamic, and interactive situations through informal conversation or a more structured, directed discussion. First, respondents indicated that the use of technology can enable seamless patient care and clinical benefits such as flexibility in time management. Second, the results suggested that a leader's vision, authority, and management skills might influence success in health care innovation. Finally, the results implied that both internal and external organizational governance are highly relevant for implementing technology-based innovation in health care. This study provided Taiwanese perspectives on how to intelligently use technology to benefit health care and debated the perception that technology prevents human interaction between clinicians and patients. ©Sonia Chien-I Chen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  13. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  14. Combining PPI with qualitative research to engage 'harder-to-reach' populations: service user groups as co-applicants on a platform study for a trial.

    Morgan, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Crossland, Nicola; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-01-01

    research is intended for their benefit. However, the interface between PPI and qualitative research has received little attention. In a multi-disciplinary, mixed methods study to inform the design of incentive trials for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding, we combined PPI and qualitative research, with some overlap. Mother and baby groups from two geographically separate disadvantaged areas, with diverse experiences of the smoking and breastfeeding, but no training or previous involvement in research, were recruited as PPI research grant co-applicants. An iterative partnership approach facilitated involvement in research conduct and design across all project phases. Group PPI members were also invited to contribute to more formal qualitative data collection, as and when indicated by the research questions, and emerging analysis. We engaged with 'harder-to-reach' women in mother and baby group settings, rather than in academic or home environments. These settings were relaxed and informal, which facilitated rapport-building, disclosures of unexpected information and maintained trust. Twenty-one women participated in standard PPI activities: feedback on study protocols and documents; piloting questionnaires and interview schedules. PPI members voiced some different perspectives from those captured within the qualitative dataset. Nineteen participated in focused qualitative research. Novel aspects were audio recorded PPI discussions, which contributed qualitative data; first, to interpret systematic review findings and construct intervention vignettes for use in the qualitative research; second, to assist with recruitment to improve sample diversity in the formal qualitative dataset; and third, to translate theory and findings presented in a researcher generated logic model into a lay tool. This had face validity for potential trial participants and used the metaphor of a ladder. Combining and overlapping PPI and qualitative research added 'harder

  15. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison.

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Moreno-Pérez, Diego; Cardona, Claudia A; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Muñoz, Iker; Sellés, Sergio; Cejuela, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k) and the Ironman (IM) training in recreational trained athletes. Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO 2max max, or endurance training experience ( p > 0.05). They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k). Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs) training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: As expected, Competition Time was significantly different (IM 11 h 45 min ± 1 h 54 min vs. 42k 3 h 6 min ± 28 min, p < 0.001). Similarly, Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9), and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118) were significantly higher in IM ( p < 0.001). However, the Ratio between Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8) ( p < 0.001). Finally, all ratios between training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k ( p < 0.001) (Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5), (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0). Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  16. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison

    Jonathan Esteve-Lanao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k and the Ironman (IM training in recreational trained athletes.Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO2max max, or endurance training experience (p > 0.05. They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k. Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p < 0.05.Results: As expected, Competition Time was significantly different (IM 11 h 45 min ± 1 h 54 min vs. 42k 3 h 6 min ± 28 min, p < 0.001. Similarly, Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9, and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118 were significantly higher in IM (p < 0.001. However, the Ratio between Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8 (p < 0.001. Finally, all ratios between training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k (p < 0.001 (Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5, (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0.Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  17. Compression of the Venusian ionosphere on May 10, 1979, by the interplanetary shock generated by the solar eruption of May 8, 1979

    Dryer, M.; Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Taylor, H.A. Jr.; Intriligator, D.S.; Mihalov, J.D.; Rompolt, B.

    1982-01-01

    An interplanetary shock wave that was produced by a solar eruption and its associated coronal transient on May 8, 1979, has been 'tracked' through interplanetary space to a rendezvous 2 days later with Venus. The interaction of the shock wave with the ionospheric obstacle at Venus produced a significant compression of the dayside ionosphere. It is believed that the tracking, as it were, was accomplished for the first time via the diagnostic observations provided by Hα and white light imagery near the sun and the plasma and field measurements of two, nearly radially aligned, spacecraft

  18. Shock Waves

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  19. Shock wave compression and self-generated electric field repolarization in ferroelectric ceramics Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3

    Jiang, Dongdong; Du, Jinmei; Gu, Yan; Feng, Yujun

    2012-03-01

    The shock wave induced depoling current of Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3 ceramics was investigated with a system composed of a resistive load and an unpoled ceramic. Disparity in the depoling current was explained by considering the drawing charge effect of unpoled ceramic. The drawing effect for poled ceramics was analysed by developing a model incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization. This model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. This work indicates that both the repolarization of uncompressed ceramics caused by the self-generated electric field and depolarization of compressed ceramics caused by the shock wave govern the output current.

  20. Shock wave compression and self-generated electric field repolarization in ferroelectric ceramics Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3

    Jiang Dongdong; Du Jinmei; Gu Yan; Feng Yujun

    2012-01-01

    The shock wave induced depoling current of Pb 0.99 [(Zr 0.90 Sn 0.10 ) 0.96 Ti 0.04 ] 0.98 Nb 0.02 O 3 ceramics was investigated with a system composed of a resistive load and an unpoled ceramic. Disparity in the depoling current was explained by considering the drawing charge effect of unpoled ceramic. The drawing effect for poled ceramics was analysed by developing a model incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization. This model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. This work indicates that both the repolarization of uncompressed ceramics caused by the self-generated electric field and depolarization of compressed ceramics caused by the shock wave govern the output current. (paper)

  1. Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals

    Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon

    2000-01-01

    We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.

  3. "A new lachrymal gland with an excretory duct in red and fallow deer" by Johann jacob Harder (1694): English translation and historical perspective.

    Hillenius, Willem J; Phillips, Darryl A; Rehorek, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    The Harderian gland is an enigmatic orbital gland that has been described for many tetrapods, although a consistent definition of this structure has remained elusive. In particular, an unambiguous distinction between the Harderian gland and the nictitans gland, which may both occur in the anterior aspect of the orbit of mammals, remains problematic. These glands were first distinguished in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder, a Swiss physician and anatomist. To facilitate a renewed examination of the anatomical and developmental relationships of the anterior orbital glands, we review the historical context of Harder's discovery, and provide Harder's original Latin text as well as an English translation.

  4. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  5. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  6. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  7. Time-resolved processes in a pulsed electrical discharge in water generated with shock wave assistance in a plate-to-plate configuration

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 49 (2014), s. 495204-495204 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * streamers * spark * cavitation bubble * shock wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/49/495204/pdf/0022-3727_47_49_495204.pdf

  8. The Shock Wave in the ionosphere during an Earthquake

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud.

  9. State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Kandel, L.B. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US)); Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L. (Wake Forest Univ. Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL.

  10. State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Kandel, L.B.; Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  12. Reaction effects in diffusive shock acceleration

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the reaction of accelerated particles back on the shock wave in the diffusive-shock-acceleration model of cosmic-ray generation are investigated theoretically. Effects examined include changes in the shock structure, modifications of the input and output spectra, scattering effects, and possible instabilities in the small-scale structure. It is pointed out that the latter two effects are applicable to any spatially localized acceleration mechanism. 14 references

  13. Shock Prevention

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  14. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  15. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  16. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Krouský, Eduard; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 032709. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * ultra-high-pressure shocks * laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015

  17. Making Patron Data Work Harder: User Search Terms as Access Points?

    Jason A. Clark

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Montana State University (MSU Libraries are experimenting with re-using patron-generated data to create browseable access points for the Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD collection. A beta QueryCatcher module logs recent search terms and the number of associated hits. These terms are used to create browseable lists and tagclouds which enhance access to the ETD collection. Gathering and reusing information about user behavior is an emerging trend in web application development. This article outlines MSU Libraries' reasoning for moving towards a user-generated model and provides a complete walkthrough of the steps in building the application and example code.

  18. Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma

    Mellott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.

  19. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  20. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  1. Underwater electrical wire explosion: Shock wave from melting being overtaken by shock wave from vaporization

    Li, Liuxia; Qian, Dun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2018-05-01

    The shock waves generated by an underwater electrical wire explosion were investigated. A microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to trigger the electrical explosion of copper wires with a length of 5 cm and a diameter of 200 μm. The energy-storage capacitor was charged to a relatively low energy so that the energy deposited onto the wire was not large enough to fully vaporize the whole wire. Two shock waves were recorded with a piezoelectric gauge that was located at a position of 100 mm from the exploding wire. The first and weak shock wave was confirmed to be the contribution from wire melting, while the second and stronger shock wave was the contribution from wire vaporization. The phenomenon whereby the first shock wave generated by melting being overtaken by the shock wave due to vaporization was observed.

  2. Effects of Atwood number on shock focusing in shock-cylinder interaction

    Ou, Junfeng; Ding, Juchun; Luo, Xisheng; Zhai, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of shock-accelerated heavy-gas cylinder surrounded by the air with different Atwood numbers (A_t=0.28, 0.50, 0.63) is investigated, concentrating on shock focusing and jet formation. Experimentally, a soap film technique is used to generate an ideal two-dimensional discontinuous gas cylinder with a clear surface, which can guarantee the observation of shock wave movements inside the cylinder. Different Atwood numbers are realized by different mixing ratios of SF_6 and air inside the cylinder. A high-speed schlieren system is adopted to capture the shock motions and jet morphology. Numerical simulations are also performed to provide more information. The results indicate that an inward jet is formed for low Atwood numbers, while an outward jet is generated for high Atwood numbers. Different Atwood numbers will lead to the differences in the relative velocities between the incident shock and the refraction shock, which ultimately results in the differences in shock competition near the downstream pole. The morphology and feature of the jet are closely associated with the position and intensity of shock focusing. The pressure and vorticity contours indicate that the jet formation should be attributed to the pressure pulsation caused by shock focusing, and the jet development is ascribed to the vorticity induction. Finally, a time ratio proposed in the previous work for determining the shock-focusing type is verified by experiments.

  3. Making Patron Data Work Harder: User Search Terms as Access Points?

    Jason A. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Montana State University (MSU) Libraries are experimenting with re-using patron-generated data to create browseable access points for the Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) collection. A beta QueryCatcher module logs recent search terms and the number of associated hits. These terms are used to create browseable lists and tagclouds which enhance access to the ETD collection. Gathering and reusing information about user behavior is an emerging trend in web application development. This ...

  4. Collisions on relativistic nuclei: shock waves

    Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments are analysed which indicate the possible generation of shock waves in collisions of two nuclei. Another interpretation of these data is proposed and the concerned new experiments are discussed

  5. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Ahmed Hawass; Hosam Mostafa; Ahmed Elbeih

    2015-01-01

    The effect of underwater shock wave on different target plates has been studied. An underwater shock wave generator (shock tube) was used to study the interactions between water and different constructed targets which act as shock wave mitigation. Target plates, composed of sandwich of two aluminum sheets with rubber and foam in between, were prepared and studied. For comparison, the target plates composed of triple aluminum sheets were tested. The study includes the testing of the selected p...

  6. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  7. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  8. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  9. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  10. Humans and deep networks largely agree on which kinds of variation make object recognition harder

    Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g. 3D rotations. Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN, which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth as well as their magnitude, which we call variation level. We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier. This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  11. Culture shock

    Hasell, N.

    1993-01-01

    Morale and performance among staff working for Nuclear Electric, one of the United Kingdom's nuclear power utilities, has risen dramatically from the low levels occurring when the rest of the Central Electricity Generating Board was privatised. This article explains how changed management attitudes, performance-related pay, the pursuit of teamwork and participation have all a role to play in improving business efficiency and increasing output. (UK)

  12. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  13. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  14. Shock absorbing structure

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  15. Melting under shock compression

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  16. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  17. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  18. The ''injection problem'' for quasiparallel shocks

    Zank, G. P.; Rice, W. K. M.; le Roux, J. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Webb, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    For a particle to be accelerated diffusively at a shock by the first-order Fermi acceleration mechanism, the particle must be sufficiently energetic that it can scatter across all the micro- and macrostructure of the shock, experiencing compression between the converging upstream and downstream states. This is the well-known ''injection problem.'' Here the interaction of ions with the ramp of a quasiparallel shock is investigated. Some ions incident on the shock experience specular reflection, caused either by the cross-shock electrostatic potential or by mirroring as the magnetic field is bent and compressed through the ramp. Scattering of reflected ions by self-generated and pre-existing turbulence in the region upstream of the shock then acts to trap backstreaming ions and return them to the ramp, where some experience further reflections. Such repeated reflections and scattering energize a subpopulation of ions up to energies sufficiently large that they can be diffusively shock accelerated. Two ion distributions are considered: pickup ions which are assumed to be described by a shell distribution, are thermal solar wind ions which may be described by a kappa distribution. Injection efficiencies are found analytically to be very high for pickup ions and much lower for thermal solar wind ions, suggesting that this injection mechanism, stochastic reflected ion or SRI acceleration, is a natural precursor for the acceleration of the anomalous cosmic ray component at a quasiparallel shock. While significantly less efficient, SRI acceleration is also viable for thermal solar wind ions described by a kappa distribution

  19. PRECURSORS TO INTERSTELLAR SHOCKS OF SOLAR ORIGIN

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory/JHU, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Ness, N. F. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Burlaga, L. F., E-mail: donald-gurnett@uiowa.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the “foreshock” that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.

  20. Shock-induced borehole waves and fracture effects

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We perform wave experiments using a vertical shock tube setup. Shock waves are generated by the rupture of a thin membrane. In the test section the incident pressure waves generate borehole-guided waves along water-saturated samples. The tube is equipped with side wall gages and a mobile pressure

  1. Alfven shock trains

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  2. Shock-wave induced mechanoluminescence: A new technique for studying effects of shock pressure on crystals

    Chandra, B.P.; Parganiha, S.; Sonwane, V.D. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India); Chandra, V.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001, Chhattisgarh (India); Jha, Piyush, E-mail: piyushjha22@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Raipur Institute of Technology, Chhatauna, Mandir Hasuad, Raipur 492101, Chhattisgarh (India); Baghel, R.N. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India)

    2016-10-15

    The impact of a projectile propelled to velocities in the range of 0.5–2.5 km/s on to a target (X-cut quartz crystal) produces shock waves travelling at velocity of nearly 10 km/s in target, in which intense mechanoluminescence (ML) pulses of microsecond duration are produced, both in compression and post-compression conditions. The piezoelectric field produced due to surface charges of fractured target, causes band bending and subsequently, the free charge carriers are generated in the respective bands and the emission of ML occurs. The ML appears after a delay time t{sub th} whose value decreases with increasing value of the shock pressure. Initially, the ML intensity increases with the shock pressure because of the creation of more surfaces; however, for higher values of the shock pressure, the ML intensity tends to attain a saturation value because of the hardening of the crystals due to the creation of small crystallites in which the creation of new surfaces becomes difficult. The ratio between peak ML intensity in the uncompressed region and the maximum ML intensity in the compressed region decreases with increasing shock pressure because more defects produced at high pressure generate higher barrier for the relaxation of blocked cracks under compression. The expressions derived for characteristics of shock-induced ML are able to explain satisfactorily the experimental results. Shock-wave velocity, shock pressure, transit time, lifetime of electrons in conduction band, etc. can be determined by the shock-induced ML.As such, the shock-induced ML provides a new optical technique for the studies of materials under shock pressure.

  3. Populatiedynamica van harders

    Schepers, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the period half May-December 1972 investigations were done to the population-structure of Grey Mullet (Mugilidae) in the western part of the Waddensea. The main question was: is this population open or closed? For this purpose were studied among other things: capture statistics from 1960, the

  4. The harder they fall.

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2003-10-01

    The past decade may well be remembered as the era of the high-flying, aggressive leader. Corner-office titans like Kenneth Lay, Dennis Kozlowski, and Bernard Ebbers graced the covers of business magazines. They captured the public's fascination with their bold business moves and charismatic sound bites. Then scandal set in, and the stars fell to earth. In this article, social psychologist Roderick M. Kramer asks an important question: Why do so many leaders--not just in business, but also in politics, religion, and the media--display remarkable adeptness and ability while courting power, only to engage in even more remarkable bouts of folly once that power has been secured? Kramer, who has spent most of his career researching how leaders get to the top, says there is something about the process of becoming a leader that changes people in profound ways. The systems through which we select our leaders force executives to sacrifice the attitudes and behaviors that are essential to their survival once they have reached the top. Society has learned to consider risk taking and rule breaking as markers of good leadership. As a result, CEOs and other leaders lack the modesty and prudence needed to cope with the rewards and trappings of power. They come to believe that normal limits don't apply to them and that they are entitled to any spoils they can seize. The leaders who do remain grounded--who get to the top and stay there--exhibit five common psychological and behavioral habits: They simplify their lives, remaining humble and "awfully ordinary." They shine a light on their weaknesses instead of trying to cover them up. They float trial balloons to uncover the truth and prepare for the unexpected. They sweat the small stuff. And they reflect more, not less.

  5. Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Amano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)

  6. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  7. Impact of Shock Front Rippling and Self-reformation on the Electron Dynamics at Low-Mach-number Shocks

    Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui

    2018-04-01

    Electron dynamics at low-Mach-number collisionless shocks are investigated by using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various shock normal angles. We found: (1) The reflected ions and incident electrons at the shock front provide an effective mechanism for the quasi-electrostatic wave generation due to the charge-separation. A fraction of incident electrons can be effectively trapped and accelerated at the leading edge of the shock foot. (2) At quasi-perpendicular shocks, the electron trapping and reflection is nonuniform due to the shock rippling along the shock surface and is more likely to take place at some locations accompanied by intense reflected ion-beams. The electron trapping process has a periodical evolution over time due to the shock front self-reformation, which is controlled by ion dynamics. Thus, this is a cross-scale coupling phenomenon. (3) At quasi-parallel shocks, reflected ions can travel far back upstream. Consequently, quasi-electrostatic waves can be excited in the shock transition and the foreshock region. The electron trajectory analysis shows these waves can trap electrons at the foot region and reflect a fraction of them far back upstream. Simulation runs in this paper indicate that the micro-turbulence at the shock foot can provide a possible scenario for producing the reflected electron beam, which is a basic condition for the type II radio burst emission at low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).

  8. Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density

    Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak

  9. Shock waves in luminous early-type stars

    Castor, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves that occur in stellar atmospheres have their origin in some hydrodynamic instability of the atmosphere itself or of the stellar interior. In luminous early-type stars these two possibilities are represented by shocks due to an unstable radiatively-accelerated wind, and to shocks generated by the non-radial pulsations known to be present in many or most OB stars. This review is concerned with the structure and development of the shocks in these two cases, and especially with the mass loss that may be due specifically to the shocks. Pulsation-produced shocks are found to be very unfavorable for causing mass loss, owing to the great radiation efficiency that allows them to remain isothermal. The situation regarding radiatively-driven shocks remains unclear, awaiting detailed hydrodynamics calculations. 20 refs., 2 figs

  10. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  11. Application of Underwater Shock Wave Focusing to the Development of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a summary of a research project for the development of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has been carried out, under close collaboration between the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University and the School of Medicine, Tohoku University. The ESWL is a noninvasive clinical treatment of disintegrating human calculi and one of the most peaceful applications of shock waves. Underwater spherical shock waves were generated by explosion of microexplosives. Characteristics of the underwater shock waves and of ultrasound focusing were studied by means of holographic interferometric flow visualization and polyvinyliden-difluoride (PVDF) pressure transducers. These focused pressures, when applied to clinical treatments, could effectively and noninvasively disintegrate urinary tract stones or gallbladder stones. However, despite clincal success, tissue damage occurs during ESWL treatments, and the possible mechanism of tissue damage is briefly described.

  12. A new electromagnetic shock-wave generator "SLX-F2" with user-selectable dual focus size: ex vivo evaluation of renal injury.

    Leistner, Rasmus; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Grobholz, Rainer; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Köhrmann, Kai Uwe; Alken, Peter; Häcker, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Storz Medical AG (Kreutzlingen/Switzerland) has developed a new electromagnetic shockwave (SW) generator, the "SLX-F2", which allows the user to choose between a small-focus, high-pressure treatment regime or a wide-focus, low-pressure option. The aim of this study was to investigate, under standardized conditions, the impact of these two different treatment regimes on SW-induced renal injury. SW-induced renal injury was investigated by using the standardized model of the perfused ex vivo kidney. SWs were applied under ultrasound control in the parenchyma of a kidney pole. Different SW numbers (20, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000) were applied in three groups: group A was treated with a wider focus (80 MPa), groups B (60 MPa) and C (120 MPa) with a smaller focus (each parameter setting was repeated ten-fold). Disintegration capacity (measured by crater volume in cubes of plaster of Paris) was the same in groups A and C. After SW exposure, barium sulphate suspension was perfused through the renal artery. The maximum diameter (mm) of the extravasation in the cortex, representing the extent of vascular injury, was measured on X-ray mammography films. H&E staining was performed. In all three groups (A, B, C) a higher number of SWs caused the diameter of the extravasate to increase, with statistical significance appearing at 1,000 shots versus 20 shots (p generator at the same peak positive pressure and disintegration power. This confirms the in vivo findings that show renal injury caused by SW as being related to the number of SWs administered. Clinical studies are needed to investigate whether there is any advantage to offering both treatment regimes in one SW machine-for example, by using the "wide-focus, low-pressure" option for kidney stones and the "small-focus, high-pressure" regimen for stones in the ureter. The renal injury caused by either regime remains comparable.

  13. On the interplay between cosmological shock waves and their environment

    Martin-Alvarez, Sergio; Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent

    2017-05-01

    Cosmological shock waves are tracers of the thermal history of the structures in the Universe. They play a crucial role in redistributing the energy within the cosmic structures and are also amongst the main ingredients of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. Understanding this important function requires a proper description of the interplay between shocks and the different environments where they can be found. In this paper, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Eulerian cosmological simulation is analysed by means of a shock-finding algorithm that allows to generate shock wave maps. Based on the population of dark matter halos and on the distribution of density contrast in the simulation, we classify the shocks in five different environments. These range from galaxy clusters to voids. The shock distribution function and the shocks power spectrum are studied for these environments dynamics. We find that shock waves on different environments undergo different formation and evolution processes, showing as well different characteristics. We identify three different phases of formation, evolution and dissipation of these shock waves, and an intricate migration between distinct environments and scales. Shock waves initially form at external, low density regions and are merged and amplified through the collapse of structures. Shock waves and cosmic structures follow a parallel evolution. Later on, shocks start to detach from them and dissipate. We also find that most of the power that shock waves dissipate is found at scales of k ˜0.5 Mpc^{-1}, with a secondary peak at k ˜8 Mpc^{-1}. The evolution of the shocks power spectrum confirms that shock waves evolution is coupled and conditioned by their environment.

  14. Shock-induced modification of inorganic powders

    Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Beauchamp, E.K.; Hammetter, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies performed to quantify the characteristics of TiO2, ZrO2 and Si3N4 powders exposed to explosive loading and post-shock analysis are reported. The shocks were produced with plane wave generators and explosive pads impinging on steel disks, a copper recovery fixture, and then the samples. Peak pressures of 13 and 17 GPa were attained, along with 40 GPz at the center of the powder cavity. Data are provided on the changes occurring during the explosive densification and X-ray and paramagnetic studies of the products. Only fractured disks were obtained in the trials. The shock-treated materials were more free flowing than the original powders, which were fluffy. Post-shock annealing was a significant feature of the treated powders

  15. Analysis of Z Pinch Shock Wave Experiments

    Asay, James; Budge, Kent G.; Chandler, Gordon; Fleming, Kevin; Hall, Clint; Holland, Kathleen; Konrad, Carl; Lawrence, Jeffery; Trott, Wayne; Trucano, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report details of our computational study of two shock wave physics experiments performed on the Sandia Z machine in 1998. The novelty of these particular experiments is that they represent the first successful application of VISAR interferometry to diagnose shock waves generated in experimental payloads by the primary X-ray pulse of the machine. We use the Sandia shock-wave physics code ALEGRA to perform the simulations reported in this study. Our simulations are found to be in fair agreement with the time-resolved VISAR experimental data. However, there are also interesting and important discrepancies. We speculate as to future use of time-resolved shock wave data to diagnose details of the Z machine X-ray pulse in the future

  16. Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments

    Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

    2013-07-01

    The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

  17. Holographic interferometric observation of shock wave focusing to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu

    1991-04-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.

  18. Electromagnetic Structure and Electron Acceleration in Shock–Shock Interaction

    Nakanotani, Masaru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Mazelle, Christian X., E-mail: nakanot@esst.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IRAP, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III-CNRS, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2017-09-10

    A shock–shock interaction is investigated by using a one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation reproduces the collision of two symmetrical high Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks. The basic structure of the shocks and ion dynamics is similar to that obtained by previous hybrid simulations. The new aspects obtained here are as follows. Electrons are already strongly accelerated before the two shocks collide through multiple reflection. The reflected electrons self-generate waves upstream between the two shocks before they collide. The waves far upstream are generated through the right-hand resonant instability with the anomalous Doppler effect. The waves generated near the shock are due to firehose instability and have much larger amplitudes than those due to the resonant instability. The high-energy electrons are efficiently scattered by the waves so that some of them gain large pitch angles. Those electrons can be easily reflected at the shock of the other side. The accelerated electrons form a power-law energy spectrum. Due to the accelerated electrons, the pressure of upstream electrons increases with time. This appears to cause the deceleration of the approaching shock speed. The accelerated electrons having sufficiently large Larmor radii are further accelerated through the similar mechanism working for ions when the two shocks are colliding.

  19. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  20. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  1. Climate shocks and conflict

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  2. A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ.

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.

  3. Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier

    2002-11-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.

  4. Magnetic Fields Recorded by Chondrules Formed in Nebular Shocks

    Mai, Chuhong; Desch, Steven J.; Boley, Aaron C.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2018-04-01

    Recent laboratory efforts have constrained the remanent magnetizations of chondrules and the magnetic field strengths to which the chondrules were exposed as they cooled below their Curie points. An outstanding question is whether the inferred paleofields represent the background magnetic field of the solar nebula or were unique to the chondrule-forming environment. We investigate the amplification of the magnetic field above background values for two proposed chondrule formation mechanisms, large-scale nebular shocks and planetary bow shocks. Behind large-scale shocks, the magnetic field parallel to the shock front is amplified by factors of ∼10–30, regardless of the magnetic diffusivity. Therefore, chondrules melted in these shocks probably recorded an amplified magnetic field. Behind planetary bow shocks, the field amplification is sensitive to the magnetic diffusivity. We compute the gas properties behind a bow shock around a 3000 km radius planetary embryo, with and without atmospheres, using hydrodynamics models. We calculate the ionization state of the hot, shocked gas, including thermionic emission from dust, thermal ionization of gas-phase potassium atoms, and the magnetic diffusivity due to Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion. We find that the diffusivity is sufficiently large that magnetic fields have already relaxed to background values in the shock downstream where chondrules acquire magnetizations, and that these locations are sufficiently far from the planetary embryos that chondrules should not have recorded a significant putative dynamo field generated on these bodies. We conclude that, if melted in planetary bow shocks, chondrules probably recorded the background nebular field.

  5. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  6. Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures

    C Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on shock focusing in water-filled convergent structures have been performed. A shock wave in water is generated by means of a projectile, launched from a gas gun, which impacts a water-filled convergent structure. Two types of structures have been tested; a bulk material and a thin shell structure. The geometric shape of the convergent structures is given by a logarithmic spiral, and this particular shape is chosen because it maximizes the amount of energy reaching the focal region. High-speed schlieren photography is used to visualize the shock dynamics during the focusing event. Results show that the fluid-structure interaction between the thin shell structure and the shock wave in the water is different from that of a bulk structure; multiple reflections of the shock wave inside the thin shell are reflected back into the water, thus creating a wave train, which is not observed for shock focusing in a bulk material.

  7. Geoeffectiveness of interplanetary shocks controlled by impact angles: A review

    Oliveira, D. M.; Samsonov, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The high variability of the Sun's magnetic field is responsible for the generation of perturbations that propagate throughout the heliosphere. Such disturbances often drive interplanetary shocks in front of their leading regions. Strong shocks transfer momentum and energy into the solar wind ahead of them which in turn enhance the solar wind interaction with magnetic fields in its way. Shocks then eventually strike the Earth's magnetosphere and trigger a myriad of geomagnetic effects observed not only by spacecraft in space, but also by magnetometers on the ground. Recently, it has been revealed that shocks can show different geoeffectiveness depending closely on the angle of impact. Generally, frontal shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks, even if the former are comparatively weaker than the latter. This review is focused on results obtained from modeling and experimental efforts in the last 15 years. Some theoretical and observational background are also provided.

  8. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  9. Shocks near Jamming

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  10. Mechanical shock absorber

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  11. Shock formation of HCO+

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  12. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  13. Particle acceleration and injection problem in relativistic and nonrelativistic shocks

    Hoshino, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acceleration of charged particles at the collisionless shock is believed to be responsible for production of cosmic rays in a variety of astrophysical objects such as supernova, AGN jet, and GRB etc., and the diffusive shock acceleration model is widely accepted as a key process for generating cosmic rays with non-thermal, power-law energy spectrum. Yet it is not well understood how the collisionless shock can produce such high energy particles. Among several unresolved issues, two major problems are the so-called '' injection '' problem of the supra-thermal particles and the generation of plasma waves and turbulence in and around the shock front. With recent advance of computer simulations, however, it is now possible to discuss those issues together with dynamical evolution of the kinetic shock structure. A wealth of modern astrophysical observations also inspires the dynamical shock structure and acceleration processes along with the theoretical and computational studies on shock. In this presentation, we focus on the plasma wave generation and the associated particle energization that directly links to the injection problem by taking into account the kinetic plasma processes of both non-relativistic and relativistic shocks by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We will also discuss some new particle acceleration mechanisms such as stochastic surfing acceleration and wakefield acceleration by the action of nonlinear electrostatic fields. (author)

  14. An in situ Comparison of Electron Acceleration at Collisionless Shocks under Differing Upstream Magnetic Field Orientations

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, A. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Reville, B. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sergis, N. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Fujimoto, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burgess, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Coates, A. J., E-mail: a.masters@imperial.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-10

    A leading explanation for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays is acceleration at high-Mach number shock waves in the collisionless plasma surrounding young supernova remnants. Evidence for this is provided by multi-wavelength non-thermal emission thought to be associated with ultrarelativistic electrons at these shocks. However, the dependence of the electron acceleration process on the orientation of the upstream magnetic field with respect to the local normal to the shock front (quasi-parallel/quasi-perpendicular) is debated. Cassini spacecraft observations at Saturn’s bow shock have revealed examples of electron acceleration under quasi-perpendicular conditions, and the first in situ evidence of electron acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock. Here we use Cassini data to make the first comparison between energy spectra of locally accelerated electrons under these differing upstream magnetic field regimes. We present data taken during a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing on 2008 March 8 and during a quasi-parallel shock crossing on 2007 February 3, highlighting that both were associated with electron acceleration to at least MeV energies. The magnetic signature of the quasi-perpendicular crossing has a relatively sharp upstream–downstream transition, and energetic electrons were detected close to the transition and immediately downstream. The magnetic transition at the quasi-parallel crossing is less clear, energetic electrons were encountered upstream and downstream, and the electron energy spectrum is harder above ∼100 keV. We discuss whether the acceleration is consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory in each case, and suggest that the quasi-parallel spectral break is due to an energy-dependent interaction between the electrons and short, large-amplitude magnetic structures.

  15. Counseling For Future Shock

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  16. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  17. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  18. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-01-01

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger

  19. Shock-ignition relevant experiments with planar targets on OMEGA

    Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Fratanduono, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CELIA, Université Bordeaux 1-CEA-CNRS, Talence (France)

    2014-02-15

    We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of ∼70 keV at intensities of 1.4 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} with multiple overlapping beams driving the two-plasmon decay instability. When extrapolated to SI-relevant intensities of ∼10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the hot electron temperature will likely exceed 100 keV, suggesting that tightly focused beams without overlap are better suited for launching the ignitor shock.

  20. Technology shocks matter

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  1. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  2. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube

    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; ABE, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士

    1997-01-01

    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  3. Electron Shock Ignition of Inertial Fusion Targets

    Shang, W. L.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Woo, K.; Hao, L.

    2017-01-01

    Here, it is shown that inertial fusion targets designed with low implosion velocities can be shock ignited using laser–plasma interaction generated hot electrons (hot-e) to obtain high-energy gains. These designs are robust to multimode asymmetries and are predicted to ignite even for significantly distorted implosions. Electron shock ignition requires tens of kilojoules of hot-e, which can only be produced on a large laser facility like the National Ignition Facility, with the laser to hot-e conversion efficiency greater than 10% at laser intensities ~10 16 W/cm 2 .

  4. Biophoton emission induced by heat shock.

    Katsuhiro Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Ultraweak biophoton emission originates from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that are produced in mitochondria as by-products of cellular respiration. In healthy cells, the concentration of ROS is minimized by a system of biological antioxidants. However, heat shock changes the equilibrium between oxidative stress and antioxidant activity, that is, a rapid rise in temperature induces biophoton emission from ROS. Although the rate and intensity of biophoton emission was observed to increase in response to elevated temperatures, pretreatment at lower high temperatures inhibited photon emission at higher temperatures. Biophoton measurements are useful for observing and evaluating heat shock.

  5. Electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities associated with electrostatic shocks: Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (∼3000 km s -1 ) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under counterstreaming condition, with highly oblique wave vectors as was shown previously. The electrostatic potential generated by the electrostatic ion-ion instability propagating obliquely to the shock surface becomes comparable with the shock potential and finally the shock structure is destroyed. It is also shown that in front of the shock the beam-Weibel instability gradually grows as well, consequently suggesting that the magnetic field generated by the beam-Weibel instability becomes important in long-term evolution of the shock and the Weibel-mediated shock forms long after the electrostatic shock vanished. It is also observed that the secondary electrostatic shock forms in the reflected ions in front of the primary electrostatic shock.

  6. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Turbulent Reconnection

    Garrel, Christian; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos

    2018-05-01

    Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) cannot efficiently accelerate particles without the presence of self-consistently generated or pre-existing strong turbulence (δB/B ˜ 1) in the vicinity of the shock. The problem we address in this article is: if large amplitude magnetic disturbances are present upstream and downstream of a shock then Turbulent Reconnection (TR) will set in and will participate not only in the elastic scattering of particles but also in their heating and acceleration. We demonstrate that large amplitude magnetic disturbances and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS), spontaneously formed in the strong turbulence in the vicinity of a shock, can accelerate particles as efficiently as DSA in large scale systems and on long time scales. We start our analysis with "elastic" scatterers upstream and downstream and estimate the energy distribution of particles escaping from the shock, recovering the well known results from the DSA theory. Next we analyze the additional interaction of the particles with active scatterers (magnetic disturbances and UCS) upstream and downstream of the shock. We show that the asymptotic energy distribution of the particles accelerated by DSA/TR has very similar characteristics with the one due to DSA alone, but the synergy of DSA with TR is much more efficient: The acceleration time is an order of magnitude shorter and the maximum energy reached two orders of magnitude higher. We claim that DSA is the dominant acceleration mechanism in a short period before TR is established, and then strong turbulence will dominate the heating and acceleration of the particles. In other words, the shock serves as the mechanism to set up a strongly turbulent environment, in which the acceleration mechanism will ultimately be the synergy of DSA and TR.

  7. Incidence of cavitation in the fragmentation process of extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors

    Rink, K.; Delacrétaz, G.; Pittomvils, G.; Boving, R.; Lafaut, J. P.

    1994-05-01

    The fragmentation mechanism occurring in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is investigated using a fiber optic stress sensing technique. With our technique, we demonstrate that cavitation is a major cause of fragmentation in ESWL procedures. When a target is placed in the operating area of the lithotriptor, two shock waves are detected. The first detected shock wave corresponds to the incoming shock wave generated by the lithotriptor. The second shock wave, detected some hundreds of microseconds later, is generated in situ. It results from the collapse of a cavitation bubble, formed by the reflection of the incoming shock wave at the target boundary. This cavitation induced shock wave generates the largest stress in the target area according to our stress sensing measurements.

  8. Vorticity dynamics after the shock-turbulence interaction

    Livescu, D.; Ryu, J.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with quasi-vortical isotropic turbulence (IT) represents a basic problem for studying some of the phenomena associated with high speed flows, such as hypersonic flight, supersonic combustion and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In general, in practical applications, the shock width is much smaller than the turbulence scales and the upstream turbulent Mach number is modest. In this case, recent high resolution shock-resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) (Ryu and Livescu, J Fluid Mech 756:R1, 2014) show that the interaction can be described by the Linear Interaction Approximation (LIA). Using LIA to alleviate the need to resolve the shock, DNS post-shock data can be generated at much higher Reynolds numbers than previously possible. Here, such results with Taylor Reynolds number approximately 180 are used to investigate the changes in the vortical structure as a function of the shock Mach number, Ms, up to Ms=10. It is shown that, as Ms increases, the shock interaction induces a tendency towards a local axisymmetric state perpendicular to the shock front, which has a profound influence on the vortex-stretching mechanism and divergence of the Lamb vector and, ultimately, on the flow evolution away from the shock.

  9. Interplanetary shock phenomena beyond 1 AU

    Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to spatial dependences exhibited by spacecraft measurements obtained between 1 and 30 AU, together with temporal variations occurring between solar activity cycle maxima and minima. At 1-3 AU radial distances, shocks develop in association with the corotating solar wind streams characterizing solar minimum and accelerate solar wind evolution with distance while heating the solar wind and generating waves and turbulence. At solar maximum, shocks are observed more frequently at 1 AU but still in association with transient solar events; acceleration leading to energetic storm particles is observed both within and beyond 1 AU. The superimposed effect of large numbers of intense shocks may be responsible for the solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. 77 references

  10. Shock Transmission and Fatigue in Human Running.

    Verbitsky, Oleg; Mizrahi, Joseph; Voloshin, Arkady; Treiger, July; Isakov, Eli

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the shock waves generated by foot strike. Twenty-two subjects were instrumented with an externally attached, lightweight accelerometer placed over the tibial tuberosity. The subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed near their anaerobic threshold. Fatigue was established when the end-tidal CO 2 pressure decreased. The results indicated that approximately half of the subjects reached the fatigue state toward the end of the test. Whenever fatigue occurred, the peak acceleration was found to increase. It was thus concluded that there is a clear association between fatigue and increased heel strike-induced shock waves. These results have a significant implication for the etiology of running injuries, since shock wave attenuation has been previously reported to play an important role in preventing such injuries.

  11. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  12. Shocks in fragile matter

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling of the shock ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    Vallet, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The shock ignition concept in inertial confinement fusion uses an intense power spike at the end of an assembly laser pulse. The key features of shock ignition are the generation of a high ablation pressure, the shock pressure amplification by at least a factor of a hundred in the cold fuel shell and the shock coupling to the hot-spot. In this thesis, new semi-analytical hydrodynamic models are developed to describe the ignitor shock from its generation up to the moment of fuel ignition. A model is developed to describe a spherical converging shock wave in a pre-heated hot spot. The self-similar solution developed by Guderley is perturbed over the shock Mach number Ms ≥≥1. The first order correction accounts for the effects of the shock strength. An analytical ignition criterion is defined in terms of the shock strength and the hot-spot areal density. The ignition threshold is higher when the initial Mach number of the shock is lower. A minimal shock pressure of 20 Gbar is needed when it enters the hot-spot. The shock dynamics in the imploding shell is then analyzed. The shock is propagating into a non inertial medium with a high radial pressure gradient and an overall pressure increase with time. The collision with a returning shock coming from the assembly phase enhances further the ignitor shock pressure. The analytical theory allows to describe the shock pressure and strength evolution in a typical shock ignition implosion. It is demonstrated that, in the case of the HiPER target design, a generation shock pressure near the ablation zone on the order of 300-400 Mbar is needed. An analysis of experiments on the strong shock generation performed on the OMEGA laser facility is presented. It is shown that a shock pressure close to 300 Mbar near the ablation zone has been reached with an absorbed laser intensity up to 2 * 10 15 W:cm -2 and a laser wavelength of 351 nm. This value is two times higher than the one expected from collisional laser absorption only

  14. INJECTION TO RAPID DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS IN PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMAS

    Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v {sub sh} ≈ 1333 km s{sup −1} and f {sub i} ∼ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ∼ 100 v {sub sh} ∼ 0.3 c within ∼100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 10{sup 15.5} eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.

  15. Excitation of intense shock waves by soft X-radiation

    Branitskij, A.V.; Fortov, V.E.; Danilenko, K.N.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Vorobev, O. Yu.; Lebedev, M.E.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, A.E.; Persyantsev, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of the shock waves generated by soft x radiation in Al, Sn, Fe, and Pb targets is reported. The soft x radiation was induced by the dynamic compression and heating of the cylindrical z-pinch plasma generated in the ANGARA-5-1 pulsed power machine. The temperature of the z-pinch plasma was as high as 60 - 120 eV, and the duration of the x-ray pulse reached 30 ns FWHM. Thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, and pure Pb targets were used. The results of experiments show that uniform intense shock waves can be generated by z-pinch plasma soft x-ray radiation. The uniformity of the shock is very high. At a flux power of the order of several TW/cm 2 , a shock pressure of some hundreds of GPa was achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 11 refs

  16. Excitation of intense shock waves by soft X-radiation

    Branitskij, A V; Fortov, V E; Danilenko, K N; Dyabilin, K S; Grabovskij, E V; Vorobev, O Yu; Lebedev, M E; Smirnov, V P; Zakharov, A E; Persyantsev, I V [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Investigation of the shock waves generated by soft x radiation in Al, Sn, Fe, and Pb targets is reported. The soft x radiation was induced by the dynamic compression and heating of the cylindrical z-pinch plasma generated in the ANGARA-5-1 pulsed power machine. The temperature of the z-pinch plasma was as high as 60 - 120 eV, and the duration of the x-ray pulse reached 30 ns FWHM. Thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, and pure Pb targets were used. The results of experiments show that uniform intense shock waves can be generated by z-pinch plasma soft x-ray radiation. The uniformity of the shock is very high. At a flux power of the order of several TW/cm{sup 2}, a shock pressure of some hundreds of GPa was achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 11 refs.

  17. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  18. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  19. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  20. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  1. Particle injection and cosmic ray acceleration at collisionless parallel shocks

    Quest, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of collisionless parallel shocks is studied using one-dimensional hybrid simulations, with emphasis on particle injection into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. It is argued that for sufficiently high Mach number shocks, and in the absence of wave turbulence, the fluid firehose marginal stability condition will be exceeded at the interface between the upstream, unshocked, plasma and the heated plasma downstream. As a consequence, nonlinear, low-frequency, electromagnetic waves are generated and act to slow the plasma and provide dissipation for the shock. It is shown that large amplitude waves at the shock ramp scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions back into the upstream medium. These ions, in turn, resonantly generate the electromagnetic waves that are swept back into the shock. As these waves propagate through the shock they are compressed and amplified, allowing them to non-resonantly scatter the bulk of the plasma. Moreover, the compressed waves back-scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions, maintaining the shock structure in a quasi-steady state. The back-scattered ions are accelerated during the wave generation process to 2 to 4 times the ram energy and provide a likely seed population for cosmic rays. 49 refs., 7 figs

  2. The Shock Routine

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  3. Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas

    Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.

  4. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  5. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  6. Experimental analysis of shock wave effects in copper

    Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois; Farre, Jose

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for a high purity copper. The method developed is based on the analysis of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked materials. Shock effect is generated through plates impact tests performed in the range 9 GPa to 12 GPa on a single stage light gas gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized on quasi static and Split Hopkinson apparatus. The difference between measured stresses between as received and shocked materials allows to understand shock effects in the low pressure range of study. A specific modeling approach is engaged in order to give indications about the evolution of the microstructure of the materials

  7. Langmuir waveforms at interplanetary shocks: STEREO statistical analysis

    Briand, C.

    2016-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions and particle acceleration are the two main processes allowing energy dissipation at non collisional shocks. Ion acceleration has been deeply studied for many years, also for their central role in the shock front reformation. Electron dynamics is also important in the shock dynamics through the instabilities they can generate which may impact the ion dynamics.Particle measurements can be efficiently completed by wave measurements to determine the characteristics of the electron beams and study the turbulence of the medium. Electric waveforms obtained from the S/WAVES instrument of the STEREO mission between 2007 to 2014 are analyzed. Thus, clear signature of Langmuir waves are observed on 41 interplanetary shocks. These data enable a statistical analysis and to deduce some characteristics of the electron dynamics on different shocks sources (SIR or ICME) and types (quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel). The conversion process between electrostatic to electromagnetic waves has also been tested in several cases.

  8. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  9. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  10. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  11. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  12. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. Density Effects on Post-shock Turbulence Structure

    Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui; Michigan State University Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The effects of density variations due to mixture composition on post-shock turbulence structure are studied using turbulence-resolving shock-capturing simulations. This work extends the canonical Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) problem to involve significant variable density effects. The numerical method has been verified using a series of grid and LIA convergence tests, and is used to generate accurate post-shock turbulence data for a detailed flow study. Density effects on post-shock turbulent statistics are shown to be significant, leading to an increased amplification of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Eulerian and Lagrangian analyses show that the increase in the post-shock correlation between rotation and strain is weakened in the case with significant density variations (referred to as the ``multi-fluid'' case). Similar to previous single-fluid results and LIA predictions, the shock wave significantly changes the topology of the turbulent structures, exhibiting a symmetrization of the joint PDF of second and third invariant of the deviatoric part of velocity gradient tensor. In the multi-fluid case, this trend is more significant and mainly manifested in the heavy fluid regions. Lagrangian data are also used to study the evolution of turbulence structure away from the shock wave and assess the accuracy of Lagrangian dynamical models.

  15. Planar shock focusing through perfect gas lens: First experimental demonstration

    Biamino, Laurent; Mariani, Christian; Jourdan, Georges; Houas, Lazhar; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc; Souffland, Denis

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave crosses an interface between two materials, this interface becomes unstable and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability develops. Such instability has been extensively studied in the planar case, and numerous results were presented during the previous workshops. But the Richtmyer-Meshkov (Richtmyer, 1960, 'Taylor Instability in Shock Acceleration of Compressible Fluids,' Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 13(2), pp. 297-319; Meshkov, 1969, 'Interface of Two Gases Accelerated by a Shock Wave,' Fluid Dyn., 4(5), pp. 101-104) instability also occurs in a spherical case where the convergence effects must be taken into account. As far as we know, no conventional (straight section) shock tube facility has been used to experimentally study the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical geometry. The idea originally proposed by Dimotakis and Samtaney (2006, 'Planar Shock Cylindrical Focusing by a Perfect-Gas Lens,' Phys. Fluid., 18(3), pp. 031705-031708) and later generalized by Vandenboomgaerde and Aymard (2011, 'Analytical Theory for Planar Shock Focusing Through Perfect Gas Lens and Shock Tube Experiment Designs,' Phys. Fluid., 23(1), pp. 016101-016113) was to retain the flexibility of a conventional shock tube to convert a planar shock wave into a cylindrical one through a perfect gas lens. This can be done when a planar shock wave passes through a shaped interface between two gases. By coupling the shape with the impedance mismatch at the interface, it is possible to generate a circular transmitted shock wave. In order to experimentally check the feasibility of this approach, we have implemented the gas lens technique on a conventional shock tube with the help of a convergent test section, an elliptic stereo lithographed grid, and a nitrocellulose membrane. First experimental sequences of Schlieren images have been obtained for an incident shock wave Mach number equal to 1.15 and an air/SF_6-shaped interface. Experimental results indicate that the shock that moves

  16. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  17. Microgravity Experiment: The Fate of Confined Shock Waves

    Kobel, P.; Obreschkow, D.; Dorsaz, N.; de Bosset, A.; Farhat, M.

    2007-11-01

    Shockwave induced cavitation is a form of hydrodynamic cavitation generated by the interaction of shock waves with vapor nuclei and microscopic impurities. Both the shock waves and the induced cavitation are known as sources of erosion damage in hydraulic industrial systems and hence represent an important research topic in fluid dynamics. Here we present the first investigation of shock wave induced cavitation inside closed and isolated liquid volumes, which confine the shock wave by reflections and thereby promise a particularly strong coupling with cavitation. A microgravity platform (ESA, 42^nd parabolic flight campaign) was used to produce stable water drops with centimetric diameters. Inside these drops, a fast electrical discharge was generated to release a strong shock wave. This setting results in an amplified form of shockwave induced cavitation, visible in high-speed images as a transient haze of sub-millimetric bubbles synchronized with the shockwave radiation. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion.

  18. Shock-hydrodynamics experiments on the Nova laser

    Miller, P.; Peyser, T.; Stry, P.; Budil, K.; Wojtowicz, D.; Burke, E.

    1995-08-01

    We have conducted shock-induced hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The laser provides a high-enthalpy source by depositing its energy (about 22 kJ) in a small gold cavity called a Hohlraum. The Hohlraum serves as a driver section, launching very strong (M ∼ 20) shocks into millimeter-scale cylindrical ''shock tubes.'' The flow is imaged radiographically by an electronic framing camera, using a laser-generated x-ray source. Several topics have been addressed with this configuration, including shock-induced mixing at density interfaces (seeded with a variety of perturbations); the development of high-speed, shaped-charge-like jets; the effects of geometry on the planarity of the generated shocks; and shock-shock interactions which develop in the flows. This paper describes the general configuration of our experiments, presents an overview of the high-speed jet work, discusses some of our findings, and compares our results with computer simulations

  19. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Lopez V, V.E

    2004-07-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  20. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long ( e.g . Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short ( e.g . Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  1. Directly acting spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measure

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic shocks as induced by fast closure of armatures or by sudden pump failures are massive impacts in piping systems and require extensive measures to absorb the generated load. Basically the avoidance of water hammers are preferable but in case of emergency shutdowns unavoidable hydraulic shocks have to be reduced by appropriate measures. The authors describe experiments with spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measures. It was shown that the vale dimensions is essential for the efficacy. A realistic modeling is possible using the one-dimensional fluid mechanics code ROLAST.

  2. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  3. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  4. Shock tubes and waves; Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, July 26-31, 1987

    Groenig, Hans

    Topics discussed in this volume include shock wave structure, propagation, and interaction; shocks in condensed matter, dusty gases, and multiphase media; chemical processes and related combustion and detonation phenomena; shock wave reflection, diffraction, and focusing; computational fluid dynamic code development and shock wave application; blast and detonation waves; advanced shock tube technology and measuring technique; and shock wave applications. Papers are presented on dust explosions, the dynamics of shock waves in certain dense gases, studies of condensation kinetics behind incident shock waves, the autoignition mechanism of n-butane behind a reflected shock wave, and a numerical simulation of the focusing process of reflected shock waves. Attention is also given to the equilibrium shock tube flow of real gases, blast waves generated by planar detonations, modern diagnostic methods for high-speed flows, and interaction between induced waves and electric discharge in a very high repetition rate excimer laser.

  5. Inspiratory muscle training in difficult to wean patients: work it harder, make it better, do it faster, makes us stronger.

    Nava, Stefano; Fasano, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation is a complex, time-consuming process that involves the loss of force/generating capacity of the inspiratory muscle. In their study 'Inspiratory muscle strength training improves the outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial', Martin and colleagues showed that the use of an inspiratory muscle strength program increased the maximal inspiratory pressure and improved weaning success compared to a control group. The study was performed mainly in post-surgical patients, however, and the results, therefore, may not be generalizable to other subsets of patients, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Indeed, the study applied so-called 'strength training' and not 'endurance training', which may be more appropriate in certain circumstances.

  6. Effect of Pressure Gradients on the Initiation of PBX-9502 via Irregular (Mach) Reflection of Low Pressure Curved Shock Waves

    Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Phillip Isaac [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moro, Erik Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    In the instance of multiple fragment impact on cased explosive, isolated curved shocks are generated in the explosive. These curved shocks propagate and may interact and form irregular or Mach reflections along the interaction loci, thereby producing a single shock that may be sufficient to initiate PBX-9501. However, the incident shocks are divergent and their intensity generally decreases as they expand, and the regions behind the Mach stem interaction loci are generally unsupported and allow release waves to rapidly affect the flow. The effects of release waves and divergent shocks may be considered theoretically through a “Shock Change Equation”.

  7. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  8. Liquidity constraints, risk premia, and themacroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks

    Jaccard, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the transmission of liquidity shocks in a dynamic general equilibrium model where firms and households are subject to liquidity risk. The provision of liquidity services is undertaken by financial intermediaries that allocate the stock of liquid asset between the different sectors of the economy. We find that the macroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks are considerably larger in the model economy that generates a realistic equity premium. Liquidity constraints amplify business cycl...

  9. Ion Dynamics at Shocks: Ion Reflection and Beam Formation at Quasi-perpendicular Shocks

    Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The physics of collisionless shocks is controlled by the ion dynamics. The generation of gyrating ions by reflection as well as the formation of field-aligned ion beams are essential parts of this dynamic. On the one hand reflection is most likely the first interaction of ions with the shock before they undergo the downstream thermalization process. On the other hand field-aligned ion beams, predominately found at the quasi-perpendicular bow shock, propagate into the distant foreshock region and may create wave activity. We revisit ion reflection, the source and basic production mechanism of field-aligned ion beams, by using multi-spacecraft measurements and contrast these observations with existing theories. Finally, we propose an alternative production mechanism

  10. Theory and Experiment on Radiative Shocks

    Drake, R. Paul

    2005-07-01

    The current generation of high-energy-density research facilities has enabled the beginnings of experimental studies of radiation hydrodynamic systems, common in astrophysics but difficult to produce in the laboratory. Radiative shock experiments specifically have been a topic of increasing effort in recent years. Our group and collaborators [1] have emphasized the radiographic observation of structure in radiative shocks. These shocks have been produced on the Omega laser by driving a Be piston through Xenon at velocities above 100 km/s. The talk will summarize these experiments and their results. Interpreting these and other experiments is hampered by the limited range of assumptions used in published theories, and by the limitations in readily available simulation tools. This has motivated an examination of radiative shock theory [2]. The talk will summarize the key issues and present results for specific cases. [ 1 ] Gail Glendinning, Ted Perry, Bruce Remington, Jim Knauer, Tom Boehly, and other members of the NLUF Experimental Astrophysics Team. Publications: Reighard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. submitted; Leibrandt, et al., Ap J., in press, Reighard et al., IFSA 03 Proceedings, Amer. Nucl. Soc. (2004). [2] Useful discussions with Dmitri Ryutov and Serge Bouquet. Supported by the NNSA programs via DOE Grants DE-FG52-03NA00064 and DE FG53 2005 NA26014

  11. The structure of steady shock waves in porous metals

    Czarnota, Christophe; Molinari, Alain; Mercier, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at developing an understanding of steady shock wave propagation in a ductile metallic material containing voids. Porosity is assumed to be less than 0.3 and voids are not connected (foams are not considered). As the shock wave is traveling in the porous medium, the voids are facing a rapid collapse. During this dynamic compaction process, material particles are subjected to very high acceleration in the vicinity of voids, thus generating acceleration forces at the microscale that influence the overall response of the porous material. Analyzing how stationary shocks are influenced by these micro-inertia effects is the main goal of this work. The focus is essentially on the shock structure, ignoring oscillatory motion of pores prevailing at the tail of the shock wave. Following the constitutive framework developed by Molinari and Ravichandran (2004) for the analysis of steady shock waves in dense metals, an analytical approach of steady state propagation of plastic shocks in porous metals is proposed. The initial void size appears as a characteristic internal length that scales the overall dynamic response, thereby contributing to the structuring of the shock front. This key feature is not captured by standard damage models where the porosity stands for the single damage parameter with no contribution of the void size. The results obtained in this work provide a new insight in the fundamental understanding of shock waves in porous media. In particular, a new scaling law relating the shock width to the initial void radius is obtained when micro-inertia effects are significant.

  12. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  13. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  14. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  16. Bow shock data analysis

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  17. Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel

    Harvey, W.B.

    1986-06-01

    By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs

  18. Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel

    Harvey, W.B.

    1986-06-01

    By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.

  19. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  20. Shock resistance testing

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  1. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  2. The Shock Doctrine

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  3. Discrimination of Thermal versus Mechanical Effects of Shock on Rock Magnetic Properties of Spherically Shocked up to 10-160 GPa Basalt and Diabase

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Tikoo, S.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kars, M. A. C.; Egli, R.; Chareev, D. A.; Fairchild, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how shock waves generated during hypervelocity impacts affect rock magnetic properties is key for interpreting the paleomagnetic records of lunar rocks, meteorites, and cratered planetary surfaces. Laboratory simulations of impacts show that ultra-high shocks may induce substantial post-shock heating of the target material. At high pressures (>10 GPa), shock heating occurs in tandem with mechanical effects, such as grain fracturing and creation of crystallographic defects and dislocations within magnetic grains. This makes it difficult to conclude whether shock-induced changes in the rock magnetic properties of target materials are primarily associated with mechanical or thermal effects. Here we present novel experimental methods to discriminate between mechanical and thermal effects of shock on magnetic properties and illustrate it with two examples of spherically shocked terrestrial basalt and diabase [1], which were shocked to pressures of 10 to >160 GPa, and investigate possible explanations for the observed shock-induced magnetic hardening (i.e., increase in remanent coercivity Bcr). The methods consist of i) conducting extra heating experiments at temperatures resembling those experienced during high-pressure shock events on untreated equivalents of shocked rocks (with further comparison of Bcr of shocked and heated samples) and ii) quantitative comparison of high-resolution first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams (field step: 0.5-0.7 mT) for shocked, heated and untreated specimens. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the shock-induced coercivity hardening in our samples is predominantly due to solid-state, mechanical effects of shock rather than alteration associated with shock heating. Indeed, heating-induced changes in Bcr in the post-shock temperature range were minor. Visual inspection of FORC contours (in addition to detailed analyses) reveals a stretching of the FORC distribution of shocked sample towards higher coercivities

  4. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  5. Laser shocks: A tool for experimental simulation of damage into materials

    Boustie, M.; Cuq Lelandais, J. P.; Berthe, L.; Ecault, R. [Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France); CEA-DAM Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laboratoire Procedes et Ingenierie en Mecanique et Materiaux (CNRS), Arts et Metiers ParisTech, 151 bd de l' Hopital, 75013 PARIS (France); Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France)

    2012-07-30

    High power laser irradiation of solids results in a strong shock wave propagation, driving very high amplitude pressure loadings with very short durations. These particular characteristics offer the possibility to study the behaviour of matter under extreme dynamic conditions in continuity with what is possible with the conventional generators of shock (launchers of projectiles, explosives). An advantage of laser shocks is a possible recovery of the shocked samples presenting the metallurgical effects of the shock in most cases. We introduce the principle of the laser shock generation, the characterization of these shocks, the principal mechanisms and effects associated with their propagation in the solids. We show how laser shocks can be a laboratory tool for simulating shock effects at ultra high strain rate, providing a high in information experimental layout for validation of damage modelling on an extended strain rate range compared to conventional shock generators. New data have been obtained with ultra short femtosecond range irradiation. Experimental data gathered through post mortem observation, time resolved velocity measurement are shown along with numerical associated simulations, showing the possibility to predict the damage behaviour of metallic targets under extreme strain rate up to 10{sup 8} s{sup -1}.

  6. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  7. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  8. Low Mach-number collisionless electrostatic shocks and associated ion acceleration

    Pusztai, I.; TenBarge, J. M.; Csapó, A. N.; Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; Yi, L.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-03-01

    The existence and properties of low Mach-number (M≳ 1) electrostatic collisionless shocks are investigated with a semi-analytical solution for the shock structure. We show that the properties of the shock obtained in the semi-analytical model can be well reproduced in fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Poisson simulations, where the shock is generated by the decay of an initial density discontinuity. Using this semi-analytical model, we study the effect of the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and the presence of impurities on both the maximum shock potential and the Mach number. We find that even a small amount of impurities can influence the shock properties significantly, including the reflected light ion fraction, which can change several orders of magnitude. Electrostatic shocks in heavy ion plasmas reflect most of the hydrogen impurity ions.

  9. In-tube shock wave driven by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2009-01-01

    A shock wave in a tube supported by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma is discussed. After atmospheric breakdown, the shock wave supported by the millimeter wave propagates at a constant velocity in the tube. In this study, a driving model of the millimeter-wave shock wave is proposed. The model consists of a normal shock wave supported by a propagating heat-supply area in which an ionization front is located. The flow properties predicted by the model show good agreement with the measured properties of the shock wave generated in the tube using a 170 GHz millimeter wave beam. The shock propagation velocity U shock is identical to the propagation velocity of the ionization front U ioniz when U ioniz is supersonic. Then the pressure increment at the tube end is independent of the power density. (author)

  10. Riemann solvers and undercompressive shocks of convex FPU chains

    Herrmann, Michael; Rademacher, Jens D M

    2010-01-01

    We consider FPU-type atomic chains with general convex potentials. The naive continuum limit in the hyperbolic space–time scaling is the p-system of mass and momentum conservation. We systematically compare Riemann solutions to the p-system with numerical solutions to discrete Riemann problems in FPU chains, and argue that the latter can be described by modified p-system Riemann solvers. We allow the flux to have a turning point, and observe a third type of elementary wave (conservative shocks) in the atomistic simulations. These waves are heteroclinic travelling waves and correspond to non-classical, undercompressive shocks of the p-system. We analyse such shocks for fluxes with one or more turning points. Depending on the convexity properties of the flux we propose FPU-Riemann solvers. Our numerical simulations confirm that Lax shocks are replaced by so-called dispersive shocks. For convex–concave flux we provide numerical evidence that convex FPU chains follow the p-system in generating conservative shocks that are supersonic. For concave–convex flux, however, the conservative shocks of the p-system are subsonic and do not appear in FPU-Riemann solutions

  11. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s −1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM

  12. Fast, multiphase volume adaptation to hyperosmotic shock by Escherichia coli.

    Teuta Pilizota

    Full Text Available All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.

  13. Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 alloy

    Brar, N.S.; Hopkins, A.; Laber, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 has been shown to improve its high cycle fatigue life. Residual compressive stresses generated on the surface of titanium 6-4, as a result of laser shocking, have shown dramatic improvement in the performance of aircraft turbine blades. Laser shocking of titanium was carried out with a 20 ns pulse width, 50 joule pulsed laser, operated by LSP Technologies, Columbus, OH. Titanium disks, 20-mm in diameter, and ranging in thicknesses from zero (bare LiF) to 3-mm were subjected to laser shock to monitor amplitude and temporal stress profiles of the pulsed laser. Laser shock stress amplitudes on the back of titanium disks were monitored with VISAR using LiF as the window material. The peak shock stress produced in LiF (titanium thickness zero) was measured to be 16±1 GPa. The laser shock amplitude decays to about 2.7 GPa while propagating through 3-mm thick disk of titanium 6-4

  14. Global Mechanical Response and Its Relation to Deformation and Failure Modes at Various Length Scales Under Shock Impact in Alumina AD995 Armor Ceramic

    Dandekar, D. P; McCauley, J. W; Green, W. H; Bourne, N. K; Chen, M. W

    2008-01-01

    ... maps relating the experimentally measured global mechanical response of a material through matured shock wave diagnostics to the nature of concurrent deformation and damage generated at varying length scales under shock wave loading.

  15. Risk shocks and housing markets

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  16. Conversion of piston-driven shocks from powerful solar flares to blast wave shocks in the solar wind

    Pinter, S.

    1990-01-01

    It was suggested by Smart and Shea (1985) that the time of arrival of solar-flare-generated shock waves at any point in space may be predicted by assuming that they are first driven from the Sun after which they decay into blast shocks. Their study was extended by using the duration of the Type IV radio emission as a phenomenological symptom of the piston-driven phase of these shocks. Using a sample of 39 cases of combined Type II/Type IV observations from 1972 to 1982 solar flares, it was found that the average predicted times-of-arrival of these shocks to Earth (and elsewhere) deviate from the actual times by 1.40 hr with a standard deviation of 1.25 hr. On the average, a representative shock from this sample is emitted from a powerful flare with a velocity of 1,560 km sec -1 ; moves at a constant inertial velocity to a distance of 0.12 AU after which it begins to decelerate as a classical (Sedov-type) blast shock that is convected by the ambient solar wind as suggested by Smart and Shea; and arrives to Earth 45.8 hr after its initiation in the Sun. Shocks that appear to deviate from this phenomenological scenario by virtue of lack of detection on Earth are assumed to decay into fast mode MHD waves. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab., 53 refs

  17. LIGS measurements in the nozzle reservoir of a free-piston shock tunnel

    Altenhöfer, P.; Sander, T.; Koroll, F.; Mundt, Ch.

    2018-02-01

    Free-piston shock tunnels are ground-based test facilities allowing the simulation of reentry flow conditions in a simple and cost-efficient way. For a better understanding of the processes occurring in a shock tunnel as well as for an optimal comparability of experimental data gained in shock tunnels to numerical simulations, it is highly desirable to have the best possible characterization of the generated test gas flows. This paper describes the final step of the development of a laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) system capable of measuring the temperature in the nozzle reservoir of a free-piston shock tunnel during tests: the successful adaptation of the measurement system to the shock tunnel. Preliminary measurements were taken with a high-speed camera and a LED lamp in order to investigate the optical transmissibility of the measurement volume during tests. The results helped to successfully measure LIGS signals in shock tube mode and shock tunnel mode in dry air seeded with NO. For the shock tube mode, six successful measurements for a shock Mach number of about 2.35 were taken in total, two of them behind the incoming shock (p ≈ 1 MPa, T ≈ 600 K) and four after the passing of the reflected shock (p ≈ 4 MPa, T ≈ 1000 K). For five of the six measurements, the derived temperatures were within a deviation range of 6% to a reference value calculated from measured shock speed. The uncertainty estimated was less than or equal to 3.5% for all six measurements. Two LIGS signals from measurements behind the reflected shock in shock tunnel mode were analyzed in detail. One of the signals allowed an unambiguous derivation of the temperature under the conditions of a shock with Mach 2.7 (p ≈ 5 MPa, T ≈ 1200 K, deviation 0.5% , uncertainty 4.9% ).

  18. Electron beams by shock waves in the solar corona

    Mann, G.; Klassen, A.

    2005-07-01

    Beams of energetic electrons can be generated by shock waves in the solar corona. At the Sun shock waves are produced either by flares and/or by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They can be observed as type II bursts in the solar radio radiation. Shock accelerated electron beams appear as rapidly drifting emission stripes (so-called ''herringbones'') in dynamic radio spectra of type II bursts. A large sample of type II bursts showing ''herringbones'' was statistically analysed with respect to their properties in dynamic radio spectra. The electron beams associated with the ''herringbones'' are considered to be generated by shock drift acceleration. Then, the accelerated electrons establish a shifted loss-cone distribution in the upstream region of the associated shock wave. Such a distribution causes plasma instabilities leading to the emission of radio waves observed as ''herringbones''. Consequences of a shifted loss-cone distribution of the shock accelerated electrons are discussed in comparison with the observations of ''herringbones'' within solar type II radio bursts. (orig.)

  19. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shock in the emergency department

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...... failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. RESULTS: We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100...

  1. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  2. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Zhongke; Zheng, H.Y. [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Machining Technology Group, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-11-15

    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles. (orig.)

  3. Shock waves in binary oxides memristors

    Tesler, Federico; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Rozenberg, Marcelo

    2017-09-01

    Progress of silicon based technology is nearing its physical limit, as minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 5 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, it has been mainly the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of essence. In the present work we report a new connection between the resistive switching and shock wave formation, a classic topic of non-linear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen ions that migrate during the commutation in insulating binary oxides may form a shock wave, which propagates through a poorly conductive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations.

  4. The bactericidal effect of shock waves

    Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Goff, M. J.; Hameed, A.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    There are a variety of theories relating to the origins of life on our home planet, some of which discuss the possibility that life may have been spread via inter-planetary bodies. There have been a number of investigations into the ability of life to withstand the likely conditions generated by asteroid impact (both contained in the impactor and buried beneath the planet surface). Previously published data regarding the ability of bacteria to survive such applied shockwaves has produced conflicting conclusions. The work presented here used an established and published technique in combination with a single stage gas gun, to shock and subsequently recover Escherichia coli populations suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution. Peak pressure across the sample region was calculated via numerical modelling. Survival data against peak sample pressure for recovered samples is presented alongside control tests. SEM micrographs of shocked samples are presented alongside control sets to highlight key differences between cells in each case.

  5. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  6. The bactericidal effect of shock waves

    Leighs, J A; Appleby-Thomas, G J; Wood, D C; Goff, M J; Hameed, A; Hazell, P J

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of theories relating to the origins of life on our home planet, some of which discuss the possibility that life may have been spread via inter-planetary bodies. There have been a number of investigations into the ability of life to withstand the likely conditions generated by asteroid impact (both contained in the impactor and buried beneath the planet surface). Previously published data regarding the ability of bacteria to survive such applied shockwaves has produced conflicting conclusions. The work presented here used an established and published technique in combination with a single stage gas gun, to shock and subsequently recover Escherichia coli populations suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution. Peak pressure across the sample region was calculated via numerical modelling. Survival data against peak sample pressure for recovered samples is presented alongside control tests. SEM micrographs of shocked samples are presented alongside control sets to highlight key differences between cells in each case

  7. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  8. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel: principles and modelling

    Atzeni, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Canaud, B.; Betti, R.; Perkins, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Shock ignition is an approach to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The fuel is first imploded at a lower velocity than in conventional ICF. Close to stagnation, an intense laser spike drives a strong converging shock, which contributes to hot spot formation. Shock ignition shows potentials for high gain at laser energies below 1 MJ, and could be tested on the National Ignition Facility or Laser MegaJoule. Shock ignition principles and modelling are reviewed in this paper. Target designs and computer-generated gain curves are presented and discussed. Limitations of present studies and research needs are outlined. (special topic)

  9. Development of a Novel Shock Wave Catheter Ablation System

    Yamamoto, H.; Hasebe, Yuhi; Kondo, Masateru; Fukuda, Koji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    Although radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is quite effective for the treatment tachyarrhythmias, it possesses two fundamental limitations, including limited efficacy for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias of epicardial origin and the risk of thromboembolism. Consequently, new method is required, which can eradicate arrhythmia source in deep part of cardiac muscle without heating. On the other hand, for a medical application of shock waves, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL) has been established [1]. It was demonstrated that the underwater shock focusing is one of most efficient method to generate a controlled high pressure in a small region [2]. In order to overcome limitations of existing methods, we aimed to develop a new catheter ablation system with underwater shock waves that can treat myocardium at arbitrary depth without causing heat.

  10. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  11. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  12. Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.

  13. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  14. The Effect of Shock Stress and Field Strength on Shock-Induced Depoling of Normally Poled PZT 95/5

    CHHABILDAS, LALIT C.; FURNISH, MICHAEL D.; MONTGOMERY, STEPHEN T.; SETCHELL, ROBERT E.

    1999-01-01

    Shock-induced depoling of the ferroelectric ceramic PZT 95/5 is utilized in a number of pulsed power devices. Several experimental and theoretical efforts are in progress in order to improve numerical simulations of these devices. In this study we have examined the shock response of normally poled PZT 95/5 under uniaxial strain conditions. On each experiment the current produced in an external circuit and the transmitted waveform at a window interface were recorded. The peak electrical field generated within the PZT sample was varied through the choice of external circuit resistance. Shock pressures were varied from 0.6 to 4.6 GPa, and peak electrical fields were varied from 0.2 to 37 kV/cm. For a 2.4 GPa shock and the lowest peak field, a nearly constant current governed simply by the remanent polarization and the shock velocity was recorded. Both decreasing the shock pressure and increasing the electrical field resulted in reduced current generation, indicating a retardation of the depoling kinetics

  15. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  16. Analogy between soap film and gas dynamics. II. Experiments on one-dimensional motion of shock waves in soap films

    Wen, C.Y.; Chang-Jian, S.K.; Chuang, M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of one-dimensional moving shock waves in vertical soap films. The shock waves were generated by bursting the films with a perforating spark. Images of propagating shock waves and small disturbances were recorded using a fast line scan CCD camera. An aureole and a shock wave preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed. These images are similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics and give the velocities of shock and sound waves. The moving shock waves cause jumps in thickness. The variations of the induced Mach number, M{sub 2} and the ratio of film thickness across the shock wave, {delta}{sub 2}/{delta}{sub 1}, are plotted versus the shock Mach number, M{sub s}. Both results suggest that soap films are analogous to compressible gases with a specific heat ratio of {gamma}{approx_equal}1.0. (orig.)

  17. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T.W.; Oppenheimer, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km s -1 Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H 2 S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds

  18. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  19. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  20. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  1. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...

  2. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  3. Shock interaction with a two-gas interface in a novel dual-driver shock tube

    Labenski, John R.

    Fluid instabilities exist at the interface between two fluids having different densities if the flow velocity and density gradient are anti-parallel or if a shock wave crosses the boundary. The former case is called the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and the latter, the Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability. Small initial perturbations on the interface destabilize and grow into larger amplitude structures leading to turbulent mixing. Instabilities of this type are seen in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, laser produced plasmas, supernova explosions, and detonations. A novel dual-driver shock tube was used to investigate the growth rate of the R-M instability. One driver is used to create an argon-refrigerant interface, and the other at the opposite end of the driven section generates a shock to force the interface with compressible flows behind the shock. The refrigerant gas in the first driver is seeded with sub-micron oil droplets for visualization of the interface. The interface travels down the driven section past the test section for a fixed amount of time. A stronger shock of Mach 1.1 to 1.3 drives the interface back past the test section where flow diagnostics are positioned. Two schlieren systems record the density fluctuations while light scattering detectors record the density of the refrigerant as a function of position over the interface. A pair of digital cameras take stereo images of the interface, as mapped out by the tracer particles under illumination by a Q-switched ruby laser. The amount of time that the interface is allowed to travel up the driven section determines the interaction time as a control. Comparisons made between the schlieren signals, light scattering detector outputs, and the images quantify the fingered characteristics of the interface and its growth due to shock forcing. The results show that the interface has a distribution of thickness and that the interaction with a shock further broadens the interface. The

  4. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  5. Reduction of shock induced noise in imperfectly expanded supersonic jets using convex optimization

    Adhikari, Sam

    2007-11-01

    Imperfectly expanded jets generate screech noise. The imbalance between the backpressure and the exit pressure of the imperfectly expanded jets produce shock cells and expansion or compression waves from the nozzle. The instability waves and the shock cells interact to generate the screech sound. The mathematical model consists of cylindrical coordinate based full Navier-Stokes equations and large-eddy-simulation turbulence modeling. Analytical and computational analysis of the three-dimensional helical effects provide a model that relates several parameters with shock cell patterns, screech frequency and distribution of shock generation locations. Convex optimization techniques minimize the shock cell patterns and the instability waves. The objective functions are (convex) quadratic and the constraint functions are affine. In the quadratic optimization programs, minimization of the quadratic functions over a set of polyhedrons provides the optimal result. Various industry standard methods like regression analysis, distance between polyhedra, bounding variance, Markowitz optimization, and second order cone programming is used for Quadratic Optimization.

  6. Shock waves & explosions

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  7. Analysis of shock implosion

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C. (Polytechnic Inst. of New York, Brooklyn (USA))

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant ..gamma... To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient over the whole classical interval 1<..gamma..

  8. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  9. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  10. Experimental investigation of shock wave diffraction over a single- or double-sphere model

    Zhang, L. T.; Wang, T. H.; Hao, L. N.; Huang, B. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Shi, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the unsteady drag produced by the interaction of a shock wave with a single- and a double-sphere model is measured using imbedded accelerometers. The shock wave is generated in a horizontal circular shock tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm. The effect of the shock Mach number and the dimensionless distance between spheres is investigated. The time-history of the drag coefficient is obtained based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) band-block filtering and polynomial fitting of the measured acceleration. The measured peak values of the drag coefficient, with the associated uncertainty, are reported.

  11. Physics of laser-plasma interaction for shock ignition of fusion reactions

    Tikhonchuk, V T; Colaïtis, A; Vallet, A; Llor Aisa, E; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, Ph; Ribeyre, X

    2016-01-01

    The shock ignition scheme is an alternative approach, which aims to achieve ignition of fusion reactions in two subsequent steps: first, the target is compressed at a low implosion velocity and second, a strong converging shock is launched during the stagnation phase and ignites the hot spot. In this paper we describe the major elements of this scheme and recent achievements concerning the laser-plasma interaction, the crucial role of hot electrons in the shock generation, the shock amplification in the imploding shell and the ignition conditions. (paper)

  12. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  13. On the shock cell structure and noise of supersonic jets

    Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A linear solution modeling the shock cell structure of an axisymmetric supersonic jet operated at off-design conditions is developed by the method of multiple-scales. The model solution takes into account the gradual spatial change of the mean flow in the downstream direction. Turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet has the tendency of smoothing out the sharp velocity and density gradients induced by the shocks. To simulate this effect, eddy viscosity terms are incorporated in the model. It is known that the interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet is responsible for the generation of broadband shock associated noise. Experimentally, the dominant part of this noise has been found to originate from the part of the jet near the end of the potential core. Calculated shock cell spacing at the end of the jet core according to the present model is used to estimate the peak frequencies of the shock associated noise for a range of observation angles. Very favorable agreement with experimental measurements is found.

  14. Gas-gun facility for shock wave research at BARC

    Gupta, S.C.; Jyoti, G.; Suresh, N.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.; Agarwal, R.G.; Roy, S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1995-01-01

    For carrying out shock-wave experiments on materials, we have built a 63 mm diameter gas-gun facility at our laboratory. It is capable of accelerating projectiles (about half kg in weight) to velocities up to 1 km/s using N 2 and He gases. These on impacting a target generate shock pressures up to 40 GPa, depending upon the impedance of the impactor and the target. The barrel of the gun is slotted so that a keyed projectile can be fired for combined compression- shear studies. Large samples can be shocked (about 60 mm diameter and 5-10 mm thick), with pressures lasting for a few microseconds. The gun is similar in design to the one at Washington State University. A number of diagnostic techniques have also been developed. These include measurement of projectile velocity, tilt between the impactor and the target, shock velocity in the target, and time resolved in-material stress wave histories in the shock loaded samples. Recovery capsules have also been made to retrieve shocked samples on unloading, which are then analysed using microscopic techniques like x-ray diffraction, Raman and electron microscopy. The gun has been performing well and has already been used for a few phase transition studies. (author). 73 refs., 42 figs

  15. Shock Interaction with a Finite Thickness Two-Gas Interface

    Labenski, John; Kim, Yong

    2006-03-01

    A dual-driver shock tube was used to investigate the growth rate of a finite thickness two-gas interface after shock forcing. One driver was used to create an argon-refrigerant interface as the contact surface behind a weak shock wave. The other driver, at the opposite end of the driven section, generates a stronger shock of Mach 1.1 to 1.3 to force the interface back in front of the detector station. Two schlieren systems record the density fluctuations while light scattering detectors record the density of the refrigerant as a function of position over the interface during both it's initial passage and return. A pair of digital cameras take stereo images of the interface, as mapped out by the tracer particles under illumination by a Q-switched ruby laser. The amount of time that the interface is allowed to travel up the driven section determines the interaction time as a control. Comparisons made between the schlieren signals, light scattering detector outputs, and the images quantify the fingered characteristics of the interface and its growth due to shock forcing. The results show that the interface has a distribution of thicknesses and that the interaction with a shock further broadens the interface.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Airfoil Shock Control by Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation

    Sun Quan; Cheng Bangqin; Li Yinghong; Cui Wei; Jin Di; Li Jun

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation on airfoil (NACA64—215) shock control is performed by plasma aerodynamic actuation in a supersonic tunnel (Ma = 2). The results of schlieren and pressure measurement show that when plasma aerodynamic actuation is applied, the position moves forward and the intensity of shock at the head of the airfoil weakens. With the increase in actuating voltage, the total pressure measured at the head of the airfoil increases, which means that the shock intensity decreases and the control effect increases. The best actuation effect is caused by upwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, and then downwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, while the control effect of aerodynamic actuation without a magnetic field is the most inconspicuous. The mean intensity of the normal shock at the head of the airfoil is relatively decreased by 16.33%, and the normal shock intensity is relatively reduced by 27.5% when 1000 V actuating voltage and upwind-direction actuation are applied with a magnetic field. This paper theoretically analyzes the Joule heating effect generated by DC discharge and the Lorentz force effect caused by the magnetic field. The discharge characteristics are compared for all kinds of actuation conditions to reveal the mechanism of shock control by plasma aerodynamic actuation

  17. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-01-01

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general

  18. Interaction of Energetic Particles with Discontinuities Upstream of Strong Shocks

    Malkov, Mikhail; Diamond, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Acceleration of particles in strong astrophysical shocks is known to be accompanied and promoted by a number of instabilities which are driven by the particles themselves. One of them is an acoustic (also known as Drury's) instability driven by the pressure gradient of accelerated particles upstream. The generated sound waves naturally steepen into shocks thus forming a shocktrain. Similar magnetoacoustic or Alfven type structures may be driven by pick-up ions, for example. We consider the solutions of kinetic equation for accelerated particles within the shocktrain. The accelerated particles are assumed to be coupled to the flow by an intensive pitch-angle scattering on the self-generated Alfven waves. The implications for acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays in this shock environment will be discussed.

  19. Generation of Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal with Heat Shock 60 kDa Protein 1 in Human Promyelocytic HL-60 and Monocytic THP-1 Cell Lines

    Alessia Arcaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60 is a chaperone and stress response protein responsible for protein folding and delivery of endogenous peptides to antigen-presenting cells and also a target of autoimmunity implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. By two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found that exposure of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells to a nontoxic concentration (10 μM of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE yielded a HSP60 modified with HNE. We also detected adducts of HNE with putative uncharacterized protein CXorf49, the product of an open reading frame identified in various cell and tissue proteomes. Moreover, exposure of human monocytic THP-1 cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to 10 μM HNE, and to light density lipoprotein modified with HNE (HNE-LDL or by copper-catalyzed oxidation (oxLDL, but not to native LDL, stimulated the formation of HNE adducts with HSP60, as detected by immunoprecipitation and western blot, well over basal levels. The identification of HNE-HSP60 adducts outlines a framework of mutually reinforcing interactions between endothelial cell stressors, like oxLDL and HSP60, whose possible outcomes, such as the amplification of endothelial dysfunction, the spreading of lipoxidative damage to other proteins, such as CXorf49, the activation of antigen-presenting cells, and the breaking of tolerance to HSP60 are discussed.

  20. IRC -10414: a bow-shock-producing red supergiant star

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Menten, K. M.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Mackey, J.; Kraus, A.; Meyer, D. M.-A.; Kamiński, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most runaway OB stars, like the majority of massive stars residing in their parent clusters, go through the red supergiant (RSG) phase during their lifetimes. Nonetheless, although many dozens of massive runaways were found to be associated with bow shocks, only two RSG bow-shock-producing stars, Betelgeuse and μ Cep, are known to date. In this paper, we report the discovery of an arc-like nebula around the late M-type star IRC -10414 using the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Our spectroscopic follow-up of IRC -10414 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) showed that it is a M7 supergiant, which supports previous claims on the RSG nature of this star based on observations of its maser emission. This was reinforced by our new radio- and (sub)millimetre-wavelength molecular line observations made with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12-m telescope and the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope, respectively. The SALT spectrum of the nebula indicates that its emission is the result of shock excitation. This finding along with the arc-like shape of the nebula and an estimate of the space velocity of IRC -10414 (≈70 ± 20 km s-1) imply the bow shock interpretation for the nebula. Thus, IRC -10414 represents the third case of a bow-shock-producing RSG and the first one with a bow shock visible at optical wavelengths. We discuss the smooth appearance of the bow shocks around IRC -10414 and Betelgeuse and propose that one of the necessary conditions for stability of bow shocks generated by RSGs is the ionization of the stellar wind. Possible ionization sources of the wind of IRC -10414 are proposed and discussed.

  1. Shock-induced nanobubble collapse and its applications

    Vedadi, Mohammad Hossein

    The shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Monitoring the collapse of a cavitation nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of bubble shrinkage and a water hammer shock wave upon bubble collapse. The nanojet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. The shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of approximately 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, a substantial number of positive and negative ions appear when the nanojet hits the distal side of the nanobubble and the water hammer shock forms. Furthermore, two promising applications of shock-induced nanobubble collapse have been explored. Our simulations of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles reveal penetration of nanojets into lipid bilayers. The nanojet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them, which transiently enhance the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate across the bilayer. The effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined. Finally, the shock-induced collapse of CO2-filled nanobubbles in water is investigated. The energetic nanojet and high-pressure water hammer shock formed during and after collapse of the nanobubble trigger mechano-chemical H2O-CO2 reactions, some of which lead to splitting of water molecules. The dominant pathways through which splitting of water molecules occur are identified.

  2. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  3. Ion distributions in the Earth's foreshock upstream from the bow shock

    Fuselier, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of suprathermal and energetic ion distributions are found upstream from shocks. Some distributions, such as field-aligned beams, are generated directly at the shock either through reflection processes or through leakage from the hotter downstream region. Other distributions, such as intermediate distributions, evolve from these parent distributions through wave-particle interactions. This paper reviews our current understanding of the creation and evolution of suprathermal distributions at shocks. Examples of suprathermal ion distributions are taken from observations at the Earth's bow shock. Particular emphasis is placed on the creation of field-aligned beams and specularly reflected ion distributions and on the evolution of these distributions in the Earth's ion foreshock. However, the results from this heavily studied region are applicable to interplanetary shocks, bow shocks at other planets, and comets.

  4. Investigation of shock compressed plasma parameters by interaction with magnetic field

    Dudin, S. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V. K.; Mintsev, V. B.; Shilkin, N. S.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Hall effect parameters in shock compressed air, helium and xenon have been estimated and results of experiments with air and helium plasma are presented. Explosively driven shock tubes were used for the generation of strong shock waves. To obtain magnetic field a solenoid was winded over the shock tube. Calculations of dense shock compressed plasma parameters were carried out to plan the experiments. In the experiments with the magnetic field of ∼5 T it was found, that air plasma slug was significantly heated by the whirlwind electrical field. The reflected shock waves technique was used in the experiments with helium. Results on measurements of electrical conductivity and electron concentration of helium are presented

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  6. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  7. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  8. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  9. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  10. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  11. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  12. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    A. Czaykowska

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  13. Radiation-mediated Shocks in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Pair Creation

    Lundman, Christoffer; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Vurm, Indrek

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic sub-photospheric shocks are a possible mechanism for producing prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. Such shocks are mediated by scattering of radiation. We introduce a time-dependent, special relativistic code which dynamically couples Monte Carlo radiative transfer to the flow hydrodynamics. The code also self-consistently follows electron–positron pair production in photon–photon collisions. We use the code to simulate shocks with properties relevant to GRBs. We focus on plane-parallel solutions, which are accurate deep below the photosphere. The shock generates a power-law photon spectrum through the first-order Fermi mechanism, extending upward from the typical upstream photon energy. Strong (high Mach number) shocks produce rising νF ν spectra. We observe that in non-relativistic shocks the spectrum extends to {E}\\max ∼ {m}e{v}2, where v is the speed difference between the upstream and downstream. In relativistic shocks the spectrum extends to energies E> 0.1 {m}e{c}2 where its slope softens due to Klein–Nishina effects. Shocks with Lorentz factors γ > 1.5 are prolific producers of electron–positron pairs, yielding hundreds of pairs per proton. The main effect of pairs is to reduce the shock width by a factor of ∼ {Z}+/- -1. Most pairs annihilate far downstream of the shock, and the radiation spectrum relaxes to a Wien distribution, reaching equilibrium with the plasma at a temperature determined by the shock jump conditions and the photon number per proton. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of radiation generated by sub-photospheric shocks.

  14. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    J. M. Gloag

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  15. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  16. Disintegration of a profiled shock wave at the cumulation point

    Kaliski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The disintegration at the cumulation point is analyzed of a shock wave generated with the aid of a profiled pressure. The quantitative relations are analyzed for the disintegration waves for typical compression parameters in systems of thermonuclear microfusion. The quantitative conclusions are drawn for the application of simplifying approximate calculations in problems of microfusion. (author)

  17. Cavitation cluster dynamics in shock-wave lithotripsy: Part I

    Arora, M.; Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of cavitation bubble growth and collapse in shock-wave lithotripsy in a free field was studied experimentally. The lithotripter was equipped with two independently triggerable layers of piezoceramics. The front and back layers generated positive pressure amplitudes of 30

  18. Transforming in-situ observations of CME-driven shock accelerated protons into the shock's reference frame.

    I. M. Robinson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the solar energetic particle event following solar activity from 14, 15 April 2001 which includes a "bump-on-the-tail" in the proton energy spectra at 0.99 AU from the Sun. We find this population was generated by a CME-driven shock which arrived at 0.99 AU around midnight 18 April. As such this population represents an excellent opportunity to study in isolation, the effects of proton acceleration by the shock. The peak energy of the bump-on-the-tail evolves to progressively lower energies as the shock approaches the observing spacecraft at the inner Lagrange point. Focusing on the evolution of this peak energy we demonstrate a technique which transforms these in-situ spectral observations into a frame of reference co-moving with the shock whilst making allowance for the effects of pitch angle scattering and focusing. The results of this transform suggest the bump-on-the-tail population was not driven by the 15 April activity but was generated or at least modulated by a CME-driven shock which left the Sun on 14 April. The existence of a bump-on-the-tail population is predicted by models in Rice et al. (2003 and Li et al. (2003 which we compare with observations and the results of our analysis in the context of both the 14 April and 15 April CMEs. We find an origin of the bump-on-the-tail at the 14 April CME-driven shock provides better agreement with these modelled predictions although some discrepancy exists as to the shock's ability to accelerate 100 MeV protons.

    Keywords. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (Energetic particles; Flares and mass ejections – Space plasma physics (Transport processes

  19. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.

  20. Converging cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic shock collapse onto a power-law-varying line current

    Mostert, W.

    2016-03-16

    We investigate the convergence behaviour of a cylindrical, fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave in a neutrally ionized gas collapsing onto an axial line current that generates a power law in time, azimuthal magnetic field. The analysis is done within the framework of a modified version of ideal MHD for an inviscid, non-dissipative, neutrally ionized compressible gas. The time variation of the magnetic field is tuned such that it approaches zero at the instant that the shock reaches the axis. This configuration is motivated by the desire to produce a finite magnetic field at finite shock radius but a singular gas pressure and temperature at the instant of shock impact. Our main focus is on the variation with shock radius, as, of the shock Mach number and pressure behind the shock as a function of the magnetic field power-law exponent, where gives a constant-in-time line current. The flow problem is first formulated using an extension of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) into the time domain to take account of the time-varying conditions ahead of the converging shock, coupled with appropriate shock-jump conditions for a fast, symmetric MHD shock. This provides a pair of ordinary differential equations describing both and the time evolution on the shock, as a function of, constrained by a collapse condition required to achieve tuned shock convergence. Asymptotic, analytical results for and are obtained over a range of for general, and for both small and large . In addition, numerical solutions of the GSD equations are performed over a large range of, for selected parameters using . The accuracy of the GSD model is verified for some cases using direct numerical solution of the full, radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the GSD solutions, it is found that the physical character of the shock convergence to the axis is a strong function of . For μ≤0.816, and both approach unity at shock impact owing to the dominance of the strong

  1. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  2. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  3. Target design for shock ignition

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  4. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  5. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  6. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  7. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  8. Molecular dynamics of shock waves in one-dimensional chains. II. Thermalization

    Straub, G.K.; Holian, B.L.; Petschek, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The thermalization behavior behind a shock front in one-dimensional chains has been studied in a series of molecular-dynamics computer experiments. We have found that a shock wave generated in a chain initially at finite temperature has essentially the same characteristics as in a chain initially at zero temperature. We also find that the final velocity distribution function for particles behind the shock front is not the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for an equilibrium system of classical particles. For times long after the shock has passed, we propose a nonequilibrium velocity distribution which is based upon behavior in the harmonic and hard-rod limits and agrees with our numerical results. Temperature profiles for both harmonic and anharmonic chains are found to exhibit a long-time tail that decays inversely with time. Finally, we have run a computer experiment to generate what qualitatively resembles solitons in Toda chains by means of shock waves

  9. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  11. Sepsis and septic shock

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  12. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Lopez V, V.E. [ITESST, 52650 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  13. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  14. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  15. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  16. Converging cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic shock collapse onto a power-law-varying line current

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the convergence behaviour of a cylindrical, fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave in a neutrally ionized gas collapsing onto an axial line current that generates a power law in time, azimuthal magnetic field. The analysis is done

  17. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  18. Progress in the shock-ignition inertial confinement fusion concept

    Theobald, W.; Casner, A.; Nora, R.; Ribeyre, X.; Lafon, M.; Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Gotchev, O. V.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Perkins, L. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Schurtz, G.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Shock-ignition experiments with peak laser intensities of ∼8 x 10 15 W/cm 2 were performed. D 2 -filled plastic shells were compressed on a low adiabat by 40 of the 60 OMEGA beams. The remaining 20 beams were delayed and tightly focused onto the imploding shell to generate a strong shock. Up to 35% backscattering of laser energy was measured at the highest intensity. Hard x-ray measurements reveal a relatively low hot-electron temperature of ∼40 keV, independent of intensity and spike onset time. (authors)

  19. Experiments on second-sound shock waves in superfluid helium

    Cummings, J.C.; Schmidt, D.W.; Wagner, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The waveform and velocity of second-sound waves in superfluid helium have been studied experimentally using superconducting, thin-film probes. The second-sound waves were generated with electrical pulses through a resistive film. Variations in pulse power, pulse duration, and bath temperature were examined. As predicted theoretically, the formation of a shock was observed at the leading or trailing edge of the waves depending on bath temperature. Breakdown of the theoretical model was observed for large pulse powers. Accurate data for the acoustic second-sound speed were derived from the measurements of shock-wave velocities and are compared with previous results

  20. The importance of microjet vs shock wave formation in sonophoresis.

    Wolloch, Lior; Kost, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Low-frequency ultrasound application has been shown to greatly enhance transdermal drug delivery. Skin exposed to ultrasound is affected in a heterogeneous manner, thus mass transport through the stratum corneum occurs mainly through highly permeable localized transport regions (LTRs). Shock waves and microjets generated during inertial cavitations are responsible for the transdermal permeability enhancement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these two phenomena using direct and indirect methods, and demonstrated that the contribution of microjets to skin permeability enhancement is significantly higher than shock waves. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters

    Francesca Gnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.

  2. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  3. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a description of Thermal Shock in Pressurized conditions (PTS), and its influence in the treatment of the integrity of the pressure vessel (RPV) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and/or of a Heavy water Pressurized water Reactor (PHWR) is made. Generally, the analysis of PTS involves a process of three stages: a-) Modeling with a System Code of relevant thermohydraulics transients in reference with the thermal shock; b-) The local distribution of temperatures in the downcomer and the heat transference coefficients from the RPV wall to the fluid, are determined; c-) The fracture mechanical analysis. These three stages are included in this work: Results with the thermohydraulics code Relap5/mod.3, are obtained, for a LOCA scenario in the hot leg of the cooling System of the Primary System of the CAN-I reactor. The method used in obtaining results is described. A study on the basis of lumped parameters of the local evolutions of the temperature of the flow is made, in the downcomer of the reactor pressure vessel. The purpose of this study is to determine how the intensification of the stress coefficient, varies in function of the emergency injected water during the thermohydraulic transients that take place under the imposed conditions in the postulated scene. Specially, it is considered a 50 cm 2 break, located in the neighborhoods of the pressurized with the corresponding hot leg connection. This size is considered like the most critical. The method used to obtain the results is described. The fracture mechanical analysis is made. From the obtained results we confirmed that we have a simple tool of easy application in order to analyze phenomena of the type PTS in the postulated scenes by break in the cold and hot legs of the primary system. This methodology of calculus is completely independent of the used ones by the Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) in the analysis of the PTS phenomena in the CAN-I. The results obtained with the adopted

  4. A primary standard for low-g shock calibration by laser interferometry

    Sun, Qiao; Wang, Jian-lin; Hu, Hong-bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel implementation of a primary standard for low-g shock acceleration calibration by laser interferometry based on rigid body collision at National Institute of Metrology, China. The mechanical structure of the standard device and working principles involved in the shock acceleration exciter, laser interferometers and virtual instruments are described. The novel combination of an electromagnetic exciter and a pneumatic exciter as the mechanical power supply of the standard device can deliver a wide range of shock acceleration levels. In addition to polyurethane rubber, two other types of material are investigated to ensure a wide selection of cushioning pads for shock pulse generation, with pulse shapes and data displayed. A heterodyne He-Ne laser interferometer is preferred for its precise and reliable measurement of shock acceleration while a homodyne one serves as a check standard. Some calibration results of a standard acceleration measuring chain are shown in company with the uncertainty evaluation budget. The expanded calibration uncertainty of shock sensitivity of the acceleration measuring chain is 0.8%, k = 2, with the peak acceleration range from 20 to 10 000 m s-2 and pulse duration from 0.5 to 10 ms. This primary shock standard can meet the traceability requirements of shock acceleration from various applications of industries from automobile to civil engineering and therefore is used for piloting the ongoing shock comparison of Technical Committee of Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration (TCAUV) of Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP), coded as APMP.AUV.V-P1.

  5. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  6. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  7. Ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities resulting from a laser-driven radiative shock

    Huntington, C. M.; Shimony, A.; Trantham, M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Shvarts, D.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Doss, F. W.; Drake, R. P.; Flippo, K. A.; Kalantar, D. H.; Klein, S. R.; Kline, J. L.; MacLaren, S. A.; Malamud, G.; Miles, A. R.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Raman, K. S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Wan, W. C.; Park, H.-S.

    2018-05-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a common occurrence in nature, notably in astrophysical systems like supernovae, where it serves to mix the dense layers of the interior of an exploding star with the low-density stellar wind surrounding it, and in inertial confinement fusion experiments, where it mixes cooler materials with the central hot spot in an imploding capsule and stifles the desired nuclear reactions. In both of these examples, the radiative flux generated by strong shocks in the system may play a role in partially stabilizing RT instabilities. Here, we present experiments performed on the National Ignition Facility, designed to isolate and study the role of radiation and heat conduction from a shock front in the stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities. By varying the laser power delivered to a shock-tube target with an embedded, unstable interface, the radiative fluxes generated at the shock front could be controlled. We observe decreased RT growth when the shock significantly heats the medium around it, in contrast to a system where the shock did not produce significant heating. Both systems are modeled with a modified set of buoyancy-drag equations accounting for ablative stabilization, and the experimental results are consistent with ablative stabilization when the shock is radiative. This result has important implications for our understanding of astrophysical radiative shocks and supernova radiative hydrodynamics [Kuranz et al., Nature Communications 9(1), 1564 (2018)].

  8. The jumps of physical quantities at fast shocks under pressure anisotropy: theory versus observations at the bow shock

    Vogl, D.F.

    2000-10-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with magnetized planets leads to the formation of the so-called magnetosphere, a cavity generated by the geomagnetic field. The supersonic, superalfvenic, and magnetized solar wind flow interacting with blunt bodies produces a detached bow shock, separating the solar wind from the magnetosheath, the region between the shock wave and the magnetopause. On approach to a planetary obstacle, the solar wind becomes subsonic at the bow shock and then flows past the planet in the magnetosheath. At the bow shock, the plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength change from upstream to downstream, i.e., an increase of plasma density, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field strength, and a decrease of the velocity across the shock. In this PhD thesis we mainly concentrate on the variations of all physical quantities across the bow shock taking into account pressure anisotropy, which is an important feature in space plasma physics and observed by various spacecraft missions in the solar wind as well as in the magnetosheath. Dealing with anisotropic plasma conditions, one has to introduce the so-called pressure tensor, characterized by two scalar pressures, the pressure perpendicular (P p erp) and the pressure parallel (P p arallel) with respect to the magnetic field and in general one speaks of anisotropic conditions for P p erp is not P p arallel. Many spacecraft observations of the solar wind show P p arallel > P p erp, whereas observations of the magnetosheath show the opposite case, P p arallel p erp. Therefore, dissipation of kinetic energy into thermal energy plays an important role in studying the variations of the relevant physical quantities across the shock. It has to be mentioned that planetary bow shocks are good examples for fast MHD shock waves. Therefore, the basic equations for describing the changes across the shock can be obtained by integrating the MHD equations in conservative form. We note that these equations, the

  9. Relative Shock Effects in Mixed Powders of Calcite, Gypsum, and Quartz: A Calibration Scheme from Shock Experiments

    Bell, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    The shock behavior of calcite and gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets. Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of CO2 or SO2 to better understand their role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [e.g., papers in 1,2,3,4]. Devolatilization of carbonate is also important because the dispersion and fragmentation of ejecta is strongly controlled by the expansion of large volumes of gas during the impact process as well [5,6]. Shock recovery experiments for calcite yield seemingly conflicting results: early experimental devolatilization studies [7,8,9] suggested that calcite was substantially outgassed at 30 GPa (> 50%). However, the recent petrographic work of [10,11,12] presented evidence that essentially intact calcite is recovered from 60 GPa experiments. [13] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of those phases with silica. Their observations indicate little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another (preliminary) report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, [14] observe calcite recrystallization when shock loaded at 61 GPa, only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa. [15] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa. All of the quartz grains were trans-formed to glass and the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggest that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid state transformation. [16] reanalyzed the calcite and anhydrite shock

  10. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  11. Plasma waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    Onsager, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation is a detailed analysis of electrostatic waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath. The wave modes measured in these regions, the possible generation mechanisms, and the process which drive the plasma to its unstable state are investigated. The measurements used in this study were obtained from the plasma wave receiver, the particle instrument, and the magnetometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM). Electron beam mode waves have been identified in the Earth's foreshock. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequency and wave number of the electron beam mode waves to be determined from the measurements. The experimentally determined values are compared with theoretical predictions, and approximate limits are put on the beam temperatures. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the Langmuir frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. This identification is based on the measured frequencies and electric field polarization directions. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electron beam mode waves and the near shock plasma parameters. The best correlations are found with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Possible mechanism which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results

  12. Do dividend shocks affect excess returns? An experimental study

    Draganac Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dividend announcement of a company is an informational event that can cause underreaction, momentum, overreaction, post-dividend announcement drift, and mean reversion. It is the uncertainty surrounding dividend announcements that leads to such behavioural phenomena. Most authors consider that underreaction occurs after dividend shocks because new information about the dividend is being slowly and gradually built into the stock price. The effect of dividend shocks is often reflected in excess returns, which can last up to one year after the shock. The experiment described in this paper tests whether statistically significant excess returns are realized after a shock dividend announcement. Participants trade with the stocks of two companies, which only differ by dividend-generating stochastic process. The dividend process of Company 2 is a Merton-style jump-diffusion process (consisting of two parts: Brownian motion and Poisson jump, while the dividend process of Company 1 contains only the Brownian motion component. Statistically significant excess returns are expected when trading with Company 2 stocks. An autoregressive model is applied in order to test this hypothesis. The conclusion is that a dividend shock is followed by statistically significant excess returns in 20 of the 22 experiments, which implies that markets are inefficient after sudden and large changes in dividends. Underreaction and discount rate effects are identified.

  13. Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows

    Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad

    2015-04-01

    Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.

  14. Shock velocity in weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon

    Siefert, Nicholas S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the principal mechanism(s) for the shock velocity increase in weakly ionized gases. This paper reports experimental data on the propagation of spark-generated shock waves (1< Mach<3) into weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon glow discharges (1 < p<20 Torr). In order to distinguish between effects due solely to the presence of electrons and effects due to heating of the background gas via elastic collisions with electrons, the weakly ionized discharge was pulsed on/off. Laser deflection methods determined the shock velocity, and the electron number density was collected using a microwave hairpin resonator. In the afterglow of nitrogen, air, and argon discharges, the shock velocity first decreased, not at the characteristic time for electrons to diffuse to the walls, but rather at the characteristic time for the centerline gas temperature to equilibrate with the wall temperature. These data support the conclusion that the principal mechanism for the increase in shock velocity in weakly ionized gases is thermal heating of the neutral gas species via elastic collisions with electrons

  15. Simulations of embedded lateral stress gauge profiles in shocked targets

    Winter, R E; Harris, E J

    2008-01-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. However, interpreting the resistance profiles from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the vicinity of the insulating layer in which the gauges are embedded can differ significantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian hydrocode simulations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress versus time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials. It is concluded that lateral gauges can be used to measure the dynamic strength of materials provided high resolution computer simulation is used to take account of the perturbation of the stress field in the shocked sample caused by the gauges

  16. Dissipation Mechanisms and Particle Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock

    Desai, M. I.; Burch, J. L.; Broll, J. M.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Wei, H.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Phan, T.; Chen, L. J.; Lai, H.; Wang, S.; Schwartz, S. J.; Allen, R. C.; Mauk, B.; Gingell, I.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has four spacecraft equipped with identical state-of-the-art instruments that acquire magnetic and electric field, plasma wave, and particle data at unprecedented temporal resolution to study the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During Phase 1a, MMS also encountered and crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 300 times. We use burst data during 2 bow shock crossings to shed new light on key open questions regarding the formation, evolution, and dissipation mechanisms at collisionless shocks. Specifically, we focus on two events that exhibit clear differences in the ion and electron properties, the associated wave activity, and, therefore in the nature of the dissipation. In the case of a quasi-perpendicular, low beta shock crossing, we find that the dissipation processes are most likely associated with field-aligned electron beams that are coincident with high frequency electrostatic waves. On the other hand, the dissipation processes at an oblique, high beta shock crossing are largely governed by the quasi-static electric field and generation of magnetosonic whistler waves that result in perpendicular temperature anisotropy for the electrons. We also discuss the implications of these results for ion heating, reflection, and particle acceleration.

  17. Prediction of massive bleeding. Shock index and modified shock index.

    Terceros-Almanza, L J; García-Fuentes, C; Bermejo-Aznárez, S; Prieto-Del Portillo, I J; Mudarra-Reche, C; Sáez-de la Fuente, I; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the predictive value of the Shock Index and Modified Shock Index in patients with massive bleeding due to severe trauma. Retrospective cohort. Severe trauma patient's initial attention at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 14 years that were admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) form January 2014 to December 2015. We studied the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PV+ and PV-), positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics) and the area under the same (AUROC) for prediction of massive hemorrhage. 287 patients were included, 76.31% (219) were male, mean age was 43,36 (±17.71) years and ISS was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-34). The overall frequency of massive bleeding was 8.71% (25). For Shock Index: AUROC was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.84 to 0.94), with an optimal cutoff at 1.11, Se was 91.3% (95% CI: 73.2 to 97.58) and Sp was 79.69% (95% CI: 74.34 to 84.16). For the Modified Shock Index: AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.95), with an optimal cutoff at 1.46, Se was 95.65% (95% CI: 79.01 to 99.23) and Sp was 75.78% (95% CI: 70.18 to 80.62). Shock Index and Modified Shock Index are good predictors of massive bleeding and could be easily incorporated to the initial workup of patients with severe trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  19. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones].

    Freund, H R; Lebensart, P D; Muggia-Sullam, M; Durst, A L

    1989-08-01

    We performed 16 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsies (ESWL) to fragment gallstones in 11 women and 2 men, aged 19 to 57 (mean 41 +/- 10) years, during the past 10 months. Criteria for selection included a history of biliary colic, not more than 3 stones with a total diameter of not more than 30 mm, and a functioning gallbladder. 210 patients were examined, of whom 98 were referred for additional screening by combined ultrasonography and oral cholecystography. This resulted in rejection of another 71 patients due to multiple stones (38%), nonfunctioning gallbladder (22%), calcified stones (12%), stones not visualized in the prone position (9%), excessively large stones (3%) and other reasons (16%). Only 27 patients fulfilled all the criteria. Under epidural or general anesthesia (11 and 2 patients, respectively), we administered 1200-3500 (mean 2250 +/- 750) shock waves at 20-24 KV with the Tripter X1 (Direx, Israel-USA). This is an ultrasound-guided, modular portable, shock-wave generator utilizing underwater high energy spark discharge. Chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, was started 1 week prior to ESWL and continued for 3 months after disappearance of fragments and debris. We encountered skin petechiae in all patients, transient hematuria in 8, mild biliary colic in 1 and a small liver hematoma in 1. To date, 3 patients are free of stones, while in 7 only sludge and tiny fragments are present which we expect to disappear as a result of the litholytic therapy. 3 patients had fragments larger than 5 mm and required a second ESWL. Thus ESWL, which was indicated in only 13% of screened patients, proved to be safe and can be expected to be successful in 75% of selected candidates.

  20. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  1. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity

  2. Why the Nature of Oil Shocks Matters

    Archanskaia, Elizaveta; Hubert, Paul; Creel, Jerome

    2009-03-01

    This article studies the impact of oil shocks on the macro-economy in two ways insofar unexploited in the literature. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and it explicitly accounts for the potentially changing nature of oil shocks. Based on an original world GDP series and a grouping of oil shocks according to their nature, we find that oil supply shocks negatively impact world growth, contrary to oil demand shocks, pro-cyclical in their nature. This result is robust at the national level for the US. Furthermore, endogenous monetary policy is shown to have no counter-cyclical effects in the context of an oil demand shock. (authors)

  3. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  4. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  5. On-line monitoring on thermal shock damage of ceramics using acoustic emission

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Sang Hun

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the degree of the thermal shock damage on alumina ceramic using acoustic emission technique. For this purpose, alumina ceramic specimen was heated in the elastic furnace and then was quenched into the water tank. When the specimen was quenched into water tank, a lot of micro-cracks were generated on the surface of specimen due to the thermal shock damage. In this study, acoustic emission technique was used to evaluate the elastic waves generated by the crack initiation and propagation on the surface of specimen. It was found that when the micro-crack was initiated on the surface of specimen, AE signals were the higher in amplitude than those of bubbling effect and crack propagation. A lot of AE events were generated at the first thermal shock, the number of AE events decreased gradually as the thermal shock cycle increased.

  6. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  7. Shock compression of geological materials

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  8. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  9. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  10. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  11. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  12. Sepsis and Septic Shock Strategies.

    Armstrong, Bracken A; Betzold, Richard D; May, Addison K

    2017-12-01

    Three therapeutic principles most substantially improve organ dysfunction and survival in sepsis: early, appropriate antimicrobial therapy; restoration of adequate cellular perfusion; timely source control. The new definitions of sepsis and septic shock reflect the inadequate sensitivity, specify, and lack of prognostication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment more effectively prognosticates in sepsis and critical illness. Inadequate cellular perfusion accelerates injury and reestablishing perfusion limits injury. Multiple organ systems are affected by sepsis and septic shock and an evidence-based multipronged approach to systems-based therapy in critical illness results in improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Absorbing the Culture Shock

    2006-01-01

    Participants at a forum on communication between cultures generate ideas on how China can deal with its growing cultural deficit Five months ago, Ding Wei, Assistant Minister of Culture, described China's deficit in international cultural trade as "huge" at a press conference held by the State Council Information Office. "Our statistics years ago showed that the ratio of imports of cultural products to exports was 10 to 1," he

  14. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  15. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.

  16. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-01-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)

  17. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm 3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm 3 ) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm 3 ) right after the shock. (paper)

  18. Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices.

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.

  19. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  20. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    Glenn, H.D.; Kratz, H.R.; Keough, D.D.; Duganne, D.A.; Ruffner, D.J.; Swift, R.P.; Baum, D.

    1979-01-01

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  1. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  2. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    C. H. Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: What is new?

    Bach, Christian; Karaolides, Theocharis; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Thirty years after its introduction, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still first-line treatment for more than half of all urinary tract stones, but machines and treatment strategies have significantly developed over time. In this review, we summarise the latest knowledge about the clinically important aspects of ESWL. Methods We searched PubMed to identify relevant reports and the latest European Association of Urology guidelines, and standard urological textbooks were consulted. Results New technical developments include: Twin-head and tandem-pulse shock-wave generators; wide-focus, low-pressure systems; optimised coupling; and automated location and acoustic tracking systems. Indications have been refined, making possible the identification of patients in whom ESWL treatment is likely to fail. By lowering the shock-wave rate, improving coupling, applying abdominal compression, power ‘ramping’ and postoperative medical expulsion therapy, treatment protocols have been optimised. Conclusions Promising new technical developments are under development, with the potential to increase the stone-free rate after ESWL. For optimal results, the refined indications need to be respected and optimised treatment protocols should be applied. PMID:26558039

  4. Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions

    Frame, Michael John

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for

  5. "Driverless" Shocks in the Interplanetary Medium

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lara, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many interplanetary shocks have been detected without an obvious driver behind them. These shocks have been thought to be either blast waves from solar flares or shocks due to sudden increase in solar wind speed caused by interactions between large scale open and closed field lines of the Sun. We investigated this problem using a set of interplanetary shock detected {\\it in situ} by the Wind space craft and tracing their solar origins using low frequency radio data obtained by the Wind/WAVES experiment. For each of these "driverless shocks" we could find a unique coronal mass ejections (CME) event observed by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraphs. We also found that these CMEs were ejected at large angles from the Sun-Earth line. It appears that the "driverless shocks" are actually driver shocks, but the drivers were not intercepted by the spacecraft. We conclude that the interplanetary shocks are much more extended than the driving CMEs.

  6. Shock and Vibration. Volume 1, Issue 1

    Pilkey, Walter D

    1994-01-01

    ..., and earthquake engineering. Among the specific areas to be covered are vibration testing and control, vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics, shock hardenings, modal technology, shock testing, data acquisition, fluid...

  7. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  8. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion,  Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...

  9. Inferior vena cava obstruction and shock

    Megri Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock is one of the most challenging life-threatening conditions with high mortality and morbidity; the outcomes are highly dependent on the early detection and management of the condition. Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the Intensive Care Unit. While not as common as other subsets of shock, obstructive shock is a significant subtype due to well defined mechanical and pathological causes, including tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. We are presenting a patient with obstructive shock due to inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to extensive deep venous thrombosis. Chance of survival from obstructive shock in our patient was small; however, there was complete and immediate recovery after treatment of the obstruction on recognizing the affected vessels. This case alerts the practicing intensivist and the emergency medicine physician to consider occlusion of the great vessels other than the pulmonary artery or aorta as causes of obstructive shock.

  10. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  11. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  12. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  13. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  14. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  15. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth's bow shock

    Czaykowska, A.; Bauer, T.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Treumann, R.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Garching (Germany); International Space Science Inst. (ISSI), Bern (Switzerland); Baumjohann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Inst. fuer Weltraumforschung der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Graz (Austria)

    2001-03-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700) bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes upstream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle {theta}{sub Bn} between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-{beta}. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger ({delta}B {proportional_to} 4 nT for frequencies 0.01-0.04 Hz) than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Downstream of the quasi-perpendicular low-{beta} bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-{beta} regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular ({theta}{sub Bn} {approx} 90 ) high-{beta} crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed. (orig.)

  16. Formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in magnetized protostellar jets

    Ustamujic, S.; Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; López-Santiago, J.

    2016-12-01

    Context. X-ray observations of protostellar jets show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary. They are interpreted as shock diamonds. Aims: We investigate the physics that guides the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in protostellar jets; the role of the magnetic field in determining the location, stability, and detectability in X-rays of these shocks; and the physical properties of the shocked plasma. Methods: We performed a set of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations that modelled supersonic jets ramming into a magnetized medium and explored different configurations of the magnetic field. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. We compared the model results with observations, via the emission measure and the X-ray luminosity synthesized from the simulations. Results: Our model explains the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in a natural way. The magnetic field collimates the plasma at the base of the jet and forms a magnetic nozzle there. After an initial transient, the nozzle leads to the formation of a shock diamond at its exit which is stationary over the time covered by the simulations ( 40-60 yr; comparable with timescales of the observations). The shock generates a point-like X-ray source located close to the base of the jet with luminosity comparable with that inferred from X-ray observations of protostellar jets. For the range of parameters explored, the evolution of the post-shock plasma is dominated by the radiative cooling, whereas the thermal conduction slightly affects the structure of the shock. A movie is available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. P. W. Bridgman's contributions to the foundations of shock compression of condensed matter

    Nellis, W J, E-mail: nellis@physics.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Based on his 50-year career in static high-pressure research, P. W. Bridgman (PWB) is the father of modern high-pressure physics. What is not generally recognized is that Bridgman was also intimately connected with establishing shock compression as a scientific tool and he predicted major events in shock research that occurred up to 40 years after his death. In 1956 the first phase transition under shock compression was reported in Fe at 13 GPa (130 kbar). PWB said a phase transition could not occur in a {approx}microsec, thus setting off a controversy. The scientific legitimacy of shock compression resulted 5 years later when static high-pressure researchers confirmed with x-ray diffraction the existence of epsilon-Fe. Once PWB accepted the fact that shock waves generated with chemical explosives were a valid scientific tool, he immediately realized that substantially higher pressures would be achieved with nuclear explosives. He included his ideas for achieving higher pressures in articles published a few years after his death. L. V. Altshuler eventually read Bridgman's articles and pursued the idea of using nuclear explosives to generate super high pressures, which subsequently morphed today into giant lasers. PWB also anticipated combining static and shock methods, which today is done with pre-compression of a soft sample in a diamond anvil cell followed by laser-driven shock compression. One variation of that method is the reverberating-shock technique, in which the first shock pre-compresses a soft sample and subsequent reverberations isentropically compress the first-shocked state.

  18. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  19. Collisionless Electrostatic Shock Modeling and Simulation

    2016-10-21

    equations with piston -like boundary conditions gives a solution for the shock behavior. • Assumes cold upstream ions, therefore neglecting shock...temperature ratio (>10) – Wave Train Wavelength – Shock-Front Mach Number – Reflected Ion Beam Velocity Gathering Experiment Data – Double Plasma Device...experimental shock data. • Inconsistencies in published 1969 double -plasma device data hampered validation. Future Work: Extension to Moderately

  20. Shock waves in gas and plasma

    Niu, K.

    1996-01-01

    A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)

  1. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  2. Shock ignition of high gain inertial fusion capsules

    Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.

    2010-01-01

    the theoretical approach of SI, and Lafon et al. established its gain curves using an extension of the Rosen Lindl model. The efficiency of shock ignition comes from the fact that, unlike conventional central ignition, the final fuel assembly is not isobaric, i.e., the low density hot spot pressure significantly exceeds the pressure of the surrounding cold dense fuel. This high hot spot pressure is obtained from two pressure amplification stages: the first amplification mechanism is spherical convergence. A converging shock increases its strength as C 0.9 where C is the shock convergence ratio. A second amplification stage occurs when the ignition shock collides with the outward directed shock that results from the shell stagnation at target centre. Under optimal matching conditions, shock collision produces a x 6 amplification of pressure. We discuss in the presentation the conditions for the obtention of optimal pressure amplification, at first by studying the ignition window in the space spanned by laser power and launching time, and secondly by modelling the relation ship between the laser intensity required for shock production and the implosion velocity. This latter study indicates a sensible safety trade off using a 250 km/s implosion velocity and a laser spike of ∼ 5 x 10 15 W/cm 2 for the shock production. First kinetic calculations and implosion experiments indicate that laser plasma interaction in the regime of shock ignition may remain under control, provided that the SRS generated hot electrons energy stay below 80 keV. Shock Ignition has been proposed as the baseline of the HiPER project and shock ignition experiments have been proposed on the National Ignition Facility with gains expected between 60 and 100 at laser energies below 500 kJ. Acknowledgments. This work is partly supported by the Aquitaine Region Council.

  3. Formation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona

    Hsieh, M. H.; Tsai, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Reconnections of magnetic fields over the solar surface are expected to generate abundant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities and shocks, including slow shocks and rotational discontinuities. However, the generation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection process is relatively not well studied. In this paper, magnetic reconnection in a current sheet is studied based on two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnections in the current sheet lead to the formation of plasma jets and plasma bulges. It is further found that the plasma bulges, the leading part of plasma jets, in turn lead to the generation of fast shocks on flanks of the bulges. The simulation results show that during the magnetic reconnection process, the plasma forms a series of structures: plasma jets, plasma bulges, and fast shocks. As time increases, the bulges spread out along the current sheet (±z direction) and the fast shocks move just ahead of the bulges. The effects of initial parameters ρ s /ρ m , β ∞ , and t rec on the fast shock generation are also examined, where ρ s /ρ m is the ratio of plasma densities on two sides of the initial current sheet, β ∞ =P ∞ /(B ∞ 2 /2μ 0 ), P ∞ is the plasma pressure and B ∞ is the magnetic field magnitude far from the current sheet, and t rec is the reconnection duration. In the asymmetric case with ρ s /ρ m =2, β ∞ =0.01 and t rec =1000, the maximum Alfven Mach number of fast shocks (M A1max ) is M A1max congruent with 1.1, where M A1 =V n1 /V A1 , and V n1 and V A1 are, respectively, the normal upstream fluid velocity and the upstream Alfven speed in the fast shocks frame. As the density ratio ρ s /ρ m (=1-8) and plasma beta β ∞ (=0.0001-1) increase, M A1max varies slightly. For the case with a large plasma beta β ∞ (=5), the fast shock is very weak. As the reconnection duration t rec increases, the bulges lead to generation of fast shocks with a higher M A1max . The present results can be

  4. Early Treatment in Shock

    2010-06-17

    100oC for 10 min. 22 This generated fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME ) from the glycerophospholipids in the 23 Fish Oil Reduces Injuries in Hemorrhagic...Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals 17 from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J Lipid Res 1964, 5:600-608. 18 6. Bligh EG...Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals 21 from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J Lipid Res 1964, 5:600-608. 22 8. Lee S, Gura KM

  5. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  6. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  7. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  8. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Interstellar turbulence and shock waves

    Bykov, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Random deflections of shock fronts propagated through the turbulent interstellar medium can produce the strong electro-density fluctuations on scales l> or approx. =10 13 cm inferred from pulsar radio scintillations. The development of turbulence in the hot-phase ISM is discussed

  10. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  11. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  12. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS ...

    Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a monotherapy for urolithiasis in patients with solitary kidney and to determine the factors that may affect its results. Patients and Methods Using the Dornier MFL 5000 lithotriptor, 106 patients with solitary kidney (80 men and 26 women) were treated for ...

  13. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    : steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation

  15. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  16. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  17. Shock waves in relativistic nuclear matter, I

    Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.

    1979-02-01

    The relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot relations are developed for a 3-dimensional plane shock and a 3-dimensional oblique shock. Using these discontinuity relations together with various equations of state for nuclear matter, the temperatures and the compressibilities attainable by shock compression for a wide range of laboratory kinetic energy of the projectile are calculated. 12 references

  18. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active ga...

  19. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    Renaud, M; Goedbloed, M; De Nooijer, C; Van Schaijk, R; Fujita, T

    2015-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture. (paper)

  20. Shock loading and reactive flow modeling studies of void induced AP/AL/HTPB propellant

    Miller, P. J.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1998-07-01

    The unreactive Hugoniot of a class 1.3 propellant has been investigated by shock compression experiments. The results are analyzed in terms of an ignition and growth reactive flow model using the DYNA2D hydrocode. The calculated shock ignition parameters of the model show a linear dependence on measured void volume which appears to reproduce the observed gauge records well. Shock waves were generated by impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 140 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in AP particle size and the addition of a burn rate modifer (Fe2O3) from that of previous investigations. Results show neglible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to `stiffen' the unreactive Hugoniot and enhances significantly the reactive rates under shock. The unreactive Hugoniot, within experimental error, compares favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce insitu voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dialatometry. The experimental records show a direct correlation between void volume (0 to 1.7%) and chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed in terms of `hot spot' ignition resulting from the shock collapse of the voids.

  1. Precise optical observation of 0.5-GPa shock waves in condensed materials

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Mori, Yasuhito

    1999-06-01

    Precision optical observation method was developed to study impact-generated high-pressure shock waves in condensed materials. The present method makes it possible to sensitively detect the shock waves of the relatively low shock stress around 0.5 GPa. The principle of the present method is based on the use of total internal reflection by triangular prisms placed on the free surface of a target assembly. When a plane shock wave arrives at the free surface, the light reflected from the prisms extinguishes instantaneously. The reason is that the total internal reflection changes to the reflection depending on micron roughness of the free surface after the shock arrival. The shock arrival at the bottom face of the prisms can be detected here by two kinds of methods, i.e., a photographic method and a gauge method. The photographic method is an inclined prism method of using a high-speed streak camera. The shock velocity and the shock tilt angle can be estimated accurately from an obtained streak photograph. While in the gauge method, an in-material PVDF stress gauge is combined with an optical prism-pin. The PVDF gauge records electrically the stress profile behind the shockwave front, and the Hugoniot data can be precisely measured by combining the prism pin with the PVDF gauge.

  2. ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND THEIR SZ SIGNATURE FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Hearn, Nathan; Haiman, Zoltan; Bryan, Greg; Evrard, August E.; Lake, George

    2009-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical structure formation models predict the existence of large-scale accretion shocks between the virial and turnaround radii of clusters of galaxies. Kocsis et al. suggest that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal associated with such shocks might be observable with the next generation radio interferometer, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array). We study the three-dimensional distribution of accretion shocks around individual clusters of galaxies drawn from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ΛCDM (dark energy dominated CDM) models. In relaxed clusters, we find two distinct sets of shocks. One set ('virial shocks'), with Mach numbers of 2.5-4, is located at radii 0.9-1.3 R vir , where R vir is the spherical infall estimate of the virial radius, covering about 40%-50% of the total surface area around clusters at these radii. Another set of stronger shocks ( e xternal shocks ) is located farther out, at about 3 R vir , with large Mach numbers (∼100), covering about 40%-60% of the surface area. We simulate SZ surface brightness maps of relaxed massive galaxy clusters drawn from high-resolution AMR runs, and conclude that ALMA should be capable of detecting the virial shocks in massive clusters of galaxies. More simulations are needed to improve estimates of astrophysical noise and to determine optimal observational strategies.

  3. A family of related proteins is encoded by the major Drosophila heat shock gene family

    Wadsworth, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    At least four proteins of 70,000 to 75,000 molecular weight (70-75K) were synthesized from mRNA which hybridized with a cloned heat shock gene previously shown to be localized to the 87A and 87C heat shock puff sites. These in vitro-synthesized proteins were indistinguishable from in vivo-synthesized heat shock-induced proteins when analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of the pattern of this group of proteins synthesized in vivo during a 5-min pulse or during continuous labeling indicates that the 72-75K proteins are probably not kinetic precursors to the major 70K heat shock protein. Partial digestion products generated with V8 protease indicated that the 70-75K heat shock proteins are closely related, but that there are clear differences between them. The partial digestion patterns obtained from heat shock proteins from the Kc cell line and from the Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster are very similar. Genetic analysis of the patterns of 70-75K heat shock protein synthesis indicated that the genes encoding at least two of the three 72-75K heat shock proteins are located outside of the major 87A and 87C puff sites

  4. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF MOLECULAR LINE PROFILES INDUCED BY THE PROPAGATION OF C-SHOCK WAVES

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Caselli, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; RodrIguez-Franco, A.; Viti, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first results of the expected variations of the molecular line emission arising from material recently affected by C-shocks (shock precursors). Our parametric model of the structure of C-shocks has been coupled with a radiative transfer code to calculate the molecular excitation and line profiles of shock tracers such as SiO, and of ion and neutral molecules such as H 13 CO + and HN 13 C, as the shock propagates through the unperturbed medium. Our results show that the SiO emission arising from the early stage of the magnetic precursor typically has very narrow line profiles slightly shifted in velocity with respect to the ambient cloud. This narrow emission is generated in the region where the bulk of the ion fluid has already slipped to larger velocities in the precursor as observed toward the young L1448-mm outflow. This strongly suggests that the detection of narrow SiO emission, and of an ion enhancement in young shocks, is produced by the magnetic precursor of C-shocks. In addition, our model shows that the different velocity components observed toward this outflow can be explained by the coexistence of different shocks at different evolutionary stages, within the same beam of the single-dish observations.

  6. MMS observations of the Earth bow shock during magnetosphere compression and expansion: comparison of whistler wave properties around the shock ramp

    Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Schwartz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to investigate electromagnetic waves at the bow shock and their association with small-scale disturbances in the shocked plasmas. Understanding these waves could improve our knowledge on the heating of electrons and ions across the shock ramp and the energy dissipation of supercritical shocks. We have found broad-band and narrow band waves across the shock ramp and slightly downstream. The broad-band waves propagate obliquely to the magnetic field direction and have frequencies up to the electron cyclotron frequency, while the narrow-band waves have frequencies of a few hundred Hertz, durations under a second, and are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode with different generation mechanisms. When the solar wind pressure changes, MMS occasionally observed a pair of bow shocks when the magnetosphere was compressed and then expanded. We compare the wave observations under these two situations to understand their roles in the shock ramp as well as the upstream and downstream plasmas.

  7. Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes

    Utroska, D.

    1982-01-01

    Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable

  8. Nonlinear Monte Carlo model of superdiffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Ellison, Donald C.; Osipov, Sergei M.

    2017-03-01

    Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles. This anisotropy is determined by fast particle transport, making the problem strongly nonlinear and multiscale. Here, we present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of collisionless shock structure with superdiffusive propagation of high-energy Fermi accelerated particles coupled to particle acceleration and MFA, which affords a consistent description of strong shocks. A distinctive feature of the Monte Carlo technique is that it includes the full angular anisotropy of the particle distribution at all precursor positions. The model reveals that the superdiffusive transport of energetic particles (i.e., Lévy-walk propagation) generates a strong quadruple anisotropy in the precursor particle distribution. The resultant pressure anisotropy of the high-energy particles produces a nonresonant mirror-type instability that amplifies compressible wave modes with wavelengths longer than the gyroradii of the highest-energy protons produced by the shock.

  9. Shock wave and flame front induced detonation in a rapid compression machine

    Wang, Y.; Qi, Y.; Xiang, S.; Mével, R.; Wang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focuses on one mode of detonation initiation observed in a rapid compression machine (RCM). This mode is referred to as shock wave and flame front-induced detonation (SWFID). Experimental high-speed imaging and two-dimensional numerical simulations with skeletal chemistry are combined to unravel the dominant steps of detonation initiation under SWFID conditions. It is shown that the interaction between the shock wave generated by the end-gas auto-ignition and the spherical flame creates a region of high pressure and temperature which enables the acceleration of the flame front and the detonation onset. The experimental observation lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution despite good reproducibility of the detonation onset. Based on the numerical results, phenomenological interpretation of the event within the framework of shock wave refraction indicates that the formation of a free-precursor shock wave at the transition between regular and irregular refraction may be responsible for detonation onset. The present results along with previous findings on shock wave reflection-induced detonation in the RCM indicate that super-knock occurs after the interaction of the shock wave generated by end-gas auto-ignition with the RCM walls, preignition flame, or another shock wave.

  10. Effects of laser shock processing on electrochemical corrosion resistance of ANSI 304 stainless steel weldments after cavitation erosion

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.K.; Lu, J.Z.; Dai, F.Z.; Feng, A.X.; Luo, K.Y.; Zhong, J.S.; Wang, Q.W.; Luo, M.; Qi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Weldments were done with laser shock processing impacts after cavitation erosion. ► Laser shock processing enhanced the erosion and corrosion resistance of weldments. ► Tensile residual stress and surface roughness decreased by laser shock processing. ► Microstructure was observed to explain the improvement by laser shock processing. ► Obvious passivation areas occurred with laser shock processing impacts. - Abstract: Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on electrochemical corrosion resistance of weldments after cavitation erosion were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology, scanning electron microscope (SEM), roughness tester and optical microscope (OM). Some main factors to influence erosion and corrosion of weldments, residual stresses, surface roughness, grain refinements and slip, were discussed in detail. Results show that LSP impacts can induce compressive residual stresses, decrease surface roughness, refine grains and generate the slip. Thus, the erosion and corrosion resistance with LSP impacts is improved.

  11. Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion

    Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D 2 ) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D 2 bubble in D 2 0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble

  12. On the evolution of normal ionizing shock waves in helium

    Synakh, V.S.; Zakajdakov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The generation, structure and propagation of one-dimensional ionizing MHD shock waves in helium under a pressure of 100 mTorr are investigated with the help of numerical simulation. The normal magnetic field varies within 3 to 10 kG and the longitudinal magnetic field varies up to 2.5 kG. The model includes the kinetics of ionization and photo-processes. If a solid conducting piston is a source of perturbation, it may give rise to generation and further development of an MHD switch-on wave. Its evolution at an advanced stage depends weakly on the source. The curves for the dependence of the shock speed on time and the driving magnetic field as well as the profiles for the main quantities are presented. A possibility of comparison with real experiments is discussed. Algorithms based on Godunov's sliding meshes and the imbedding methods are used for numerical simulation. (author)

  13. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  14. Effects of the shock duration on the response of CFRP composite laminates

    Gay, Elise; Berthe, Laurent; Boustie, Michel; Arrigoni, Michel; Buzaud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Shock loads induce a local tensile stress within a sample. The location and amplitude of this high strain rate stress can be monitored respectively by the duration and intensity of the shock. The process is applied to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites, involved in aeronautic or defense industry. This paper describes the response of CFRP laminates of different thicknesses to a shock load normal to the fibres direction. The effects of the shock duration on the wave propagation are key issues of this work. Experiments have been performed on high power laser facilities and on a high power pulsed generator to get a wide range of pulse duration from fs to µs. Numerical simulation provides a comprehensive approach of the wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these complex materials. The main result concerns the relation between the load duration, the tensile stress and the induced delamination within 1, 4 and 8 ply composite laminates. (paper)

  15. Cardioprotective effects of 70-kDa heat shock protein in transgenic mice.

    Radford, N B; Fina, M; Benjamin, I J; Moreadith, R W; Graves, K H; Zhao, P; Gavva, S; Wiethoff, A; Sherry, A D; Malloy, C R; Williams, R S

    1996-03-19

    Heat shock proteins are proposed to limit injury resulting from diverse environmental stresses, but direct metabolic evidence for such a cytoprotective function in vertebrates has been largely limited to studies of cultured cells. We generated lines of transgenic mice to express human 70-kDa heat shock protein constitutively in the myocardium. Hearts isolated from these animals demonstrated enhanced recovery of high energy phosphate stores and correction of metabolic acidosis following brief periods of global ischemia sufficient to induce sustained abnormalities of these variables in hearts from nontransgenic littermates. These data demonstrate a direct cardioprotective effect of 70-kDa heat shock protein to enhance postischemic recovery of the intact heart.

  16. Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures

    Pant, H C; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 mu m wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments.

  17. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium

    Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references

  18. Microstructural characterisation of metallic shot peened and laser shock peened Ti–6Al–4V

    Lainé, Steven J.; Knowles, Kevin M.; Doorbar, Phillip J.; Cutts, Richard D.; Rugg, David

    2017-01-01

    A detailed analysis has been conducted of Ti–6Al–4V processed by metallic shot peening and laser shock peening. Analysis by incremental hole drilling, electron backscattered diffraction microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction microscopy is evaluated and discussed. The results of this analysis highlight the very different dislocation structures in surfaces processed by these two techniques. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction also has been used to evaluate sub-grains generated by laser shock peening. A notable feature of material processed by laser shock peening is the almost complete absence of deformation twinning, contrasting with the frequent observation of extensive deformation twinning observed in the material processed by metallic shot peening.

  19. Simulation of shock-induced bubble collapse using a four-equation model

    Goncalves, E.; Hoarau, Y.; Zeidan, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between a planar incident shock wave with a cylindrical gas bubble. Simulations are performed using an inviscid compressible one-fluid solver based upon three conservation laws for the mixture variables, namely mass, momentum, and total energy along with a supplementary transport equation for the volume fraction of the gas phase. The study focuses on the maximum pressure generated by the bubble collapse. The influence of the strength of the incident shock is investigated. A law for the maximum pressure function of the Mach number of the incident shock is proposed.

  20. Spatial distribution of cavitation-shock-pressure around a jet-flow gate-valve

    Oba, Risaburo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Yukio; Miyakura, Hideto; Nozaki, Satoru; Ishige, Tadashi; Sonoda, Shuji; Sakamoto, Kenji.

    1987-01-01

    To make clear the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the spatial distribution of cavitation shock pressures were quantitatively measured by a pressure sensitive sheet in the 1/10 scale model of a jet-flow gate-valve, for various valve-openings and cavitation numbers. The dynamic pressure response of the sheet was corrected by the shock wave generated from detonation explosives. It is made clear that the erosive shock pressures are distributed in a limited part of the whole cavitation region, and the safety region without the fatal cavitation erosion is defined. (author)

  1. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig

    2015-01-01

    shocks have been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, predictors and management of inappropriate shocks in the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry, which collects S-ICD implantation information and follow-up data from clinical centers in Europe and New Zealand. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 21 ± 13...... xyphoid to V6) reduced the risk. Reprogramming or optimization of SVT treatment after the first clinical event of inappropriate shock was successful in preventing further inappropriate shocks for cardiac oversensing and SVT events. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate shocks, mainly due to cardiac oversensing...

  2. Gamma-ray emission from internal shocks in novae

    Martin, P.; Dubus, G.; Jean, P.; Tatischeff, V.; Dosne, C.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Gamma-ray emission at energies ≥100 MeV has been detected from nine novae using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and can be explained by particle acceleration at shocks in these systems. Eight out of these nine objects are classical novae in which interaction of the ejecta with a tenuous circumbinary material is not expected to generate detectable gamma-ray emission. Aim. We examine whether particle acceleration at internal shocks can account for the gamma-ray emission from these novae. The shocks result from the interaction of a fast wind radiatively-driven by nuclear burning on the white dwarf with material ejected in the initial runaway stage of the nova outburst. Methods: We present a one-dimensional model for the dynamics of a forward and reverse shock system in a nova ejecta, and for the associated time-dependent particle acceleration and high-energy gamma-ray emission. Non-thermal proton and electron spectra are calculated by solving a time-dependent transport equation for particle injection, acceleration, losses, and escape from the shock region. The predicted emission is compared to LAT observations of V407 Cyg, V1324 Sco, V959 Mon, V339 Del, V1369 Cen, and V5668 Sgr. Results: The ≥100 MeV gamma-ray emission arises predominantly from particles accelerated up to 100 GeV at the reverse shock and undergoing hadronic interactions in the dense cooling layer downstream of the shock. The emission rises within days after the onset of the wind, quickly reaches a maximum, and its subsequent decrease reflects mostly the time evolution of the wind properties. Comparison to gamma-ray data points to a typical scenario where an ejecta of mass 10-5-10-4 M⊙ expands in a homologous way with a maximum velocity of 1000-2000 km s-1, followed within a day by a wind with a velocity values of which result in the majority of best-fit models having gamma-ray spectra with a high-energy turnover below 10 GeV. Our typical model is able to account for the main

  3. Ploidy Manipulation of Zebrafish Embryos with Heat Shock 2 Treatment

    Baars, Destiny L.; Takle, Kendra A.; Heier, Jonathon; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole...

  4. Perpendicular relativistic shocks in magnetized pair plasma

    Plotnikov, Illya; Grassi, Anna; Grech, Mickael

    2018-04-01

    Perpendicular relativistic (γ0 = 10) shocks in magnetized pair plasmas are investigated using two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. A systematic survey, from unmagnetized to strongly magnetized shocks, is presented accurately capturing the transition from Weibel-mediated to magnetic-reflection-shaped shocks. This transition is found to occur for upstream flow magnetizations 10-3 10-2, it leaves place to a purely electromagnetic precursor following from the strong emission of electromagnetic waves at the shock front. Particle acceleration is found to be efficient in weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks in agreement with previous works, and is fully suppressed for σ > 10-2. Diffusive Shock Acceleration is observed only in weakly magnetized shocks, while a dominant contribution of Shock Drift Acceleration is evidenced at intermediate magnetizations. The spatial diffusion coefficients are extracted from the simulations allowing for a deeper insight into the self-consistent particle kinematics and scale with the square of the particle energy in weakly magnetized shocks. These results have implications for particle acceleration in the internal shocks of AGN jets and in the termination shocks of Pulsar Wind Nebulae.

  5. Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Bingham, D.; Goh, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10 14 W cm −2 to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code

  6. Exploratory laser-driven shock wave studies

    Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1977-11-01

    We show the results of a feasibility study for investigating shock structure and for measuring equation-of-state parameters using high-energy, short-pulse lasers. We discuss the temporal and spatial structure of the luminosity from laser-driven shock unloading in aluminum foils. We demonstrate that shock velocity can be measured by observing the time interval between shock emergence across two thicknesses and show data for shocks of 1.3 and 2.1 Mbar. The fact that we observe shock fronts cleanly breaking through steps as small as 3 μm indicates that the shock front thickness is very small in the few megabar region; this is the first experimental verification that these fronts are not more than a few micrometers thick. We present approximate measurements of free-surface velocity. Finally, we speculate on the use of these techniques to obtain detailed equation-of-state data

  7. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  8. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  9. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  10. Shock-induced microstructural response of mono- and nanocrystalline SiC ceramics

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Zhang, Jingyun; Rino, José P.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of mono- and nanocrystalline SiC ceramics under plane shock loading is revealed using molecular-dynamics simulations. The generation of shock-induced elastic compression, plastic deformation, and structural phase transformation is characterized at different crystallographic directions as well as on a 5-nm grain size nanostructure at 10 K and 300 K. Shock profiles are calculated in a wide range of particle velocities 0.1-6.0 km/s. The predicted Hugoniot agree well with experimental data. Results indicate the generation of elastic waves for particle velocities below 0.8-1.9 km/s, depending on the crystallographic direction. In the intermediate range of particle velocities between 2 and 5 km/s, the shock wave splits into an elastic precursor and a zinc blende-to-rock salt structural transformation wave, which is triggered by shock pressure over the ˜90 GPa threshold value. A plastic wave, with a strong deformation twinning component, is generated ahead of the transformation wave for shocks in the velocity range between 1.5 and 3 km/s. For particle velocities greater than 5-6 km/s, a single overdriven transformation wave is generated. Surprisingly, shocks on the nanocrystalline sample reveal the absence of wave splitting, and elastic, plastic, and transformation wave components are seamlessly connected as the shock strength is continuously increased. The calculated strengths 15.2, 31.4, and 30.9 GPa for ⟨001⟩, ⟨111⟩, and ⟨110⟩ directions and 12.3 GPa for the nanocrystalline sample at the Hugoniot elastic limit are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  11. Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Studies of Jet Fuels at Low Temperatures (600-1200K)

    2013-08-27

    Davidson, Ronald K. Hanson. A second-generation aerosol shock tube and its use in studying ignition delay times of large biodiesel surrogates, 28th... Biodiesel Surrogate behind Reflected Shock Waves,” 8th US National Combustion Meeting, Paper 070RK-0008 Park City, UT 5/2013.   These  studies provide...www.elsevier .com/locate / fuel 1. Introduction Normal alkanes have been widely used as fuels and are major components of many commercial transportation fuels

  12. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  13. Shock unsteadiness in a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle

    Verma, S. B.

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the nature of shock unsteadiness, in an overexpanded thrust optimized parabolic nozzle, prevalent in various flow separation modes experienced during start up {(δ P0 /δ t > 0)} and shut down {(δ P0/δ t The results are based on simultaneously acquired data from real-time wall pressure measurements using Kulite pressure transducers, high-speed schlieren (2 kHz) of the exhaust flow-field and from strain-gauges installed on the nozzle bending tube. Shock unsteadiness in the separation region is seen to increase significantly just before the onset of each flow transition, even during steady nozzle operation. The intensity of this measure ( rms level) is seen to be strongly influenced by relative locations of normal and overexpansion shock, the decrease in radial size of re-circulation zone in the back-flow region, and finally, the local nozzle wall contour. During restricted shock separation, the pressure fluctuations in separation region exhibit periodic characteristics rather than the usually observed characteristics of intermittent separation. The possible physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of flow unsteadiness in various separation modes are discussed. The results are from an experimental study conducted in P6.2 cold-gas subscale test facility using a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle of area-ratio 30.

  14. Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods

    Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives

  15. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical “microscopic” theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008–2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks. PMID:26091013

  16. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation.

    Marco Bardoscia

    Full Text Available The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods and six (during the crisis when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank assets for all banks.

  17. DebtRank: A Microscopic Foundation for Shock Propagation.

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The DebtRank algorithm has been increasingly investigated as a method to estimate the impact of shocks in financial networks, as it overcomes the limitations of the traditional default-cascade approaches. Here we formulate a dynamical "microscopic" theory of instability for financial networks by iterating balance sheet identities of individual banks and by assuming a simple rule for the transfer of shocks from borrowers to lenders. By doing so, we generalise the DebtRank formulation, both providing an interpretation of the effective dynamics in terms of basic accounting principles and preventing the underestimation of losses on certain network topologies. Depending on the structure of the interbank leverage matrix the dynamics is either stable, in which case the asymptotic state can be computed analytically, or unstable, meaning that at least one bank will default. We apply this framework to a dataset of the top listed European banks in the period 2008-2013. We find that network effects can generate an amplification of exogenous shocks of a factor ranging between three (in normal periods) and six (during the crisis) when we stress the system with a 0.5% shock on external (i.e. non-interbank) assets for all banks.

  18. Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.

  19. Streak-photographic investigation of shock wave emission after laser-induced plasma formation in water

    Noack, Joachim; Vogel, Alfred

    1995-05-01

    The shock wave emission after dielectric breakdown in water was investigated to assess potential shock wave effects in plasma mediated tissue ablation and intraocular photodisruption. Of particular interest was the dependence of shock wave pressure as a function of distance from the plasma for different laser pulse energies. We have generated plasmas in water with a Nd:YAG laser system delivering pulses of 6 ns duration. The pulses, with energies between 0.4 and 36 mJ (approximately equals 180 times threshold), were focused into a cuvette containing distilled water. The shock wave was visualized with streak photography combined with a schlieren technique. An important advantage of this technique is that the shock position as a function of time can directly be obtained from a single streak and hence a single event. Other methods (e.g. flash photography or passage time measurements between fixed locations) in contrast rely on reproducible events. Using the shock wave speed obtained from the streak images, shock wave peak pressures were calculated providing detailed information on the propagation of the shock. The shock peak pressure as a function of distance r from the optical axis was found to decrease faster than 1/r2 in regions up to distances of 100-150 micrometers . For larger distances it was found to be roughly proportional to 1/r. The scaling law for maximum shock pressure p, at a given distance was found to be proportional to the square root of the laser pulse energy E for distances of 50-200 micrometers from the optical axis.

  20. Laser shock ignition of porous silicon based nano-energetic films

    Plummer, A.; Gascooke, J.; Shapter, J.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Voelcker, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous silicon films on a silicon wafer were loaded with sodium perchlorate and initiated using illumination with infrared laser pulses to cause laser thermal ignition and laser-generated shock waves. Using Photon Doppler Velocimetry, it was determined that these waves are weak stress waves with a threshold intensity of 131 MPa in the silicon substrate. Shock generation was achieved through confinement of a plasma, generated upon irradiation of an absorptive paint layer held against the substrate side of the wafer. These stress waves were below the threshold required for sample fracturing. Exploiting either the laser thermal or laser-generated shock mechanisms of ignition may permit use of pSi energetic materials in applications otherwise precluded due to their environmental sensitivity