Sample records for shock boundary layer

  1. Transonic shock wave. Boundary layer interaction at a convex wall

    Koren, B.; Bannink, W.J.


    A standard finite element procedure has been applied to the problem of transonic shock wave – boundary layer interaction at a convex wall. The method is based on the analytical Bohning-Zierep model, where the boundary layer is perturbed by a weak normal shock wave which shows a singular pressure

  2. Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.

  3. Shock-like structures in the tropical cyclone boundary layer

    Williams, Gabriel J.; Taft, Richard K.; McNoldy, Brian D.; Schubert, Wayne H.


    This paper presents high horizontal resolution solutions of an axisymmetric, constant depth, slab boundary layer model designed to simulate the radial inflow and boundary layer pumping of a hurricane. Shock-like structures of increasing intensity appear for category 1-5 hurricanes. For example, in the category 3 case, the u>(∂u/∂r>) term in the radial equation of motion produces a shock-like structure in the radial wind, i.e., near the radius of maximum tangential wind the boundary layer radial inflow decreases from approximately 22 m s-1 to zero over a radial distance of a few kilometers. Associated with this large convergence is a spike in the radial distribution of boundary layer pumping, with updrafts larger than 22 m s-1 at a height of 1000 m. Based on these model results, it is argued that observed hurricane updrafts of this magnitude so close to the ocean surface are attributable to the dry dynamics of the frictional boundary layer rather than moist convective dynamics. The shock-like structure in the boundary layer radial wind also has important consequences for the evolution of the tangential wind and the vertical component of vorticity. On the inner side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is essentially zero, while on the outer side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is large due to the large radial inflow there. The result is the development of a U-shaped tangential wind profile and the development of a thin region of large vorticity. In many respects, the model solutions resemble the remarkable structures observed in the boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989).

  4. Effects of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability

    Pinna, F.; Rambaud, P.


    The design of hypersonic vehicles requires the estimate of the laminar to turbulent transition location for an accurate sizing of the thermal protection system. Linear stability theory is a fast scientific way to study the problem. Recent improvements in computational capabilities allow computing the flow around a full vehicle instead of using only simplified boundary layer equations. In this paper, the effect of the shock is studied on a mean flow provided by steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations and simplified boundary layer calculations.

  5. Experimental research on crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions

    Settles, G. S.; Garrison, T. J.


    An experimental research effort of the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory on the subject of crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions is reported. This three year study was supported by AFOSR Grant 89-0315. A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the above phenomena including planar laser scattering flowfield visualization, kerosene lampblack surface flow visualization, laser-interferometer skin friction surveys, wall static pressure measurements, and flowfield five-hole probe surveys. For a model configuration producing two intersecting shock waves, measurements were made for a range of oblique shock strengths at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 3.85. Additionally, measurements were made at Mach 3.85 for a configuration producing three intersecting waves. The combined experimental dataset was used to formulate the first detailed flowfield models of the crossing-shock and triple-shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The structure of these interactions was found to be similar over a broad range of interaction strengths and is dominated by a large, separated, viscous flow region.

  6. Simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions

    Kianvashrad, N.; Knight, D.


    The capability of the Navier-Stokes equations with a perfect gas model for simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions is assessed. The configuration is a hollow cylinder flare. The experimental data were obtained by Calspan-University of Buffalo (CUBRC) for total enthalpies ranging from 5.07 to 21.85 MJ/kg. Comparison of the computed and experimental surface pressure and heat transfer is performed and the computed §ow¦eld structure is analyzed.

  7. Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows

    Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad


    Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.

  8. Factors influencing flow steadiness in laminar boundary layer shock interactions

    Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Austin, Joanna M.


    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method has been used to model laminar shock wave boundary interactions of hypersonic flow over a 30/55-deg double-wedge and "tick-shaped" model configurations studied in the Hypervelocity Expansion Tube facility and T-ADFA free-piston shock tunnel, respectively. The impact of thermochemical effects on these interactions by changing the chemical composition from nitrogen to air as well as argon for a stagnation enthalpy of 8.0 MJ/kg flow are investigated using the 2-D wedge model. The simulations are found to reproduce many of the classic features related to Edney Type V strong shock interactions that include the attached, oblique shock formed over the first wedge, the detached bow shock from the second wedge, the separation zone, and the separation and reattachment shocks that cause complex features such as the triple point for both cases. However, results of a reacting air flow case indicate that the size of the separation length, and the movement of the triple point toward to the leading edge is much less than the nitrogen case.

  9. Effects of micro-ramps on a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction

    Blinde, P.L.; Humble, R.A.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.


    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the effects of micro-ramp sub-boundary layer vortex generators, on an incident shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 1.84. Single- and double-row arrangements of micro-ramps are considered. The micro-ramps have a height of 20% of

  10. Notes on the Prediction of Shock-induced Boundary-layer Separation

    Lange, Roy H.


    The present status of available information relative to the prediction of shock-induced boundary-layer separation is discussed. Experimental results showing the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the separation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer are given and compared with available methods for predicting separation. The flow phenomena associated with separation caused by forward-facing steps, wedges, and incident shock waves are discussed. Applications of the flat-plate data to problems of separation on spoilers, diffusers, and scoop inlets are indicated for turbulent boundary layers.

  11. Transonic shock wave. Turbulent boundary layer interaction on a curved surface

    Nebbeling, C.; Koren, B.


    This paper describes an experimental investigation of a transonic shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction in a curved test section, in which the flow has been computed by a 2-D Euler flow method. The test section has been designed such that the flow near the shock wave on the convex curved

  12. Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil

    Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.


    Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.

  13. Interaction of a conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Teh, S. L.; Gai, S. L.

    The paper reports an investigation on the interaction of an incident conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Although a conical shock theoretically creates a hyperbolic shock trace on the flat plate, the line joining all the experimental interaction origins takes a different form due to varying upstream influence. The existence of strong pressure gradients in the spanwise direction after the shock leads to the boundary-layer twist. A model based on the upstream influence of the shock when combined with McCabe's secondary-flow theory showed separation to occur at an external flow deflection of 11.8 deg. The oil flow measurements however show this to occur at 9.2 deg. This discrepancy is of the same order as that found by McCabe. Detailed data involving Schlieren and shadowgraph photography, surface-flow visualization, and surface-pressure measurements are presented.

  14. Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions

    Mehrnaz Rouhi Youssefi; Doyle Knight


    The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2) at the Calspan University of Buffalo Rese...

  15. DSMC Computations for Regions of Shock/Shock and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction

    Moss, James N.


    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of hypersonic interacting flows at flow conditions that include those for which experiments have been conducted in the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel and the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 9.3 to 11.4 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, provide results concerning the conditions for incipient separation, and provide information concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.

  16. Numerical study of shock-wave/boundary layer interactions in premixed hydrogen-air hypersonic flows

    Yungster, Shaye


    A computational study of shock wave/boundary layer interactions involving premixed combustible gases, and the resulting combustion processes is presented. The analysis is carried out using a new fully implicit, total variation diminishing (TVD) code developed for solving the fully coupled Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and species continuity equations in an efficient manner. To accelerate the convergence of the basic iterative procedure, this code is combined with vector extrapolation methods. The chemical nonequilibrium processes are simulated by means of a finite-rate chemistry model for hydrogen-air combustion. Several validation test cases are presented and the results compared with experimental data or with other computational results. The code is then applied to study shock wave/boundary layer interactions in a ram accelerator configuration. Results indicate a new combustion mechanism in which a shock wave induces combustion in the boundary layer, which then propagates outwards and downstream. At higher Mach numbers, spontaneous ignition in part of the boundary layer is observed, which eventually extends along the entire boundary layer at still higher values of the Mach number.

  17. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.


    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  18. Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of shock-boundary layer interaction on a supercritical airfoil

    Hartmann, Axel; Klaas, Michael; Schroeder, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Aerodynamics, Aachen (Germany)


    Time-resolved stereo particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) and unsteady pressure measurements are used to analyze the unsteady flow over a supercritical DRA-2303 airfoil in transonic flow. The dynamic shock wave-boundary layer interaction is one of the most essential features of this unsteady flow causing a distinct oscillation of the flow field. Results from wind-tunnel experiments with a variation of the freestream Mach number at Reynolds numbers ranging from 2.55 to 2.79 x 10{sup 6} are analyzed regarding the origin and nature of the unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction. Therefore, the TR-SPIV results are analyzed for three buffet flows. One flow exhibits a sinusoidal streamwise oscillation of the shock wave only due to an acoustic feedback loop formed by the shock wave and the trailing-edge noise. The other two buffet flows have been intentionally influenced by an artificial acoustic source installed downstream of the test section to investigate the behavior of the interaction to upstream-propagating disturbances generated by a defined source of noise. The results show that such upstream-propagating disturbances could be identified to be responsible for the upstream displacement of the shock wave and that the feedback loop is formed by a pulsating separation of the boundary layer dependent on the shock position and the sound pressure level at the shock position. Thereby, the pulsation of the separation could be determined to be a reaction to the shock motion and not vice versa. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of 3D Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction: A Combined Approach using Experiments, Numerical Simulations and Stability Analysis


    layer , the non-reflecting boundary condition suggested by Poinsot and Lele is adopted.38 On the flat – plate surface, the no-penetration (v = 0) and the no...Introduction Shock-wave boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) occur in most supersonic flight applications and have been the subject of many studies...generator plate is emulated to create an oblique shock that impinges on the boundary layer causing separation. This is similar to the experimental

  20. A numerical investigation on the effects of slot geometry on shock boundary layer interaction

    Bazazzadeh, M.; Menshadi, M. D.; Karbasizadeh, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Esfahan (Turkmenistan)


    Slot is one of the features that control Shock wave-boundary layer interaction (SBLI), which is generally used to prevent strong interference from shockwaves to the boundary layer in supersonic flows. With this feature, the height of the triple point of λ shock significantly increases, and this increase causes a decline in shock power and pressure drop rate. In the current paper, the main focus is on the monitoring of the geometrical effect of slot as an influential parameter on the structure of the shock and flow characteristics by using numerical methods. Therefore, the averaged implicit Navier-Stokes equations and two equation standard k-ω turbulence models for the numerical simulation of the flow field have been used. Results indicate that the numerical results are fairly consistent with the experimental data. Because of the increase in the number of slots (n), and the leading leg of the λ shock is located within the slot, the height of the triple point increases. However, because of the increasing drops due to viscosity, the total pressure changes are negligible. In addition, with an increase in this parameter, changes in the static pressure caused by the leading leg of the shock have increased. By increasing the width of the slots, the height of the triple point has had an upward trend up to s = 8 mm and then had nearly constant values. In this mode, the static pressure changes resulting from the leading leg of the shock are negligible. For increasing the number or the width of slots, the re-expansion waves formed within the slot are removed because of the reduction in the severity of the changes in the boundary layer. To simulate and compare the results with the data obtained from the experimental tests, results from the Cambridge University's wind tunnel tests have been used.

  1. Large-eddy simulation of passive shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction control

    Pasquariello, Vito; Grilli, Muzio; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.


    Highlights: • The present study investigates a passive flow-control technique for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. • The control configuration consists of local suction and injection through a pressure feedback duct. • Implicit LES have been conducted for three different suction locations. • Suction reduces the size of the separation zone. • Turbulence amplification and reflected shock dynamics can be significantly reduced. - Abstract: We investigate a passive flow-control technique for the interaction of an oblique shock generated by an 8.8° wedge with a turbulent boundary-layer at a free-stream Mach number of Ma ∞ =2.3 and a Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness of Re δ 0 =60.5×10 3 by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). The compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conservative form are solved using the adaptive local deconvolution method (ALDM) for physically consistent subgrid scale modeling. Emphasis is placed on the correct description of turbulent inflow boundary conditions, which do not artificially force low-frequency periodic motion of the reflected shock. The control configuration combines suction inside the separation zone and blowing upstream of the interaction region by a pressure feedback through a duct embedded in the wall. We vary the suction location within the recirculation zone while the injection position is kept constant. Suction reduces the size of the separation zone with strongest effect when applied in the rear part of the separation bubble. The analysis of wall-pressure spectra reveals that all control configurations shift the high-energy low-frequency range to higher frequencies, while the energy level is significantly reduced only if suction acts in the rear part of the separated zone. In that case also turbulence production within the interaction region is significantly reduced as a consequence of mitigated reflected shock dynamics and near-wall flow acceleration

  2. Color surface-flow visualization of fin-generated shock wave boundary-layer interactions

    Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.


    Kerosene-lampblack mixtures with addition of a ground colored chalk were used in an experiment on visualizing surface flows of swept shock boundary-layer interactions. The results show that contrasting colors intensify the visualization of different regions of the interaction surface, and help the eye in following the fine streaks to locate the upstream influence. The study confirms observations of the separation occurring at shock strength below accepted values. The superiority of the reported technique over the previous monochrome technique is demonstrated.

  3. Structural characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge

    Tao, Y.; Liu, W. D.; Fan, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.


    For a better understanding of the local unstart of supersonic/hypersonic inlet, a series of experiments has been conducted to investigate the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge. Using the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering, we recorded the fine structures of these interactions under different conditions and paid more attention to their structural characteristics. According to their features, these interactions could be divided into four types. Specifically, Type A wave pattern is similar to the classic shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and Type B wave configuration consists of an overall Mach reflection above the large scale separation bubble. Due to the gradual decrease in the size of the separation bubble, the separation bubble was replaced by several vortices (Type C wave pattern). Besides, for Type D wave configuration which exists in the local unstart inlet, there appears to be some flow spillage around the leading edge.

  4. A documentation of two- and three-dimensional shock-separated turbulent boundary layers

    Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.


    A shock-related separation of a turbulent boundary layer has been studied and documented. The flow was that of an axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer over a 5.02-cm-diam cylinder that was aligned with the wind tunnel axis. The boundary layer was compressed by a 30 deg half-angle conical flare, with the cone axis inclined at an angle alpha to the cylinder axis. Nominal test conditions were P sub tau equals 1.7 atm and M sub infinity equals 2.85. Measurements were confined to the upper-symmetry, phi equals 0 deg, plane. Data are presented for the cases of alpha equal to 0. 5. and 10 deg and include mean surface pressures, streamwise and normal mean velocities, kinematic turbulent stresses and kinetic energies, as well as reverse-flow intermittencies. All data are given in tabular form; pressures, streamwise velocities, turbulent shear stresses, and kinetic energies are also presented graphically.

  5. Passive shock wave/boundary layer control of wing at transonic speeds

    Ling Zhou


    Full Text Available At supercritical conditions a porous strip (or slot strip placed beneath a shock wave can reduce the drag by a weaker lambda shock system, and increase the buffet boundary, even may increase the lift. Passive shock wave/boundary layer control (PSBC for drag reduction was conducted by SC(2-0714 supercritical wing, with emphases on parameter of porous/slot and bump, such as porous distribution, hole diameter, cavity depth, porous direction and so on. A sequential quadratic programming (SQP optimization method coupled with adjoint method was adopted to achieve the optimized shape and position of the bumps. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD, force test and oil test with half model all indicate that PSBC with porous, slot and bump generally reduce the drag by weaker lambda shock at supercritical conditions. According to wind tunnel test results for angle of attack of 2° at Mach number M=0.8, the porous configuration with 6.21% porosity results in a drag reduction of 0.0002 and lift–drag ratio increase of 0.2, the small bump configuration results in a drag reduction of 0.0007 and lift–drag ratio increase of 0.3. Bump normally reduce drag at design point with shock wave position being accurately computed. If bump diverges from the position of shock wave, drag will not be easily reduced.

  6. Application of pressure-sensitive paint in shock-boundary layer interaction experiments

    Seivwright, Douglas L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A new type of pressure transducer, pressure-sensitive paint, was used to obtain pressure distributions associated with shock-boundary layer interaction. Based on the principle of photoluminescence and the process of oxygen quenching, pressure-sensitive paint provides a continous mapping of a pressure field over a surface of interest. The data measurement and acquisition system developed for use with the photoluminescence sensor was eva...

  7. CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Davis, David Owen


    Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. These results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.

  8. Effects of non-adiabatic walls on shock/boundary-layer interaction using direct numerical simulations

    Volpiani, Pedro S.; Bernardini, Matteo; Larsson, Johan


    The influence of wall thermal conditions on the properties of an impinging shock wave interacting with a turbulent supersonic boundary layer is a research topic that still remains underexplored. In the present study, direct numerical simulations (DNS) are employed to investigate the flow properties of a shock wave interacting with a turbulent boundary layer at free-stream Mach number M∞ = 2.28 with distinct wall thermal conditions and shock strengths. Instantaneous and mean flow fields, wall quantities and the low-frequency unsteadiness are analyzed. While heating contributes to increase the extent of the interaction zone, wall cooling turns out to be a good candidate for flow control. The distribution of the Stanton number shows a good agreement with prior experimental studies and confirms the strong heat transfer and complex pattern within the interaction region. Numerical results indicate that the changes in the interaction length are mainly linked to the incoming boundary layer as suggested in previous studies (Souverein et al., 2013 and Jaunet et al., 2014). This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant FA95501610385.

  9. Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators

    Webb, Nathan Joseph

    Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin

  10. Analysis of the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Melnik, R. E.; Grossman, B.


    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyze the interaction of a normal shock wave with an unseparated turbulent boundary layer on a flat surface at transonic speeds. The theory leads to a three-layer description of the interaction in the double limit of Reynolds number approaching infinity and Mach number approaching unity. The interaction involves an outer, inviscid rotational layer, a constant shear-stress wall layer, and a blending region between them. The pressure distribution is obtained from a numerical solution of the outer-layer equations by a mixed-flow relaxation procedure. An analytic solution for the skin friction is determined from the inner-layer equations. The significance of the mathematical model is discussed with reference to existing experimental data.

  11. A computational study on oblique shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction

    Joy, Md. Saddam Hossain; Rahman, Saeedur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Ali, M.; Mitsutake, Y.; Matsuo, S.; Setoguchi, T.


    A numerical computation of an oblique shock wave incident on a turbulent boundary layer was performed for free stream flow of air at M∞ = 2.0 and Re1 = 10.5×106 m-1. The oblique shock wave was generated from a 8° wedge. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation with k-ω SST turbulence model was first utilized for two dimensional (2D) steady case. The results were compared with the experiment at the same flow conditions. Further, to capture the unsteadiness, a 2D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with sub-grid scale model WMLES was performed which showed the unsteady effects. The frequency of the shock oscillation was computed and was found to be comparable with that of experimental measurement.

  12. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  13. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  14. Analysis of dimensionality effect on shock wave boundary layer interaction in laminar hypersonic flows

    John, Bibin; Surendranath, Srikanth; Natarajan, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Vinayak


    Highlights: • Leading edge bluntness based separation control has been analysed numerically for 2D and axi-symmetric flows. • Differential growth of entropy layer in the streamwise direction in these cases leads to different interaction with respective boundary layers. • Separation control is found possible for planar flows beyond a critical radius called as equivalent radius. • No equivalent radius has been noticed in axi-symmertric flows in the present studies due to thin entropy layer and lack of favourable pressure gradient. - Abstract: Present investigations are centered on passive control of shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) for double cone and double wedge configurations with leading edge bluntness. This study seeks the differences in the flow physics of SWBLI in case of two dimensional (2D) and axisymmetric flow fields. In-house developed second order accurate finite-volume 2D axisymmetric compressible flow solver is employed for these studies. It is observed that the idea of leading edge bluntness offers reduction in separation bubble for 2D flow fields, whereas it leads to enhanced separation zone in case of axisymmetric flow fields. Relevant flow physics is well explored herein using wall pressure profile and relative thicknesses of boundary layer and entropy layer. Thicker entropy layer and stronger favorable pressure gradient are found responsible for the possibility of separation control in case of 2D flow fields. Thin entropy layer due to three dimensional relieving effect and its swallowing by the boundary layer are attributed for higher separation bubble size in case of cone with range of radii under consideration.

  15. On the Unsteadiness of a Transitional Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction Using Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John


    Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.

  16. Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions

    Mehrnaz Rouhi Youssefi


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2 at the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC. Four separate cases of freestream conditions are simulated to examine the models for a range of stagnation enthalpies from 5.44 MJ/kg to 21.77 MJ/kg and Mach numbers from 10.9 to 12.82.

  17. A Source-Term Based Boundary Layer Bleed/Effusion Model for Passive Shock Control

    Baurle, Robert A.; Norris, Andrew T.


    A modeling framework for boundary layer effusion has been developed based on the use of source (or sink) terms instead of the usual practice of specifying bleed directly as a boundary condition. This framework allows the surface boundary condition (i.e. isothermal wall, adiabatic wall, slip wall, etc.) to remain unaltered in the presence of bleed. This approach also lends itself to easily permit the addition of empirical models for second order effects that are not easily accounted for by simply defining effective transpiration values. Two effusion models formulated for supersonic flows have been implemented into this framework; the Doerffer/Bohning law and the Slater formulation. These models were applied to unit problems that contain key aspects of the flow physics applicable to bleed systems designed for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The ability of each model to predict bulk bleed properties was assessed, as well as the response of the boundary layer as it passes through and downstream of a porous bleed system. The model assessment was performed with and without the presence of shock waves. Three-dimensional CFD simulations that included the geometric details of the porous plate bleed systems were also carried out to supplement the experimental data, and provide additional insights into the bleed flow physics. Overall, both bleed formulations fared well for the tests performed in this study. However, the sample of test problems considered in this effort was not large enough to permit a comprehensive validation of the models.

  18. Mitigation of Adverse Effects Caused by Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions Through Optimal Wall Shaping

    Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon


    It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.

  19. Multi-fidelity numerical simulations of shock/turbulent-boundary layer interaction with uncertainty quantification

    Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Campo, Laura; Larsson, Johan; Emory, Mike; Bodart, Julien; Palacios, Francisco; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Eaton, John


    We study the interaction between an oblique shock wave and the turbulent boundary layers inside a nearly-square duct by combining wall-modeled LES, 2D and 3D RANS simulations, targeting the experiment of Campo, Helmer & Eaton, 2012 (nominal conditions: M = 2 . 05 , Reθ = 6 , 500). A primary objective is to quantify the effect of aleatory and epistemic uncertainties on the STBLI. Aleatory uncertainties considered include the inflow conditions (Mach number of the incoming air stream and thickness of the boundary layers) and perturbations of the duct geometry upstream of the interaction. The epistemic uncertainty under consideration focuses on the RANS turbulence model form by injecting perturbations in the Reynolds stress anisotropy in regions of the flow where the model assumptions (in particular, the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity hypothesis) may be invalid. These perturbations are then propagated through the flow solver into the solution. The uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is done through 2D and 3D RANS simulations, assessing the importance of the three-dimensional effects imposed by the nearly-square duct geometry. Wall-modeled LES are used to verify elements of the UQ methodology and to explore the flow features and physics of the STBLI for multiple shock strengths. Financial support from the United States Department of Energy under the PSAAP program is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Reynolds-Stress Budgets in an Impinging Shock Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Gaitonde, Datta V.


    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Comparisons with experimental data showed a sensitivity of the current prediction to the modeling of the sidewalls. This was found to be common among various computational studies in the literature where periodic boundary conditions were used in the spanwise direction, as was the case in the present work. Thus, although the experiment was quasi-two-dimensional, the present simulation was determined to be two-dimensional. Quantities present in the exact equation of the Reynolds-stress transport, i.e., production, molecular diffusion, turbulent transport, pressure diffusion, pressure strain, dissipation, and turbulent mass flux were calculated. Reynolds-stress budgets were compared with past large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation datasets in the undisturbed portion of the turbulent boundary layer to validate the current approach. The budgets in SBLI showed the growth in the production term for the primary normal stress and energy transfer mechanism was led by the pressure strain term in the secondary normal stresses. The pressure diffusion term, commonly assumed as negligible by turbulence model developers, was shown to be small but non-zero in the normal stress budgets, however it played a key role in the primary shear stress budget.

  1. Boundary-layer development and transition due to free-stream exothermic reactions in shock-induced flows

    Hall, J. L.


    A study of the effect of free-stream thermal-energy release from shock-induced exothermic reactions on boundary-layer development and transition is presented. The flow model is that of a boundary layer developing behind a moving shock wave in two-dimensional unsteady flow over a shock-tube wall. Matched sets of combustible hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures and inert hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures were used to obtain transition data over a range of transition Reynolds numbers from 1,100,000 to 21,300,000. The heat-energy is shown to significantly stabilize the boundary layer without changing its development character. A method for application of this data to flat-plate steady flows is included.

  2. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. II - Wall shear stress

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.


    Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.

  3. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Messiter, A. F.


    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  4. Assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models for Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction

    DeBonis, James R.; Oberkampf, William L.; Wolf, Richard T.; Orkwis, Paul D.; Turner, Mark G.; Babinsky, Holger


    A workshop on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction of shock boundary-layer interactions (SBLIs) was held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. As part of the workshop numerous CFD analysts submitted solutions to four experimentally measured SBLIs. This paper describes the assessment of the CFD predictions. The assessment includes an uncertainty analysis of the experimental data, the definition of an error metric and the application of that metric to the CFD solutions. The CFD solutions provided very similar levels of error and in general it was difficult to discern clear trends in the data. For the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods the choice of turbulence model appeared to be the largest factor in solution accuracy. Large-eddy simulation methods produced error levels similar to RANS methods but provided superior predictions of normal stresses.

  5. Parametric Study of Swept Impinging Oblique Shock/Boundary Layer Interactions

    Doehrmann, Adam; Threadgill, James; Little, Jesse


    Modern high-speed vehicles have increasingly complex 3D geometries featuring: surface curvature, variable aspect ratio inlet ducts and swept bodies. Such distortion to the flow field necessitates a further understanding of swept 3D Shock/Boundary Layer Interactions (SBLIs), where various regimes of spanwise interaction development have been observed. A parametric experimental study of swept oblique impinging SBLIs has been conducted comparing cylindrical and conical interaction structures to that of swept compression ramps in previous work. This investigation examines five shock generators with 2D deflection of θ = 12 .5° and varying degrees of sweep (ψ = 10 .0° , 15 .0° , 22 .5° , 30 .0° , 40 .0°), with an incoming turbulent flow at Mach 2.3 and 3.0. Parametric characterization of surface oil-flow visualizations has shown that the inception length of the interaction follows a similar trend to that seen in swept compression ramps as sweep is varied, namely that it increases as sweep approaches a critical angle. However, this criteria disagrees with direct observations of separation and reattachment angles. Similarities in mean pressures profiles have also been assessed and analyzed with respect to the onset of a cylindrical/conical interaction. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-15-1-0430).

  6. CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Davis, David O.


    Experimental investigations of specific flow phenomena, e.g., Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interactions (SWBLI), provide great insight to the flow behavior but often lack the necessary details to be useful as CFD validation experiments. Reasons include: 1.Undefined boundary conditions Inconsistent results 2.Undocumented 3D effects (CL only measurements) 3.Lack of uncertainty analysis While there are a number of good subsonic experimental investigations that are sufficiently documented to be considered test cases for CFD and turbulence model validation, the number of supersonic and hypersonic cases is much less. This was highlighted by Settles and Dodsons [1] comprehensive review of available supersonic and hypersonic experimental studies. In all, several hundred studies were considered for their database.Of these, over a hundred were subjected to rigorous acceptance criteria. Based on their criteria, only 19 (12 supersonic, 7 hypersonic) were considered of sufficient quality to be used for validation purposes. Aeschliman and Oberkampf [2] recognized the need to develop a specific methodology for experimental studies intended specifically for validation purposes.

  7. Understanding the Flow Physics of Shock Boundary-Layer Interactions Using CFD and Numerical Analyses

    Friedlander, David J.


    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the University of Michigan (UM) Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction (SBLI) experiments were performed as an extension of the CFD SBLI Workshop held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting in 2010. In particular, the UM Mach 2.75 Glass Tunnel with a semi-spanning 7.75deg wedge was analyzed in attempts to explore key physics pertinent to SBLI's, including thermodynamic and viscous boundary conditions as well as turbulence modeling. Most of the analyses were 3D CFD simulations using the OVERFLOW flow solver, with additional quasi-1D simulations performed with an in house MATLAB code interfacing with the NIST REFPROP code to explore perfect verses non-ideal air. A fundamental exploration pertaining to the effects of particle image velocimetry (PIV) on post-processing data is also shown. Results from the CFD simulations showed an improvement in agreement with experimental data with key contributions including adding a laminar zone upstream of the wedge and the necessity of mimicking PIV particle lag for comparisons. Results from the quasi-1D simulation showed that there was little difference between perfect and non-ideal air for the configuration presented.

  8. An Experimental Study into the Scaling of an Unswept-Sharp-Fin-Generated Shock/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction.


    Influence Scaling of 2D and 3D Shock/Turbulent ioundary Layer Interactions at Compression Corners." AIM Paper 81-334, January 1981. 5. Kubota, H...generating 3D shock wave/boundary layer interactions 2 Unswept sharp fin interaction and coordinate system 3 Cobra probe measurements of Peake (4) at Mach 4...were made by two Druck 50 PSI transducers, each in- stalled in a computer-controlled 48-port Model 48J4 Scani- valve and referenced to vacuum. A 250

  9. Control Volume Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion Systems With or Without Shock Wave Ahead of the Inlet

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.


    The performance benefit of boundary layer or wake ingestion on marine and air vehicles has been well documented and explored. In this article, a quasi-one-dimensional boundary layer ingestion (BLI) benefit analysis for subsonic and transonic propulsion systems is performed using a control volume of a ducted propulsion system that ingests the boundary layer developed by the external airframe surface. To illustrate the BLI benefit, a relationship between the amount of BLI and the net thrust is established and analyzed for two propulsor types. One propulsor is an electric fan, and the other is a pure turbojet. These engines can be modeled as a turbofan with an infinite bypass ratio for the electric fan, and with a zero bypass ratio for the pure turbojet. The analysis considers two flow processes: a boundary layer being ingested by an aircraft inlet and a shock wave sitting in front of the inlet. Though the two processes are completely unrelated, both represent a loss of total pressure and velocity. In real applications, it is possible to have both processes occurring in front of the inlet of a transonic vehicle. Preliminary analysis indicates that the electrically driven propulsion system benefits most from the boundary layer ingestion and the presence of transonic shock waves, whereas the benefit for the turbojet engine is near zero or negative depending on the amount of total temperature rise across the engine.

  10. Investigation of corner shock boundary layer interactions to understand inlet unstart

    Funderburk, Morgan


    Inlet unstart is a detrimental phenomenon in dual-mode ramjet/scramjet engines that causes severe loss of thrust, large transient structural load, and potentially a loss of the aircraft. In order to analyze the effects that the corner shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI) has on initiating and perpetuating inlet unstart, a qualitative and quantitative investigation into mean and dynamic features of corner SBLI at various Mach numbers is made. Surface streakline visualization showed that the corner SBLI is highly three-dimensional with a dominant presence of corner separation vortex. Further, the peak r.m.s. pressure was located at the periphery of corner separation vortex, suggesting that the unsteady loading is caused by the corner vortex. Power spectral densities of wall-pressure fluctuations in the peak r.m.s. location were analyzed in order to characterize the dominant frequencies of oscillation of the flow structures and to unravel the dynamic interactions between them in order to expand the operating margin of future hypersonic air breathing vehicles.

  11. HIFiRE-1 Turbulent Shock Boundary Layer Interaction - Flight Data and Computations

    Kimmel, Roger L.; Prabhu, Dinesh


    The Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) program is a hypersonic flight test program executed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). This flight contained a cylinder-flare induced shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI). Computations of the interaction were conducted for a number of times during the ascent. The DPLR code used for predictions was calibrated against ground test data prior to exercising the code at flight conditions. Generally, the computations predicted the upstream influence and interaction pressures very well. Plateau pressures on the cylinder were predicted well at all conditions. Although the experimental heat transfer showed a large amount of scatter, especially at low heating levels, the measured heat transfer agreed well with computations. The primary discrepancy between the experiment and computation occurred in the pressures measured on the flare during second stage burn. Measured pressures exhibited large overshoots late in the second stage burn, the mechanism of which is unknown. The good agreement between flight measurements and CFD helps validate the philosophy of calibrating CFD against ground test, prior to exercising it at flight conditions.

  12. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.


    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  13. Experimental Study of Fillets to Reduce Corner Effects in an Oblique Shock-Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction

    Hirt, Stefanie M.


    A test was conducted in the 15 cm x 15 cm supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center that focused on corner effects of an oblique shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In an attempt to control the interaction in the corner region, eight corner fillet configurations were tested. Three parameters were considered for the fillet configurations: the radius, the fillet length, and the taper length from the square corner to the fillet radius. Fillets effectively reduced the boundary-layer thickness in the corner; however, there was an associated penalty in the form of increased boundary-layer thickness at the tunnel centerline. Larger fillet radii caused greater reductions in boundary-layer thickness along the corner bisector. To a lesser, but measureable, extent, shorter fillet lengths resulted in thinner corner boundary layers. Overall, of the configurations tested, the largest radius resulted in the best combination of control in the corner, evidenced by a reduction in boundary-layer thickness, coupled with minimal impacts at the tunnel centerline.

  14. An experimental study of three-dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interactions generated by sharp fins

    Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.


    The interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a sharp fin with leading edge sweepback was investigated. The incoming flow was at Mach 2.96 and at a unit Reynolds number of 63 x 10 to the 6th power 0.1 m. The approximate incoming boundary layer thickness was either 4 mm or 17 mm. The fins used were at 5 deg, 9 deg and 15 deg incidence and had leading edge sweepback from 0 deg to 65 deg. The tests consisted of surface kerosene lampblack streak visualization, surface pressure measurements, shock wave shape determination by shadowgraphs, and localized vapor screen visualization. The upstream influence lengths of the fin interactions were correlated using viscous and inviscid flow parameters. The parameters affecting the surface features close to the fin and way from the fin were also identified. Essentially, the surface features in the farfield were found to be conical.

  15. CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Davis, David O.


    Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. The results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.

  16. Aeroheating Measurement of Apollo Shaped Capsule with Boundary Layer Trip in the Free-piston Shock Tunnel HIEST

    Hideyuki, TANNO; Tomoyuki, KOMURO; Kazuo, SATO; Katsuhiro, ITOH; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph


    An aeroheating measurement test campaign of an Apollo capsule model with laminar and turbulent boundary layer was performed in the free-piston shock tunnel HIEST at JAXA Kakuda Space Center. A 250mm-diameter 6.4%-scaled Apollo CM capsule model made of SUS-304 stainless steel was applied in this study. To measure heat flux distribution, the model was equipped with 88 miniature co-axial Chromel-Constantan thermocouples on the heat shield surface of the model. In order to promote boundary layer transition, a boundary layer trip insert with 13 "pizza-box" isolated roughness elements, which have 1.27mm square, were placed at 17mm below of the model geometric center. Three boundary layer trip inserts with roughness height of k=0.3mm, 0.6mm and 0.8mm were used to identify the appropriate height to induce transition. Heat flux records with or without roughness elements were obtained for model angles of attack 28º under stagnation enthalpy between H(sub 0)=3.5MJ/kg to 21MJ/kg and stagnation pressure between P(sub 0)=14MPa to 60MPa. Under the condition above, Reynolds number based on the model diameter was varied from 0.2 to 1.3 million. With roughness elements, boundary layer became fully turbulent less than H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition. However, boundary layer was still laminar over H(sub 0)=13MJ/kg condition even with the highest roughness elements. An additional experiment was also performed to correct unexpected heat flux augmentation observed over H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition.

  17. Uncertainty Assessments of 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave - Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction Simulations at Compression Corners

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.


    This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.

  18. PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions

    Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.


    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.

  19. Experimental Database with Baseline CFD Solutions: 2-D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock-Wave/Turbulent-Boundary-Layer Interactions

    Marvin, Joseph G.; Brown, James L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.


    A database compilation of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments is provided. The experiments selected for the database are either 2D or axisymmetric, and include both compression corner and impinging type SWTBL interactions. The strength of the interactions range from attached to incipient separation to fully separated flows. The experiments were chosen based on criterion to ensure quality of the datasets, to be relevant to NASA's missions and to be useful for validation and uncertainty assessment of CFD Navier-Stokes predictive methods, both now and in the future. An emphasis on datasets selected was on surface pressures and surface heating throughout the interaction, but include some wall shear stress distributions and flowfield profiles. Included, for selected cases, are example CFD grids and setup information, along with surface pressure and wall heating results from simulations using current NASA real-gas Navier-Stokes codes by which future CFD investigators can compare and evaluate physics modeling improvements and validation and uncertainty assessments of future CFD code developments. The experimental database is presented tabulated in the Appendices describing each experiment. The database is also provided in computer-readable ASCII files located on a companion DVD.

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  1. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki


    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  2. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  3. Development of boundary layers

    Herbst, R.


    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  4. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.


    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  5. On Parametric Sensitivity of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes SST Turbulence Model: 2D Hypersonic Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interactions

    Brown, James L.


    Examined is sensitivity of separation extent, wall pressure and heating to variation of primary input flow parameters, such as Mach and Reynolds numbers and shock strength, for 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer interactions obtained by Navier-Stokes methods using the SST turbulence model. Baseline parametric sensitivity response is provided in part by comparison with vetted experiments, and in part through updated correlations based on free interaction theory concepts. A recent database compilation of hypersonic 2D shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments extensively used in a prior related uncertainty analysis provides the foundation for this updated correlation approach, as well as for more conventional validation. The primary CFD method for this work is DPLR, one of NASA's real-gas aerothermodynamic production RANS codes. Comparisons are also made with CFL3D, one of NASA's mature perfect-gas RANS codes. Deficiencies in predicted separation response of RANS/SST solutions to parametric variations of test conditions are summarized, along with recommendations as to future turbulence approach.

  6. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J


    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  7. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.


    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  8. Boundary-layer theory

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann


    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  9. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F


    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  10. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Garratt, J. R.


    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  11. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 2: Wall shear stress

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.


    An analysis is presented of the flow in the two inner layers, the Reynolds stress sublayer and the wall layer. Included is the calculation of the shear stress at the wall in the interaction region. The limit processes considered are those used for an inviscid flow.

  12. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    D. L. Carpenter


    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  13. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    D. L. Carpenter


    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  14. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    Cebeci, Tuncer


    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  15. Boundary-Layer & health

    Costigliola, V.


    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  16. Sublayer of Prandtl Boundary Layers

    Grenier, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Toan T.


    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Prandtl boundary layers in the vanishing viscosity limit {ν \\to 0} . In Grenier (Commun Pure Appl Math 53(9):1067-1091, 2000), one of the authors proved that there exists no asymptotic expansion involving one of Prandtl's boundary layer, with thickness of order {√{ν}} , which describes the inviscid limit of Navier-Stokes equations. The instability gives rise to a viscous boundary sublayer whose thickness is of order {ν^{3/4}} . In this paper, we point out how the stability of the classical Prandtl's layer is linked to the stability of this sublayer. In particular, we prove that the two layers cannot both be nonlinearly stable in L^∞. That is, either the Prandtl's layer or the boundary sublayer is nonlinearly unstable in the sup norm.

  17. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team


    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles


    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  19. The laminar boundary layer equations

    Curle, N


    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  20. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    Ackeret, J


    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  1. Tokamak plasma boundary layer model

    Volkov, T.F.; Kirillov, V.D.


    A model has been developed for the limiter layer and for the boundary region of the plasma column in a tokamak to facilitate analytic calculations of the thickness of the limiter layers, the profiles and boundary values of the temperature and the density under various conditions, and the difference between the electron and ion temperatures. This model can also be used to analyze the recycling of neutrals, the energy and particle losses to the wall and the limiter, and other characteristics

  2. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    Cousteix, Jean


    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  3. Benthic boundary layer modelling studies

    Richards, K.J.


    A numerical model has been developed to study the factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the dispersion of a tracer within and directly above the layer. This report covers tracer clouds of horizontal scales of 10 to 100 km. The dispersion of a tracer has been studied in two ways. Firstly, a number of particles have been introduced into the flow. The trajectories of these particles provide information on dispersion rates. For flow conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal N.E. Atlantic the diffusivity of a tracer was found to be 5 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer within the boundary layer and 8 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer above the boundary layer. The results are in accord with estimates made from current meter measurements. The second method of studying dispersion was to calculate the evolution of individual tracer clouds. Clouds within and above the benthic boundary layer often show quite different behaviour from each other although the general structure of the clouds in the two regions were found to have no significant differences. (author)

  4. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    Ketcheson, David I.


    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  5. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.


    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  6. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.


    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  7. Exploring the magnetospheric boundary layer

    Hapgood, M.A.; Bryant, D.A.


    We show how, for most crossings of the boundary layer, one can construct a 'transition parameter', based on electron density and temperature, which orders independent plasma measurements into well-defined patterns which are consistent from case to case. We conclude that there is a gradual change in the balance of processes which determine the structure of the layer and suggest that there is no advantage in dividing the layer into different regions. We further conclude that the mixing processes in layer act in an organised way to give the consistent patterns revealed by the transition parameter. More active processes must sometimes take to give the extreme values (e.g. in velocity) which are seen in some crossings

  8. Experimental Investigation of Three-Dimensional Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction: An Exploratory Study of Blunt Fin-Induced Flows.


    distributions could be obtained. The pressure tappings were sampled using two computer controlled 48 port Model 48J4 Scanivalves equipped with Druck ...the boundary layer becomes turbulent, the upstream in- fluence drops to between 2 and 3D . 3.2 Pressure Distributions Off the Plane of Symmetry 3.2.1...upstream influence varies between 0.3 cm (0.12") and 7.6 cm (3.0"), a ratio of about 25, yet in terms of D , Iu lies between 2 and 3D . The figure shows

  9. Review: the atmospheric boundary layer

    Garratt, J. R.


    An overview is given of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over both continental and ocean surfaces, mainly from observational and modelling perspectives. Much is known about ABL structure over homogeneous land surfaces, but relatively little so far as the following are concerned, (i) the cloud-topped ABL (over the sea predominantly); (ii) the strongly nonhomogeneous and nonstationary ABL; (iii) the ABL over complex terrain. These three categories present exciting challenges so far as improved understanding of ABL behaviour and improved representation of the ABL in numerical models of the atmosphere are concerned.

  10. The LENS Facilities and Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Modeling of Boundary Layer Transition, Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes


    Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes Michael S. Holden, PhD CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo, NY 14225, USA 8. PERFORMING...HyFly Navy EMRG Reentry-F Slide 2 X-43 HIFiRE-2 Figure 17: Transition in Hypervelocity Flows: CUBRC Focus – Fully Duplicated Ground Test

  11. Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan


    The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.

  12. Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer

    Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...

  13. Interactive boundary-layer calculations of a transonic wing flow

    Kaups, Kalle; Cebeci, Tuncer; Mehta, Unmeel


    Results obtained from iterative solutions of inviscid and boundary-layer equations are presented and compared with experimental values. The calculated results were obtained with an Euler code and a transonic potential code in order to furnish solutions for the inviscid flow; they were interacted with solutions of two-dimensional boundary-layer equations having a strip-theory approximation. Euler code results are found to be in better agreement with the experimental data than with the full potential code, especially in the presence of shock waves, (with the sole exception of the near-tip region).

  14. Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept

    Zhao Rui


    Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.

  15. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis


    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  16. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.


    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  17. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.


    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  18. The time development of the plasma-glass boundary layer in a T-tube

    Pavlov, M.; Djurovic, S.


    The refraction of a laser beam by a flat boundary layer between the plasma and the glass plate is analysed. A boundary layer with a constant gradient electron density is assumed. Results of the analysis for plasmas produced in a small T-tube show that the boundary layer thickness increases with time faster than linearly. This means that a relatively fast collapse due to cooling through the boundary layer happens at the second half of the reflected plasma life time, while the boundary layer is negligible thin during the first 2μs after the reflected shock front has passed the point of observation. (author)

  19. Measurements in Regions of Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction from Mach 3 to 10 for Open and Blind Code Evaluation/Validation


    34Blind" Code Evaluation/Validation Michael S. Holden, Timothy P. Wadhams, Matthew G. MacLean, Aaron Dufrene CUBRC , Inc March 2013 Final...298 Back (Rev. 8/98) *Fellow, AIAA, Vice President-Hypersonics, CUBRC , 4455 Genesee Street, Buffalo, NY 14225 ** Member, AIAA, Project Engineers... CUBRC , 4455 Genesee Street, Buffalo, NY 14225 This work was supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-11-1-0290 MEASUREMENTS IN REGIONS OF SHOCK WAVE

  20. Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.


    Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    Sterk, H.A.M.


    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015


    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  2. Suction of MHD boundary layer flows

    Rao, B.N.


    The boundary layer growth with tensor electrical conductivity and the transpiration number has been examined using local nonsimilarity solutions method. It is found that suction will cause the increase in wall shearing stress and decrease in thicknesses of the boundary layer. (Auth.)

  3. Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.


    The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock

  4. Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry

    Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.


    The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.

  5. Measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Arakeri, J. H.; Coles, D. E.

    Some measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer (SBL) are reported. The main diagnostic tool is an X-wire probe. The velocity of the large eddies is determined to be 0.842 times the freestream velocity. The mean properties of the SBL are reasonably close to those of a natural turbulent boundary layer. The large eddy in the SBL appears to be a pair of counterrotating eddies in the stream direction, inclined at a shallow angle and occupying much of the boundary-layer thickness.

  6. Longitudinal vortices in a transitioning boundary layer

    Anders, J.B.; Backwelder, R.F.


    Naturally occurring spanwise variations of the streamwise velocity component, characteristic of longitudinal vortices embedded in a transitioning boundary layer were explored using hot-wire anemometers. A vibrating ribbon introduced stable or unstable Tollmien-Schlichting waves into the laminar boundary layer. These damped or growing disturbances always developed a strong three-dimensional pattern even though no spanwise perturbations were artificially induced. Changing the radius of the leading edge and other modifications to the flat plate, wind tunnel and boundary layer did not alter the spanwise wavelength of the vortices. (orig.)

  7. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.


    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger

  8. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.


    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  9. Optimizing thermal shock resistance of layered refractories

    Hein, Jarno; Kuna, Meinhard [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Lampadiusstrasse 4, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)


    Severe thermal shocks may cause critical thermal stresses and failure in refractories or ceramic materials. To increase the thermal shock resistance, layered material structures are suggested. In order to optimize properties of these alternative structures, thermo-mechanical simulations are required. In this study, a finite difference method (FDM) is used for solving the partial differential equation of heat conduction with spatially varying parameters. The optimization of the strip's thermal shock resistance is exemplarily done on a 10 layered strip subjected to constant temperature jump on the top surface. Each layer can be set with different porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO ceramics, whose material properties are theoretically determined. In this study, an improved optimization method is developed that consists of a combination and sequence of Monte Carlo simulations and evolution strategies to overcome certain disadvantages of both techniques. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A variable K - planetary boundary layer model

    Misra, P.K.


    The steady-state, homogeneous and barotropic equations of motion within the planetary boundary layer are solved with the assumption that the coefficient of eddy viscosity varies as K(Z) = K 0 (1-Z/h)sup(p), where h is the height of the boundary layer and p a parameter which depends on the atmospheric stability. The solutions are compared with the observed velocity profiles based on the Wangara data. They compare favourably. (author)

  11. Comments on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition


    mechanism by which boundary-layer disturbance growth is generally initiated and establishes the initial distur- banca amplitude at the onset of disturbance...Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, P. B., Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Lavers, CRC Press , Cleveland, Ohio, 1968. 87. Neumann, R. D., and Patterson, .J. 1

  12. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer over wind farms using a prescribed boundary layer approach

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...

  13. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)


    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  14. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel


    A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.

  15. Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena

    McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Newell, P.T.; Kelly, J.D.


    Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally anti-sunward for several hours at a time. The vortices strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, the authors argue that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer

  16. Stability of spatially developing boundary layers

    Govindarajan, Rama


    A new formulation of the stability of boundary-layer flows in pressure gradients is presented, taking into account the spatial development of the flow. The formulation assumes that disturbance wavelength and eigenfunction vary downstream no more rapidly than the boundary-layer thickness, and includes all terms of O(1) and O(R(exp -1)) in the boundary-layer Reynolds number R. Although containing the Orr-Sommerfeld operator, the present approach does not yield the Orr-Sommerfeld equation in any rational limit. In Blasius flow, the present stability equation is consistent with that of Bertolotti et al. (1992) to terms of O(R(exp -1)). For the Falkner-Skan similarity solutions neutral boundaries are computed without the necessity of having to march in space. Results show that the effects of spatial growth are striking in flows subjected to adverse pressure gradients.

  17. Diamagnetic boundary layers: a kinetic theory

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L.F.


    A kinetic theory for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma such as those observed in the solar wind is presented. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary, one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers, in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases in which the magnetic field intensity and/or direction changed across the layer were considered. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii and the field changed smoothly , although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. The results are consistent with the observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU. (Auth.)

  18. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...

    In the first part of the paper, equations and methodology are discussed and in the second, we discuss results. 2. Methodology. In the atmospheric electricity, the earth's surface is one electrode and electrode layer or electrical boundary layer is a region near the surface of the earth in which profiles of atmospheric electrical.

  19. Problems of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    Lehnert, B.


    This paper outlines the problems of the quasi-steady matter-antimatter boundary layers discussed in Klein-Alfven's cosmological theory, and a crude model of the corresponding ambiplasma balance is presented: (i) at interstellar particle densities, no well-defined boundary layer can exist in presence of neutral gas, nor can such a layer be sustained in an unmagnetized fully ionized ambiplasma. (ii) Within the limits of applicability of the present model, sharply defined boundary layers are under certain conditions found to exist in a magnetized ambiplasma. Thus, at beta values less than unity, a steep pressure drop of the low-energy components of matter and antimatter can be balanced by a magnetic field and the electric currents in the ambiplasma. (iii) The boundary layer thickness is of the order of 2x 0 approximately 10/BT 0 sup(1/4) meters, where B is the magnetic field strength in MKS units and T 0 the characteristic temperature of the low-energy components in the layer. (Auth.)

  20. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)


    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer on a wedge

    Rao, B.N.; Mittal, M.L.


    The effects of the Hall and ionslip currents on the gas-dynamic boundary layer are investigated in view of the increasing prospects for using the MHD principle in electric power generation. The currents are included in the analysis using the generalized Ohm's law (Sherman and Sutton, 1964), and the resulting two nonlinear coupled equations are solved using a modification in the method suggested by Nachtsheim and Swigert (1965), Dewey and Gross (1967), and Steinheuer (1968). Solutions are presented for the incompressible laminar boundary-layer equations in the absence and the presence of the load parameter, and for the pressure gradient parameter for flow separation

  2. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)


    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  3. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto


    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  4. Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer

    P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley/inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza


    This program supported the experimental study of the interaction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves

  5. Diagnosis of boundary-layer circulations.

    Beare, Robert J; Cullen, Michael J P


    Diagnoses of circulations in the vertical plane provide valuable insights into aspects of the dynamics of the climate system. Dynamical theories based on geostrophic balance have proved useful in deriving diagnostic equations for these circulations. For example, semi-geostrophic theory gives rise to the Sawyer-Eliassen equation (SEE) that predicts, among other things, circulations around mid-latitude fronts. A limitation of the SEE is the absence of a realistic boundary layer. However, the coupling provided by the boundary layer between the atmosphere and the surface is fundamental to the climate system. Here, we use a theory based on Ekman momentum balance to derive an SEE that includes a boundary layer (SEEBL). We consider a case study of a baroclinic low-level jet. The SEEBL solution shows significant benefits over Ekman pumping, including accommodating a boundary-layer depth that varies in space and structure, which accounts for buoyancy and momentum advection. The diagnosed low-level jet is stronger than that determined by Ekman balance. This is due to the inclusion of momentum advection. Momentum advection provides an additional mechanism for enhancement of the low-level jet that is distinct from inertial oscillations.

  6. Diffusion processes in the magnetopause boundary layer

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Thorne, R.M.


    Anomalous cross-field diffusion of magnetosheath ions and electrons is a direct consequence of cyclotron-resonant scattering by electrostatic and electromagnetic emissions which are continuously present within the magnetopause boundary layer. Expressions for the rate of cross-field diffusion involving either type of wave are developed and expressed in terms of the absolute upper limit referred to as Bohm diffusion. For the typical average intensity of waves observed in the boundary layer, resonant electron cross-field diffusion is always insignificant. However, magnetosheath ions, resonant with low frequency electrostatic waves, may be transported inward at a rate approaching one tenth the Bohm rate (D/sub perpendiculartsperpendicular/roughly-equal10 3 km 2 /s). While this is not the only mechanism capable of explaining the presence of the low latitude boundary layer it is adequate to account for the typical boundary layer thickness and it should occur at all local times and under all interplanetary conditions. It consequently provides a continuous mechanism for significant mass and momentum transfer across the magnetopause under conditions when field merging is inoperative

  7. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei


    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  8. Vortex sheet approximation of boundary layers

    Chorin, A.J.


    a grid free method for approximating incomprssible boundary layers is introduced. The computational elements are segments of vortex sheets. The method is related to the earlier vortex method; simplicity is achieved at the cost of replacing the Navier-Stokes equations by the Prandtl boundary layer equations. A new method for generating vorticity at boundaries is also presented; it can be used with the earlier voartex method. The applications presented include (i) flat plate problems, and (ii) a flow problem in a model cylinder- piston assembly, where the new method is used near walls and an improved version of the random choice method is used in the interior. One of the attractive features of the new method is the ease with which it can be incorporated into hybrid algorithms

  9. Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...

    In this paper, a comparison of two methods for the calculation of the height of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) ... Boundary layer; GPS sonde; mixed layer height; turbulent flow depth. J. Earth Syst. ..... for her PhD research work. References.

  10. Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

    Eitel-Amor, G; Schlatter, P; Flores, O


    The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re τ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re τ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

  11. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)


    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Turbulent Helicity in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Chkhetiani, Otto G.; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Vazaeva, Natalia V.


    We consider the assumption postulated by Deusebio and Lindborg (J Fluid Mech 755:654-671, 2014) that the helicity injected into the Ekman boundary layer undergoes a cascade, with preservation of its sign (right- or alternatively left-handedness), which is a signature of the system rotation, from large to small scales, down to the Kolmogorov microscale of turbulence. At the same time, recent direct field measurements of turbulent helicity in the steppe region of southern Russia near Tsimlyansk Reservoir show the opposite sign of helicity from that expected. A possible explanation for this phenomenon may be the joint action of different scales of atmospheric flows within the boundary layer, including the sea-breeze circulation over the test site. In this regard, we consider a superposition of the classic Ekman spiral solution and Prandtl's jet-like slope-wind profile to describe the planetary boundary-layer wind structure. The latter solution mimics a hydrostatic shallow breeze circulation over a non-uniformly heated surface. A 180°-wide sector on the hodograph plane exists, within which the relative orientation of the Ekman and Prandtl velocity profiles favours the left rotation with height of the resulting wind velocity vector in the lowermost part of the boundary layer. This explains the negative (left-handed) helicity cascade toward small-scale turbulent motions, which agrees with the direct field measurements of turbulent helicity in Tsimlyansk. A simple turbulent relaxation model is proposed that explains the measured positive values of the relatively minor contribution to turbulent helicity from the vertical components of velocity and vorticity.

  13. Boundary-layer theory. 9. ed.

    Schlichting, Hermann [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Gersten, Klaus [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik und Stroemungsmechanik


    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  14. Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

    Zeman, Otto


    A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.

  15. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles


    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  16. Turbulent fluxes in stably stratified boundary layers

    L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii


    We present here an extended version of an invited talk we gave at the international conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond'. The dynamical and statistical description of stably stratified turbulent boundary layers with the important example of the stable atmospheric boundary layer in mind is addressed. Traditional approaches to this problem, based on the profiles of mean quantities, velocity second-order correlations and dimensional estimates of the turbulent thermal flux, run into a well-known difficulty, predicting the suppression of turbulence at a small critical value of the Richardson number, in contradiction to observations. Phenomenological attempts to overcome this problem suffer from various theoretical inconsistencies. Here, we present an approach taking into full account all the second-order statistics, which allows us to respect the conservation of total mechanical energy. The analysis culminates in an analytic solution of the profiles of all mean quantities and all second-order correlations, removing the unphysical predictions of previous theories. We propose that the approach taken here is sufficient to describe the lower parts of the atmospheric boundary layer, as long as the Richardson number does not exceed an order of unity. For much higher Richardson numbers, the physics may change qualitatively, requiring careful consideration of the potential Kelvin-Helmoholtz waves and their interaction with the vortical turbulence.

  17. Scaling the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J.; De Lozar, A.


    We have studied the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer (CBL) by means of large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). What makes our study different from previous studies on this subject are our very long simulations in which the system travels through multiple states and that from there we have derived scaling laws. In our setup, a stratified atmosphere is heated from below by square patches with a high surface buoyancy flux, surrounded by regions with no or little flux. By letting a boundary layer grow in time we let the system evolve from the so-called meso-scale to the micro-scale regime. In the former the heterogeneity is large and strong circulations can develop, while in the latter the heterogeneity is small and does no longer influence the boundary layer structure. Within each simulation we can now observe the formation of a peak in kinetic energy, which represents the 'optimal' heterogeneity size in the meso-scale, and the subsequent decay of the peak and the development towards the transition to the micro-scale. We have created a non-dimensional parameter space that describes all properties of this system. By studying the previously described evolution for different combinations of parameters, we have derived three important conclusions. First, there exists a horizontal length scale of the heterogeneity (L) that is a function of the boundary layer height (h) and the Richardson (Ri) number of the inversion at the top of the boundary layer. This relationship has the form L = h Ri^(3/8). Second, this horizontal length scale L allows for expressing the time evolution, and thus the state of the system, as a ratio of this length scale and the distance between two patches Xp. This ratio thus describes to which extent the circulation fills up the space that exists between two patch centers. The timings of the transition from the meso- to the micro-scale collapse under this scaling for all simulations sharing the same flux

  18. Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro


    In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary

  19. Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition

    Bartkowicz, Matthew David

    Numerical schemes for supersonic flows tend to use large amounts of artificial viscosity for stability. This tends to damp out the small scale structures in the flow. Recently some low-dissipation methods have been proposed which selectively eliminate the artificial viscosity in regions which do not require it. This work builds upon the low-dissipation method of Subbareddy and Candler which uses the flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming but identifies the dissipation portion to eliminate it. Computing accurate fluxes typically relies on large grid stencils or coupled linear systems that become computationally expensive to solve. Unstructured grids allow for CFD solutions to be obtained on complex geometries, unfortunately, it then becomes difficult to create a large stencil or the coupled linear system. Accurate solutions require grids that quickly become too large to be feasible. In this thesis a method is proposed to obtain more accurate solutions using relatively local data, making it suitable for unstructured grids composed of hexahedral elements. Fluxes are reconstructed using local gradients to extend the range of data used. The method is then validated on several test problems. Simulations of boundary layer transition are then performed. An elliptic cone at Mach 8 is simulated based on an experiment at the Princeton Gasdynamics Laboratory. A simulated acoustic noise boundary condition is imposed to model the noisy conditions of the wind tunnel and the transitioning boundary layer observed. A computation of an isolated roughness element is done based on an experiment in Purdue's Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel. The mechanism for transition is identified as an instability in the upstream separation region and a comparison is made to experimental data. In the CFD a fully turbulent boundary layer is observed downstream.

  20. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Telford, James W.


    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  1. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    Dell, R.  W.; Pratt, L.  J.


    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom

  2. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  3. The inland boundary layer at low latitudes

    Garratt, J. R.


    Observations from the Koorin boundary-layer experiment in Australia (latitude 16 °S) were analysed in a study of the nocturnal jet development. For geostrophic winds in the range 10 20 m s-1, ageostrophic wind magnitudes of 5 10m s-1 were common above the surface layer near sunset, with cross-isobar flow angles of about 40 °. The jet that then developed by midnight was probably the result of these large ageostrophic winds, strong surface cooling and favourable baroclinity and sloping terrain. The analysis is supported by numerical model calculations with special emphasis on the role of long-wave radiative cooling on turbulent decay. Decay is rapid in the presence of radiation, although there is little influence on stress divergence levels. Evidence of sea-breeze influences on the jet evolution, and on features of deeply penetrating sea breezes in general, will be presented and discussed in part 2 of this study (submitted to Boundary-Layer Meteorol.).

  4. A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations

    Paul G. A. CIZMAS


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.

  5. Boundary layer flow past a circular cylinder in axial flow

    Sawchuk, S.P.; Zamir, M.; Camiletti, S.E.


    This paper discusses a study of the laminar boundary layer on a semi-infinite circular cylinder in axial incompressible flow. Unlike previous studies, the present study investigates a full range of this boundary layer problem to determine skin friction, heat transfer and other integral properties of the boundary layer

  6. The internal boundary layer — A review

    Garratt, J. R.


    A review is given of relevant work on the internal boundary layer (IBL) associated with: (i) Small-scale flow in neutral conditions across an abrupt change in surface roughness, (ii) Small-scale flow in non-neutral conditions across an abrupt change in surface roughness, temperature or heat/moisture flux, (iii) Mesoscale flow, with emphasis on flow across the coastline for both convective and stably stratified conditions. The major theme in all cases is on the downstream, modified profile form (wind and temperature), and on the growth relations for IBL depth.

  7. Boundary Layer Depth In Coastal Regions

    Porson, A.; Schayes, G.

    The results of earlier studies performed about sea breezes simulations have shown that this is a relevant feature of the Planetary Boundary Layer that still requires effort to be diagnosed properly by atmospheric models. Based on the observations made during the ESCOMPTE campaign, over the Mediterranean Sea, different CBL and SBL height estimation processes have been tested with a meso-scale model, TVM. The aim was to compare the critical points of the BL height determination computed using turbulent kinetic energy profile with some other standard evaluations. Moreover, these results have been analysed with different mixing length formulation. The sensitivity of formulation is also analysed with a simple coastal configuration.

  8. Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones

    Gronvall, Joel Edwin

    Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated

  9. Shock Protection of Portable Electronic Products: Shock Response Spectrum, Damage Boundary Approach, and Beyond

    Suresh Goyal


    Full Text Available The pervasive shock response spectrum (SRS and damage boundary methods for evaluating product fragility and designing external cushioning for shock protection are described in detail with references to the best available literature. Underlying assumptions are carefully reviewed and the central message of the SRS is highlighted, particularly as it relates to standardized drop testing. Shortcomings of these methods are discussed, and the results are extended to apply to more general systems. Finally some general packaging and shock-mounting strategies are discussed in the context of protecting a fragile disk drive in a notebook computer, although the conclusions apply to other products as well. For example, exterior only cushioning (with low restitution to reduce subsequent impacts will provide a slenderer form factor than the next best strategy: interior cushioning with a “dead” hard outer shell.

  10. Micro Ramps in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers : An experimental and numerical study

    Sun, Z.


    The micro vortex generator (MVG) is used extensively in low speed aerodynamic problems and is now extended into the supersonic flow regime to solve undesired flow features that are associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) such as flow separation and associated unsteadiness of

  11. Shock-induced microdeformations in quartz and other mineralogical indications of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Bohor, B.F.


    The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the boundary clay is important for the determination of the timing and processes involved in the impact event and in the assignment and interpretation of geochemical signatures. Multiple sets of shock-induced microdeformations (planar features) in quartz grains separated from KT boundary clays provide compelling evidence of an impact event. This mineralogical manifestation of shock metamorphism is associated worldwide with a large positive anomaly of iridium in these boundary clays, which has also been considered indicative of the impact of a large extraterrestrial body. Global distributions of maximum sizes of shocked quartz grains from the boundary clays and the mineralogy of the ejecta components favor an impact on or near the North American continent. Spinel crystals (magnesioferrite) occur in the boundary clays as micrometer-sized octahedra or skeletal forms. Their composition differs from that of spinels found in terrestrial oceanic basalts. Magnesioferrite crystals are restricted to the high-angle ejecta layer of the boundary clays and their small size and skeletal morphology suggest that they are condensation products of a vaporized bolide. Hollow spherules ranging up to 1 mm in size are ubiquitously associated with the boundary clays. In nonmarine

  12. Boundary layer attenuation in turbulent sodium flows

    Tenchine, D.


    Temperature fluctuations are produced in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Reactors when flows at different temperatures are mixing. That occurs in various areas of the reactor plant, in the primary and the secondary circuits. This paper deals with secondary circuit pipings, specifically the Superphenix steam generator outlet. The possibility of thermal striping in this area is studied because of the mixing of a main 'hot' flow surrounded by a smaller 'cold' flow in the vertical pipe located below the steam generator. This work was developed in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME. The purpose of our study is to measure temperature fluctuations in the fluid and on the structures, on a sodium reduced scale model of the outlet region of the steam generator. We want to evidence the boundary layer attenuation by comparing wall and fluid measurements. From these experimental data, we shall propose a methodology to predict the boundary layer attenuation and the temperature fluctuations at the surface of the structure, for pipe flow configurations

  13. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Ahmed Hawass


    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  14. Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.

    Smith, Michael Wayne

    This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high

  15. Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

    Vandervegt, J. J.


    Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar

  16. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.


    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  17. Influence of relaxation processes on the structure of a thermal boundary layer in partially ionized argon

    Dongen, M.E.H. van; Eck, R.B. van P. van; Hagebeuk, H.J.L.; Hirschberg, A.; Hutten-Mansfeld, A.C.B.; Jager, H.J.; Willems, J.F.H.


    A model for the unsteady thermal boundary-layer development at the end wall of a shock tube, in partially ionized atmospheric argon, is proposed. Consideration is given to ionization and thermal relaxation processes. In order to obtain some insight into the influence of the relaxation processes on the structure of the boundary layer, a study of the frozen and equilibrium limits has been carried out. The transition from a near-equilibrium situation in the outer part of the boundary layer towards a frozen situation near the wall is determined numerically. Experimental data on the electron and atom density profiles obtained from laser schlieren and absorption measurements are presented. A quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found for a moderate degree of ionization (3%). At a higher degree of ionization the structure of the boundary layer is dominated by the influence of radiation cooling, which has been neglected in the model. (author)

  18. Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer

    Blay, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Faloona, I.; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O.K.


    Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed.

  19. Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

    Beier, R.A.


    In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.

  20. Properties of the TEXTOR boundary layer

    Bogen, P.; Hartwig, H.; Hintz, E.; Hoethker, K.; Lie, Y.T.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.


    First measurements on the TEXTOR boundary layer are reported. The hydrogen recycling in front of the four limiter segments has been studied by means of a CCD-camera, which proved to be a good instrument to center the discharge for symmetric plasma-limiter contact. The composition of the neutral fluxes from the limiter have been measured: oxygen fluxes are about a factor of ten higher than the metal fluxes; within the error limits the composition does not change with varying limiter radius. Electron densities in the scrape-off layer away from the limiter have been determined by injecting an Li-atom beam from a thermal source and by observing its emission as a function of radius. Similar measurements have been made in front of the limiter with sputtered Cr and O atoms. Both methods gave for the magnetic surface of the limiter radius nsub(e) approx.= 1 x 10 12 /cm 23 . Infrared observations of a test limiter with a CCD-camera and a PbSe-detector have been performed to record the thermal loads. About 10% of the input power flows to the limiter. (orig.)

  1. Transition to turbulence in the Hartmann boundary layer

    Thess, A.; Krasnov, D.; Boeck, T.; Zienicke, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Zikanov, O. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States); Moresco, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Alboussiere, T. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, Observatoire des Science de l' Univers de Grenoble, Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)


    The Hartmann boundary layer is a paradigm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hartmann boundary layers develop when a liquid metal flows under the influence of a steady magnetic field. The present paper is an overview of recent successful attempts to understand the mechanisms by which the Hartmann layer undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. (orig.)

  2. Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer

    Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.


    Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation

  3. Airfoil boundary layer separation and control at low Reynolds numbers

    Yarusevych, S.; Sullivan, P.E. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kawall, J.G. [Ryerson University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The boundary layer separation on a NACA 0025 airfoil was studied experimentally via hot-wire anemometry and surface pressure measurements. The results provide added insight into periodic boundary layer control, suggesting that matching the excitation frequency with the most amplified disturbance in the separated shear layer is optimal for improving airfoil performance. (orig.)

  4. Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong


    The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.

  5. Prediction of boundary-layer transition caused by crossflow disturbances

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; 野村 聡幸


    A prediction system for boundary layer transition is developed which consists of the Navier-Stokes code computing a compressible boundary layer, the linear PSE (Parabolized Stability Equations) code computing the spatial growth of a disturbance, and the N-factor code integrating the growth rate. The system is applied to the case that the transition of the compressible boundary layer on a swept cylinder is caused by cross flow disturbances which have the same spanwise wavelength as observed in...




    A two-dimensional incompressible laminar boundary layer and its control using blowing and suction over a flat plate and around the NACA 0012 and 661012 profiles, is studied numerically. The study is based on the Prandtl boundary layer model using the finite differences method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The velocity distribution, the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient, are determined and presented with and without control. The application of the control technique, has de...

  7. Comparison of turbulence in a transitional boundary layer to turbulence in a developed boundary layer*

    Park, G. I.; Wallace, J.; Wu, X.; Moin, P.


    Using a recent DNS of a flat-plate boundary layer, statistics of turbulence in transition at Reθ= 500 where spots merge (distributions of the mean velocity, rms velocity and vorticity fluctuations, Reynolds shear stress, kinetic energy production and dissipation rates and enstrophy) have been compared to these statistics for the developed boundary layer turbulence at Reθ= 1850. When the distributions in the transitional region, determined in narrow planes 0.03 Reθ wide, exclude regions and times when the flow is not turbulent, they closely resemble those in the developed turbulent state at the higher Reynolds number, especially in the buffer and sublayers. The skin friction coefficient, determined in this conditional manner in the transitional flow is, of course, much larger than that obtained by including both turbulent and non-turbulent information there, and is consistent with a value obtained by extrapolating from the developed turbulent region. We are attempting to perform this data analysis even further upstream in the transitioning flow at Reθ= 300 where the turbulent spots are individuated. These results add further evidence to support the view that the structure of a developed turbulent boundary layer is little different from its structure in its embryonic form in turbulent spots. *CTR 2010 Summer Program research.

  8. An engineering inviscid-boundary layer method for calculation of aerodynamic heating in the leeward region

    Dirin, M.M.; Karimian, S.M.H.; Maerefat, M.


    An engineering method has been modified for the prediction of aerodynamic heating of the hypersonic bodies in the leeward region. This is achieved using our proposed new method for determining streamlines in the leeward region. The modified form of Maslen's second order relation, which calculates pressure in the shock layer explicitly, is employed. The inviscid outer flow within the shock layer is first solved. The calculated solution, then, is used to determine the flow properties at the boundary layer edge and the orientation of the surface streamlines. Boundary layer equations, written in the streamline coordinates, are integrated along the surface to obtain the rate of heat transferred to the body surface. The present method is an inverse method in which the body shape is obtained according to the shape of the shock. In general, inviscid-boundary layer engineering methods calculate accurately the orientation of streamlines in the windward side only, and therefore they are not usually applicable in the leeward region. In the present study, a new method is proposed to determine the orientation of the surface streamlines in the leeward region. Using the present method, three-dimensional hypersonic flow is solved fast and easy all around a cone. The obtained results show that the corrections presented in this study extend excellently the application of the method to the leeward region. (author)

  9. Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of the...

  10. Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of...

  11. Effect of shock interactions on mixing layer between co-flowing supersonic flows in a confined duct

    Rao, S. M. V.; Asano, S.; Imani, I.; Saito, T.


    Experiments are conducted to observe the effect of shock interactions on a mixing layer generated between two supersonic streams of Mach number M _{1} = 1.76 and M _{2} = 1.36 in a confined duct. The development of this mixing layer within the duct is observed using high-speed schlieren and static pressure measurements. Two-dimensional, compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the k-ω SST turbulence model in Fluent. Further, adverse pressure gradients are imposed by placing inserts of small ( boundary layer thickness) thickness on the walls of the test section. The unmatched pressures cause the mixing layer to bend and lead to the formation of shock structures that interact with the mixing layer. The mixing layer growth rate is found to increase after the shock interaction (nearly doubles). The strongest shock is observed when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow. This shock interacts with the mixing layer exciting flow modes that produce sinusoidal flapping structures which enhance the mixing layer growth rate to the maximum (by 1.75 times). Shock fluctuations are characterized, and it is observed that the maximum amplitude occurs when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow.

  12. Effects of Nose Bluntness on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Stability Over Cones

    Kara, Kursat; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kandil, Osama A.


    The receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances and the stability properties of hypersonic boundary layers are numerically investigated for boundary-layer flows over a 5 straight cone at a freestream Mach number of 6.0. To compute the shock and the interaction of the shock with the instability waves, the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates were solved. In the governing equations, inviscid and viscous flux vectors are discretized using a fifth-order accurate weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory scheme. A third-order accurate total-variation-diminishing Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. After the mean flow field is computed, disturbances are introduced at the upstream end of the computational domain. The appearance of instability waves near the nose region and the receptivity of the boundary layer with respect to slow mode acoustic waves are investigated. Computations confirm the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary-layer transition. The current solutions, compared with experimental observations and other computational results, exhibit good agreement.

  13. Internal and external 2-d boundary layer flows

    Crawford, M. E.; Kays, W. M.


    Computer program computes general two dimensional turbulent boundary-layer flow using finite-difference techniques. Structure allows for user modification to accommodate unique problems. Program should prove useful in many applications where accurate boundary-layer flow calculations are required.

  14. High frequency ground temperature fluctuation in a Convective Boundary Layer

    Garai, A.; Kleissl, J.; Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pardyjak, E.; Saïd, F.; Cuxart, J.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Yaguë, C.; Derrien, S.; Alexander, D.; Villagrasa, D.M.


    To study influence of the turbulent structures in the convective boundary layer (CBL) on the ground temperature, during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) observational campaign, high frequency ground temperature was recorded through infra-red imagery from 13 June - 8

  15. The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph


    Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed...... winds underpredict the turning of the wind and the boundary-layer winds in general....

  16. On hairpin vortices in a transitional boundary layer

    Uruba Václav


    Full Text Available In the presented paper the results of experiments on transitional boundary layer are presented. The boundary layer was generated on smooth flat wall with zero pressure gradient forming one side of the channel of rectangular cross section. The hairpin vortices, packets of hairpin vortices, turbulent spots and calmed regions were experimentally investigated using time-resolved PIV technique.

  17. Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers

    Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation...

  18. Experimental study on effects of inlet boundary layer thickness and boundary layer fence in a turbine cascade

    Jun, Y. M.; Chung, J. T.


    The working fluid from the combustor to the turbine stage of a gas turbine makes various boundary layer thickness. Since the inlet boundary layer thickness is one of the important factors that affect the turbine efficiency, It is necessary to investigate secondary flow and loss with various boundary layer thickness conditions. In the present study, the effect of various inlet boundary layer thickness on secondary flow and loss and the proper height of the boundary layer fences for various boundary layer thickness were investigated. Measurements of secondary flow velocity and total pressure loss within and downstream of the passage were taken under 5 boundary layer thickness conditions, 16, 36, 52, 69, 110mm. It was found that total pressure loss and secondary flow areas were increased with increase of thickness but they were maintained almost at the same position. At the following research about the boundary layer fences, 1/6, 1/3, 1/2 of each inlet boundary layer thickness and 12mm were used as the fence heights. As a result, it was observed that the proper height of the fences was generally constant since the passage vortex remained almost at the same position. Therefore once the geometry of a cascade is decided, the location of the passage vortex and the proper fence height are appeared to be determined at the same time. When the inlet boundary layer thickness is relatively small, the loss caused by the proper fence becomes bigger than end wall loss so that it dominates secondary loss. In these cases the proper fence height is decided not by the cascade geometry but by the inlet boundary layer thickness as previous investigations

  19. Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems

    King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.


    Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.

  20. Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer

    Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.


    The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.

  1. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Allen, J. M.


    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  2. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    Dell, R. W.


    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.

  3. Structure of the low-latitude boundary layer

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B.U.O.; Bame, S.J.; Forbes, T.G.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Russell, C.T.


    Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut, Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, fast plasma analyzer on board the Isee 1 and 2 spacecraft, have revealed a complex quasi-periodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers: cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma is seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over 1 hour or more. One such crossing, at 0800 hours local time and 40 0 northern GSM latitude, is examined in detail, including a quantitative comparison of the boundary layer entry and exit times of the two spacecraft. The data are found to be compatible with a boundary layer that is always attached to the magnetopause but where the layer thickness has a large-scale spatial modulation pattern which travels tailward past the spacecraft. Included are periods when the thickness is essentially zero and others when it is of the order of 1 R/sub E/. The duration of these periods is highly variable but is typically in the range of 2--5 min, corresponding to a distance along the magnetopause of the order of 3--8 R/sub E/. The observed boundary layer features include a steep density gradient at the magnetopause, with an approximately constant boundary layer plasma density amounting to about 25% of the magnetosheath density, and a second abrupt density decrease at the inner edge of the layer. It also appears that the purely magnetospheric plasma is ocassionally separated from the boundary layer by a halo region in which the plasma density is somewhat higher, and the temperature somewhat lower, than in the magnetosphere. A tentative model is proposed

  4. An eddy-viscosity treatment of the unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    Gupta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.


    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semiinfinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Lamcrocco variables. The numerical results indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin-friction than a fully laminar boundary layer.

  5. Characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layer and magnetopause layer as observed by Imp 6

    Eastman, T.E.; Hones, E.W. Jr.


    Imp 6 observations of the low-latitude magnetospheric boundary layer indicate that the plasma within it is supplied primarily by direct entry of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause layer. We define the magnetopause layer as the current layer (separating the magnetosheath from the boundary layer) through which the magnetic field shifts in direction. High temporal resolution (3-s average) data reveal that in a majority of Imp 6 magnetopause crossing, no distinct changes in electron density or energry spectra are observed at the magne opause layer. In all Imp 6 crossings, some magnetosheathlike plasma is observed earthward of the magnetopause layer, implying the existence of a boundary layer. Boundary layer electron energy spectra are often virtually indistinguishable from the adjacent magnetosheath spectra. Low-latitude boundary layer bulk plasma flow as observed by Imp 6 almost always has an antisunward component and often has a significant cross-field component. The boundary layer thickness is highly variable and is generally much larger than the magnetopause layer thickness. Energetic electron pitch angle distributions indicate that the low-latitude boundary layers is normally on closed field lines. We conclude that diffusive as well as nondiffusive processes probably contribute to the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the boundary layer

  6. Boundary-Layer Characteristics Over a Coastal Megacity

    Melecio-Vazquez, D.; Ramamurthy, P.; Arend, M.; Moshary, F.; Gonzalez, J.


    Boundary-layer characteristics over New York City are analyzed for various local and synoptic conditions over several seasons. An array of vertical profilers, including a Doppler LiDAR, a micro-pulse LiDAR and a microwave radiometer are used to observe the structure and evolution of the boundary-layer. Additionally, an urbanized Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model coupled to a high resolution landcover/land-use database is used to study the spatial variability in boundary layer characteristics. The summer daytime averaged potential temperature profile from the microwave radiometer shows the presence of a thermal internal boundary layer wherein a superadiabatic layer lies underneath a stable layer instead of a mixed-layer. Both the winter daytime and nighttime seasonal averages show that the atmosphere remains unstable near the surface and does not reach stable conditions during the nighttime. The mixing ratio seasonal averages show peaks in humidity near 200-m and 1100-m, above instrument level, which could result from sea breeze and anthropogenic sources. Ceilometer measurements show a high degree of variability in boundary layer height depending on wind direction. Comparison with uWRF results show that the model tends to overestimate convective efficiency for selected summer and winter cases and therefore shows a much deeper thermal boundary layer than the observed profiles. The model estimates a less humid atmosphere than seen in observations.

  7. Microbubble drag reduction in liquid turbulent boundary layers

    Merkle, C.L.; Deutsch, S.


    The interactions between a dense cloud of small bubbles and a liquid turbulent boundary layer are reviewed on the basis of available experimental observations to understand and quantify their capability for reducing skin friction. Gas bubbles are generally introduced into the boundary layer by injection through a porous surface or by electrolysis. After injection, the bubbles stay near the wall in boundary-layer-like fashion giving rise to strong gradients in both velocity and gas concentration. In general, the magnitude of the skin friction reduction increases as the volume of bubbles in the boundary layer is increased until a maximum skin friction reduction of typically 80-90% of the undisturbed skin friction level is reached. The volumetric gas flow required for this maximum is nominally equal to the volume flow of the liquid in the boundary layer. Bubble size estimates indicate that in most microbubble experiments the bubbles have been intermediate in size between the inner and outer scales of the undisturbed boundary layer. Additional studies with other nondimensional bubble sizes would be useful. However, the bubble size is most likely controlled by the injection process, and considerably different conditions would be required to change this ratio appreciably. The trajectories of the bubble clouds are primarily determined by the random effects of turbulence and bubble-bubble interactions. The effects of buoyancy represent a weaker effect. The trajectories are unlike the deterministic trajectory of an individual bubble in a time-averaged boundary layer. Bubbles are most effective in high speed boundary layers and, for the bubble sizes tested to date, produce an effect that persists for some on hundred boundary layer thicknesses. Modeling suggests that microbubbles reduce skin friction by increasing the turbulence Reynolds number in the buffer layer in a manner similar to polymers

  8. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot


    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  9. Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?

    Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M; Motta, P


    There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry

  10. Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?

    Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail:


    There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.




    Full Text Available A two-dimensional incompressible laminar boundary layer and its control using blowing and suction over a flat plate and around the NACA 0012 and 661012 profiles, is studied numerically. The study is based on the Prandtl boundary layer model using the finite differences method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The velocity distribution, the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient, are determined and presented with and without control. The application of the control technique, has demonstrated its positive effect on the transition point and the friction coefficient. Both control procedures are compared for different lengths, speeds and angles of blowing and suction.

  12. The atmospheric boundary layer — advances in knowledge and application

    Garratt, J. R.; Hess, G. D.; Physick, W. L.; Bougeault, P.


    We summarise major activities and advances in boundary-layer knowledge in the 25 years since 1970, with emphasis on the application of this knowledge to surface and boundary-layer parametrisation schemes in numerical models of the atmosphere. Progress in three areas is discussed: (i) the mesoscale modelling of selected phenomena; (ii) numerical weather prediction; and (iii) climate simulations. Future trends are identified, including the incorporation into models of advanced cloud schemes and interactive canopy schemes, and the nesting of high resolution boundary-layer schemes in global climate models.

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer

    Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... slows down the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, destabilizes the flow and decreases the mean bed shear stress significantly; whereas suction generally speeds up the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, stabilizes the flow and increases the mean bed shear stress...

  14. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    Jensen, Niels Otto


    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  15. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.


    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  16. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.


    This study continues the investigation of wave boundary layers reported by Carstensen, Sumer & Fredsøe (J. Fluid Mech., 2010, part 1 of this paper). The present paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation of turbulent solitary wave boundary layers, simulated by solitary motion...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...

  17. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  18. Version 2 of the Protuberance Correlations for the Shuttle-Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Tool

    King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.


    Orbiter-specific transition data, acquired in four ground-based facilities (LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, LaRC 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel, and CUBRC LENS-I Shock Tunnel) with three wind tunnel model scales (0.75, 0.90, and 1.8%) and from Orbiter historical flight data, have been analyzed to improve a pre-existing engineering tool for reentry transition prediction on the windward side of the Orbiter. Boundary layer transition (BLT) engineering correlations for transition induced by isolated protuberances are presented using a laminar Navier-Stokes (N-S) database to provide the relevant boundary-layer properties. It is demonstrated that the earlier version of the BLT correlation that had been developed using parameters derived from an engineering boundary-layer code has improved data collapse when developed with the N-S database. Of the new correlations examined, the proposed correlation 5, based on boundary-layer edge and wall properties, was found to provide the best overall correlation metrics when the entire database is employed. The second independent correlation (proposed correlation 7) selected is based on properties within the boundary layer at the protuberance height. The Aeroheating Panel selected a process to derive the recommended coefficients for Version 2 of the BLT Tool. The assumptions and limitations of the recommended protuberance BLT Tool V.2 are presented.

  19. Relaxation of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    Gurta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.


    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion-tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Crocco variables, and a time-similar solution is presented in terms of the dimensionless distance-time variable alpha and the dimensionless velocity variable beta. An eddy-viscosity model, similar to that of time-steady boundary layers, is applied to the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. A turbulent Prandtl number equal to the molecular Prandtl number is used to relate the turbulent heat flux to the eddy viscosity. The numerical results, obtained by using the Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method, indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin friction than a laminar boundary layer. The results also give a fairly good estimate of the local skin friction and heat transfer for near steady-flow conditions.

  20. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    Burbank, John


    more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates

  1. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    Burbank, John


    thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates of the

  2. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  3. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    Sridhar, A.; Pullin, D. I.; Cheng, W.


    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows

  4. CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.


    Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness

  5. Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...

    boundary-layer flow warrants attention. .... double prime indicates a dummy variable, while R and S respectively denote integration in the ..... (labelled) but it also features an unstable structural mode labelled S that ..... theory and experiment.

  6. Accretion disc boundary layers - geometrically and optically thin case

    Regev, Oded; Hougerat, A.A.


    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to an optically and geometrically thin boundary layer between an accretion disc and the accreting star. Analytical solutions are presented for a particular viscosity prescription in the boundary layer. For a typical example we find that the disc closely resembles standard steady-disc theory. It is identical to it everywhere save a narrow boundary layer, where the temperature increases rapidly inward (by an order of magnitude), the angular velocity achieves maximum and decreases to its surface value and other variables also undergo rapid changes. This and previous work can now be used to calculate the emission from accretion discs including the boundary layers for a wide range of parameters. (author)

  7. Boundary layer energies for nonconvex discrete systems

    Scardia, L.; Schlömerkemper, A.; Zanini, C.


    In this work we consider a one-dimensional chain of atoms which interact through nearest and next-to-nearest neighbour interactions of Lennard-Jones type. We impose Dirichlet boundary conditions and in addition prescribe the deformation of the second and last but one atoms of the chain. This

  8. Flow-around modes for a rhomboid wing with a stall vortex in the shock layer

    Zubin, M. A.; Maximov, F. A.; Ostapenko, N. A.


    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of an asymmetrical hypersonic flow around a V-shaped wing with the opening angle larger than π on the modes with attached shockwaves on forward edges, when the stall flow is implemented on the leeward wing cantilever behind the kink point of the cross contour. In this case, a vortex of nonviscous nature is formed in which the velocities on the sphere exceeding the speed of sound and resulting in the occurrence of pressure shocks with an intensity sufficient for the separation of the turbulent boundary layer take place in the reverse flow according to the calculations within the framework of the ideal gas. It is experimentally established that a separation boundary layer can exist in the reverse flow, and its structure is subject to the laws inherent to the reverse flow in the separation region of the turbulent boundary layer arising in the supersonic conic flow under the action of a shockwave incident to the boundary layer.

  9. Boundary-Layer Bypass Transition Over Large-Scale Bodies


    behaviour of the velocity and pressure changes with the curvature. This work aims to extend the results of the flat-plate boundary layer to a Rankine...example, consume an enormous amount of energy due to friction, many works have been directed to the suppression of transitional boundary layer disturbances...decrease of the enormous amount of energy consumed by airplanes during flight, moreover flight costs and aerodynamic noise could be reduced and number

  10. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan


    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...

  11. Control of Boundary Layers for Aero-optical Applications


    with some difficulty) from hot-wire velocity measurements, or computed directly from CFD results (e.g. Wang & Wang, 2012). Several different density...of experimental and computational research, especially applied to supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers; see Smits & Dussauge (1996), Spina et...Duan, L., Beekman, I. and Martin, M.P. (2010) Direct Numerical Simulation of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers. Part 2. Effect of Wall

  12. MPLNET V3 Cloud and Planetary Boundary Layer Detection

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Haftings, Phillip C.


    The NASA Micropulse Lidar Network Version 3 algorithms for planetary boundary layer and cloud detection are described and differences relative to the previous Version 2 algorithms are highlighted. A year of data from the Goddard Space Flight Center site in Greenbelt, MD consisting of diurnal and seasonal trends is used to demonstrate the results. Both the planetary boundary layer and cloud algorithms show significant improvement of the previous version.

  13. Unequilibrium kinetic of collisionless boundary layers in binary plasmas

    Kotelnikov, V.A.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Cherepanov, V.V.


    Relaxation processes of kinetic nonequilibrium collisionless boundary layers near spherical charged full absorbing surfaces in binary low-temperature plasmas are investigated. The effect of magnetic field on relaxation processes was neglected. The dynamics of components of the ionized gas was treated near the boundary layer. The potential distribution and the space dependence of concentration were calculated numerically. These results agree well with the experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  14. Development of Robust Boundary Layer Controllers

    Speyer, Jason


    .... The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of channel flow, linearized about a Poisueille profile, and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations of a layer of fluid, linearized about the no motion state...

  15. Short climatology of the atmospheric boundary layer using acoustic methods

    Schubert, J.F.


    A climatology of the boundary layer of the atmosphere at the Savannah River Laboratory is being compiled using acoustic methods. The atmospheric phenomenon as depicted on the facsimile recorder is classified and then placed into one of sixteen categories. After classification, the height of the boundary layer is measured. From this information, frequency tables of boundary layer height and category are created and then analyzed for the percentage of time that each category was detected by the acoustic sounder. The sounder also accurately depicts the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer and, depending on the sensitivity of the system, shows microstructure that is normally unavailable using other methods of profiling. The acoustic sounder provides a means for continuous, real time measurements of the time rate of change of the depth of the boundary layer. This continuous record of the boundary layer with its convective cells, gravity waves, inversions, and frontal system passages permits the synoptic and complex climatology of the local area to be compiled. (U.S.)

  16. Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.

    du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian


    Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re≈200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.

  17. Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.


    During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.

  18. Turbulent Boundary Layers - Experiments, Theory and Modelling


    anemometry, London, Academic Press, 1976. 7. H.R.E. van Maanen, K. van der Molen and J. Blom, "Reduction of ambiguity noise in laser-Doppler...Raumfahrttechnik Hochschule der Bundeswehr München 8014 Neubiberg — Germany Professor Dr J.L. Van Ingen Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Delft...proximity to a solid boundary. J.Fluid Mech.12, 388 - 397, 1962. (21) Van Thin N., Messungen mit einem Hitzdraht in einer turbulenten Strömung in der

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).

    Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid


    Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption.

  20. Beta limitation of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    Lehnert, B.


    A model has earlier been proposed for a boundary layer which separates a cloud of matter from one of antimatter in a magnetized ambiplasma. In this model steady pressure equilibrium ceases to exist when a certain beta limit is exceeded. The latter is defined as the ratio between the ambiplasma and magnetic field pressures which balance each other in the boundary layer. Thus, at an increasing density, the high-energy particles created by annihilation within the layer are 'pumped up' to a pressure which cannot be balanced by a given magnetic field. The boundary layer then 'disrupts'. The critical beta limit thus obtained falls within the observed parameter ranges of galaxies and other large cosmical objects. Provided that the considered matter-antimatter balance holds true, this limit is thus expected to impose certain existence conditions on matter-antimatter boundary layers. Such a limitation may apply to certain cosmical objects and cosmological models. The maximum time scale for the corresponding disruption development has been estimated to be in the range from about 10 -4 to 10 2 seconds for boundary layers at ambiplasma particle densities in the range from 10 4 to 10 -2 m -3 , respectively. (author)

  1. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion

    Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...... spots, isolated arrowhead-shaped areas close to the bed in an otherwise laminar boundary layer where the flow ‘bursts’ with violent oscillations. The emergence of the turbulent spots marks the onset of turbulence. Turbulent spots cause single or multiple violent spikes in the bed shear stress signal...

  2. Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling


    boundary layer where again the drag laws can be used to estimate the surface wind. To study this problem, data have been sampled for two years from four 30-m meteorological masts placed from 0 to 30 km inland from the North Sea coast of Jutland in Denmark. The present analysis is limited to neutral......When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium...... stratification, and the surface roughness is the main parameter. The analysis of wind data and two simple models, a surface layer and a planetary boundary layer (PBL) model, are described. Results from both models are discussed and compared with data analysis. Model parameters have been evaluated and the model...

  3. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

    Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)


    Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

  4. Titan atmospheric composition by hypervelocity shock layer analysis

    Nelson, H.F.; Park, C.; Whiting, E.E.


    The Cassini Mission, a NASA/ESA cooperative project which includes a deployment of probe into the atmosphere of Titan, is described, with particular attention given to the shock radiometer experiment planned for the Titan probe for the analysis of Titan's atmosphere. Results from a shock layer analysis are presented, demonstrating that the mole fractions of the major species (N2, CH4, and, possibly Ar) in the Titan atmosphere can be successfully determined by the Titan-probe radiometer, by measuring the intensity of the CN(violet) radiation emitted in the shock layer during the high velocity portion of the probe entry between 200 and 400 km altitude. It is shown that the sensitivity of the CN(violet) radiation makes it possible to determine the mole fractions of N2, CH4, and Ar to about 0.015, 0.003, and 0.01, respectively, i.e., much better than the present uncertainties in the composition of Titan atmosphere. 29 refs

  5. Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

    White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.


    To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

  6. Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx

    C. R. Jones


    Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture and temperature stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150 m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.

    We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the "mixed layer cloud thickness", defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling.

    In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100 % boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.

  7. Structure of reconnection boundary layers in incompressible MHD

    Sonnerup, B.U.Oe.; Wang, D.J.


    The incompressible MHD equations with nonvanishing viscosity and resistivity are simplified by use of the boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and magnetic field in the exit flow regions of magnetic field reconnection configurations when the reconnection rate is small. The conditions are derived under which self-similar solutions exist of the resulting boundary layer equations. For the case of zero viscosity and resistivity, the equations describing such self-similar layers are then solved in terms of quadratures, and the resulting flow and field configurations are described. Symmetric solutions, relevant, for example, to reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, as well as asymmetric solutions, relevant to reconnection at the earth's magnetopause, are found to exist. The nature of the external solutions to which the boundary layer solutions should be matched is discussed briefly, but the actual matching, which is to occur at Alfven-wave characteristic curves in the boundary layer solutions, is not carried out. Finally, it is argued that the solutions obtained may also be used to describe the structure of the intense vortex layers observed to occur at magnetic separatrices in computer simulations and in certain analytical models of the reconnection process

  8. Entropy Generation in Steady Laminar Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

    Donald M. McEligot


    Full Text Available In an earlier paper in Entropy [1] we hypothesized that the entropy generation rate is the driving force for boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Subsequently, with our colleagues we have examined the prediction of entropy generation during such transitions [2,3]. We found that reasonable predictions for engineering purposes could be obtained for flows with negligible streamwise pressure gradients by adapting the linear combination model of Emmons [4]. A question then arises—will the Emmons approach be useful for boundary layer transition with significant streamwise pressure gradients as by Nolan and Zaki [5]. In our implementation the intermittency is calculated by comparison to skin friction correlations for laminar and turbulent boundary layers and is then applied with comparable correlations for the energy dissipation coefficient (i.e., non-dimensional integral entropy generation rate. In the case of negligible pressure gradients the Blasius theory provides the necessary laminar correlations.

  9. Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces

    Stenger, N.


    By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt

  10. Rotor blade boundary layer measurement hardware feasibility demonstration

    Clark, D. R.; Lawton, T. D.


    A traverse mechanism which allows the measurement of the three dimensional boundary layers on a helicopter rotor blade has been built and tested on a full scale rotor to full scale conditions producing centrifugal accelerations in excess of 400 g and Mach numbers of 0.6 and above. Boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured over a range of rotor speeds and blade collective pitch angles. A pressure scanning switch and transducer were also tested on the full scale rotor and found to be insensitive to centrifugal effects within the normal main rotor operating range. The demonstration of the capability to measure boundary layer behavior on helicopter rotor blades represents the first step toward obtaining, in the rotating system, data of a quality comparable to that already existing for flows in the fixed system.

  11. Theoretical skin-friction law in a turbulent boundary layer

    Cheskidov, A.


    We study transitional and turbulent boundary layers using a turbulent velocity profile equation recently derived from the Navier-Stokes-alpha and Leray-alpha models. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of c f max =0.0063 for turbulent velocity profiles. A two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers

  12. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  13. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  14. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    Gemmer, J A; Venkataramani, S C


    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl–von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet. (paper)

  15. Boundary layer on a flat plate with suction

    Favre, A.; Dumas, R.; Verollet, E.


    This research done in wind tunnel concerns the turbulent boundary layer of a porous flat plate with suction. The porous wall is 1 m long and begins 1 m downstream of the leading edge. The Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness is of the order of 16.300. The suction rate defined as the ratio of the velocity perpendicular to the wall to the external flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2 per cent. The pressure gradient can be controlled. The mean velocity profiles have been determined for various positions and suction rates by means of total pressure probes together with the intensities of the turbulent velocity fluctuations components, energy spectra and correlations by means of hot wire anemometers, spectral analyser and correlator. The stream lines, the values of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses, of the local wall friction, of the turbulent energy production term, with some information on the dissipation of the energy have been derived from these measurements. For these data the integral of equation of continuity in boundary layer have been drawn. The suction effects on the boundary layer are important. The suction thoroughly alters the mean velocity profiles by increasing the viscous shear stresses near the wall and decreasing them far from the wall, it diminishes the longitudinal and transversal turbulence intensities, the turbulent shear stresses, and the production of energy of turbulence. These effects are much stressed in the inner part of the boundary layer. On the other hand the energy spectra show that the turbulence scale is little modified, the boundary layer thickness being not much diminished by the suction. The suction effects can be appreciated by comparing twice the suction rate to the wall friction coefficient (assumed airtight), quite noticeable as soon as the rate is about unity, they become very important when it reaches ten. (author) [fr

  16. Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout.

    Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti


    The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, swimming at 1.02±0.09 L s(-1) (mean±s.d., N=4), were measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique at a Reynolds number of 4×10(5). The boundary layer profile showed unsteadiness, oscillating above and beneath the classical logarithmic law of the wall with body motion. Across the entire surface regions that were measured, local Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, which is the distance that is perpendicular to the fish surface through which the boundary layer momentum flows at free-stream velocity, were greater than the critical value of 320 for the laminar-to-turbulent transition. The skin friction was dampened on the convex surface while the surface was moving towards a free-stream flow and increased on the concave surface while retreating. These observations contradict the result of a previous study using different species swimming by different methods. Boundary layer compression accompanied by an increase in local skin friction was not observed. Thus, the overall results may not support absolutely the Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning hypothesis that the undulatory motions of swimming fish cause a large increase in their friction drag because of the compression of the boundary layer. In some cases, marginal flow separation occurred on the convex surface in the relatively anterior surface region, but the separated flow reattached to the fish surface immediately downstream. Therefore, we believe that a severe impact due to induced drag components (i.e. pressure drag) on the swimming performance, an inevitable consequence of flow separation, was avoided. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.


    The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.

  18. An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.


    An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

  19. Leading edge effect in laminar boundary layer excitation by sound

    Leehey, P.; Shapiro, P.


    Essentially plane pure tone sound waves were directed downstream over a heavily damped smooth flat plate installed in a low turbulence (0.04%) subsonic wind tunnel. Laminar boundary layer disturbance growth rates were measured with and without sound excitation and compared with numerical results from spatial stability theory. The data indicate that the sound field and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves coexist with comparable amplitudes when the latter are damped; moreover, the response is linear. Higher early growth rates occur for excitation by sound than by stream turbulence. Theoretical considerations indicate that the boundary layer is receptive to sound excitation primarily at the test plate leading edge. (orig.)

  20. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  1. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer

    Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo


    Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer is control......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...

  2. Experimental demonstration of the Rayleigh acoustic viscous boundary layer theory.

    Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; Tovar, R


    Amplitude and phase velocity measurements on the laminar oscillatory viscous boundary layer produced by acoustic waves are presented. The measurements were carried out in acoustic standing waves in air with frequencies of 68.5 and 114.5 Hz using laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The results obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement with the predictions made by the Rayleigh viscous boundary layer theory and confirm the existence of a local maximum of the velocity amplitude and its expected location.

  3. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods


    This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers.  .

  4. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    Sridhar, A.


    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  5. Experimental measurements and modelling of the WEGA boundary layer plasma

    El Shaer, M.; Ichtchenko, G.


    The boundary layer of the WEGA Tokamak has been investigated by using specific diagnostics: movable 4 mm microwave interferometer, several types of movable and fixed probes, Katsumata probe, and multigrid electrostatic analyzer. During the RF heating at the lower hybrid frequency, some modifications in the parameters of the boundary layer are observed which are interpreted by the ponderomotive force effects. A comparison between the measured reflection coefficients of the grill waveguides and their predicted values by a coupling theory (not taking into account the real conditions facing the Grill) is presented. A diffusion model was also made to describe this particular region and to fit the experimental results

  6. Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Garratt, J. R.


    Near-surface wind profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer, depth h, above relatively flat, tree-covered terrain are described in the context of the analysis of Garratt (1980) for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. The observations at two sites imply a surface-based transition layer, of depth z *, within which the observed non-dimensional profiles Φ M 0 are a modified form of the inertial sub-layer relation Φ _M ( {{z L}} = ( {{{1 + 5_Z } L}} ) according to Φ _M^{{0}} ˜eq ( {{{1 + 5z} L}} )exp [ { - 0.7( {{{1 - z} z}_ * } )] , where z is height above the zero-plane displacement and L is the Monin-Obukhov length. At both sites the depth z * is significantly smaller than the appropriate neutral value ( z * N ) found from the previous analysis, as might be expected in the presence of a buoyant sink for turbulent kinetic energy.

  7. Fast Fermi acceleration in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    Wu, C.S.; Lui, A.T.Y.


    A longstanding question in the field of magnetospheric physics is the source of the energetic particles which are commonly observed along the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). Several models have been suggested for the acceleration of these particles. We suggest a means by which the fast Fermi acceleration mechanism [Wu, 1984] can accelerate electrons at the plasma sheet and perhaps account for some of the observations. We propose the following: A localized hydromagnetic disturbance propagating through the tail lobe region impinges upon the PSBL deforming it and displacing it in towards the central plasma sheet. The boundary layer can then act like a moving magnetic mirror. If the disturbance is propagating nearly perpendicular to the layer then its velocity projected parallel to the layer (and the magnetic field) can be very large resulting in significant acceleration of reflected particles. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  8. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent


    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  9. Transient Growth Analysis of Compressible Boundary Layers with Parabolized Stability Equations

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan


    The linear form of parabolized linear stability equations (PSE) is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in boundary layer flows. This methodology includes the non-parallel effects associated with the spatial development of boundary layer flows. As noted in literature, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating stream-wise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of stream-wise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The parameter space for optimal growth is extended to the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high enthalpy effects, and the effect of wall cooling is studied with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the span-wise wavenumber that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous-inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and also for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. These differences in the base flow lead to an increasing reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on self-similar mean-flow approximation. Finally, the maximum optimal energy gain for the favorable pressure gradient boundary layer near a planar stagnation point is found to be substantially weaker than that in a zero pressure gradient Blasius boundary layer.

  10. Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga


    Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.

  11. Hundred years of the boundary layer – Some aspects


    Aug 2, 2005 ... from the wall and separation of the boundary layer, which in turn enables proper ... design, which performed better and consumed only one-third the power .... turbulent flow and also to free shear flows like wakes and jets.

  12. Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air

    The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...

  13. Axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow past slender bodies

    Kuiken, H.K.


    Radial curvature effects on axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow are investigated for vertical cylinders and cones for some special non-uniform temperature differences between the surface and the ambient fluid. The solution is given as a power series expansion, the first term being equal

  14. Exact solution of nonsteady thermal boundary layer equation

    Dorfman, A.S.


    There are only a few exact solutions of the thermal boundary layer equation. Most of them are derived for a specific surface temperature distribution. The first exact solution of the steady-state boundary layer equation was given for a plate with constant surface temperature and free-stream velocity. The same problem for a plate with polynomial surface temperature distribution was solved by Chapmen and Rubesin. Levy gave the exact solution for the case of a power law distribution of both surface temperature and free-stream velocity. The exact solution of the steady-state boundary layer equation for an arbitrary surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution was given by the author in two forms: of series and of the integral with an influence function of unheated zone. A similar solution of the nonsteady thermal boundary layer equation for an arbitrary surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution is presented here. In this case, the coefficients of series depend on time, and in the limit t → ∞ they become the constant coefficients of a similar solution published before. This solution, unlike the one presented here, does not satisfy the initial conditions at t = 0, and, hence, can be used only in time after the beginning of the process. The solution in the form of a series becomes a closed-form exact solution for polynomial surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution. 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. Exchange Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Mountainous Terrain

    Stefano Serafin


    Full Text Available The exchange of heat, momentum, and mass in the atmosphere over mountainous terrain is controlled by synoptic-scale dynamics, thermally driven mesoscale circulations, and turbulence. This article reviews the key challenges relevant to the understanding of exchange processes in the mountain boundary layer and outlines possible research priorities for the future. The review describes the limitations of the experimental study of turbulent exchange over complex terrain, the impact of slope and valley breezes on the structure of the convective boundary layer, and the role of intermittent mixing and wave–turbulence interaction in the stable boundary layer. The interplay between exchange processes at different spatial scales is discussed in depth, emphasizing the role of elevated and ground-based stable layers in controlling multi-scale interactions in the atmosphere over and near mountains. Implications of the current understanding of exchange processes over mountains towards the improvement of numerical weather prediction and climate models are discussed, considering in particular the representation of surface boundary conditions, the parameterization of sub-grid-scale exchange, and the development of stochastic perturbation schemes.

  16. A mathematical model of turbulence for turbulent boundary layers

    Pereira Filho, H.D.V.


    Equations to the so called Reynolds stress-tensor (kinetic turbulent energy) and dissipation rate are developed and a turbulence flux approximation used. Our ideia here is to use those equations in order to develop an economical and fast numeircal procedure for computation of turbulent boundary layer. (author) [pt

  17. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    Videler, J.J.


    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,

  18. Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed

    Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...

  19. Towards Adaptive Grids for Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Simulations

    van Hooft, J. Antoon; Popinet, Stéphane; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; van der Linden, Steven J. A.; de Roode, Stephan R.; van de Wiel, Bas J. H.


    We present a proof-of-concept for the adaptive mesh refinement method applied to atmospheric boundary-layer simulations. Such a method may form an attractive alternative to static grids for studies on atmospheric flows that have a high degree of scale separation in space and/or time. Examples include the diurnal cycle and a convective boundary layer capped by a strong inversion. For such cases, large-eddy simulations using regular grids often have to rely on a subgrid-scale closure for the most challenging regions in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Here we analyze a flow configuration that describes the growth and subsequent decay of a convective boundary layer using direct numerical simulation (DNS). We validate the obtained results and benchmark the performance of the adaptive solver against two runs using fixed regular grids. It appears that the adaptive-mesh algorithm is able to coarsen and refine the grid dynamically whilst maintaining an accurate solution. In particular, during the initial growth of the convective boundary layer a high resolution is required compared to the subsequent stage of decaying turbulence. More specifically, the number of grid cells varies by two orders of magnitude over the course of the simulation. For this specific DNS case, the adaptive solver was not yet more efficient than the more traditional solver that is dedicated to these types of flows. However, the overall analysis shows that the method has a clear potential for numerical investigations of the most challenging atmospheric cases.

  20. A parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers

    Monty, J.P.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.


    There are many open questions regarding the behaviour of turbulent boundary layers subjected to pressure gradients and this is confounded by the large parameter space that may affect these flows. While there have been many valuable investigations conducted within this parameter space, there are still insufficient data to attempt to reduce this parameter space. Here, we consider a parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers where we restrict our attention to the pressure gradient parameter, β, the Reynolds number and the acceleration parameter, K. The statistics analyzed are limited to the streamwise fluctuating velocity. The data show that the mean velocity profile in strong pressure gradient boundary layers does not conform to the classical logarithmic law. Moreover, there appears to be no measurable logarithmic region in these cases. It is also found that the large-scale motions scaling with outer variables are energised by the pressure gradient. These increasingly strong large-scale motions are found to be the dominant contributor to the increase in turbulence intensity (scaled with friction velocity) with increasing pressure gradient across the boundary layer.

  1. Chemical boundary layers in CVD II. Reversible reactions

    Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Giling, L.J.


    In addition to irreversible reactions, which were treated in part I, reversible reactions in the gas phase have beenstudied using the concept of the chemical boundary layer. The analysis is given for the situations in which either the forwardor the back reaction is dominant. Two conceptual models

  2. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo


    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  3. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  4. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape

    Dickinson, B T


    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

  5. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F


    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  6. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    Dryden, Hugh L.


    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  7. Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.

  8. Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries

    Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.

  9. Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.


    One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.

  10. Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse ...

    According to them, an equilibrium boundary layer might exist if the pressure ... of adverse pressure gradient on the turbulent boundary layer at the flat plate for ..... of a constant-pressure turbulent layer to the sudden application of an sudden.

  11. New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation

    Chaoqun Liu


    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.

  12. Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy


    The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections.

  13. Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

    Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino


    The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.

  14. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    Hildebrand, A.R.; Boynton, W.V.


    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively

  15. HIFiRE-5 Boundary Layer Transition and HIFiRE-1 Shock Boundary Layer Interaction


    comparisons to the computational data. It should also be noted that multi-dimensional conduction effects, not accounted for in the flight data analysis...are reasonable for much of the HIFiRE-5 trajectory, and may account for discrepancies between measured and computed laminar and turbulent heat...coasted until the second stage ignited at 15 seconds. Orion burnout occurred at 43 seconds. The payload remained attached to the second stage

  16. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

    Gryning, S.E.


    The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer

  17. Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models.

    Eliáš, Jan


    The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson's ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.

  18. Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report


    The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion

  19. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    Zakharov, L.E.


    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  20. Impurity production and transport in the boundary layer of tokamaks

    McCracken, G.M.


    The processes by which impurities are produced and enter the discharge are discussed. Emphasis is placed on sputtering at the limiter and an analytical global model is described which incorporates the self-stabilizing effects whch control the edge temperature. Predictions of the scaling of edge temperature and of total radiated power are compared with experimental data from JET and other tokamaks operating with limiters. Under many conditions the scaling of the edge conditions and of the radiated power is accurately predicted. Impurity transport in the boundary and the question of how to control the boundary layer is then discussed. The example of the Impurity Control Limiter on DITE is described. (author)

  1. Boundary layer turbulence in transitional and developed states

    Park, George Ilhwan; Wallace, James M.; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz


    Using the recent direct numerical simulations by Wu and Moin ["Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer," Phys. Fluids 22, 85 (2010)] of a flat-plate boundary layer with a passively heated wall, statistical properties of the turbulence in transition at Reθ ≈ 300, from individual turbulent spots, and at Reθ ≈ 500, where the spots merge (distributions of the mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, kinetic energy production, and dissipation rates, enstrophy and its components) have been compared to these statistical properties for the developed boundary layer turbulence at Reθ = 1840. When the distributions in the transitional regions are conditionally averaged so as to exclude locations and times when the flow is not turbulent, they closely resemble the distributions in the developed turbulent state at the higher Reynolds number, especially in the buffer layer. Skin friction coefficients, determined in this conditional manner at the two Reynolds numbers in the transitional flow are, of course, much larger than when their values are obtained by including both turbulent and non-turbulent information there, and the conditional averaged values are consistent with the 1/7th power law approximation. An octant analysis based on the combinations of signs of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, u, v, and θ shows that the momentum and heat fluxes are predominantly of the mean gradient type in both the transitional and developed regions. The fluxes appear to be closely associated with vortices that transport momentum and heat toward and away from the wall in both regions of the flow. The results suggest that there may be little fundamental difference between the nonlinear processes involved in the formation of turbulent spots that appear in transition and those that sustain the turbulence when it is developed. They also support the view that the transport processes and the vortical structures that drive them in developed and transitional boundary

  2. Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.

  3. Structure measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    Extensive hot-wire measurements have been made to determine the structure of the large eddy in a synthejc turbulent boundary layer on a flat-plate model. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a nominal free-stream velocity of 12 m/s. The synthetic turbulent boundary layer had a hexagonal pattern of eddies and a ratio of streamwise scale to spanwise scale of 3.2:1. The measured celerity of the large eddy was 84.2 percent of the free-stream velocity. There was some loss of coherence, but very little distortion, as the eddies moved downstream. Several mean properties of the synthetic boundary layer were found to agree quite well with the mean properties of a natural turbulent boundary layer at the same Reynolds number. The large eddy is composed of a pair of primary counter-rotating vortices about five [...] long in the streamwise direction and about one [...] apart in the spanwise direction, where [...] is the mean boundary-layer thickness. The sense of the primary pair is such as to pump fluid away from the wall in the region between the vortices. A secondary pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, having a sense opposite to that of the primary pair, is observed outside of and slightly downstream from the primary vortices. Both pairs of vortices extend across the full thickness of the boundary layer and are inclined at a shallow angle to the surface of the flat plate. The data show that the mean vorticity vectors are not tangential to the large-eddy vortices. In fact, the streamwise and normal vorticity components that signal the presence of the eddy are of the same order of magnitude. Definite signatures are obtained in terms of the mean skin-friction coefficient and the mean wake parameter averaged at constant phase. Velocities induced by the vortices are partly responsible for entrainment of irrotational fluid, for transport of momentum, for generation of Reynolds stresses, and for maintenance of streamwise and normal vorticity in the outer

  4. Shock Wave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiment on Control Surface


    attachment points to the cold structure of the capsule (see Figure 16, left). Vibrational and acoustical loads are relevant for electronic components. Noise...thermal detector subsystems. Table 1: Summary of infrared technologies considered. Thermal Detectors Quantum Detectors Bolometer Pyrometer InGaAs...holes but a decrease in sensitivity at lower temperature results. Pyrometers are suitable for high temperature measurement, but they respond only to

  5. Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay


    In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a

  6. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

    Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin


    This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...

  7. Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán


    A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.

  8. Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries

    Huang, Yu Li


    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.

  9. Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.


    The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.

  10. Grain boundary layer behavior in ZnO/Si heterostructure

    Liu Bingce; Liu Cihui; Yi Bo


    The grain boundary layer behavior in ZnO/Si heterostucture is investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) curves, deep level transient spectra (DLTS) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves are measured. The transport currents of ZnO/Si heterojunction are dominated by grain boundary layer as high densities of interfacial states existed. The interesting phenomenon that the crossing of In I-V curves of ZnO/Si heterojunction at various measurement temperatures and the decrease of its effective barrier height with the decrement of temperature are in contradiction with the ideal heterojunction thermal emission model is observed. The details will be discussed in the following. (semiconductor physics)

  11. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A.C.


    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations. (author)

  12. 3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers

    Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.


    The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe was submerged in a water container, such that the

  13. The Boundary Layer Flows of a Rivlin-Ericksen Fluid

    Sadeghy, K.; Khabazi, N.; Taghavi, S. M.

    The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible, laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determine a family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer such that these problems may have similarity solutions. We study the Falkner-Skan flow of a viscoelastic fluid governed by second order model, as the Reynolds number Re→ ∞. We obtain an ordinary forth order differential equation to obtain the stream function, velocity profile and the stress. The stream function is then governed by a generalized Falkner-Skan equation. In comparison with Newtonian Falkner-Skan equation that has two coefficients this new one has four coefficients that two of them represent elastic properties of the fluid. The effects of the elastic parameter on the velocity filed have been discussed. As it is shown in the figure there is a good agreement between numerical results and previous special cases confirm the validity of the presented algorithm.

  14. Vortex Formation During Unsteady Boundary-Layer Separation

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    Unsteady laminar boundary-layer separation is invariably accompanied by the formation of vortices. The aim of the present work is to study the vortex formation mechanism(s). An adverse pressure gradient causing a separation can be decomposed into a spatial component ( spatial variation of the velocity external to the boundary layer ) and a temporal component ( temporal variation of the external velocity ). Experiments were conducted in a piston driven 2-D water channel, where the spatial component could be be contolled by geometry and the temporal component by the piston motion. We present results for three divergent channel geometries. The piston motion consists of three phases: constant acceleration from start, contant velocity, and constant deceleration to stop. Depending on the geometry and piston motion we observe different types of unsteady separation and vortex formation.

  15. Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes.

    Qiao, Z X; Zhou, Y; Wu, Z


    This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.

  16. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.


    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  17. Diffusive boundary layers at the bottom of gaps and cracks

    Etzold, Merlin A.; Landel, Julien R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.


    This work is motivated by the chemical decontamination of droplets of chemical warfare agents trapped in the gaps and cracks found in most man-made objects. We consider axial laminar flow within gaps with both straight and angled walls. We study the diffusive mass transfer from a source (e.g. a droplet surface) located at the bottom of the gap. This problem is similar to boundary layers and Graetz-type problems (heat transfer in pipe flow) with the added complication of a non-uniform lateral concentration profile due to the lateral variation of the velocity profile. We present 3D solutions for the diffusive boundary layer and demonstrate that a 2D mean-field model, for which we calculate series and similarity solutions, captures the essential physics. We demonstrate the immediate practical relevance of our findings by comparing decontamination of a droplet located in a gap and on an exposed surface.

  18. Boundary layer development on turbine airfoil suction surfaces

    Sharma, O. P.; Wells, R. A.; Schlinker, R. H.; Bailey, D. A.


    The results of a study supported by NASA under the Energy Efficient Engine Program, conducted to investigate the development of boundary layers under the influence of velocity distributions that simulate the suction sides of two state-of-the-art turbine airfoils, are presented. One velocity distribution represented a forward loaded airfoil ('squared-off' design), while the other represented an aft loaded airfoil ('aft loaded' design). These velocity distributions were simulated in a low-speed, high-aspect-ratio wind tunnel specifically designed for boundary layer investigations. It is intended that the detailed data presented in this paper be used to develop improved turbulence model suitable for application to turbine airfoil design.

  19. Stereoscopic PIV measurement of boundary layer affected by DBD actuator

    Procházka Pavel


    Full Text Available The effect of ionic wind generated by plasma actuator on developed boundary layer inside a narrow channel was investigated recently. Since the main investigated plane was parallel to the channel axis, the description of flow field was not evaluated credibly. This paper is dealing with cross-section planes downstream the actuator measured via 3D time-resolved PIV. The actuator position is in spanwise or in streamwise orientation so that ionic wind is blown in the same direction as the main flow or in opposite direction or perpendicularly. The interaction between boundary layer and ionic wind is evaluated for three different velocities of main flow and several parameters of plasma actuation (steady and unsteady regime, frequency etc.. Statistical properties of the flow are shown as well as dynamical behaviour of arising longitudinal vortices are discussed via phase-locked measurement and decomposition method.

  20. Abyssal Upwelling and Downwelling and the role of boundary layers

    McDougall, T. J.; Ferrari, R. M.


    The bottom-intensified mixing activity arising from the interaction of internal tides with bottom topography implies that the dianeutral advection in the ocean interior is downwards, rather than upwards as is required by continuity. The upwelling of Bottom Water through density surfaces in the deep ocean is however possible because of the sloping nature of the sea floor. A budget study of the abyss (deeper than 2000m) will be described that shows that while the upwelling of Bottom Water might be 25 Sv, this is achieved by very strong upwelling in the bottom turbulent boundary layer (of thickness 50m) of 100 Sv and strong downwelling in the ocean interior of 75 Sv. This downwelling occurs within 10 degrees of longitude of the continental boundaries. This near-boundary confined strong upwelling and downwelling clearly has implications for the Stommel-Arons circulation.

  1. Numerical solution of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations

    Glasser, A.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Tesauro, G.


    Three different techniques are presented for numerical solution of the equations governing the boundary layer of resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing and interchange instabilities in toroidal geometry. Excellent agreement among these methods and with analytical results provides confidence in the correctness of the results. Solutions obtained in regimes where analytical medthods fail indicate a new scaling for the tearing mode as well as the existence of a new regime of stability

  2. The curved kinetic boundary layer of active matter.

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John F


    A body submerged in active matter feels the swim pressure through a kinetic accumulation boundary layer on its surface. The boundary layer results from a balance between translational diffusion and advective swimming and occurs on the microscopic length scale . Here , D T is the Brownian translational diffusivity, τ R is the reorientation time and l = U 0 τ R is the swimmer's run length, with U 0 the swim speed [Yan and Brady, J. Fluid. Mech., 2015, 785, R1]. In this work we analyze the swim pressure on arbitrary shaped bodies by including the effect of local shape curvature in the kinetic boundary layer. When δ ≪ L and l ≪ L, where L is the body size, the leading order effects of curvature on the swim pressure are found analytically to scale as J S λδ 2 /L, where J S is twice the (non-dimensional) mean curvature. Particle-tracking simulations and direct solutions to the Smoluchowski equation governing the probability distribution of the active particles show that λδ 2 /L is a universal scaling parameter not limited to the regime δ, l ≪ L. The net force exerted on the body by the swimmers is found to scale as F net /(n ∞ k s T s L 2 ) = f(λδ 2 /L), where f(x) is a dimensionless function that is quadratic when x ≪ 1 and linear when x ∼ 1. Here, k s T s = ζU 0 2 τ R /6 defines the 'activity' of the swimmers, with ζ the drag coefficient, and n ∞ is the uniform number density of swimmers far from the body. We discuss the connection of this boundary layer to continuum mechanical descriptions of active matter and briefly present how to include hydrodynamics into this purely kinetic study.

  3. Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface

    Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej


    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  4. The double layers in the plasma sheet boundary layer during magnetic reconnection

    Guo, J.; Yu, B.


    We studied the evolutions of double layers which appear after the magnetic reconnection through two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results show that the double layers are formed in the plasma sheet boundary layer after magnetic reconnection. At first, the double layers which have unipolar structures are formed. And then the double layers turn into bipolar structures, which will couple with another new weak bipolar structure. Thus a new double layer or tripolar structure comes into being. The double layers found in our work are about several ten Debye lengths, which accords with the observation results. It is suggested that the electron beam formed during the magnetic reconnection is responsible for the production of the double layers.

  5. Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz


    We report on our direct numerical simulation of an incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80-1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number Pr=1. Skin-friction coefficient and other boundary layer parameters follow the Blasius solutions prior to the onset of turbulent spots. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cf deviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses agree with experimental data over an extended turbulent region downstream of transition. Normalized rms wall-pressure fluctuation increases gradually with the streamwise growth of the turbulent boundary layer. Wall shear stress fluctuation, τw,rms'+, on the other hand, remains constant at approximately 0.44 over the range, 800spots are tightly packed with numerous hairpin vortices. With the advection and merging of turbulent spots, these young isolated hairpin forests develop into the downstream turbulent region. Isosurfaces of temperature up to Reθ=1900 are found to display well-resolved signatures of hairpin vortices, which indicates the persistence of the hairpin forests.

  6. Manipulation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using Synthetic Jets

    Berger, Zachary; Gomit, Guillaume; Lavoie, Philippe; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath


    This work focuses on the application of active flow control, in the form of synthetic jet actuators, of turbulent boundary layers. An array of 2 synthetic jets are oriented in the spanwise direction and located approximately 2.7 meters downstream from the leading edge of a flat plate. Actuation is applied perpendicular to the surface of the flat plate with varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies (open-loop). Two-component large window particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed at the University of Southampton, in the streamwise-wall-normal plane. Complementary stereo PIV measurements were performed at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), in the spanwise-wall-normal plane. The freestream Reynolds number is 3x104, based on the boundary layer thickness. The skin friction Reynolds number is 1,200 based on the skin friction velocity. The experiments at Southampton allow for the observation of the control effects as the flow propagates downstream. The experiments at UTIAS allow for the observation of the streamwise vorticity induced from the actuation. Overall the two experiments provide a 3D representation of the flow field with respect to actuation effects. The current work focuses on the comparison of the two experiments, as well as the effects of varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies on the turbulent boundary layer. Funded Supported by Airbus.

  7. Acoustic explorations of the upper ocean boundary layer

    Vagle, Svein


    The upper ocean boundary layer is an important but difficult to probe part of the ocean. A better understanding of small scale processes at the air-sea interface, including the vertical transfer of gases, heat, mass and momentum, are crucial to improving our understanding of the coupling between atmosphere and ocean. Also, this part of the ocean contains a significant part of the total biomass at all trophic levels and is therefore of great interest to researchers in a range of different fields. Innovative measurement plays a critical role in developing our understanding of the processes involved in the boundary layer, and the availability of low-cost, compact, digital signal processors and sonar technology in self-contained and cabled configurations has led to a number of exciting developments. This talk summarizes some recent explorations of this dynamic boundary layer using both active and passive acoustics. The resonant behavior of upper ocean bubbles combined with single and multi-frequency broad band active and passive devices are now giving us invaluable information on air-sea gas transfer, estimation of biological production, marine mammal behavior, wind speed and precipitation, surface and internal waves, turbulence, and acoustic communication in the surf zone.

  8. Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.


    The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

  9. Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere

    Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C.


    The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble open-quotes beadsclose quotes or open-quotes pearlsclose quotes aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations

  10. Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

    Krueger, Steven K.


    The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.

  11. Application of an engineering inviscid-boundary layer method to slender three-dimensional vehicle forebodies

    Riley, Christopher J.


    An engineering inviscid-boundary layer method has been modified for application to slender three-dimensional (3-D) forebodies which are characteristic of transatmospheric vehicles. An improved shock description in the nose region has been added to the inviscid technique which allows the calculation of a wider range of body geometries. The modified engineering method is applied to the perfect gas solution over a slender 3-D configuration at angle of attack. The method predicts surface pressures and laminar heating rates on the windward side of the vehicle that compare favorably with numerical solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. These improvements extend the 3-D capabilities of the engineering method and significantly increase its design applications.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow past a porous substrate with Beavers-Joseph boundary condition

    Jat, R.N.; Chaudhary, Santosh


    The flow of an electrically conducting fluid past a porous substrate attached to the flat plate with Beavers-Joseph boundary condition under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field has been studied. Taking suitable similar variables, the momentum equation is transformed to ordinary differential equation and solved by standard techniques. The energy equation is solved by considering two boundary layers, one in the porous substrate and the other above the porous substrate. The velocity and temperature distributions along with Nusselt number are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. (author)

  13. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Ahmed Hawass; Hosam Mostafa; Ahmed Elbeih


    The effect of underwater shock wave on different target plates has been studied. An underwater shock wave generator (shock tube) was used to study the interactions between water and different constructed targets which act as shock wave mitigation. Target plates, composed of sandwich of two aluminum sheets with rubber and foam in between, were prepared and studied. For comparison, the target plates composed of triple aluminum sheets were tested. The study includes the testing of the selected p...

  14. Experiments in a boundary layer subjected to free stream turbulence. Part 1: Boundary layer structure and receptivity

    Westin, K.J.A.; Boiko, A.V.; Klingmann, B.G.B.; Kozlov, V.V.; Alfredsson, P.H.


    The modification of the mean and fluctuating characteristics of a flat plate boundary layer subjected to nearly isotropic free stream turbulence (FST) is studied experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The study is focussed on the region upstream of the transition onset, where the fluctuations inside the boundary layer are dominated by elongated flow structures which grow downstream both in amplitude and length. Their downstream development and scaling is investigated, and the results are compared to those obtained by previous authors. This allows some conclusions about the parameters which are relevant for the modelling of the transition process. The mechanisms underlying the transition process and the relative importance of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave instability in this flow are treated in an accompanying paper. 25 refs

  15. Interaction between plasma synthetic jet and subsonic turbulent boundary layer

    Zong, Haohua; Kotsonis, Marios


    This paper experimentally investigates the interaction between a plasma synthetic jet (PSJ) and a subsonic turbulent boundary layer (TBL) using a hotwire anemometer and phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. The PSJ is interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer developing on the flat wall of a square wind tunnel section of 1.7 m length. The Reynolds number based on the freestream velocity (U∞ = 20 m/s) and the boundary layer thickness (δ99 = 34.5 mm) at the location of interaction is 44 400. A large-volume (1696 mm3) three-electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) with a round exit orifice (D = 2 mm) is adopted to produce high-speed (92 m/s) and short-duration (Tjet = 1 ms) pulsed jets. The exit velocity variation of the adopted PSJA in a crossflow is shown to remain almost identical to that in quiescent conditions. However, the flow structures emanating from the interaction between the PSJ and the TBL are significantly different from what were observed in quiescent conditions. In the midspan xy plane (z = 0 mm), the erupted jet body initially follows a wall-normal trajectory accompanied by the formation of a distinctive front vortex ring. After three convective time scales the jet bends to the crossflow, thus limiting the peak penetration depth to approximately 0.58δ99. Comparison of the normalized jet trajectories indicates that the penetration ability of the PSJ is less than steady jets with the same momentum flow velocity. Prior to the jet diminishing, a recirculation region is observed in the leeward side of the jet body, experiencing first an expansion and then a contraction in the area. In the cross-stream yz plane, the signature structure of jets in a crossflow, the counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP), transports high-momentum flow from the outer layer to the near-wall region, leading to a fuller velocity profile and a drop in the boundary layer shape factor (1.3 to 1.2). In contrast to steady jets, the CVP produced by the PSJ

  16. Boundary layer control by a fish: Unsteady laminar boundary layers of rainbow trout swimming in turbulent flows.

    Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti


    The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss [0.231±0.016 m total body length (L) (mean±s.d.); N=6], swimming at 1.6±0.09 L s -1 (N=6) in an experimental flow channel (Reynolds number, Re=4×10 5 ) with medium turbulence (5.6% intensity) were examined using the particle image velocimetry technique. The tangential flow velocity distributions in the pectoral and pelvic surface regions (arc length from the rostrum, l x =71±8 mm, N=3, and l x =110±13 mm, N=4, respectively) were approximated by a laminar boundary layer model, the Falkner-Skan equation. The flow regime over the pectoral and pelvic surfaces was regarded as a laminar flow, which could create less skin-friction drag than would be the case with turbulent flow. Flow separation was postponed until vortex shedding occurred over the posterior surface (l x =163±22 mm, N=3). The ratio of the body-wave velocity to the swimming speed was in the order of 1.2. This was consistent with the condition of the boundary layer laminarization that had been confirmed earlier using a mechanical model. These findings suggest an energy-efficient swimming strategy for rainbow trout in a turbulent environment. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Electrical Variability

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Galichenko, Sergey V.; Aphinogenov, Konstantin V.; Prokhorchuk, Aleksandr A.


    Due to the chaotic motion of charged particles carried by turbulent eddies, electrical quantities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have short-term variability superimposed on long-term variability caused by sources from regional to global scales. In this study the influence of radon exhalation rate, aerosol distribution and turbulent transport efficiency on the variability of fair-weather atmospheric electricity is investigated via Lagrangian stochastic modelling. For the mid-latitude lower atmosphere undisturbed by precipitation, electrified clouds, or thunderstorms, the model is capable of reproducing the diurnal variation in atmospheric electrical parameters detected by ground-based measurements. Based on the analysis of field observations and numerical simulation it is found that the development of the convective boundary layer, accompanied by an increase in turbulent kinetic energy, forms the vertical distribution of radon and its decaying short-lived daughters to be approximately coincident with the barometric law for several eddy turnover times. In the daytime ABL the vertical distribution of atmospheric electrical conductivity tends to be uniform except within the surface layer, due to convective mixing of radon and its radioactive decay products. At the same time, a decrease in the conductivity near the ground is usually observed. This effect leads to an enhanced ground-level atmospheric electric field compared to that normally observed in the nocturnal stably-stratified boundary layer. The simulation showed that the variability of atmospheric electric field in the ABL associated with internal origins is significant in comparison to the variability related to changes in global parameters. It is suggested that vertical profiles of electrical quantities can serve as informative parameters on ABL turbulent dynamics and can even more broadly characterize the state of the environment.

  18. The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers

    Brzek, Brian G.

    The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 component shows the largest influence of roughness, where the high peak near the wall was decreased and became nearly flat for the fully rough regime profiles. In addition, the Reynolds stresses in outer variables show self-similarity for fixed experimental conditions. However, as the roughness parameter, k +, increases, all Reynolds stress

  19. Proceedings of the 17th and 18th NAL Workshops on Investigation and Control of Boundary-Layer Transition

    National Aerospace Laboratory; 航空宇宙技術研究所


    The following topics were discussed: vortex shedding, laminar boundary layer measurement, vortex ring, turbulent flow measurement, high Reynolds number turbulence, pulsed flow, boundary layer instability, Ekman boundary layer, sound receptivity, Tollmien-Schlichting wave in supersonic boundary layer, flow field instability, turbulent flow pattern, vorticity distribution in shear flow, turbulence wedge, streamwise vortex mixing, thermal convection, oblique wave generation in boundary layer, in...

  20. Four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer at a planar plate

    Labusov, A.N.; Lapin, Yu.V.


    Consideration is given to four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer on a plane plate, based on generalization of one-parametric algebraic Prandtl-Loitsjansky-Klauzer-3 model. The algebraic model uses Prandtl formulas for mixing path with Loitsjansky damping multiplier in the internal region and the relation for turbulent viscosity, based on universal scales of external region and named the Klauzer-3 formula. 12 refs., 10 figs

  1. Radiative instabilities of atmospheric jets and boundary layers

    Candelier, J.


    Complex flows occur in the atmosphere and they can be source of internal gravity waves. We focus here on the sources associated with radiative and shear (or Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities. Stability studies of shear layers in a stably stratified fluid concern mainly cases where shear and stratification are aligned along the same direction. In these cases, Miles (1961) and Howard (1961) found a necessary condition for stability based on the Richardson number: Ri ≥ 1/4. In this thesis, we show that this condition is not necessary when shear and stratification are not aligned: we demonstrate that a two-dimensional planar Bickley jet can be unstable for all Richardson numbers. Although the most unstable mode remains 2D, we show there exists an infinite family of 3D unstable modes exhibiting a radiative structure. A WKBJ theory is found to provide the main characteristics of these modes. We also study an inviscid and stratified boundary layer over an inclined wall with non-Boussinesq and compressible effects. We show that this flow is unstable as soon as the wall is not horizontal for all Froude numbers and that strongly stratified 3D perturbations behave exactly like compressible 2D perturbations. Applications of the results to the jet stream and the atmospheric boundary layer are proposed. (author) [fr

  2. Dynamical Properties of Vortex Furrows in Transitioning Boundary Layers

    Bernard, Peter


    A vortex filament simulation of the spatially growing transitional boundary layer reveals the presence of low speed streaks underlying furrow-like streamwise oriented folds in the surface vorticity layer (AIAA J. Vol. 48, 2010; Proc. ETC13, 2011). The putative hairpin vortices and packets widely observed in boundary layers are found to be an illusion created by assigning the status of structure to the visualized form of regions of rotational motion created by the vortex furrows. Thus, at best, hairpins roughly describe the shape taken by that part of the vorticity within the furrows that directly causes rotation while ignoring the ``invisible'' and considerable non-rotational part. The life history of the furrows is discussed here including a description of how they grow and the dynamics of the vorticity field within them. Long lived furrows represent ``factories'' within which initially spanwise vorticity progresses from arch to either one or two-lobed mushroom-like structures in a continuous stream. Furrows grow by this same process. At the heart of the furrow phenomenon is a self-reinforcing process by which streamwise vorticity begets more streamwise vorticity.

  3. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi


    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  4. On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer

    Hones, E.W. Jr. (Mission Research Corp., Los Alamos, NM (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))


    The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  6. Comments on deriving the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    Recently, the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer received much attention in a series of papers by Zilitinkevich and co-workers. In these studies the stable boundary-layer height is derived in terms of inverse interpolation of different boundary-layer height scales, each representing a

  7. Modelling the artic stable boundary layer and its coupling to the surface

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    The impact of coupling the atmosphere to the surface energy balance is examined for the stable boundary layer, as an extension of the first GABLS (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study) one-dimensional model intercomparison. This coupling is of major importance for the stable boundary-layer

  8. Numerical Investigation of a Heated, Sheared Planetary Boundary Layer

    Liou, Yu-Chieng


    A planetary boundary layer (PBL) developed on 11 July, 1987 during the First International Satellites Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) is investigated numerically by a two dimensional and a three dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) model. Most of the simulated mean and statistical properties are utilized to compare or verify against the observational results extracted from single Doppler lidar scans conducted by Gal-Chen et al. (1992) on the same day. Through the methods of field measurements and numerical simulations, it is found that this PBL, in contrast to the well-known convective boundary layer (CBL), is driven by not only buoyancy but also wind shear. Large eddies produced by the surface heating, as well as internal gravity waves excited by the convection, are both present in the boundary layer. The most unique feature is that in the stable layer, the momentum flux ({overlinerm u^' w^'}), transported by the gravity waves, is counter-gradient. The occurrence of this phenomenon is interpreted by Gal-Chen et al. (1992) using the theory of critical layer singularity, and is confirmed by the numerical simulations in this study. Qualitative agreements are achieved between the model-generated and lidar-derived results. However, quantitative comparisons are less satisfactory. The most serious discrepancy is that in the stable layer the magnitudes of the observed momentum flux ({overlinerm u^ ' w^'}) and vertical velocity variance ({overlinerm w^'^2}) are much larger than their simulated counterparts. Nevertheless, through the technique of numerical simulation, evidence is collected to show inconsistencies among the observations. Thus, the lidar measurements of {overline rm u^' w^'} and {overlinerm w^ '^2} seem to be doubtful. A Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA) experiment is performed in order to connect the evolution of the model integration with the observations. The results indicate that the dynamical relaxation

  9. Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake

    Piomelli, Ugo


    The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low

  10. The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers

    Cui, Jing

    In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the

  11. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height over Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Investigating boundary layer climatology in arid regions

    Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa


    Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.

  12. Boundary layer polarization and voltage in the 14 MLT region

    Lundin, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Woch, J.; Marklund, G.


    Viking midlatitude observations of ions and electrons in the postnoon auroral region show that field-aligned acceleration of electrons and ions with energies up to a few kiloelectron volts takes place. The characteristics of the upgoing ion beams and the local transverse electric field observed by Viking indicate that parallel ion acceleration is primarily due to a quasi-electrostatic field-aligned acceleration process below Viking altitudes, i.e., below 10,000-13,500 km. A good correlation is found between the maximum upgoing ion beam energy and the depth of the local potential well determined by the Viking electric field experiment within dayside 'ion inverted Vs.' The total transverse potential throughout the entire region near the ion inverted Vs. is generally much higher than the field-aligned potential and may reach well above 10 kV. However, the detailed mapping of the transverse potential out to the boundary layer, a fundamental issue which remains controversial, was not attempted here. An important finding in this study is the strong correlation between the maximum up going ion beam energy of dayside ion inverted Vs and the solar wind velocity. This suggests a direct coupling of the solar wind plasma dynamo/voltage generator to the region of field-aligned particle acceleration. The fact that the center of dayside ion inverted Vs coincide with convection reversals/flow stagnation and upward Birkeland currents on what appears to be closed field lines (Woch et al., 1993), suggests that field-aligned potential structures connect to the inner part of an MHD dyanmo in the low-latitude boundary layer. Thus the Viking observations substantiate the idea of a solar wind induced boundary layer polarization where negatively charged perturbations in the postnoon sector persistently develops along the magnetic field lines, establishing accelerating potential drops along the geomagnetic field lines in the 0.5-10 kV range.

  13. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer

    Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.


    Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.

  14. Discussion of boundary-layer characteristics near the casing of an axial-flow compressor

    Mager, Artur; Mahoney, John J; Budinger, Ray E


    Boundary-layer velocity profiles on the casing of an axial-flow compressor behind the guide vanes and rotor were measured and resolved into two components: along the streamline of the flow and perpendicular to it. Boundary-layer thickness and the deflection of the boundary layer at the wall were the generalizing parameters. By use of these results and the momentum-integral equations, the characteristics of boundary on the walls of axial-flow compressor are qualitatively discussed. Important parameters concerning secondary flow in the boundary layer appear to be turning of the flow and the product of boundary-layer thickness and streamline curvature outside the boundary layer. Two types of separation are shown to be possible in three dimensional boundary layer.

  15. Effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer stability and transition

    Malik, M. R.; Spall, R. E.; Chang, C.-L.


    The effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer instability is studied theoretically for a Mach 8 flow past a 7 degree semivertex cone. The basic flow is computed by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Linear stability analysis of the basic flow reveals that, with small amount of bluntness, the critical Reynolds number for the onset of instability increases by an order of magnitude compared to the sharp cone value. The computed second mode frequencies are also in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The results are used to explain the effect of unit Reynolds number on transition present in the quiet aeroballistic range data.

  16. Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers

    Wang, Ting


    Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.

  17. Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna


    By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....

  18. Boundary-layer effects on cold fronts at a coastline

    Garratt, J. R.


    The present note discusses one physical mechanism which may contribute to cold air channelling, manifest as a frontal bulge on a surface-analysis chart, in the coastal region of Victoria in southeast Australia. This involves the modification of boundary-layer air in both offshore (prefrontal) and onshore (postfrontal) flow, and the effect on cross-frontal thermal contrast. The problem is discussed in terms of a north-south-oriented cold front behaving as an atmospheric gravity current, propagating along an east-west-oriented coastline, in the presence of a prefrontal offshore stream.

  19. Dynamics of turbulent spots in transitional boundary layer

    Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Uruba, Václav


    Roč. 318, č. 032028 (2011), s. 1-5 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European turbulence conference /13./. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-15.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer transition * hairpin vortex * calmed region Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation

    Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.


    This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Transition in Hypersonic Boundary Layers


    sile domes. AGARD Report CP 493. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development. 273 Horvath, T. 2002 Boundary layer transition on slender...reference skin-friction coefficient cp , cv Specific heats at constant pressure and volume, respectively cph Phase speed in propagation direction e...y)) 73 and two-dimensional (W = 0): u = U (y) + u′ , (4.9a) v = v′ , (4.9b) w = w′ , (4.9c) p = 1 + p′ , (4.9d) T = T (y) + T ′ , (4.9e) ρ = 1 T (y

  2. Asymptotically optimal unsaturated lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer

    Ramazanov, M D [Institute of Mathematics with Computing Centre, Ufa Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation)


    This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer. These formulae are unsaturated (in the sense of Babenko) both with respect to the order and in regard to the property of asymptotic optimality on W{sub 2}{sup m}-spaces, m element of (n/2,∞). Most of the results obtained apply also to W{sub 2}{sup μ}(R{sup n})-spaces with a hypoelliptic multiplier of smoothness μ. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  3. Fluid-membrane tethers: minimal surfaces and elastic boundary layers.

    Powers, Thomas R; Huber, Greg; Goldstein, Raymond E


    Thin cylindrical tethers are common lipid bilayer membrane structures, arising in situations ranging from micromanipulation experiments on artificial vesicles to the dynamic structure of the Golgi apparatus. We study the shape and formation of a tether in terms of the classical soap-film problem, which is applied to the case of a membrane disk under tension subject to a point force. A tether forms from the elastic boundary layer near the point of application of the force, for sufficiently large displacement. Analytic results for various aspects of the membrane shape are given.

  4. Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer

    Heikkila, W J


    The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.

  5. LES of the adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer

    Inoue, M.; Pullin, D.I.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.


    Highlights: • The adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at high Re is studied. • Wall-model LES works well for nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layer. • Relationship of skin-friction to Re and Clauser pressure parameter is explored. • Self-similarity is observed in the velocity statistics over a wide range of Re. -- Abstract: We describe large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flat-plate turbulent boundary layer in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the domain of the flow coupled to a wall model that explicitly accounts for the presence of a finite pressure gradient. The LES are designed to match recent experiments conducted at the University of Melbourne wind tunnel where a plate section with zero pressure gradient is followed by section with constant adverse pressure gradient. First, LES are described at Reynolds numbers based on the local free-stream velocity and the local momentum thickness in the range 6560–13,900 chosen to match the experimental conditions. This is followed by a discussion of further LES at Reynolds numbers at approximately 10 times and 100 times these values, which are well out of range of present day direct numerical simulation and wall-resolved LES. For the lower Reynolds number runs, mean velocity profiles, one-point turbulent statistics of the velocity fluctuations, skin friction and the Clauser and acceleration parameters along the streamwise, adverse pressure-gradient domain are compared to the experimental measurements. For the full range of LES, the relationship of the skin-friction coefficient, in the form of the ratio of the local free-stream velocity to the local friction velocity, to both Reynolds number and the Clauser parameter is explored. At large Reynolds numbers, a region of collapse is found that is well described by a simple log-like empirical relationship over two orders of magnitude. This is expected to be useful for constant adverse

  6. Two-media boundary layer on a flat plate

    Nikolay Ilyich Klyuev; Asgat Gatyatovich Gimadiev; Yuriy Alekseevich Kryukov


    The present paper provides a solution to the problem of a flow over a flat semi-infinite plate set at an angle to the horizon, and having a thin liquid film on its surface by external airflow. The film is formed by extrusion of liquid from the porous wall. The paper proposes a mathematical model of a two-media boundary layer flow. The main characteristics of the flow to a zero and a first approximation are determined. A drop of frictional stress is obtained.

  7. Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes

    Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)


    In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)

  8. Twin boundary spacing effects on shock response and spall behaviors of hierarchically nanotwinned fcc metals

    Yuan, Fuping; Chen, Liu; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Xiaolei


    Atomistic deformation mechanisms of hierarchically nano-twinned (NT) Ag under shock conditions have been investigated using a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the same grain size d and the same spacing of primary twins λ 1 , the average flow stress behind the shock front in hierarchically NT Ag first increases with decreasing spacing of secondary twins λ 2 , achieving a maximum at a critical λ 2 , and then drops as λ 2 decreases further. Above the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanisms are dominated by three type strengthening mechanisms: (a) partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries (GBs) travel across other boundaries; (b) partial dislocations emitted from twin boundaries (TBs) travel across other TBs; (c) formation of tertiary twins. Below the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanism are dominated by two softening mechanisms: (a) detwinning of secondary twins; (b) formation of new grains by cross slip of partial dislocations. Moreover, the twin-free nanocrystalline (NC) Ag is found to have lower average flow stress behind the shock front than those of all hierarchically NT Ag samples except the one with the smallest λ 2 of 0.71 nm. No apparent correlation between the spall strength and λ 2 is observed in hierarchically NT Ag, since voids always nucleate at both GBs and boundaries of the primary twins. However, twin-free NC Ag is found to have higher spall strength than hierarchically NT Ag. Voids can only nucleate from GBs for twin-free NC Ag, therefore, twin-free NC Ag has less nucleation sources along the shock direction when compared to hierarchically NT Ag, which requiring higher tensile stress to create spallation. These findings should contribute to the understandings of deformation mechanisms of hierarchically NT fcc metals under extreme deformation conditions

  9. Ideal shocks in 2-layer flow Part I: Under a rigid lid

    Jiang, Qingfang; Smith, Ronald B.


    Previous work on the classical problem of shocks in a 2-layer density-stratified fluid used eithera parameterized momentum exchange or an assumed Bernoulli loss. We propose a new theorybased on a set of viscous model equations. We define an idealized shock in two-layer densitystratified flow under a rigid lid as a jump or drop of the interface in which (1) the force balanceremains nearly hydrostatic in the shock, (2) there is no exchange of momentum between thetwo layers except by pressure fo...

  10. Estimation of evaporation from equilibrium diurnal boundary layer humidity

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Li, D.; Gentine, P.


    Simplified conceptual models of the convective boundary layer as a well mixed profile of potential temperature (theta) and specific humidity (q) impinging on an initially stably stratified linear potential temperature profile have a long history in atmospheric sciences. These one dimensional representations of complex mixing are useful for gaining insights into land-atmosphere interactions and for prediction when state of the art LES approaches are infeasible. As previously shown (e.g. Betts), if one neglects the role of q in bouyancy, the framework yields a unique relation between mixed layer Theta, mixed layer height (h), and cumulative sensible heat flux (SH) throughout the day. Similarly assuming an initially q profile yields a simple relation between q, h, and cumulative latent heat flux (LH). The diurnal dynamics of theta and q are strongly dependent on SH and the initial lapse rates of theta (gamma_thet) and q (gamma q). In the estimation method proposed here, we further constrain these relations with two more assumptions: 1) The specific humidity is the same at the start of the period of boundary layer growth and at the collapse; and 2) Once the mixed layer reaches the LCL, further drying occurs proportionally to the deardorff convective velocity scale (omega) multiplied by q. Assumption (1) is based on the idea that below the cloud layer, there are no sinks of moisture within the mixed layer (neglecting lateral humidity divergence). Thus the net mixing of dry air aloft with evaporation from the surface must balance. Inclusion of the simple model of moisture loss above the LCL into the bulk-CBL model allows definition of an equilibrium humidity (q) condition at which the diurnal cycle of q repeats (i.e. additions of q from surface balance entrainment of dry air from above). Surprisingly, this framework allows estimation of LH from q, theta, and estimated net radiation by solving for the value of Evaporative Fraction (EF) for which the diurnal cycle of q

  11. Boundary-Layer Control: In Memory of Bill Reynolds

    Kim, John


    Professor Bill Reynolds (1933-2004) inspired many students and colleagues with his never-ending curiosity and thought-provoking ideas. Bill's relentless energy, together with his hallmark can-do character and do-it-yourself attitude, led to many seminal contributions to mechanical engineering in general, and fluid mechanics in particular. He has left a lasting impact on many of us, especially for those who had the privilege of working closely with him. Some of my current work on boundary-layer control, the use of neural networks in particular, were inspired by many discussions with Bill. He was among the first to see the potential of control-theoretic approaches for flow control, which has become the main thrust of my current research. Without his continued encouragement, I would not have been deeply involved in this line of research; and perhaps, we would not have seen the current flurry of research activities in applying modern control theories to flow control. In memory of Bill Reynolds, who himself has contributed much to flow control, an analysis of boundary-layer control from a linear system perspective will be presented.

  12. On boundary layer modelling using the ASTEC code

    Smith, B.L.


    The modelling of fluid boundary layers adjacent to non-slip, heated surface using the ASTEC code is described. The pricipal boundary layer characteristics are derived using simple dimensional arguments and these are developed into criteria for optimum placement of the computational mesh to achieve realistic simulation. In particular, the need for externally-imposed drag and heat transfer correlations as a function of the local mesh concentration is discussed in the context of both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Special emphasis is placed in the latter case on the (k-ε) turbulence model, which is standard in the code. As far as possible, the analyses are pursued from first principles, so that no comprehensive knowledge of the history of the subject is required for the general ASTEC user to derive practical advice from the document. Some attention is paid to the use of heat transfer correlations for internal solid/fluid surfaces, whose treatment is not straightforward in ASTEC. It is shown that three formulations are possible to effect the heat transfer, called Explicit, Jacobian and Implicit. The particular advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed with regard to numerical stability and computational efficiency. (author) 18 figs., 1 tab., 39 refs

  13. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.


    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  14. Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.

    Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi


    Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

  15. Nonlinear evolution of Mack modes in a hypersonic boundary layer

    Chokani, Ndaona


    In hypersonic boundary layer flows the nonlinear disturbance evolution occurs relatively slowly over a very long length scale and has a profound effect on boundary layer transition. In the case of low-level freestream disturbances and negligible surface roughness, the transition is due to the modal growth of exponentially growing Mack modes that are destabilized by wall cooling. Cross-bicoherence measurements, derived from hot-wire data acquired in a quiet hypersonic tunnel, are used to identify and quantify phase-locked, quadratic sum and difference interactions involving the Mack modes. In the early stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, cross-bicoherence measurements indicate that the energy exchange between the Mack mode and the mean flow first occurs to broaden the sidebands; this is immediately followed by a sum interaction of the Mack mode to generate the first harmonic. In the next stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, there is a difference interaction of the first harmonic, which is also thought to contribute to the mean flow distortion. This difference interaction, in the latter stages, is also accompanied by a difference interaction between Mack mode and first harmonic, and a sum interaction, which forces the second harmonic. Analysis using the digital complex demodulation technique, shows that the low-frequency, phase-locked interaction that is identified in the cross bicoherence when the Mack mode and first harmonic have large amplitudes, arises due to the amplitude modulation of Mack mode and first harmonic.

  16. Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei


    The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  17. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.


    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  18. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.


    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns

  19. Vertical transport of water in the Martian boundary layer

    Zent, Aaron P.; Haberle, R. M.; Houben, Howard C.


    We are continuing our examination of the transport of H2O through the martian boundary layer, and we have written a one-dimensional numerical model of the exchange of H2O between the atmosphere and subsurface of Mars through the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Our goal is to explore the mechanisms of H2O exchange, and to elucidate the role played by the regolith in the local H2O budget. The atmospheric model includes effects of Coriolis, pressure gradient, and frictional forces for momentum, as well as radiation, sensible heat flux, and advection for heat. The model differs from Flasar and Goody by use of appropriate Viking-based physical constants and inclusion of the radiative effects of atmospheric dust. We specify the pressure gradient force or compute it from a simple slope model. The subsurface model accounts for conduction of heat and diffusion of H2O through a porous adsorbing medium in response to diurnal forcing. The model is initialized with depth-independent H2O concentrations (2 kg M(exp -3)) in the regolith, and a dry atmosphere. The model terminates when the atmospheric H2O column abundance stabilizes at 0.1 percent per sol.

  20. Density effects on turbulent boundary layer structure: From the atmosphere to hypersonic flow

    Williams, Owen J. H.

    This dissertation examines the effects of density gradients on turbulent boundary layer statistics and structure using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Two distinct cases were examined: the thermally stable atmospheric surface layer characteristic of nocturnal or polar conditions, and the hypersonic bounder layer characteristic of high speed aircraft and reentering spacecraft. Previous experimental studies examining the effects of stability on turbulent boundary layers identified two regimes, weak and strong stability, separated by a critical bulk stratification with a collapse of near-wall turbulence thought to be intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. To examine the characteristics of these two regimes, PIV measurements were obtained in conjunction with the mean temperature profile in a low Reynolds number facility over smooth and rough surfaces. The turbulent stresses were found to scale with the wall shear stress in the weakly stable regime prior relaminarization at a critical stratification. Changes in profile shape were shown to correlate with the local stratification profile, and as a result, the collapse of near-wall turbulence is not intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. The critical bulk stratification was found to be sensitive to surface roughness and potentially Reynolds number, and not constant as previously thought. Further investigations examined turbulent boundary layer structure and changes to the motions that contribute to turbulent production. To study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Mach 8, significant improvements were required to the implementation and error characterization of PIV. Limited resolution or dynamic range effects were minimized and the effects of high shear on cross-correlation routines were examined. Significantly, an examination of particle dynamics, subject to fluid inertia, compressibility and non-continuum effects, revealed that particle frequency responses to turbulence can be up to an

  1. Quartz microstructures in the Younger Dryas boundary layer ~12.9 ka.

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W. Z.; Pennock, G. M.; Drury, M. R.


    In 2007, Firestone et al. proposed that an extraterrestrial impact occurred at the end of the Allerød interstadial, destabilizing the North American ice sheet and initiating the colder Younger Dryas (YD) stadial. Up to now, the evidence for this proposed impact has been heavily debated (Pinter et al., 2011) and no one has been able to provide convincing evidence in favour of the hypothesis. Two years later, Mahaney et al. (2009) claimed that they had frequently found planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz from a possible YD boundary layer in Venezuela. However, the data presented consisted of an SEM image of the surface of a quartz grain only, and in following work Mahaney et al. (2010) stated that they had found no irrefutable evidence of PDFs. Instead, they showed grains with oriented cracks along their edges, which they claimed to be related to the 'mass impact and extreme heat' from incoming ejecta material. However, oriented cracks are not accepted evidence for an impact (French, Koeberl, 2010). We investigate the quartz fraction of samples from the European Usselo horizon, an Allerød-YD age soil, as well as one sample from the North American Black Mat, which marks the onset of the YD. Possible shocked quartz grains were isolated using density separation, mounted in epoxy and polished. No evidence for oriented cracks along grain edges, like those reported by Mahaney et al. (2010), has been found so far. Transmitted light microscopy showed that a number of grains contained tectonic deformation lamellae. One grain from the Usselo horizon contains at least two sets of closely spaced, straight, and narrow lamellae, similar to PDFs. In SEM-CL imaging however, only some of these lamellae showed up as non-luminescent, while most had the same intensity as the host grain. This is not typical for PDFs (Hamers, Drury 2011). It is possible that these lamellae represent planar fractures, which also form by low pressure shock processes. It must be noted that even if

  2. A stable boundary layer perspective on global temperature trends

    McNider, R T; Christy, J R; Biazar, A


    One of the most significant signals in the thermometer-observed temperature record since 1900 is the decrease in the diurnal temperature range over land, largely due to warming of the minimum temperatures. While some data sets have indicated this asymmetrical warming has been reduced since 1979, regional analyses (e.g. East Africa) indicate that the nocturnal warming continues at a pace greater than daytime temperatures. The cause for this night time warming in the observed temperatures has been attributed to a variety of causes. Climate models have in general not replicated the change in diurnal temperature range well. Here we would like to try to distinguish between warming in the nocturnal boundary layer due to a redistribution of heat and warming due to the accumulation of heat. The temperature at night at shelter height is a result of competition between thermal stability and mechanical shear. If stability wins then turbulence is suppressed and the cooling surface becomes cut-off from the warmer air aloft, which leads to sharp decay in surface air temperature. If shear wins, then turbulence is maintained and warmer air from aloft is continually mixed to the surface, which leads to significantly lower cooling rates and warmer temperatures. This warming occurs due to a redistribution of heat. As will be shown by techniques of nonlinear analysis the winner of the stability and shear contest can be very sensitive to changes in greenhouse gas forcing, surface roughness, cloudiness, and surface heat capacity (including soil moisture). Further, the minimum temperatures measured in the nocturnal boundary layer represent only a very shallow layer of the atmosphere which is usually only a few hundred meters thick. It is likely that the observed warming in minimum temperature, whether caused by additional greenhouse forcing or land use changes or other land surface dynamics, is reflecting a redistribution of heat by turbulence-not an accumulation of heat. Because minimum

  3. Predictions and Verification of an Isotope Marine Boundary Layer Model

    Feng, X.; Posmentier, E. S.; Sonder, L. J.; Fan, N.


    A one-dimensional (1D), steady state isotope marine boundary layer (IMBL) model is constructed. The model includes meteorologically important features absent in Craig and Gordon type models, namely height-dependent diffusion/mixing and convergence of subsiding external air. Kinetic isotopic fractionation results from this height-dependent diffusion which starts as pure molecular diffusion at the air-water interface and increases linearly with height due to turbulent mixing. The convergence permits dry, isotopically depleted air subsiding adjacent to the model column to mix into ambient air. In δD-δ18O space, the model results fill a quadrilateral, of which three sides represent 1) vapor in equilibrium with various sea surface temperatures (SSTs) (high d18O boundary of quadrilateral); 2) mixture of vapor in equilibrium with seawater and vapor in the subsiding air (lower boundary depleted in both D and 18O); and 3) vapor that has experienced the maximum possible kinetic fractionation (high δD upper boundary). The results can be plotted in d-excess vs. δ18O space, indicating that these processes all cause variations in d-excess of MBL vapor. In particular, due to relatively high d-excess in the descending air, mixing of this air into the MBL causes an increase in d-excess, even without kinetic isotope fractionation. The model is tested by comparison with seven datasets of marine vapor isotopic ratios, with excellent correspondence; >95% of observational data fall within the quadrilateral area predicted by the model. The distribution of observations also highlights the significant influence of vapor from the nearby converging descending air on isotopic variations in the MBL. At least three factors may explain the affect the isotopic composition of precipitation. The model can be applied to modern as well as paleo- climate conditions.

  4. Influence of Fluid–Thermal–Structural Interaction on Boundary Layer Flow in Rectangular Supersonic Nozzles

    Kalyani Bhide


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to highlight the significance of Fluid–Thermal–Structural Interaction (FTSI as a diagnosis of existing designs, and as a means of preliminary investigation to ensure the feasibility of new designs before conducting experimental and field tests. The novelty of this work lies in the multi-physics simulations, which are, for the first time, performed on rectangular nozzles. An existing experimental supersonic rectangular converging/diverging nozzle geometry is considered for multi-physics 3D simulations. A design that has been improved by eliminating the sharp throat is further investigated to evaluate its structural integrity at design Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR 3.67 and off-design (NPR 4.5 conditions. Static structural analysis is performed by unidirectional coupling of pressure loads from steady 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and thermal loads from steady thermal conduction simulations, such that the simulations represent the experimental set up. Structural deformation in the existing design is far less than the boundary layer thickness, because the impact of Shock wave Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI is not as severe. FTSI demonstrates that the discharge coefficient of the improved design is 0.99, and its structural integrity remains intact at off-design conditions. This proves the feasibility of the improved design. Although FTSI influence is shown for a nozzle, the approach can be applied to any product design cycle, or as a prelude to building prototypes.

  5. Modelling and parallel calculation of a kinetic boundary layer

    Perlat, Jean Philippe


    This research thesis aims at addressing reliability and cost issues in the calculation by numeric simulation of flows in transition regime. The first step has been to reduce calculation cost and memory space for the Monte Carlo method which is known to provide performance and reliability for rarefied regimes. Vector and parallel computers allow this objective to be reached. Here, a MIMD (multiple instructions, multiple data) machine has been used which implements parallel calculation at different levels of parallelization. Parallelization procedures have been adapted, and results showed that parallelization by calculation domain decomposition was far more efficient. Due to reliability issue related to the statistic feature of Monte Carlo methods, a new deterministic model was necessary to simulate gas molecules in transition regime. New models and hyperbolic systems have therefore been studied. One is chosen which allows thermodynamic values (density, average velocity, temperature, deformation tensor, heat flow) present in Navier-Stokes equations to be determined, and the equations of evolution of thermodynamic values are described for the mono-atomic case. Numerical resolution of is reported. A kinetic scheme is developed which complies with the structure of all systems, and which naturally expresses boundary conditions. The validation of the obtained 14 moment-based model is performed on shock problems and on Couette flows [fr

  6. Radiatively Driven Winds from Effective Boundary Layer around ...

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Matter accreting onto black holes suffers a standing or oscil- lating shock wave in much of the parameter space. The post-shock region is hot, puffed up and reprocesses soft photons from a Keplerian disc to produce the characteristic hard tail of the spectrum of accretion discs. The post-shock torus is also the base ...

  7. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.


    One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities

  8. Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay


    The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components

  9. Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark

    Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Hansen, Aksel Walle

    in atmospheric transport- and dispersion models. A new method of filtering clouds from the ceilometer data is presented. This allows for the inclusion of more than half of the data in the subsequent analysis, as the presence of clouds would otherwise complicate the boundary-layer height estimations. The boundary....... The boundary-layer height estimates are then used to analyse the daily evolution of the boundary layer and to perform monthly and annual frequency distributions of the boundary-layer height. For westerly winds bi-modal distributions are often found, which may be separated by different criteria, while...

  10. β-distribution for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux in relaxation turbulent boundary layer of compression ramp

    Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu


    A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.

  11. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.


    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective boundary layer to the night-time stable boundary

  12. Investigation of transition scenarios in boundary-layer flows

    Stolte, A.


    Laminar-turbulent transition mechanisms triggered by crossflow instability in three-dimensional, accelerated boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical methods of stability analysis. The investigations are based on the DLR swept plate experiment, where stationary and traveling crossflow modes can be selectively introduced into the flow field. Nonlinear instability analyses employing the parabolized stability equations (PSE) show that unique saturation amplitudes do neither exist for stationary crossflow vortices nor for traveling crossflow waves. This phenomenon is explained by means of a spatial bifurcation model. Using Floquet theory, temporal secondary instability analyses are then performed for the mean flow distorted by primary disturbances. In these analyses, secondary high-frequency disturbances with high growth rates are found. The location of these disturbances correlates well with regions of high shear in the primarily distorted flow field, especially on the back of the primary crossflow vortices. (orig.)

  13. On the secondary instability of three-dimensional boundary layers

    Janke, E. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Balakumar, P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)


    One of the possible transition scenarios in three-dimensional boundary layers, the saturation of stationary crossflow vortices and their secondary instability to high-frequency disturbances, is studied using the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory. Starting from nonlinear PSE solutions, we investigate the region where a purely stationary crossflow disturbance saturates for its secondary instability characteristics utilizing global and local eigenvalue solvers that are based on the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method and a Newton-Raphson technique, respectively. Results are presented for swept Hiemenz flow and the DLR swept flat plate experiment. The main focuses of this study are on the existence of multiple roots in the eigenvalue spectrum that could explain experimental observations of time-dependent occurrences of an explosive growth of traveling disturbances, on the origin of high-frequency disturbances, as well as on gaining more information about threshold amplitudes of primary disturbances necessary for the growth of secondary disturbances. (orig.)

  14. Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.


    The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.

  15. Numerical treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem

    Drymonitou, M.A.; Geroyannis, V.S.; Goudas, C.L.


    This paper presents a suitable numerical method for the treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem for flows past an infinite porous flat plate, the motion of which is governed by a general time-dependent law, under the influence of a transverse externally set magnetic field. The normal velocity of suction/injection at the plate is also assumed to be time-dependent. The results obtained on the basis of numerical approximations seem to compare favourably with earlier results (Pande et al., 1976; Tokis, 1978). Analytical approximations are given for the cases of a plate (i) generally accelerated and (ii) harmonically oscillating. The direct numerical treatment is obviously advantageous since it allows handling of cases where the known methods for analytical approximations are not applicable. This problem is closely related to the motions and heat transfer occurring locally on the surfaces of stars. (orig.)

  16. Microstructure of Turbulence in the Stably Stratified Boundary Layer

    Sorbjan, Zbigniew; Balsley, Ben B.


    The microstructure of a stably stratified boundary layer, with a significant low-level nocturnal jet, is investigated based on observations from the CASES-99 campaign in Kansas, U.S.A. The reported, high-resolution vertical profiles of the temperature, wind speed, wind direction, pressure, and the turbulent dissipation rate, were collected under nocturnal conditions on October 14, 1999, using the CIRES Tethered Lifting System. Two methods for evaluating instantaneous (1-sec) background profiles are applied to the raw data. The background potential temperature is calculated using the “bubble sort” algorithm to produce a monotonically increasing potential temperature with increasing height. Other scalar quantities are smoothed using a running vertical average. The behaviour of background flow, buoyant overturns, turbulent fluctuations, and their respective histograms are presented. Ratios of the considered length scales and the Ozmidov scale are nearly constant with height, a fact that can be applied in practice for estimating instantaneous profiles of the dissipation rate.

  17. Boundary layers and scaling relations in natural thermal convection

    Shishkina, Olga; Lohse, Detlef; Grossmann, Siegfried


    We analyse the boundary layer (BL) equations in natural thermal convection, which includes vertical convection (VC), where the fluid is confined between two differently heated vertical walls, horizontal convection (HC), where the fluid is heated at one part of the bottom plate and cooled at some other part, and Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). For BL dominated regimes we derive the scaling relations of the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers (Nu, Re) with the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers (Ra, Pr). For VC the scaling relations are obtained directly from the BL equations, while for HC they are derived by applying the Grossmann-Lohse theory to the case of VC. In particular, for RBC with large Pr we derive Nu Pr0Ra1/3 and Re Pr-1Ra2/3. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  18. The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.

    Mellor, G. L.


    A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.

  19. Characterization of Alfvenic fluctuations in the magnetopause boundary layer

    Rezeau, L.; Morane, A.; Perraut, S.; Roux, A.; Schmidt, R.


    The European Space Agency GEOS 2 spacecraft happened to cross the magnetopause several times, at various local times. Intense electric and magnetic fluctuations, in the ultralow-frequency (ULF) range (0-10 Hz) have been detected during each such crossing, with a peak at the magnetopause and still large amplitudes in the adjacent magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layer. By applying spectral analysis and correlations to the electric and magnetic fluctuations, and a minimum variance analysis to the magnetic fluctuations, the authors investigate the nature of these fluctuations which appear as short-lasting bursts in the spacecraft frame. Having reviewed possible interpretations, they show that the observed electric and magnetic signatures are consistent with small-scale (L ∼ ion Larmor radius) Alfvenic field-aligned structures passing by the spacecraft at high speed. It is suggested that these structures correspond to nonlinear Alfvenic structures

  20. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    Vigdorovich, I. I.


    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses

  1. Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements

    Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M


    In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination

  2. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates.

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz


    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  3. A preliminary assessment of the Titan planetary boundary layer

    Allison, Michael


    Results of a preliminary assessment of the characteristic features of the Titan planetary boundary are addressed. These were derived from the combined application of a patched Ekman surface layer model and Rossby number similarity theory. Both these models together with Obukhov scaling, surface speed limits and saltation are discussed. A characteristic Akman depth of approximately 0.7 km is anticipated, with an eddy viscosity approximately equal to 1000 sq cm/s, an associated friction velocity approximately 0.01 m/s, and a surface wind typically smaller than 0.6 m/s. Actual values of these parameters probably vary by as much as a factor of two or three, in response to local temporal variations in surface roughness and stability. The saltation threshold for the windblown injection of approximately 50 micrometer particulates into the atmosphere is less than twice the nominal friction velocity, suggesting that dusty breezes might be an occassional feature of the Titan meteorology.

  4. Combined core/boundary layer plasma transport simulations in tokamaks

    Prinja, A.K.; Schafer, R.F. Jr.; Conn, R.W.; Howe, H.C.


    Significant new numerical results are presented from self-consistent core and boundary or scrape-off layer plasma simulations with 3-D neutral transport calculations. For a symmetric belt limiter it is shown that, for plasma conditions considered here, the pump limiter collection efficiency increases from 11% to 18% of the core efflux as a result of local reionization of blade deflected neutrals. This hitherto unobserved effect causes a significant amplification of upstream ion flux entering the pump limiter. Results from coupling of an earlier developed two-zone edge plasma model ODESSA to the PROCTR core plasma simulation code indicates that intense recycling divertor operation may not be possible because of stagnation of upstream flow velocity. This results in a self-consistent reduction of density gradient in an intermediate region between the central plasma and separatrix, and a concomitant reduction of core-efflux. There is also evidence of increased recycling at the first wall. (orig.)

  5. Thorpe method applied to planetary boundary layer data

    Gonzalez-Nieto, P.L.; Cano, J.L.; Tijera, M.; Cano, D.


    Turbulence affects the dynamics of atmospheric processes by enhancing the transport of mass, heat, humidity and pollutants. The global objective for our work is to analyze some direct turbulent descriptors which reflect the mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this paper we present results related to the Thorpe displacements d Τ , the maximum Thorpe displacement (d Τ ) max and the Thorpe scale L Τ , the Ozmidov scale and their time evolution in the ABL during a day cycle. A tethered balloon was used to obtain vertical profiles of the atmospheric physical magnitudes up to 1000 m. We discuss the vertical and horizontal variability and how different descriptors are related to atmospheric mixing.

  6. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.


    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

  7. Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer.

    Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S; Apel, Eric C; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph


    Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A 'renoxification' process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth's surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.

  8. The Stokes boundary layer for a thixotropic or antithixotropic fluid

    McArdle, Catriona R.


    We present a mathematical investigation of the oscillatory boundary layer in a semi-infinite fluid bounded by an oscillating wall (the so-called \\'Stokes problem\\'), when the fluid has a thixotropic or antithixotropic rheology. We obtain asymptotic solutions in the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, and we use numerical integration to validate the asymptotic solutions and to explore the behaviour of the system for larger-amplitude oscillations. The solutions that we obtain differ significantly from the classical solution for a Newtonian fluid. In particular, for antithixotropic fluids the velocity reaches zero at a finite distance from the wall, in contrast to the exponential decay for a thixotropic or a Newtonian fluid.For small amplitudes of oscillation, three regimes of behaviour are possible: the structure parameter may take values defined instantaneously by the shear rate, or by a long-term average; or it may behave hysteretically. The regime boundaries depend on the precise specification of structure build-up and breakdown rates in the rheological model, illustrating the subtleties of complex fluid models in non-rheometric settings. For larger amplitudes of oscillation the dominant behaviour is hysteretic. We discuss in particular the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate at the oscillating wall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism

    Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun


    Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. Three different boundary layers (thick, medium and thin) were generated in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Pusan National University. The thick boundary layer having 670mm thickness was generated by using spires and roughness elements. The medium thickness of boundary layer(δ=270mm) was the natural turbulent boundary layer at the test section with fully long developing length(18m). The thin boundary layer with 36.5mm thickness was generated by on a smooth panel elevated 70cm from the wind tunnel floor. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the height of the model was 7.9X10 3 . The mean velocity vector fields and turbulent kinetic energy distribution were measured and compared. The effect of boundary layer thickness is clearly observed not only in the length of separation bubble but also in the reattachment points. The thinner boundary layer thickness, the higher turbulent kinetic energy peak around the model roof. It is strongly recommended that the height ratio between model and approaching boundary layer thickness should be a major parameter

  10. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail:; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)


    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  11. Complementary aspects on matter-antimatter boundary layers

    Lehnert, B.


    This paper gives some complementary aspects on the problems of the matter-antimatter metagalaxy model and its cellular structure, as being proposed by Klein and Alfven. A previously outlined one-dimensional model of a magnetized matter-antimatter boundary layer is updated and extended, by introducing amended nuclear annihilation data, and by making improved approximations of the layer structure and its dependence on relevant parameters. The critical beta value obtained from this model leads to critical plasma densities which are not high enough to become reconcilable with a cellular matter-antimatter structure within the volume of a galaxy. Additional investigations are required on the questions whether the obtained beta limit would still apply to cells of the size of a galaxy, and whether large modification of this limit could result from further refinement of the theory and from the transition to a three-dimensional model. Attention is called to the wide area of further research on ambiplasma physics, and on a three-dimensional cell structure with associated problems of equilibrium and stability. In particular, the high-energy ambiplasma component has to be further analysed in terms of kinetic theory, on account of the large Larmor radii of the corresponding electrons and positrons

  12. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.


    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the

  13. Response of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Soil Layer to a High Altitude, Dense Aerosol Cover.

    Garratt, J. R.; Pittock, A. B.; Walsh, K.


    The response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the appearance of a high-altitude smoke layer has been investigated in a mesoscale numerical model of the atmosphere. Emphasis is placed on the changes in mean boundary-layer structure and near-surface temperatures when smoke of absorption optical depth (AOD) in the, range 0 to 1 is introduced. Calculations have been made at 30°S, for different soil thermal properties and degrees of surface wetness, over a time period of several days during which major smoke-induced cooling occurs. The presence of smoke reduces the daytime mixed-layer depth and, for large enough values of AOD, results in a daytime surface inversion with large cooling confined to heights of less than a few hundred meters. Smoke-induced reductions in daytime soil and air temperatures of several degrees are typical, dependent critically upon soil wetness and smoke AOD. Locations near the coast experience reduced cooling whenever there is a significant onshore flow related to a sea breeze (this would also be the case with a large-scale onshore flow). The sea breeze itself disappears for large enough smoke AOD and, over sloping coastal terrain, a smoke-induced, offshore drainage flow may exist throughout the diurnal cycle.

  14. Structure of a mushy layer at the inner core boundary

    Deguen, R.; Huguet, L.; Bergman, M. I.; Labrosse, S.; Alboussiere, T.


    We present experimental results on the solidification of ammonium chloride from an aqueous solution, yielding a mushy zone, under hyper-gravity. A commercial centrifuge has been equipped with a slip-ring so that electric power, temperature and ultrasonic signals could be transmitted between the experimental setup and the laboratory. A Peltier element provides cooling at the bottom of the cell. Probes monitor the temperature along the height of the cell. Ultrasound measurements (2 to 6 MHz) is used to detect the position of the front of the mushy zone and to determine attenuation in the mush. A significant increase of solid fraction (or decrease of mushy layer thickness) and attenuation in the mush is observed as gravity is increased. Kinetic undercooling is significant in our experiments and has been included in a macroscopic mush model. The other ingredients of the model are conservation of energy and chemical species, along with heat/species transfer between the mush and the liquid phase: boundary-layer exchanges at the top of the mush and bulk convection within the mush (formation of chimneys). The outputs of the model compare well with our experiments. We have then run the model in a range of parameters suitable for the Earth's inner core, which has shown the role of bulk mush convection for the inner core and the reason why a solid fraction very close to unity should be expected. We have also run melting experiments: after crystallization of a mush, the liquid has been heated from above until the mush started to melt, while the bottom cold temperature was maintained. These melting experiments were motivated by the possible local melting at the inner core boundary that has been invoked to explain the formation of the anomalously slow F-layer at the bottom of the outer core or inner core hemispherical asymmetry. Oddly, the consequences of melting are an increase in solid fraction and a decrease in attenuation. It is hence possible that surface seismic velocity

  15. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    S. S. Zilitinkevich


    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  16. Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Geophysical-like Topographies

    Chamorro, L. P.; Hamed, A. M.; Castillo, L.


    An experimental investigation of the flow and the turbulence structure over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching (RIM) channel. Extensive measurements were performed to characterize the developing and developed flows. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave superimposed in the spanwise direction with a/λy = 0.1. The flow over these walls was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have an amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a/δ99 ≈ 0.1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers beds and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics for both walls show the presence of a well-structured shear layer past the roughness crests. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate suggests that the shear layer is responsible for the majority of turbulence production across both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits preferential spanwise flows that are thought to result in the multiple distinctive flow features for the 3D wall including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight on the effect of roughness three-dimensionality and Reynolds number is drawn in both the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and quadrant analysis.

  17. The α-γ-ɛ triple point and phase boundaries of iron under shock compression

    Li, Jun; Wu, Qiang; Xue, Tao; Geng, Huayun; Yu, Jidong; Jin, Ke; Li, Jiabo; Tan, Ye; Xi, Feng


    The phase transition of iron under shock compression has attracted much attention in recent decades because of its importance in fields such as condensed matter physics, geophysics, and metallurgy. At room temperature, the transition of iron from the α-phase (bcc) to the ɛ-phase (hpc) occurs at a stress of 13 GPa. At high temperature, a triple point followed by transformation to the γ-phase (fcc) is expected. However, the details of the high-temperature phase transitions of iron are still under debate. Here, we investigate the phase-transition behavior of polycrystalline iron under compression from room temperature to 820 K. The results show that the shock-induced phase transition is determined unequivocally from the measured three-wave-structure profiles, which clearly consist of an elastic wave, a plastic wave, and a phase-transition wave. The phase transition is temperature-dependent, with an average rate Δσtr/ΔT of -6.91 MPa/K below 700 K and -34.7 MPa/K at higher temperatures. The shock α-ɛ and α-γ phase boundaries intersect at 10.6 ± 0.53 GPa and 763 K, which agrees with the α-ɛ-γ triple point from early shock wave experiments and recent laser-heated diamond-anvil cell resistivity and in situ X-ray diffraction data but disagrees with the shock pressure-temperature phase diagram reported in 2009 by Zaretsky [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023510 (2009)].

  18. Large artificially generated turbulent boundary layers for the study of atmospheric flows

    Guimaraes, Joao Henrique D.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. dos; Freire, Atila P. Silva; Jian, Su


    The present work discusses in detail the experimental conditions for the establishment of thick artificially generated turbulent boundary layer which can be classified as having the near characteristics of an atmospheric boundary layer. The paper describes the experimental arrangement, including the features of the designed wind tunnel and of the instrumentation. the boundary layer is made to develop over a surface fitted with wedge generators which are used to yield a very thick boundary layer. The flow conditions were validated against the following features: growth, structure, equilibrium and turbulent transport momentum. Results are presented for the following main flow variables: mean velocity, local skin-friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum thickness and the Clauser factor. The velocity boundary layer characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with the expected trend in view of the classical expressions found in literature. (author)

  19. High-energy X-ray production in a boundary layer of an accreting neutron star

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki


    It is shown by Monte Carlo simulation that high-energy X-rays are produced through Compton scattering in a boundary layer of an accreting neutron star. The following is the mechanism for the high-energy X-ray production. An accreting neutron star has a boundary layer rotating rapidly on the surface. X-rays radiated from the star's surface are scattered in part in the boundary layer. Since the boundary layer rotates at a semirelativistic speed, the scattered X-ray energy is changed by the Compton effect. Some X-rays are scattered repeatedly between the neutron star and the boundary layer and become high-energy X-rays. This mechanism is a photon analog of the second-order Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays. When the boundary layer is semitransparent, high-energy X-rays are produced efficiently. 17 refs

  20. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    Buckingham, A.C.


    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  1. Boundary layer transition observations on a body of revolution with surface heating and cooling in water

    Arakeri, V. H.


    Boundary layer flow visualization in water with surface heat transfer was carried out on a body of revolution which had the predicted possibility of laminar separation under isothermal conditions. Flow visualization was by in-line holographic technique. Boundary layer stabilization, including elimination of laminar separation, was observed to take place on surface heating. Conversely, boundary layer destabilization was observed on surface cooling. These findings are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Wazzan et al. (1970).

  2. Analysis of Windward Side Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition on Blunted Cones at Angle of Attack


    correlated with PSE/LST N-Factors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS boundary layer transition, hypersonic, ground test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION ...Maccoll) solution e condition at boundary layer edge w condition at wall, viscous ∞ condition in freestream Conventions LST Linear Stability Theory PSE...STATES AIR FORCE AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0169 ANALYSIS OF WINDWARD SIDE HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION ON BLUNTED CONES AT ANGLE OF ATTACK Roger

  3. Boundary layer friction of solvate ionic liquids as a function of potential.

    Li, Hua; Rutland, Mark W; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Atkin, Rob


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the potential dependent boundary layer friction at solvate ionic liquid (SIL)-highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and SIL-Au(111) interfaces. Friction trace and retrace loops of lithium tetraglyme bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (Li(G4) TFSI) at HOPG present clearer stick-slip events at negative potentials than at positive potentials, indicating that a Li + cation layer adsorbed to the HOPG lattice at negative potentials which enhances stick-slip events. The boundary layer friction data for Li(G4) TFSI shows that at HOPG, friction forces at all potentials are low. The TFSI - anion rich boundary layer at positive potentials is more lubricating than the Li + cation rich boundary layer at negative potentials. These results suggest that boundary layers at all potentials are smooth and energy is predominantly dissipated via stick-slip events. In contrast, friction at Au(111) for Li(G4) TFSI is significantly higher at positive potentials than at negative potentials, which is comparable to that at HOPG at the same potential. The similarity of boundary layer friction at negatively charged HOPG and Au(111) surfaces indicates that the boundary layer compositions are similar and rich in Li + cations for both surfaces at negative potentials. However, at Au(111), the TFSI - rich boundary layer is less lubricating than the Li + rich boundary layer, which implies that anion reorientations rather than stick-slip events are the predominant energy dissipation pathways. This is confirmed by the boundary friction of Li(G4) NO 3 at Au(111), which shows similar friction to Li(G4) TFSI at negative potentials due to the same cation rich boundary layer composition, but even higher friction at positive potentials, due to higher energy dissipation in the NO 3 - rich boundary layer.

  4. Turbulent boundary layer noise : direct radiation at Mach number 0.5

    Gloerfelt , Xavier; Berland , Julien


    International audience; Boundary layers constitute a fundamental source of aerodynamic noise. A turbulent boundary layer over a plane wall can provide an indirect contribution to the noise by exciting the structure, and a direct noise contribution. The latter part can play a significant role even if its intensity is very low, explaining why it is hardly measured unambiguously. In the present study, the aerodynamic noise generated by a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is computed ...

  5. MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate

    Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Swati; Layek, G. C.


    An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets



    generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary

  7. Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling

    Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)


    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)

  8. CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows; Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Xiaodong Zhang


    This work is to evaluate the CFD prediction of Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow field over different terrains employing Fluent 6.3 software. How accurate the simulation could achieve depend on following aspects: viscous model, wall functions, agreement of CFD model with inlet wind velocity profile and top boundary condition. Fluent employ wall function roughness modifications based on data from experiments with sand grain roughened pipes and channels, describe wall adjacent zone with Roughness Height (Ks) instead of Roughness Length (z{sub 0}). In a CFD simulation of ABL flow, the mean wind velocity profile is generally described with either a logarithmic equation by the presence of aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} or an exponential equation by the presence of exponent. As indicated by some former researchers, the disagreement between wall function model and ABL velocity profile description will result in some undesirable gradient along flow direction. There are some methods to improve the simulation model in literatures, some of them are discussed in this report, but none of those remedial methods are perfect to eliminate the streamwise gradients in mean wind speed and turbulence, as EllipSys3D could do. In this paper, a new near wall treatment function is designed, which, in some degree, can correct the horizontal gradients problem. Based on the corrected model constants and near wall treatment function, a simulation of Askervein Hill is carried out. The wind condition is neutrally stratified ABL and the measurements are best documented until now. Comparison with measured data shows that the CFD model can well predict the velocity field and relative turbulence kinetic energy field. Furthermore, a series of artificial complex terrains are designed, and some of the main simulation results are reported. (au)

  9. Heat transfer through turbulent boundary layers - The effects of introduction of and recovery from convex curvature

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.


    Measurements have been made of the heat transfer through a turbulent boundary layer on a convexly curved isothermal wall and on a flat plate following the curved section. Data were taken for one free-stream velocity and two different ratios of boundary layer thickness to radius of curvature delta/R = 0.051 and delta/R = 0.077. Only small differences were observed in the distribution of heat transfer rates for the two boundary layer thicknesses tested, although differences were noted in the temperature distributions within the boundary layer

  10. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kodama, Tetsuya [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)


    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  11. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki


    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  12. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki


    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  13. A method for the direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer instability with finite-rate chemistry

    Marxen, Olaf; Magin, Thierry E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S.G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    A new numerical method is presented here that allows to consider chemically reacting gases during the direct numerical simulation of a hypersonic fluid flow. The method comprises the direct coupling of a solver for the fluid mechanical model and a library providing the physio-chemical model. The numerical method for the fluid mechanical model integrates the compressible Navier–Stokes equations using an explicit time advancement scheme and high-order finite differences. This Navier–Stokes code can be applied to the investigation of laminar-turbulent transition and boundary-layer instability. The numerical method for the physio-chemical model provides thermodynamic and transport properties for different gases as well as chemical production rates, while here we exclusively consider a five species air mixture. The new method is verified for a number of test cases at Mach 10, including the one-dimensional high-temperature flow downstream of a normal shock, a hypersonic chemical reacting boundary layer in local thermodynamic equilibrium and a hypersonic reacting boundary layer with finite-rate chemistry. We are able to confirm that the diffusion flux plays an important role for a high-temperature boundary layer in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, we demonstrate that the flow for a case previously considered as a benchmark for the investigation of non-equilibrium chemistry can be regarded as frozen. Finally, the new method is applied to investigate the effect of finite-rate chemistry on boundary layer instability by considering the downstream evolution of a small-amplitude wave and comparing results with those obtained for a frozen gas as well as a gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium

  14. Turbulent transport of large particles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Richter, D. H.; Chamecki, M.


    To describe the transport of heavy dust particles in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission processes with the larger-scale atmospheric motions. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large dust particles (larger than 10 micron in diameter) can be accurately described in a simplified Eulerian framework. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow, and consequences of overestimating surface fluxes via traditional parameterizations will be demonstrated.

  15. Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition

    Malik, M. R.; Li, F.


    Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.

  16. Non-parallel stability of compressible boundary layers

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.


    Linear and nonlinear stability of compressible growing boundary layers is studied using parabolized stability equations (PSE). Linear PSE calculations are performed for Mach 1.6 and 4.5 plate-plate flow, and the results are compared with the predictions of the multiple-scales approach. In general, the nonparallel effect appears to be less significant for oblique waves near the lower neutral branch but it progressively becomes important at higher Reynolds numbers near the upper branch. In contrast, the nonparallel effect is more pronounced near the lower branch for two-dimensional first-mode waves. The PSE and multiple-scales results agree for the first mode waves, but in the first-second mode transition region, the latter approach tends to break down. Comparison with the first (oblique) and second mode growth rate data from Kendall's (1967) experiment shows good agreement; however, the peak second mode growth rate is over-predicted. Similar conclusions are drawn for the second mode experiment of Stetson et al. (1983) for Mach 8 flow past a sharp cone. We conjecture that the lower experimental growth rate is due to nonlinear saturation and provide supporting calculations.

  17. Plume meander and dispersion in a stable boundary layer

    Hiscox, April L.; Miller, David R.; Nappo, Carmen J.


    Continuous lidar measurements of elevated plume dispersion and corresponding micrometeorology data are analyzed to establish the relationship between plume behavior and nocturnal boundary layer dynamics. Contrasting nights of data from the JORNADA field campaign in the New Mexico desert are analyzed. The aerosol lidar measurements were used to separate the plume diffusion (plume spread) from plume meander (displacement). Mutiresolution decomposition was used to separate the turbulence scale (90 s). Durations of turbulent kinetic energy stationarity and the wind steadiness were used to characterize the local scale and submesoscale turbulence. Plume meander, driven by submesoscale wind motions, was responsible for most of the total horizontal plume dispersion in weak and variable winds and strong stability. This proportion was reduced in high winds (i.e., >4 m s-1), weakly stable conditions but remained the dominant dispersion mechanism. The remainder of the plume dispersion in all cases was accounted for by internal spread of the plume, which is a small eddy diffusion process driven by turbulence. Turbulence stationarity and the wind steadiness are demonstrated to be closely related to plume diffusion and plume meander, respectively.

  18. Thermal catastrophe in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    Smith, R.A.; Goertz, C.K.; Grossmann, W.


    This letter presents a first step towards a substorm model including particle heating and transport in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). The heating mechanism discussed is resonant absorption of Alfven waves. For some assumed MHD perturbation incident from the tail lobes onto the plasma sheet, the local heating rate in the PSBL has the form of a resonance function of the one-fluid plasma temperature. Balancing the local heating by convective transport of the heated plasma toward the central plasma sheet, and ''equation of state'' is found for the steady-state PSBL whose solution has the form of a mathematical catastrophe: at a critical value of a parameter containing the incident power flux, the local density, and the convection velocity, the equilibrium temperature jumps discontinuously. Associating this temperature increase with the abrupt onset of the substorm expansion phase, the catastrophe model indicates at least three ways in which the onset may be triggered. Several other consequences related to substorm dynamics are suggested by the simple catastrophe model

  19. Self-organization in cathode boundary layer discharges in xenon

    Takano, Nobuhiko; Schoenbach, Karl H


    Self-organization of direct current xenon microdischarges in cathode boundary layer configuration has been studied for pressures in the range 30-140 Torr and for currents in the range 50 μA-1 mA. Side-on and end-on observations of the discharge have provided information on the structure and spatial arrangement of the plasma filaments. The regularly spaced filaments, which appear in the normal glow mode when the current is lowered, have a length which is determined by the cathode fall. It varies, dependent on pressure and current, between 50 and 70 μm. The minimum diameter is approximately 80 μm, as determined from the radiative emission in the visible. The filaments are sources of extensive excimer emission. Measurements of the cathode fall length have allowed us to determine the secondary emission coefficient for the discharge in the normal glow mode and to estimate the cathode fall voltage at the transition from normal glow mode to filamentary mode. It was found that the cathode fall voltage at this transition decreases, indicating the onset of additional electron gain processes at the cathode. The regular arrangement of the filaments, self-organization, is assumed to be due to Coulomb interactions between the positively charged cathode fall channels and positive space charges on the surface of the surrounding dielectric spacer. Calculations based on these assumptions showed good agreement with experimentally observed filament patterns

  20. Benthic boundary layer. IOS observational and modelling programme

    Saunders, P.M.; Richards, K.J.


    Near bottom currents, measured at three sites in the N.E. Atlantic, reveal the eddying characteristics of the flow. Eddies develop, migrate and decay in ways best revealed by numerical modelling simulations. Eddies control the thickness of the bottom mixed layer by accumulating and thickening or spreading and thinning the bottom waters. At the boundaries of eddies benthic fronts form providing a path for upward displacement of the bottom water. An experiment designed to estimate vertical diffusivity is performed. The flux of heat into the bottom of the Iberian basin through Discovery Gap is deduced from year long current measurements. The flux is supposed balanced by geothermal heating through the sea floor and diapycnal diffusion in the water. A diffusivity of 1.5 to 4 cm 2 s -1 is derived for the bottom few hundred meters of the deep ocean. Experiments to estimate horizontal diffusivity are described. If a tracer is discharged from the sea bed the volume of sea water in which it is found increases with time and after 20 years will fill an ocean basin of side 1000 km to a depth of only 1 to 2 km. (author)

  1. Boundary layer parameterizations and long-range transport

    Irwin, J.S.


    A joint work group between the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the EPA is perusing the construction of an air quality model that incorporates boundary layer parameterizations of dispersion and transport. This model could replace the currently accepted model, the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. The ISC model is a Gaussian-plume multiple point-source model that provides for consideration of fugitive emissions, aerodynamic wake effects, gravitational settling and dry deposition. A work group of several Federal and State agencies is perusing the construction of an air quality modeling system for use in assessing and tracking visibility impairment resulting from long-range transport of pollutants. The modeling system is designed to use the hourly vertical profiles of wind, temperature and moisture resulting from a mesoscale meteorological processor that employs four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). FDDA involves adding forcing functions to the governing model equations to gradually ''nudge'' the model state toward the observations (12-hourly upper air observations of wind, temperature and moisture, and 3-hourly surface observations of wind and moisture). In this way it is possible to generate data sets whose accuracy, in terms of transport, precipitation, and dynamic consistency is superior to both direct interpolation of synoptic-scale analyses of observations and purely predictive mode model result. (AB) ( 19 refs.)

  2. Effect of free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition.

    Goldstein, M E


    This paper is concerned with the transition to turbulence in flat plate boundary layers due to moderately high levels of free-stream turbulence. The turbulence is assumed to be generated by an (idealized) grid and matched asymptotic expansions are used to analyse the resulting flow over a finite thickness flat plate located in the downstream region. The characteristic Reynolds number Rλ based on the mesh size λ and free-stream velocity is assumed to be large, and the turbulence intensity ε is assumed to be small. The asymptotic flow structure is discussed for the generic case where the turbulence Reynolds number εRλ and the plate thickness and are held fixed (at O(1) and O(λ), respectively) in the limit as [Formula: see text] and ε→0. But various limiting cases are considered in order to explain the relevant transition mechanisms. It is argued that there are two types of streak-like structures that can play a role in the transition process: (i) those that appear in the downstream region and are generated by streamwise vorticity in upstream flow and (ii) those that are concentrated near the leading edge and are generated by plate normal vorticity in upstream flow. The former are relatively unaffected by leading edge geometry and are usually referred to as Klebanoff modes while the latter are strongly affected by leading edge geometry and are more streamwise vortex-like in appearance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.


    A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.

  4. The influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence

    Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over isothermally-heated walls were performed to investigate the influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence and drag. The adopted model for temperature-dependent viscosity was typical of water. The free-stream temperature was set to 30°C, and two wall temperatures, 70°C and 99°C, were simulated. In the heated flows, the mean shear-rate is enhanced near the wall and reduced in the buffer region, which induces a reduction in turbulence production. On the other hand, the turbulence dissipation is enhanced near the wall, despite the the reduction in fluid viscosity. The higher dissipation is attributed to a decrease in the smallest length scales and near-wall fine-scale motions. The combined effect of the reduced production and enhanced dissipation leads to lower Reynolds shear stresses and, as a result, reduction of the skin-friction coefficient. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/F034997/1) and partially supported by the Erasmus Mundus Build on Euro-Asian Mobility (EM-BEAM) programme.

  5. Investigation of particle lift off in a turbulent boundary layer

    Barros, Diogo; Tee, Yi Hui; Morse, Nicholas; Hiltbrand, Ben; Longmire, Ellen


    Entrainment and suspension of particles within turbulent flows occur widely in environmental and industrial processes. Three-dimensional particle tracking experiments are thus conducted in a water channel to understand the interaction of finite-size particles with a turbulent boundary layer. A neutrally buoyant sphere made of wax and iron oxide is first held in place on the bounding surface by a magnet before being released and tracked. The sphere is marked with dots to monitor rotation as well as translation. By setting up two pairs of cameras in a stereoscopic configuration, the trajectories of the sphere are reconstructed and tracked over a distance of 4 to 6 δ. Sphere diameters ranging from 40 to 130 wall units, initial particle Reynolds numbers of 600 to 2000 and friction Reynolds numbers of 500 to 1800 are considered. For this parameter set, the particle typically lifts off from the wall after release before falling back toward the wall. Aspects of both particle rotation and translation will be discussed. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  6. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis


    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  7. Observations of the atmospheric electric field during two case studies of boundary layer processes

    Piper, I M; Bennett, A J


    We present measurements of potential gradient (PG) with associated meteorological variables and cloud profiles for two examples of convective boundary layer processes. Aerosol acts as a tracer layer to show lofting of the convective boundary layer; the rising aerosol layer results in a decrease in PG. In foggy conditions, the PG is seen to increase during the fog and then reduce as the fog lifts, as expected. (letter)

  8. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian


    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  9. Skin-friction measurements in high-enthalpy hypersonic boundary layers

    Goyne, C. P.; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.


    Skin-friction measurements are reported for high-enthalpy and high-Mach-number laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers. The measurements were performed in a free-piston shock tunnel with air-flow Mach number, stagnation enthalpy and Reynolds numbers in the ranges of 4.4 6.7, 3 13 MJ kg(-1) and 0.16× 10(6) 21× 10(6) , respectively. Wall temperatures were near 300 K and this resulted in ratios of wall enthalpy to flow-stagnation enthalpy in the range of 0.1 0.02. The experiments were performed using rectangular ducts. The measurements were accomplished using a new skin-friction gauge that was developed for impulse facility testing. The gauge was an acceleration compensated piezoelectric transducer and had a lowest natural frequency near 40 kHz. Turbulent skin-friction levels were measured to within a typical uncertainty of ± 7%. The systematic uncertainty in measured skin-friction coefficient was high for the tested laminar conditions; however, to within experimental uncertainty, the skin-friction and heat-transfer measurements were in agreement with the laminar theory of van Driest (1952). For predicting turbulent skin-friction coefficient, it was established that, for the range of Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers of the experiments, with cold walls and boundary layers approaching the turbulent equilibrium state, the Spalding & Chi (1964) method was the most suitable of the theories tested. It was also established that if the heat transfer rate to the wall is to be predicted, then the Spalding & Chi (1964) method should be used in conjunction with a Reynolds analogy factor near unity. If more accurate results are required, then an experimentally observed relationship between the Reynolds analogy factor and the skin-friction coefficient may be applied.

  10. Overall performance assessment for scramjet with boundary-layer ejection control based on thermodynamics

    He, Yubao; Cao, Ruifeng; Huang, Hongyan; Qin, Jiang; Yu, Daren


    To avoid the inlet unstart at high equivalence ratio and increase the performance of scramjet with ram-mode, a flow control method of boundary-layer ejection is implemented based on the potential thermodynamic process in a turbo-pump supply system of fuel vapor within a cooling channel. The effect of ejection on overall scramjet performance is studied by taking the integration of measures including numerical simulation and stream thrust analysis. Results indicate that the critical backpressure is significantly increased as the ejection total pressure increased, thereby increasing the compression capacity and efficiency, and decreasing the irreversible losses of shock wave and viscous dissipation. For the ejection total pressure of P_t_,_e_j_e = 2.40–4.00 × 10"6 Pa, the critical backpressure ratio is quantitatively increased by 1.18–11.8% along with the utilization of ejection mass flow rate of about 88.0–100% overall mass flow rate of methane fuel gas, and simultaneously the total pressure ratio, kinetic efficiency is also increased by 7.32–13.1%, and 1.63–2.96%, respectively, while the dimensionless entropy increase is decreased by 14.5–26.8%. On this basis, the specific thrust, specific impulse, and total efficiency is increased by 2.84–4.69%, 2.80–4.68%, and 2.87–4.70%, respectively, which re-emphasizes that the boundary-layer ejection is an available fluid control method. - Highlights: • Pressure ratio affects cycle efficiency based on Brayton cycle analysis. • Ejection control concept is defined based on potential thermodynamic process. • Ejection increases compression capacity, efficiency and engine overall performance.

  11. The boundary layer moist static energy budget: Convection picks up moisture and leaves footprints in the marine boundary layer

    de Szoeke, S. P.


    Averaged over the tropical marine boundary layer (BL), 130 W m-2 turbulent surface moist static energy (MSE) flux, 120 W m-2 of which is evaporation, is balanced by upward MSE flux at the BL top due to 1) incorporation of cold air by downdrafts from deep convective clouds, and 2) turbulent entrainment of dry air into the BL. Cold saturated downdraft air, and warm clear air entrained into the BL have distinct thermodynamic properties. This work observationally quantifies their respective MSE fluxes in the central Indian Ocean in 2011, under different convective conditions of the intraseasonal (40-90 day) Madden Julian oscillation (MJO). Under convectively suppressed conditions, entrainment and downdraft fluxes export equal shares (60 W m-2) of MSE from the BL. Downdraft fluxes are more variable, increasing for stronger convection. In the convectively active phase of the MJO, downdrafts export 90 W m-2 from the BL, compared to 40 W m-2 by entrainment. These processes that control the internal, latent (condensation), and MSE of the tropical marine atmospheric BL determine the parcel buoyancy and strength of tropical deep convection.

  12. Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips

    Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen


    Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.

  13. Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing

    Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.


    A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.

  14. UAV-borne coherent doppler lidar for marine atmospheric boundary layer observations

    Wu, Songhua; Wang, Qichao; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao; Zhang, Kailin; Song, Xiaoquan


    A compact UAV-borne Coherent Doppler Lidar (UCDL) has been developed at the Ocean University of China for the observation of wind profile and boundary layer structure in Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL). The design, specifications and motion-correction methodology of the UCDL are presented. Preliminary results of the first flight campaign in Hailing Island in December 2016 is discussed.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Houra, Tomoya; Nagano, Yasutaka


    This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. Since a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is often encountered in an urban environmental space where stable and unstable stratifications exist, exploring a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is very important to know the transport phenomena of the flow in an urban space. Although actual observation may qualitatively provide the characteristics of these flows, the relevant quantitative turbulent quantities are very difficult to measure. Thus, in order to quantitatively investigate a buoyancy-affected boundary layer in detail, we have here carried out for the first time time- and space-developing DNS of slightly stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. The DNS results show the quantitative turbulent statistics and structures of stable and unstable thermal boundary layers, in which the characteristic transport phenomena of thermally stratified boundary layers are demonstrated by indicating the budgets of turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux. Even though the input of buoyant force is not large, the influence of buoyancy is clearly revealed in both stable and unstable turbulent boundary layers. In particular, it is found that both stable and unstable thermal stratifications caused by the weak buoyant force remarkably alter the structure of near-wall turbulence

  16. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert


    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  17. The boundary layers as the primary transport regions of the earth's magnetotail

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.


    A comprehensive survey of ISEE and IMP LEPEDEA plasma measurements in the earth's magnetotail reveals that the magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma sheet boundary layer are the primary transport regions there. These plasma measurements also reveal various components of the plasma sheet, including the central plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer. A significant new result reported here is that of cold- and hot-plasma components that are spatially co-present within the central plasma sheet. Such plasma components cannot be explained merely by temporal variations in spectra involving the entire plasma sheet. Contributions to a low temperature component of the plasma sheet enter directly from the boundary layer located along the magnetotail flanks. Field-aligned flows predominate within the plasma sheet boundary layer which is almost always present and is located near the high- and low-latitude border of the plasma sheet. The plasma sheet boundary layer comprises highly anisotropic ion distributions, including counter-streaming ion beams, that evolve into the hot, isotropic component of the plasma sheet. Tailward acceleration regions generate these ion beams with plasma input from the magnetospheric boundary layer. Antisunward-flowing ion beams, at E/q less than 1 kV and of ionospheric composition, are frequently observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer and in tail lobes. These ion beams are likely accelerated at low altitude over the polar cap and especially along auroral field lines.

  18. Stochastic Theory of Turbulence Mixing by Finite Eddies in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.


    Turbulence mixing is treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic hypothesis. The theory simplifies for mixing by exchange (strong-eddies) and is then applied to the boundary layer (involving scaling). This maps boundary layer turbulence onto

  19. A class of backward free-convective boundary-layer similarity solutions

    Kuiken, H.K.


    This paper presents a class of backward free-convective boundary-layer similarity solutions. It is shown that these boundary layers can be produced along slender downward-projecting slabs of prescribed thickness variation, which are infinitely long. It is pointed out that these solutions can be used

  20. Quantized vortex pair production in 4He films as a boundary-layer problem

    McCauley, J.L. Jr.


    The author shows that the idea of a boundary layer for discrete vortices arises naturally from the equation of motion for the probability distribution of an interacting vortex pair. In contrast with classical hydrodynamics, this boundary layer is of statistical origin, and the method leads to a scaling law for the exact dissociation rate of a bound vortex pair. (Auth.)

  1. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.


    the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation event days shows a highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated the suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing the most important characteristics of particle dynamics...... within the boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles...

  2. Representing the atmospheric boundary layer in climate models of intermediate compexity

    Ronda, R.J.; Haarsma, R.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    In this study the role of atmospheric boundary layer schemes in climate models is investigated. Including a boundary layer scheme in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) produces only minor differences in the estimated global distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes over

  3. Efficient modelling of aerodynamic flows in the boundary layer for high performance computing

    Smith, L


    Full Text Available A unique technique to couple boundary-layer solutions with an inviscid solver is introduced. The boundary-layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness with Newton’s method, at a fraction of the cost of a...

  4. Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks

    Shaing, K. C.; Cahyna, P.; Becoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chu, M. S.


    It is demonstrated that the pitch angle integrals in the transport fluxes in the ν regime calculated in K. C. Shang [Phys. Plasmas 10, 1443 (2003)] are divergent as the trapped-circulating boundary is approached. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The origin of this divergence results from the logarithmic dependence in the bounce averaged radial drift velocity. A collisional boundary layer analysis is developed to remove the singularity. The resultant pitch angle integrals now include not only the original physics of the ν regime but also the boundary layer physics. The transport fluxes, caused by the particles inside the boundary layer, scale as √(ν)

  5. Cracking of a layered medium on an elastic foundation under thermal shock

    Rizk, Abd El-Fattah A.; Erdogan, Fazil


    The cladded pressure vessel under thermal shock conditions which is simulated by using two simpler models was studied. The first model (Model 1) assumes that, if the crack size is very small compared to the vessel thickness, the problem can be treated as a semi-infinite elastic medium bonded to a very thin layer of different material. However, if the crack size is of the same order as the vessel thickness, the curvature effects may not be negligible. In this case it is assumed that the relatively thin walled hollow cylinder with cladding can be treated as a composite beam on an elastic foundation (Model 2). In both models, the effect of surface cooling rate is studied by assuming the temperature boundary condition to be a ramp function. The calculated results include the transient temperature, thermal stresses in the uncracked medium and stress intensity factors which are presented as a function of time, and the duration of cooling ramp. The stress intensity factors are also presented as a function of the size and the location of the crack. The problem is solved for two bonded materials of different thermal and mechanical properties. The mathematical formulation results in two singular integral equations which are solved numerically. The results are given for two material pairs, namely an austenitic steel layer welded on a ferritic steel substrate, and a ceramic coating on ferritic steel. In the case of the yielded clad, the stress intensity factors for a crack under the clad are determined by using a plastic strip model and are compared with elastic clad results.

  6. Boundary-layer interactions in the plane-parallel incompressible flows

    Nguyen, Toan T; Sueur, Franck


    We study the inviscid limit problem of incompressible flows in the presence of both impermeable regular boundaries and a hypersurface transversal to the boundary across which the inviscid flow has a discontinuity jump. In the former case, boundary layers have been introduced by Prandtl as correctors near the boundary between the inviscid and viscous flows. In the latter case, the viscosity smoothes out the discontinuity jump by creating a transition layer which has the same amplitude and thickness as the Prandtl layer. In the neighbourhood of the intersection of the impermeable boundary and of the hypersurface, interactions between the boundary and the transition layers must then be considered. In this paper, we initiate a mathematical study of this interaction and carry out a strong convergence in the inviscid limit for the case of the plane-parallel flows introduced by Di Perna and Majda (1987 Commun. Math. Phys. 108 667–89). (paper)

  7. Planetary boundary layer and circulation dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars

    Fonseca, Ricardo M.; Zorzano-Mier, María-Paz; Martín-Torres, Javier


    The Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting (PlanetWRF) model, MarsWRF, is used here to simulate the atmospheric conditions at Gale Crater for different seasons during a period coincident with the Curiosity rover operations. The model is first evaluated with the existing single-point observations from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), and is then used to provide a larger scale interpretation of these unique measurements as well as to give complementary information where there are gaps in the measurements. The variability of the planetary boundary layer depth may be a driver of the changes in the local dust and trace gas content within the crater. Our results show that the average time when the PBL height is deeper than the crater rim increases and decreases with the same rate and pattern as Curiosity's observations of the line-of-sight of dust within the crater and that the season when maximal (minimal) mixing is produced is Ls 225°-315° (Ls 90°-110°). Thus the diurnal and seasonal variability of the PBL depth seems to be the driver of the changes in the local dust content within the crater. A comparison with the available methane measurements suggests that changes in the PBL depth may also be one of the factors that accounts for the observed variability, with the model results pointing towards a local source to the north of the MSL site. The interaction between regional and local flows at Gale Crater is also investigated assuming that the meridional wind, the dynamically important component of the horizontal wind at Gale, anomalies with respect to the daily mean can be approximated by a sinusoidal function as they typically oscillate between positive (south to north) and negative (north to south) values that correspond to upslope/downslope or downslope/upslope regimes along the crater rim and Mount Sharp slopes and the dichotomy boundary. The smallest magnitudes are found in the northern crater floor in a region that

  8. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    C. Schoof


    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  9. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Huang, J.


    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  10. White dwarf radii and boundary-layer constraints in three dwarf novae

    Wood, J.H.


    The structure of the boundary layer between the accretion disc and white dwarf in three quiescent dwarf novae is explored with high signal-to-noise eclipse light curves obtained by phase folding 12-20 eclipses. Models of the eclipse shapes of various white dwarf/boundary layer configurations that might be at the centres of the accretion discs are calculated and compared with observations of the eclipses in Z Cha, OY Car and HT Cas. Possible models for the central objects are found to be a white dwarf with or without its lower hemisphere occulted by the disc, or a white dwarf with an optically thick boundary layer significantly extended in latitude up and down its sides. The most likely of these models for each system is an unocculted white dwarf with no boundary layer contributing significantly to the optical flux, or a white dwarf totally covered by an optically thick boundary layer. (author)

  11. Active Boundary Layer Control on a Highly Loaded Turbine Exit Case Profile

    Julia Kurz


    Full Text Available A highly loaded turbine exit guide vane with active boundary layer control was investigated experimentally in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich. The experiments include profile Mach number distributions, wake traverse measurements as well as boundary layer investigations with a flattened Pitot probe. Active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators was applied to achieve improved performance in the low Reynolds number regime. Low solidity, which can be applied to reduce the number of blades, increases the risk of flow separation resulting in increased total pressure losses. Active boundary layer control is supposed to overcome these negative effects. The experiments show that active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators is an appropriate way to suppress massive open separation bubbles in the low Reynolds number regime.

  12. Current Challenges in Understanding and Forecasting Stable Boundary Layers over Land and Ice

    Gert-Jan eSteeneveld


    Full Text Available Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is challenging. Many physical processes come into play in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling and heterogeneity, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag. The development of robust stable boundary-layer parameterizations for weather and climate models is difficult because of the multiplicity of processes and their complex interactions. As a result, these models suffer from biases in key variables, such as the 2-m temperature, boundary-layer depth and wind speed. This short paper briefly summarizes the state-of-the-art of stable boundary layer research, and highlights physical processes that received only limited attention so far, in particular orographically-induced gravity wave drag, longwave radiation divergence, and the land-atmosphere coupling over a snow-covered surface. Finally, a conceptual framework with relevant processes and particularly their interactions is proposed.

  13. Robust controller with adaptation within the boundary layer: application to nuclear underwater inspection robot

    Park, Gee Yong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Hong, Dong Hee; Jeong, Jae Hoo


    In this paper, the robust control scheme with the improved control performance within the boundary layer is proposed. In the control scheme, the robust controller based on the traditional variable structure control method is modified to have the adaptation within the boundary layer. From this controller, the width of the boundary layer where the robust control input is smoothened out can be given by an appropriate value. But the improve control performance within the boundary layer can be achieved without the so-called control chattering because the role of adaptive control is to compensate for the uncovered portions of the robust control occurred from the continuous approximation within the boundary layer. Simulation tests for circular navigation of an underwater wall-ranging robot developed for inspection of wall surfaces in the research reactor, TRIGA MARK III, confirm the performance improvement

  14. Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate

    Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.


    This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.

  15. Laser-driven shock-wave propagation in pure and layered targets

    Salzmann, D.; Eliezer, S.; Krumbein, A.D.; Gitter, L.


    The propagation properties of laser-driven shock waves in pure and layered polyethylene and aluminum slab targets are studied for a set of laser intensities and pulse widths. The laser-plasma simulations were carried out by means of our one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. It is shown that the various parts of a laser-driven compression wave undergo different thermodynamic trajectories: The shock front portion is on the Hugoniot curve whereas the rear part is closer to an adiabat. It is found that the shock front is accelerated into the cold material till troughly-equal0.8tau (where tau is the laser pulse width) and only later is a constant velocity propagation attained. The scaling laws obtained for the pressure and temperature of the compression wave in pure targets are in good agreement with those published in other works. In layered targets, high compression and pressure were found to occur at the interface of CH 2 on Al targets due to impedance mismatch but were not found when the layers were reversed. The persistence time of the high pressure on the interface in the CH 2 on Al case is long enough relative to the characteristic times of the plasma to have an appreciable influence on the shock-wave propagation into the aluminum layer. This high pressure and compression on the interface can be optimized by adjusting the CH 2 layer thickness

  16. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92196 (United States)


    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  17. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.


    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  18. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.; Hohenberger, M.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.


    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing

  19. Evolution of a Western Arctic Ice Ocean Boundary Layer and Mixed Layer Across a Developing Thermodynamically Forced Marginal Ice Zone


    heat and momentum transfer with the ice-ocean interface. These two observations demonstrate the intricate interplay between momentum, heat , and...summer evolution events: 1. Modulated shortwave radiative input to the ocean 2. Shoaled the ocean boundary layer increasing ocean heat storage 3... transfer in a stratified oceanic boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C7), 6977–7986, doi:10.1029/JC092iC07p06977. McPhee, M. G., 1992: Turbulent heat

  20. Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers

    Junya Uchida


    Full Text Available In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height. Slow-manifold analysis is shown to apply to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus- capped boundary layer; simulations with different initial inversion heights collapse onto single relationships of cloud properties with inversion height. Depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the large-eddy simulations, these evolutions occur on two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced. Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship tracks are proposed.

  1. Coastal boundary layers in ocean modelling: an application to the Adriatic Sea

    Malanotte Rizzoli, P.; Dell'Orto, F.


    Boundary layers play an important role in modelling geophysical fluid-dynamical flows, in as much as they constitute regions of ageostrophic dynamics in which the physical balances characterizing the main interior of the water mass break down. A short synopsis is given of important boundary layers in ocean circulation modelling with specific emphasis drawn upon side wall boundary layers, namely those adjacent to the coastlines of the considered basin. Application of boundary layer analysis is thereafter made for one specific phenomenological situation, namely the Northern Adriatic Sea and the problem posed by its wintertime seasonal circulation. The analysis furnishes a mathematical model fo the coastal strip adjacent to the Italian shoreline, treated as a boundary layer in the density field, starting from general model equations valid throughout the interior of the Northern Adriatic. The boundary layer model is consequently used to modify the side wall boundary condition for the interior density field. Related numerical experiments are shown and compared with previous standard experiments in which the boundary layer contribution to the density field has not been considered. (author)

  2. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary.

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan


    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.

  3. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves

    Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt


    Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  4. Effect of grain boundaries on shock-induced phase transformation in iron bicrystals

    Zhang, Xueyang; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Wenjun; Chen, Jun; Cai, Mengqiu; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu


    Non-equilibrium molecular-dynamic simulations with a modified analytic embedded-atom model potential have been performed to investigate the effect of three kinds of grain boundaries (GBs) on the martensitic transformation in iron bicrystals with three different GBs under shock loadings. Our results show that the phase transition was influenced by the GBs. All three GBs provide a nucleation site for the α → ɛ transformation in samples shock-loaded with up = 0.5 km/s, and in particular, the elastic wave can induce the phase transformation at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB, which indicates that the phase transformation can occur at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB with a much lower pressure. The effect of GBs on the stress assisted transformation (SAT) mechanisms is discussed. All variants nucleating at the vicinity of these GBs meet the maximum strain work (MSW) criterion. Moreover, all of the variants with the MSW nucleate at Σ5 ⟨001⟩ twist GB and Σ3 ⟨110⟩ tilt GB, but only part of them nucleate at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB. This is because the coincident planes between both sides of the GB would affect the slip process, which is the second stage of the martensitic transformation and influences the selection of variant. We also find that the martensitic transformation at the front end of the bicrystals would give rise to stress attenuation in samples shock-loaded with up = 0.6 km/s, which makes the GBs seem to be unfavorable to the martensitic transformation. Our findings have the potential to affect the interface engineering and material design under high pressure conditions.

  5. An analysis of the relaxation of laminar boundary layer on a flat plate after passage of an interface with application to expansion-tube flows

    Gupta, R. N.


    The relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer over a flat plate in an expansion tube is analyzed. Several combinations of test gas and acceleration gas are considered. The problem is treated in two conically similar limits: (1) when the time lag between the arrival of the shock and the interface at the leading edge of the plate is very large, and (2) when this lag is negligible. The time-dependent laminar-boundary-layer equations of a binary mixture of perfect gases are taken as the flow-governing equations. This coupled set of differential equations, written in terms of the Lam-Crocco variables, has been solved by a line-relaxation finite-difference techniques. The results presented include the Stanton number and the local skin-friction coefficient as functions of shock Mach number and the nondimensional distance-time variable. The results indicate that more than 95 percent of the test-gas boundary layer exists over a length, measured from the leading edge of the plate, equal to about three-tenths of the distance traversed by the interface in the free stream.

  6. Fragmented coastal boundary layer induced by gap winds

    Caldeira, Rui M. A.; Iglesias, Isabel; Sala, Iria; Vieira, Rui R.; Bastos, Luísa


    The oceanic impact of offshore-localized winds in the NW Iberian Peninsula was studied. Satellite and in situ observations showed the formation of plumes protruding offshore from the coast. To study the dynamics of such episodes tee Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave- Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST) was used to reproduce the coastal conditions of the nortwestern Iberian Peninsula, allowing the concurrent representation of local winds, waves, currents, and rivers runoff. The use of coupled models is of outmost importance in order to accurately study the impact of the local winds on the coastal currents. The NW Iberian Peninsula has prominent capes, promontories and submarine canyons, which produce persistent hydrodynamic features. Thus far, the scientific literature shows that the western Iberian rivers produce a recurrent combined plume often denominated as the Western Iberian Buoyant Plume (WIBP) which increases the stratification of the water column and produces a vertical retention mechanism that keeps the biological material inshore. The WIBP extends northward along the coast (over the inner-shelf), and forms a front with the warmer and more saline surface (offshore) waters. However during episodes of strong offshore winds this coastal boundary layer is broken interrupting the WIBP. Coastal orography allows the formation of down-valley winds that produce coastal jets, promoting the offshore transport of pollutants, larvae and sediments. Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments: Numerical model solutions were calculated at CIIMARs HPC unit, acquired and maintained by FCT pluriannual funds (PesTC/Mar/LA0015/2013), and RAIA (0313-RAIA-1-E) and (0520-RAIACO-1-E) projects. The NICC (POCTI/CTA/49563/2002) project provided databases for this work. Rui Caldeira was supported by funds from the ECORISK project (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000054), co-financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference

  7. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.


    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  8. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    R. Sander


    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight

  9. Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design

    Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.


    A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating

  10. The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Zhang, Fan


    lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution. The results indicate that, in general, as the number of modelled layers increases the resuspension fraction of the whole deposit after a certain time decreases significantly. In other words, it takes a much longer time to re-suspend a thicker deposit. Taking account of the particle size distribution slightly increases the short-term resuspension. However, this change decreases the long-term resuspension significantly. The model results have been compared with data from the STORM SR11 test (ISP-40) and the BISE experiments. In general, both comparisons indicate that with smaller spread of the adhesive force distribution the new multilayer model agrees very well with the experimental data. It can be inferred that multilayer deposits lead to much narrower distributions of adhesive force

  11. Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    as well as turbulent inflow condition. For generating turbulent inflow, a model is used in which a turbulent plane is introduced in the domain and convected in each time step, using Taylor's frozen hypothesis. The results of different simulations are analysed and compared in terms of mean values...... the computational costs scale rapidly with Reynolds number and domain size[1]. An approach to overcome these deficiencies is to use a wall modeling near the walls and then use a coarser grid at the first grid level above the ground. This could be performed by using simplified Navier-Stokes equations in the boundary...... condition is used in the bottom, a symmetry boundary on the top and periodic boundaries on the sides as well as inlet and outlet boundaries. For the temperature, a fixed value of 285 K is applied from the ground up to a height of 1 km and the temperature increases linearly with the rate of 3.5 degrees per...

  12. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  13. A numerical solution of a singular boundary value problem arising in boundary layer theory.

    Hu, Jiancheng


    In this paper, a second-order nonlinear singular boundary value problem is presented, which is equivalent to the well-known Falkner-Skan equation. And the one-dimensional third-order boundary value problem on interval [Formula: see text] is equivalently transformed into a second-order boundary value problem on finite interval [Formula: see text]. The finite difference method is utilized to solve the singular boundary value problem, in which the amount of computational effort is significantly less than the other numerical methods. The numerical solutions obtained by the finite difference method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

  14. Boundary layer and fundamental problems of hydrodynamics (compatibility of a logarithmic velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer with the experience values)

    Zaryankin, A. E.


    The compatibility of the semiempirical turbulence theory of L. Prandtl with the actual flow pattern in a turbulent boundary layer is considered in this article, and the final calculation results of the boundary layer is analyzed based on the mentioned theory. It shows that accepted additional conditions and relationships, which integrate the differential equation of L. Prandtl, associating the turbulent stresses in the boundary layer with the transverse velocity gradient, are fulfilled only in the near-wall region where the mentioned equation loses meaning and are inconsistent with the physical meaning on the main part of integration. It is noted that an introduced concept about the presence of a laminar sublayer between the wall and the turbulent boundary layer is the way of making of a physical meaning to the logarithmic velocity profile, and can be defined as adjustment of the actual flow to the formula that is inconsistent with the actual boundary conditions. It shows that coincidence of the experimental data with the actual logarithmic profile is obtained as a result of the use of not particular physical value, as an argument, but function of this value.

  15. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer over forward-facing step via direct numerical simulation

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Nagano, Yasutaka


    This paper presents observations and investigations of the detailed turbulent structure of a boundary layer over a forward-facing step. The present DNSs are conducted under conditions with three Reynolds numbers based on step height, or three Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness so as to investigate the effects of step height and inlet boundary layer thickness. DNS results show the quantitative turbulent statistics and structures of boundary layers over a forward-facing step, where pronounced counter-gradient diffusion phenomena (CDP) are especially observed on the step near the wall. Also, a quadrant analysis is conducted in which the results indicate in detail the turbulence motion around the step.

  16. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir


    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  17. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    Václav URUBA


    Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.

  18. A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably Stratified Sea Surface

    Svensson, Nina; Sahlée, Erik; Bergström, Hans


    originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement...... considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered...

  19. Interaction of discrete and continuous boundary layer modes to cause transition

    Durbin, Paul A.; Zaki, Tamer A.; Liu Yang


    The interaction of discrete and continuous Orr-Sommerfeld modes in a boundary layer is studied by computer simulation. The discrete mode is an unstable Tollmien-Schlichting wave. The continuous modes generate jet-like disturbances inside the boundary layer. Either mode alone does not cause transition to turbulence; however, the interaction between them does. The continuous mode jets distort the discrete modes, producing Λ shaped vortices. Breakdown to turbulence is subsequent. The lateral spacing of the Λ's is sometimes the same as the wavelength of the continuous mode, sometimes it differs, depending on the ratio of wavelength to boundary layer thickness.

  20. Receptivity of a high-speed boundary layer to temperature spottiness

    Fedorov, A. V.; Ryzhov, A. A.; Soudakov, V. G.; Utyuzhnikov, S. V.


    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the receptivity of a flat-plate boundary layer to temperature spottiness in the Mach 6 free stream is carried out. The influence of spottiness parameters on the receptivity process is studied. It is shown that the temperature spots propagating near the upper boundary-layer edge generate mode F inside the boundary layer. Further downstream mode F is synchronized with unstable mode S (Mack second mode) and excites the latter via the inter-mod...

  1. The effect of small streamwise velocity distortion on the boundary layer flow over a thin flat plate with application to boundary layer stability theory

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.


    Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.

  2. The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Zhang, Fan


    uncorrelated curve-fitted model. In view of recent numerical data for lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution.

  3. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers

    Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins


    New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)

  4. Assessment of boundary layer profiling formulas using tower, sodar and balloon data

    Paine, R.J. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Kendall, S.B. [Phelps Dodge Corp., Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    The accuracy of an air quality dispersion model is largely dependent upon the availability of representative meteorological data for the simulation of plume rise, transport, and dispersion. In many cases where tall stacks and/or buoyant plumes are involved, the available meteorological measurements do not extend to plume height. Air quality models contend with these situations by either assuming no change of meteorological variables with elevation or by applying a profiling relationship based upon theoretical or empirical relationships. The latter treatment is employed in recently-developed models such as CTDMPLUS, and HPDM, and OML. In the well-mixed convective boundary layer, meteorological variables such as wind direction, wind speed, and turbulence do not vary substantially above the surface layer (about 0.1 z{sub i}, the mixed-layer height). Above the surface layer, behavior on an hourly average basis is fairly well parameterized by boundary-layer formulations. However, models are sensitive to the height of the convective boundary layer, z{sub i}, which affects the magnitude of the convective velocity scale, w., and is important for simulating plume trapping and plume penetration into the stable layer aloft. In the stable boundary layer, plumes are often released at heights above the stable boundary layer, the height of which is often hard to define. Models are sensitive to the manner in which wind direction, wind speed, temperature and turbulence are profiled with height in stable conditions.

  5. Spectral Gap Energy Transfer in Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Bhushan, S.; Walters, K.; Barros, A. P.; Nogueira, M.


    Experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence energy spectra show E(k) ~ k-3 slopes at synoptic scales (~ 600 km - 2000 km) and k-5/3 slopes at the mesoscales (theory, it is expected that a strong backward energy cascade would develop at the synoptic scale, and that circulation would grow infinitely. To limit this backward transfer, energy arrest at macroscales must be introduced. The most commonly used turbulence models developed to mimic the above energy transfer include the energy backscatter model for 2D turbulence in the horizontal plane via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models, dissipative URANS models in the vertical plane, and Ekman friction for the energy arrest. One of the controversial issues surrounding the atmospheric turbulence spectra is the explanation of the generation of the 2D and 3D spectra and transition between them, for energy injection at the synoptic scales. Lilly (1989) proposed that the existence of 2D and 3D spectra can only be explained by the presence of an additional energy injection in the meso-scale region. A second issue is related to the observations of dual peak spectra with small variance in meso-scale, suggesting that the energy transfer occurs across a spectral gap (Van Der Hoven, 1957). Several studies have confirmed the spectral gap for the meso-scale circulations, and have suggested that they are enhanced by smaller scale vertical convection rather than by the synoptic scales. Further, the widely accepted energy arrest mechanism by boundary layer friction is closely related to the spectral gap transfer. This study proposes an energy transfer mechanism for atmospheric turbulence with synoptic scale injection, wherein the generation of 2D and 3D spectra is explained using spectral gap energy transfer. The existence of the spectral gap energy transfer is validated by performing LES for the interaction of large scale circulation with a wall, and studying the evolution of the energy spectra both near to and far from the wall

  6. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer


    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  7. Velocity Spectra in the Unstable Planetary Boundary Layer

    Højstrup, Jørgen


    Models for velocity spectra of all three components in the lower half of the unstable PBL are presented. The model spectra are written as a sum of two parts, nS(n) = A(fi, z/zi)w*2 + B(f, z/zi)u*02, a mixed layer part with a stability dependence, and a surface layer part without stability...

  8. Experimental study of boundary-layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake

    Jeon, W.P. [Center for Turbulence and Flow Control Research Institute of Advanced Machinery and Design, Seoul National University (Korea); Park, T.C.; Kang, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea)


    Hot-wire measurements are performed in boundary-layer flows developing on a NACA 0012 airfoil over which wakes pass periodically. The periodic wakes are generated by rotating circular cylinders clockwise or counterclockwise around the airfoil. The time- and phase-averaged mean streamwise velocities and turbulence fluctuations are measured to investigate the phenomena of wake-induced transition. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are evaluated using a computational Preston tube method. The passing wakes significantly change the pressure distribution on the airfoil, which has influence on the transition process of the boundary layer. The orientation of the passing wake alters the pressure distribution in a different manner. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patches are generated inside the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil, and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream at a speed smaller than the free-stream velocity and merge together further downstream. Relatively high values of phase-averaged turbulence fluctuations in the outer part of the boundary layer indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer away from the wall. It is confirmed that the phase-averaged mean velocity profile has two dips in the outer region of the transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. (orig.)

  9. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    F. Stratmann


    Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  10. Analysis of Boundary Layer Meteorological Data Collected at the White Sands Missile Range

    O'Brien, Sean; Tofsted, David; Yarbrough, Jimmy; Elliott, D. S; Quintis, David


    ... Sands Missile Range (WSMR). Our primary motivation for collecting these measurements is to refine the accuracy of outer and inner scale effects models for optical, thermal, and absolute humidity turbulence for the desert boundary layer...

  11. Application of a Novel Laser-Doppler Velocimeter for Turbulence: Structural Measurements in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Lowe, Kevin T; Simpson, Roger L


    An advanced laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV), deemed the 'comprehensive LDV', is designed to acquire fully-resolved turbulence structural measurements in high Reynolds number two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers...

  12. A preliminary investigation of boundary-layer transition along a flat plate with adverse pressure gradient

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E


    Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Instability

    Zhong, Xiaolin


    .... During the three-year period, we have conducted extensive DNS studies on the receptivity of hypersonic boundary layer flows over a sharp wedge, a flat plate, a blunt cone, and the FRESH aeroshell...

  14. Stability characteristics of compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant walls

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel


    Transition prediction at hypersonic flight conditions continues to be a challenge and results in conservative safety factors that increase vehicle weight. The weight and thus cost reduction of the outer skin panels promises significant impact; however, fluid-structure interaction due to unsteady perturbations in the laminar boundary layer regime has not been systematically studied at conditions relevant for reusable, hypersonic flight. In this talk, we develop and apply convective and global stability analyses for compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant panels. This compliance is shown to change the convective stability of the boundary layer modes, with both stabilization and destabilization observed. Finite panel lengths are shown to affect the global stability properties of the boundary layer.

  15. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    Wang, H; Barthelmie, R J; Crippa, P; Doubrawa, P; Pryor, S C


    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve

  16. RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer Clouds

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ogren, John A.; Turner, David D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feingold, Graham; Long, Charles N.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Collins, Don R.; hide


    Small boundary-layer clouds are ubiquitous over many parts of the globe and strongly influence the Earths radiative energy balance. However, our understanding of these clouds is insufficient to solve pressing scientific problems. For example, cloud feedback represents the largest uncertainty amongst all climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCM). Several issues complicate understanding boundary-layer clouds and simulating them in GCMs. The high spatial variability of boundary-layer clouds poses an enormous computational challenge, since their horizontal dimensions and internal variability occur at spatial scales much finer than the computational grids used in GCMs. Aerosol-cloud interactions further complicate boundary-layer cloud measurement and simulation. Additionally, aerosols influence processes such as precipitation and cloud lifetime. An added complication is that at small scales (order meters to 10s of meters) distinguishing cloud from aerosol is increasingly difficult, due to the effects of aerosol humidification, cloud fragments and photon scattering between clouds.

  17. An investigation of the effects of the propeller slipstream of a laminar wing boundary layer

    Howard, R. M.; Miley, S. J.; Holmes, B. J.


    A research program is in progress to study the effects of the propeller slipstream on natural laminar flow. Flight and wind tunnel measurements of the wing boundary layer have been made using hot-film velocity sensor probes. The results show the boundary layer, at any given point, to alternate between laminar and turbulent states. This cyclic behavior is due to periodic external flow turbulence originating from the viscous wake of the propeller blades. Analytic studies show the cyclic laminar/turbulent boundary layer to result in a significantly lower wing section drag than a fully turbulent boundary layer. The application of natural laminar flow design philosophy yields drag reduction benefits in the slipstream affected regions of the airframe, as well as the unaffected regions.

  18. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  19. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.


    Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (2...... km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation...... the high-resolution simple applied model reproduces the characteristics of the boundary-layer height over the measuring site. Richardson-number based methods using data from simulations with the HIRLAM model fail, most likely because the island and the water fetch to the measuring site are about the size...

  20. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.


    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior