WorldWideScience

Sample records for shipboard laundry wastewater

  1. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  2. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  3. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  4. The use of moving bed bio-reactor to laundry wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Sławomira; Mazur, Jacek; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Janus, Magdalena; Mozia, Sylwia; Waldemar Morawski, Antoni

    2017-11-01

    Large laboratory scale biological treatment test of industrial real wastewater, generated in industrial big laundry, has been conducted in the period of May 2016-August 2016. The research aimed at selection of laundry wastewater treatment technology included tests of two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), with two reactors filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area - 800 m2/m3), have been realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors have been fed real wastewater from laundry retention tank. To the laundry wastewater, contained mainly surfactants and impurities originating from washed fabrics, a solution of urea to supplement nitrogen content and a solution of acid to correct pH have been added. Daily flow of raw wastewater Qd was equal to 0.6-0.8 m3/d. The values of determined wastewater quality indicators showed that substantial decrease of pollutants content have been reached: BOD5 by 94.7-98.1%, COD by 86.9-93.5%, the sum of anionic and nonionic surfactants by 98.7-99.8%. The quality of the purified wastewater, after star-up period, meets the legal requirements regarding the standards for wastewater discharged to the environment.

  5. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  6. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-T.; Chou, W.-L.; Kuo, Y.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl - concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm -3 kW h -1 while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates

  7. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  8. Development of a Field Laundry Wastewater Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    its physical , chemical, and toxicological properties . Chemical interactions may also occur in laundry water that may result in additional compounds of...was used to prepare a diatomite slurry needed to precoat the septums in the diatomaceous earth filter. II 6 If Sx COLLECTION TANK (CT) Figure 3...biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) bottles were then taken. The samples were divided into fractions for replicate testing of chemical and physical

  9. Treatment of hospital laundry wastewater by UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotesso, Jaqueline Pirão; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Janeiro, Vanderly; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals consume a large volume of water to carry out their activities and, hence, generate a large volume of effluent that is commonly discharged into the local sewage system without any treatment. Among the various sectors of healthcare facilities, the laundry is responsible for the majority of water consumption and generates a highly complex effluent. Although several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are currently under investigation on the degradation of a variety of contaminants, few of them are based on real wastewater samples. In this paper, the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP was evaluated on the treatment of a hospital laundry wastewater, after the application of a physicochemical pretreatment composed of coagulation-flocculation and anthracite filtration. For the UV/H 2 O 2 process, a photoreactor equipped with a low-pressure UV-C lamp was used and the effects of initial pH and [H 2 O 2 ]/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio on COD removal were investigated through a randomized factorial block design that considered the batches of effluent as blocks. The results indicated that the initial pH had no significant effect on the COD removal, and the process was favored by the increase in [H 2 O 2 ]/COD ratio. Color and turbidity were satisfactorily reduced after the application of the physicochemical pretreatment, and COD was completely removed by the UV/H 2 O 2 process under suitable conditions. The results of this study show that the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP is a promising candidate for hospital laundry wastewater treatment and should be explored to enable wastewater reuse in the washing process.

  10. Hydrous manganese oxide-polyacrylonitrile (HMO-PAN) composite for the treatment of radioactive laundry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghwa Oh; Won Sik Shin; Sang-June Choi

    2015-01-01

    Hydrous manganese oxide-polyacrylonitrile (HMO-PAN) composite was applied for the removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + from radioactive laundry wastewater. Single- and multi-solute competitive sorptions onto HMO-PAN were investigated. The maximum sorption capacity was in the order of Co 2+ (0.573) > Cs + (0.551) > Sr 2+ (0.310 mmol g -1 ). Sorption of the metals occurred via physical adsorption due to weak van der Waals force and ion exchange with Mn 2+ in HMO-PAN. Sorption behaviors were not related to the types of the surfactants. Among the tested surfactants, SDBS and SOBS remarkably increased the distribution coefficient of Co 2+ and Sr 2+ , respectively. (author)

  11. Assessment of Electrocoagulation Method for Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate, Nitrate and COD by Fe Electrodes from Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Razavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Discharging of wastewaters containing detergents either by manufacturers or through domestic and industrial usages has caused the incidence of serious environmental problems. Entering these materials in to the surface waters reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water and causes unsightly environment and groundwater pollution that is always has been notified by environmental experts. Methods: This study focuses on the treatment of laundry wastewater containing phosphate, nitrate and COD using iron as sacrificial electrode by EC process. Various operating conditions such as pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, distance between the electrode (3, 5, 10,15mm and current density (3, 6,9,12 mA/cm2 were investigated. Results: Experimental results showed that pollutant removal efficiency varied by changing pH, distance between the electrodes and current density. According to the results, optimum operating conditions for the removal of phosphate, nitrate and COD, were current density of 12mA/cm2, pH of 7.0, distance between the electrodes equal to 10 mm with Fe electrodes. The removal efficiency of phosphate, nitrate and COD were showed 99.33%, 96.67% and 91.43%. Also Kinetic analysis indicates that the adsorption system obeys a second- order kinetic model. Conclusion: According to the results, the Fe electrodes have been achieved the high removal efficiency of phosphate, nitrate and COD by using electrocoagulation.

  12. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. A laundry's reincarnation. Hospital Cooperative Laundry, Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-15

    It started out as an off-site hospital laundry, then was leased to a commercial operator, now it is a cooperative plant that serves several accounts in the Denver area. See what makes Hospital Cooperative Laundry tick.

  14. Re-use of laundry rinsing water by low cost adsorption technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.

    2009-01-01

    Shortage of water is a growing global problem. One way of dealing with this problem is the development of technologies for wastewater clean-up and re-use. Laundry accounts often for more than half of the daily domestic water consumption in countries like India. The major part of laundry water is

  15. Neo-Babylonian Laundry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerzeggers, C.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The clothes of the gods were regularly washed by specialized craftsmen in Neo-Babylonian temples (Bongenaar 1997: 304ff.), but who did the laundry of ordinary people? It is symptomatic of the character of Neo-Babylonian documentation that a simple question like this one is difficult to answer: while

  16. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  17. Incorporation of industrial laundry sludge in the manufacture of particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Soto Herek Rezende

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate a sustainable alternative to the use of residues by treating industrial laundry wastewater, thereby making them useful in producing wood particleboards as furniture. For this purpose, physical, chemical, and mechanical tests were carried out in order to characterize the product, which showed acceptable characteristics for commercial use as elements in the furniture industry.

  18. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Graham B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Efficiency Solutions, LLC (United States); Goetzler, W. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, T. A. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Foley, K. J. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  19. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  20. Monitoring laundry for fleas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.L.; Goldin, E.M.; Warnock, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    The San Onofre Unit 3 nuclear plant experienced fuel cladding failures during its first fuel cycle. When primary systems were opened for maintenance and refueling, areas on site were contaminated with fleas - tiny, highly radioactive fuel fragments. While highly mobile, these fragments demonstrated an affinity to attach to some surfaces and clothing. This paper discusses the problems encountered in detecting fleas in the presence of residual activation and fission product contamination on laundered protective clothing. A novel approach to overcome those inherent problems is presented and a home-built laundry monitor utilizing off-the-shelf components is described

  1. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  2. Bulk laundry monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Jain, Amit; Verma, Amit; Anilkumar, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.; Rande, N.R.; Singh, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    Protective wear (like boiler suits, hand gloves etc.) is essential while handling radioactive material in plants/laboratories. During the course of work, it is quite possible that protective wear may get contaminated. These protective wears are packed in laundry bags and send to Decontamination Centre (DC). There is a need for monitoring the laundry bags at the time of receipt, as well as before dispatch to respective locations to comply with AERB guidelines, To avoid cross contamination during wash cycle, contaminated bags (> 0.5 mR/h on surface) need to be segregated. Present paper describes the development of such system for monitoring surface dose rate on bags at the time of receipt. The system installed at ETP after calibration, effectively segregates the contaminated bags from the rest and prevents from cross contamination during wash cycle. Reduction in man-rem consumption due to semi automatic monitoring. Improved sensitivity due to good geometry, long counting time, background and attenuation corrections. Optimum utilization of decontamination chemicals based on level of contamination and keeping track of its inventory. Generation of decontamination process data base for improvement

  3. Radionuclide content in laundry detergents commercially available on the Serbian market and assessment of radiological environmental hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukanac Ivana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry detergents are chemicals widely used in everyday life, and in numerous industry branches. In order to perceive the radiological aspect of environmental pollution by wastewater, the analysis of laundry detergents available on the Serbian market was undertaken. Laundry detergent samples were measured by means of gamma spectrometry and the results are presented in this paper. Analysis of the obtained activity concentrations showed that laundry detergents in Serbia mostly fulfill the international recommendation and requirements regarding the phosphate content. Besides that, the content of the detected radionuclides in laundry detergent samples indicates the minor radiological risk to the environment via wastewaters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 171018

  4. Analisis Strategi Bersaing Pada Usaha Laundry Di Padang Bulan (Studi Kasus Pada Cheap Laundry)

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Nurcahaya

    2015-01-01

    Cheap Laundry is one of laundry that has built ± 4 years in an area of Padang Bulan, Medan. The increasing of growth laundry business requires Cheap laundry to be ready in facing the competition that will happen, therefore Cheap Laundry must implement appropriate competitive strategies to face competitors. The aim of this research is to determine and to analyze qualitatively the right competitive strategy and can be applied by Cheap Laundry to confront the competition. The Form of r...

  5. Energy and the laundry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1980-04-01

    Energy usage in the residential laundry process is discussed. The various parts of the washing and drying cycles and areas where energy is being wasted or where its usage can be optimized are analyzed. The application of R and D to these areas will result in energy savings. The work was centered on standard and large-size automatic washers and dryers, as compact, portable, and manual models comprise a small part of the market. However, the principles discussed apply to them also. Data from many sources were used to compile this report. Most sources show very good general agreement so far as energy consumption and usage patterns are concerned. The results suggest that improved and/or integrated controls utilizing modern electronics can indeed help conserve energy. A better understanding by the consumer of the factors involved in the laundry process can also lead to the purchase and wise use of that laundry equipment which best suits the individual needs.

  6. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  7. Effect of detergents from laundry greywater on soil properties: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Noramira, J.; Chan, C. M.; Hashim, M. K. Amir; Sabariah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Detergent compounds are classes of the organic micro-pollutants in the laundry wastewater. The disposal of these compounds into the soil has several adverse effects on their composition. In the present study, changes in the soil characteristics, which included saturated hydraulic conductivity ( K sat), EC, pH, exchangeable sodium percentage, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and sodium adsorption on ratio were examined after the irrigation with laundry wastewater. Ten clothes were washed with one full cap of powder (PLD) and liquid laundry (LLD). Laundry greywater samples were used for the irrigation of soil. The results revealed that the pH of soil increased from 3.85 to 4.42 and 4.09 after irrigation by PLD and LLD greywater, respectively. The EC of the irrigated soil increased from 50.32 to 152.5 and 147.6 μS/cm, respectively. The CEC was raised to 79.93 and 41.39 meq/100 g, while K sat was reduced to 7.38 × 10-10 and 7.11 × 10-10 cm/s, respectively. These findings highlighted the negative effects of laundry greywater discharge on soil properties.

  8. What happened on the way to the laundry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Schwanfelder, K.; Sze, T.; Shelton, J.

    1997-01-01

    In Santa Fe, New Mexico, there is an Interstate Nuclear Services (INS) laundry that washes protective clothing worn by workers at nuclear facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-clothing that can be contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the radioactivity goes into the sewer system, thereby going to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and then coming out in the water effluent or the digested sludge. Some of the water effluent is used to water playing fields, a golf course, and the infield of the horse-racing track, and the sludge is interred into a field. This study investigates contamination from a waste water treatment plant

  9. Analisis Strategi Bersaing pada UKM Laundry (Studi Kasus pada Superwash Laundry Kota Semarang)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Listia; Hidayat, Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    Laundry business is one type of SMEs in the growing home industry today. The demand for laundry business is increasing for workers / employees to students who have busy every day. Laundry service becomes one of the alternatives to save time in doing the job. The high level of demand for laundry services to be one of the drivers of the community to do laundry business. It creates competition, in terms of price or quality. To be able to maintain existence in achieving the purpose of a business ...

  10. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using a Detergent-free Laundry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sung Paal

    2005-07-01

    In this study, a new laundry system to wash clothes without using detergent (detergent-free) was applied to wash clothes contaminated with radionuclides at the RWTF of KAERI. If the clothes contaminated with radionuclides and soil decontaminated and cleaned by washing without using detergent, the problem caused by the detergent could be solved naturally. The experiment was performed in two stages. In the first stage, washability of the processed water from the detergent=free laundry system was investigated with regard to its decontamination efficiency for the radionuclides and the detergency for the soil by using the test cloth specimens. In the second stage, real working clothes contaminated with radionuclides from the RWTF were washed by using a laundry machine equipped with a detergent-free system. Decontamination and detergency of the clothes were estimated after washing and the wastewater was also analyzed for its properties.

  11. Cost containment in laundry and linen service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B

    1978-03-16

    One major problem looms among all others in the area of laundry and linen service, whether a hospital has an in-house operation, is part of a shared or central laundry, or uses a commercial service. That is the costly problem of controling linen consumption and replacement. A recent seminar offers some insight into reasons for the problem and some possible solutions.

  12. Laundry monitor for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Mitsuo (Toshiba Corp., Fuchu (Japan). Fuchu Works)

    1984-06-01

    A laundry monitor has been developed for the detection and cleansification of radiation contamination on the clothes, headgear, footgear, etc. of workers in nuclear facilities. With this monitor, measurement is made irrespective of the size and shape of the objects; a large-area plastic scintillation detector is incorporated; it has stable and highly sensitive characteristics, with the merits of swift measurement, economical operation and easy maintenance. Connected with a folding machine, automatic carrying and storing compartment through a conveyor, it is capable of saving energy and man power, contributing to scheduled operation, and improving the efficiency of the facilities.

  13. Laundry monitor for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Mitsuo

    1984-01-01

    A laundry monitor has been developed for the detection and cleansification of radiation contamination on the clothes, headgear, footgear, etc. of workers in nuclear facilities. With this monitor, measurement is made irrespective of the size and shape of the objects ; a large-area plastic scintillation detector is incorporated ; it has stable and highly sensitive characteristics, with the merits of swift measurement, economical operation and easy maintenance. Connected with a folding machine, automatic carrying and storing compartment through a conveyor, it is capable of saving energy and man power, contributing to scheduled operation, and improving the efficiency of the facilities. (author)

  14. Method of processing laundry drain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Oda, A; Yusa, H; Kitamura, M; Horiuchi, S

    1979-09-28

    Purpose: To subject the laundry drain to flocculation precipitation treatment in the prior stage of an inverse osmotic treatment, and subject only the supernatant to the inverse osmotic treatment and the precipitate directly to the condensation treatment, thereby decreasing the frequency of exchange of the inverse osmotic membranes, and reducing the quantity of purifying water. Method: The laundry drain is supplied to a flocculation precipitation tank, and added and mixed with a flocculant and a neutralizing agent, thus being subjected to a flocculation precipitation treatment. The supernatant is transported to a circulation tank through a transportation pipe, and is subjected to an inverse osmotic treatment in inverse osmotic module through the circulation tank, a filter and a high tension pump, and then returned to the circulation tank. The supernatant is thus concentrated to a predetermined concentration by repeating such operations. On the other hand, the precipitate at the bottom part of the flocculation precipitation tank is supplied through the transportation pipe to an evaporator supply tank together with the concentrate from the drain circulation tank, and evaporated and concentrated in the evaporator.

  15. 48 CFR 252.237-7017 - Individual laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause: Individual Laundry (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide laundry service under this... services. (c) Charges for individual laundry will be on a per unit bundle or a piece-rate basis. The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual laundry. 252...

  16. Wireless smart shipboard sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Nozik, Andrew B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the feasibility of developing a smart shipboard sensor network. The objective of the thesis is to prove that sensors can be made smart by keeping calibration constants and other relevant data such as network information stored on the sensor and a server computer. Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP(micro)8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information can be see...

  17. Method of solidifying radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to solidify radioactive laundry wastes containing non-ionic liquid detergents less solidifiable by plastic solidification process in liquid laundry wastes for cloths or the likes discharged from a nuclear power plant. Method: Radioactive laundry wastes are solidified by using plastic solidifying agent comprising, as a main ingredient, unsaturated polyester resins and methylmethacrylate monomers. The plastic solidifying agents usable herein include, for example, unsaturated polyester resins prepared by condensating maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol and incorporated with methylmethacrylate monomers. The mixing ratio of the methylmethacrylate monomers is preferably 30 % by weight based on the unsaturated polyester resins. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. Advantageous technology for treatment of laundry waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Y.; Gorbachev, D.; Volkov, A.; Barinov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, based on preliminary experimental studies, an improved scheme for cleaning of laundry water is offered which allows reuse of water and components of laundry solutions and produces low amounts of secondary radioactive waste. The principal feature of the proposed process is that waste water from rinsing (60-80% of the total volume) is processed by hyperfiltration, but waste water from the laundry (20-40% of the total volume) is treated by ultrafiltration. Concentrates after reverse osmosis desalination of waste liquids (after rinsing) contain a majority of laundry waste components, since a hyperfiltration membrane efficiently retains salts and surfactant molecules. Desalinated water (permeate) after hyperfiltration is reused, further reducing the volume of liquid wastes. (author)

  19. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide. Manufacturers directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    The following is the annual American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide which is being circulated to all segments of the laundry industry. The Guide contains a list of manufacturers who responded to our questionnaire. This is followed by a list of product categories and the various manufacturers who make these products. You may contact these companies directly or by using the reader service card in this issue.

  1. Work Physiology Evaluation of Laundry Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Pramaningtyas, M. D.; Putra, P. S.; Maulidyawati, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess cardiovascular strain during laundry operations in terms of physical workload, based on heart rate changes and level of pain complaints. Researchers measured resting and working heart rates and calculated cardiovascular load (%CVL), cardiovascular strain (%CVS), reserve heart rate (%RHR), energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and measure level of pain complain in 6 laundry workers using Nordic Body Map questionnaire (NBM). Based on the result of %CVL and %CVS, the work in laundry was classified as acceptable level. Similarly, a high-level category was recorded for %RHR in moderate of energy expenditure. However, there are very pain level complain for hand using NBM questionnaire. Thus, there is a need to redesign the work content of equipment used and keep the physical workload in acceptable level, as this will increase their productivity and reduce their health risk.

  2. 20 CFR 638.516 - Laundry, mail, and telephone service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laundry, mail, and telephone service. 638.516... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.516 Laundry, mail, and telephone service. (a) The center operator shall provide adequate laundry services and supplies at...

  3. Hanger-type laundry monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Kouno, Yoshio; Yanagishima, Ryouhei; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Nakatani, Masahiro

    1987-01-01

    Laundry monitor is installed in nuclear power plants or other nuclear facilities in order to efficiently detect radioactive contamination remains on the surfaces of the working clothes which were used in the controlled area and washed afterward. The number of the working clothes which must be measured has been increasing in accordance with the increase of the nuclear facilities. This fact and recent intensified radiation control require automatic, high-speed and high sensitive measurement. Conveyer-type laundry monitor in which the working clothes are inserted by the metal net conveyer has been generally used, and recently new system with an automatic folder has become more popular. But, this type of system has not so big capacity because the clothes are conveyed longitudinally and also requires considerable wide space when installed. Fuji electric Co., Ltd. has been engaging in research and development for an optimum laundry monitor system used in nuclear facilities since the joint investigation with ten electric power companies in Japan in 1982. Consequently hanger-type laundry monitor system using automatic hanger conveyer was developed and 2 systems were delivered to Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. in 1986. This system permits to detect radioactive contamination on the working clothes, pick the contaminated clothes out and fold the uncontaminated clothes fully automatically and continuously. Moreover it allows to shorten the measurement time because the clothes are conveyed transversely and save the installation space, so that this will be regarded as considerably complete system in the world. This report describes the outline of the hanger-type laundry monitor system. (author)

  4. Shipboard-irradiation of haddock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Reinacher, E.; Antonacopoulos, N.

    1977-01-01

    Haddock caught during the 183rd and 185th voyage of the RV 'Anton Dohrn' off Faeroeer was gutted, washed and packed under vacuum in polyethylene pouches. The samples were irradiated with the onboard X-ray source. During one series of experiments a minimum dose of 65 krad and a maximum dose of 130 krad was used. During further series the minimal dose was set to 100 krad, resulting in maximum values of 140 krad and 180 krad. As judged by taste panel evaluation of steam-cooked, unseasoned filets, quality preservation of all samples during the first 16 days of iced storage did not depend on irradiation. After that period the fish had lost prime quality. At this time, irradiated samples were rated slightly better than unirradiated ones. Base on our results, the shipboard-irradiation of prepacked haddock cannot be recommended. This does not exclude that under different conditions (e.g. fishfilets in retail packages) beneficial effects of irradiation may be observed. (orig.) [de

  5. Shipboard-irradiation of haddock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Reinacher, E.; Antonacopoulos, N.

    1977-01-01

    Haddock caught during the 183rd and 185th voyage of the RV 'Anton Dohrn' off Faeroer was gutted, washed and packed under vacuum in polythylene pouches. The samples were irradiated with the onboard X-ray source. During one series of experiments a minimum dose of 65 krad and a maximum dose of 130 krad was used. During further series the minimal dose was set to 100 krad, resulting in maximum values of 140 krad and 180 krad. As judged by taste panel evalution of steam-cooked, unseasoned filets, quality preservation of all samples during the first 16 days of iced storage did not depend on irradiation. After that period the fish had lost prime quality. At this time, irradiated samples were rated slightly better than unirradiated ones. On the basis of these results, the shipboard-irradiation of prepacked haddock cannot be recommended. This does not exclude that under different conditions (e.g. fishfilets in retail packages) beneficial effects of irradiation may be observed. (orig.) [de

  6. Design Criteria for Vacuum Wastewater Transfer Systems in Advanced Base Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    costs, and (d) operational man- powe reqiremnts._51 Library Card I Civil Engineering labo~rator% L ~ DISIGN CRITERIA FOR VACUU’tM WASTEWATER ITRANSFER...generated from multiple sources (such as toil-ts, kitchens , laundries, and showers) and transported in a single, common transport main. Although special...system)(Ref 1) 2. A single-pipe system in parallel with the other where gray water sources (shower, laundry, and kitchen types of wastewaters) are

  7. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Graham B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Efficiency Solutions, LLC (United States); Goetzler, W. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Foley, K. J. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, T. A. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  8. Development of laundry drainage treatment system with ceramic ultra filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Kurahasi, Takafumi

    1995-01-01

    A compact laundry drainage treatment system (UF system hereafter) with a ceramic ultra filter membrane (UF membrane hereafter) has been developed to reduce radioactivity in laundry drainage from nuclear power plants. The UF membrane is made of sintered fine ceramic. The UF membrane has 0.01 μm fine pores, resulting in a durable, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant porous ceramic filter medium. A cross-flow system, laundry drainage is filtrated while it flows across the UF membrane, is used as the filtration method. This method creates less caking when compared to other methods. The UF membrane is back washed at regular intervals with permeated water to minimize caking of the filter. The UF membrane and cross-flow system provides long stable filtration. The ceramic UF membrane is strong enough to concentrate suspended solids in laundry drainage up to a weight concentration of 10%. The final concentrated laundry drainage can be treated in an incinerator. The performance of the UF system was checked using radioactive laundry drainage. The decontamination factor of the UF system was 25 or more. The laundry drainage treatment capacity and concentration ratio of the UF system, as well as the service life of the UF membrane were also checked by examination using simulated non-radioactive laundry drainage. Even though laundry drainage was concentrated 1000 times, the UF system showed good permeated water quality and permeated water flux. (author)

  9. PEMANFAATAN SPUIT BEKAS SEBAGAI MEDIA BIOFILTRASI DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD DAN COD AIR LIMBAH LAUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Utilization Spuit Used As Media biofilters on Reducing levels of BOD and COD Wastewater Laundry. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the media syringe biofiltration method used in lowering levels of BOD and COD in waste water laundry Hospital Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. This research is a quasi-experimental research design with one group pretest-posttest. Laboratory results mean BOD levels before processing is 103.63 mg/L and the average after processing into 46.41 mg/ L, with a value of 55.21 % effectiveness. While the average COD level before processing is 413.70 mg / L and the average after processing into a 195.88 mg/L with a value of 45.92% effectiveness. Expected to other researchers to control the pH and blowers before treatment and during treatment, as it will affect the final result. Abstrak : Pemanfaatan Spuit Bekas Sebagai Media Biofiltrasi Dalam Menurunkan Kadar BOD dan COD Air Limbah Laundry. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menguji kemampuan metode biofiltrasi dengan media spuit bekas pakai dalam menurunkan kadar BOD dan COD pada air limbah laundry RSUD Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan penelitian one group pre test post test. Hasil laboratorium rata-rata kadar BOD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 103.63 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 46.41 mg/L, dengan nilai efektivitas 55,21 %. Sedangkan rata-rata kadar COD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 413.70 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 195.88 mg/L dengan nilai efektivitas 45,92 %. Diharapkan kepada peneliti lain untuk mengontrol pH dan blower sebelum perlakuan dan pada saat perlakuan, jika melakukan penelitian sejenis karena akan mempengaruhi hasil akhir.

  10. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412... RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold...

  11. Development of a laundry waste treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Ebara, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Takeshima, M [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    1977-12-01

    Fundamental and pilot plant experiments developed a laundry waste treatment system for nuclear power plants, consisting of a reverse osmosis unit for removal of radioactive materials and pre-concentration, and an evaporator for the final concentration. A sponge ball cleaning method was employed for the reverse osmosis unit and a heat-resistant antifoam reagent for the evaporator. The pilot plant test, using simulated wastes, showed a decontamination factor of above 10/sup 3/ and a volume reduction ratio of 10/sup -3/.

  12. Building for changing-rooms, laundry, laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, L.; Mezes, J.; Gulyas, F.; Hejj, A.; Matyas, J.

    1979-01-01

    This building accomodates important service sections of the power plant. The changing-rooms of the primary circuit are here, through which the employees, under the supervision of health physics service, pass to the radioactive contaminated jobs. Working-clothes are cleaned in laundries located on the ground-floor. The building houses the health measurement control rooms of the four reactor sets and the control centre of the power plant. The laboratories dealing with process control, electrical engineering, radiology, dosimetry, material tests and reactor physics will be located here. (author)

  13. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, K; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Hyakutake, H

    1977-01-07

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount.

  14. Primary odorants of naturally soiled laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Münch, Petra; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    Odorants still attached to laundry soiled with human axillary sweat and sebum, after a mild washing procedure, were extracted and analysed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Esters (ethyl-2-methylpropanoate and ethylbutanoate), ketones (1-hexen-3-one and 1-octen-3-one) and, in particular......, aldehydes ((Z)-4-heptenal, octanal, (E)-2-octenal, methional, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde) were identified as primary odorants. Organic acids, which are dominating, characteristic odorants in human axillary sweat, were...... ranking analysis prior to the analytical odour analysis. Swatches selected for the subsequent odour analysis possessed greater odour intensity, when washed in the presence of lipase than the corresponding swatches washed in the absence of lipase. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed that generally...

  15. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Method and equipment of processing radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Suzuki, Takeo; Tabata, Masayuki; Takada, Takao; Yamaguchi, Shin-ichi; Noda, Tetsuya.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively process radioactive laundry wastes generated due to water-washing after dry-cleaning of protective clothings which have been put on in nuclear facilities. Method: Dry cleaning soaps and ionic radioactive materials contained in radioactive laundry wastes are selectively adsorbed to decontaminate by adsorbents. Then, the adsorbents having adsorbed dry cleaning soaps and ionic radioactive materials are purified by being removed with these radioactive materials. The purified adsorbents are re-used. (Seki, T.)

  17. FEL mirror response to shipboard vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvais, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    The Optical cavity of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) is composed of components that must be maintained to very tight tolerances. The shipboard environment is one that will preclude a direct coupling of FEL components to the ship. This thesis will explore the basis for these tight tolerances, and how to isolate them from the FEL. A solid model of a potential FEL system will be developed using SolidWorks. This model will then be converted to a finite element model in ANSYS. The finite element ...

  18. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberich, M.J. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Robinson, P. [Life Cycle Engineering, Inc., Charleston, SC (United States); Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  19. Factors Affecting the Discharge of Micro-Plastic Fibers from Household Laundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, N.

    2017-12-01

    Every day millions of loads of laundry are done in in the United States alone. Many, if not most, include synthetic fibers. During washing, micro-plastic fibers are released from the fabric, and discharged into the wastewater. These fibers have been detected in fresh water throughout the world and all of the oceans. These micro-plastic fibers are an emerging environmental contaminant that can adversely affect wildlife and are highly bio-accumulated in aquatic food-chains. Additionally, like other plastics, micro-fibers are not readily biodegraded and persist in the environment for a long time. In this research, I explored the effect of the way we wash clothes on the amount of micro-plastic fibers that are shed by common clothing materials containing man-made fibers. I collected discharge samples from wash and rinse cycles of a washing machine. I collected samples from a control wash using no detergent and then repeated five times. Next, I repeated the experiment five times using four different types of detergent. Large amounts of micro-plastic fibers were released during all wash cycles. However, the numbers decreased during the later rinse cycles. The use of laundry detergent increased the number of micro-plastic fibers released into the wash-water. Deep cleaning detergents produced over ten times more fibers than the no-detergent control. The gentlest detergent only released two times more fibers than the control. Therefore, it would be possible to affect the number of fibers released into the wastewater simply by selection of detergent. The ultimate goal of my research is to develop an optimized detergent that minimizes the number of micro-plastic fibers generated by washing and still effectively clean clothes.

  20. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten samples were collected respectively from kitchen, laundry and toilet wastewaters were collected and physical, chemical, metallic and non-metallic analysis were carried out on the various samples collected following standard procedures. @JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Sept, 2011, Vol. 15 (3) 431 - 437 ...

  1. Candida parapsilosis in domestic laundry machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dögen, Aylin; Sav, Hafize; Gonca, Serpil; Kaplan, Engin; Ilkit, Macit; Novak Babic, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis, although a human commensal, acts as an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections, with a rising incidence worldwide. Its ecological characteristics are poorly understood. Human-made environments within dwellings, such as dishwashers and water distribution systems, represent major sources of fungi such as C. parapsilosis. Here, we investigated the presence of members of the C. parapsilosis complex in 99 washing machines in various dwellings in the city of Mersin, Turkey. We sampled three sites in each washing machine: (i) the washing powder drawers, (ii) fabric softener drawers, and (iii) rubber seals around the washing machine doors. Additionally, we recorded the type of cleanser used by each customer. Of note, 25.3% of sampled washing machines harbored C. parapsilosis strains, later identified as the members of the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto via internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Out of the 29 isolates obtained, biofilm-forming ability and proteinase and esterase activities were recorded in 14, 11, and 4 of the isolates, respectively. Our results suggest that the washing machines investigated abundantly harbored C. parapsilosis sensu stricto; however, no single preferred isolation site or association with cleanser type was observed (P > .05). Furthermore, C. parapsilosis isolates grew at temperatures ranging from 10°C to 37°C, at pH values ranging from 4 to 10, and were found to tolerate 5-10% NaCl. Domestic laundry appliances as a potential source of C. parapsilosis infections are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pembuatan Aplikasi Antar-Jemput Laundry Berbasis Web Service pada Platform Android

    OpenAIRE

    Setiyawati, Yenita Dwi; Isnanto, R. Rizal; Martono, Kurniawan Teguh

    2016-01-01

    Bisnis laundry yang telah menemukan pangsa pasarnya mengharuskan para pengusaha laundry memiliki strategi bisnis yang tepat, seperti menyediakan layanan antar-jemput laundry. Di sisi lain, banyaknya pengguna perangkat bergerak Android di masyarakat membuktikan bahwa Android merupakan platform yang lebih disukai oleh masyarakat. Oleh sebab itu, dilakukan penelitian untuk merancang aplikasi antar-jemput laundry pada platform Android yang efektif dan memberikan efisiensi waktu untuk mendata paka...

  3. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  4. 2nd International Symposium on Shipboard Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Shipboard Acoustics, held in Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) in 1976, was a meeting of invited experts, each having considerable expertise in ship acoustics. Many of the participants were dealing with research on various ship acoustical subjects, and it proved to be a good idea to discuss future investigations and new techniques. At that time acousticians learned to use real-time signal-processing techniques and attempts were made to establish sound level prediction methods based on semi-fundamental considerations instead of the methods using empirically obtained data. Time was pressing as it was assumed that, in view of the adoption of Recommendation 141 of the International Labour Conference in 1970, authorities would soon make appropriate provisions to "protect seafarers from the ill effects of noise". This resulted in several national recommendations followed by the IMO "Code on noise levels aboard ships" which was adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1981. After that, pre...

  5. Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:It is the mission of the Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory to provide a means by which to virtually duplicate products...

  6. Tactical Voice Communications Over Shipboard Local Area Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urie, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The United States Navy's next generation ship(s) scheduled for commissioning in the year 2004 and beyond will integrate tactical shipboard voice communications system into the local area network (LAN...

  7. Material Considerations for the Navy Shipboard Waste Destruction System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shifler, David

    1997-01-01

    Compliance with MARPOL environmental regulations has required the design of a waste management system to reduce the volume of solid shipboard waste and treat it so that it is safe to carry aboard ship. The U.S...

  8. Vibrational analysis of a shipboard free electron laser beam path

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Bryan M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the deployment of a free electron laser (FEL) weapon system in a shipboard vibration environment. A concept solid model of a shipboard FEL is developed and used as a basis for a finite element model which is subjected to vibration simulation in MATLAB. Vibration input is obtained from ship shock trials data and wave excited motion data from ship motion simulation software. Emphasis is placed on the motion of electron beam path components of the FEL and the feasibility of ...

  9. Advanced Shipboard Communications Demonstrations with ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Roy A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Rupar, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    For ships at sea. satellites provide the only option for high data rate (HDR), long haul communications. Furthermore the demand for HDR satellite communications (SATCOM) for military and commercial ships. and other offshore platforms is increasing. Presently the bulk of this maritime HDR SATCOM connectivity is provided via C-band and X-band. However, the shipboard antenna sizes required to achieve a data rate of, say T 1 (1.544 Mbps) with present C-/X-band SATCOM systems range from seven to ten feet in diameter. This limits the classes of ships to which HDR services can be provided to those which are large enough to accommodate the massive antennas. With its high powered K/Ka-band spot beams, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was able to provide T I and higher rate services to ships at sea using much smaller shipboard antennas. This paper discusses three shipboard HDR SATCOM demonstrations that were conducted with ACTS between 1996 and 1998. The first demonstration involved a 2 Mbps link provided to the seismic survey ship MN Geco Diamond equipped with a 16-inch wide, 4.5-inch tall, mechanically steered slotted waveguide array antenna developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In this February 1996 demonstration ACTS allowed supercomputers ashore to process Geco Diamond's voluminous oceanographic seismic data in near real time. This capability allowed the ship to adjust its search parameters on a daily basis based on feedback from the processed data, thereby greatly increasing survey efficiency. The second demonstration was conducted on the US Navy cruiser USS Princeton (CG 59) with the same antenna used on Geco Diamond. Princeton conducted a six-month (January-July 1997) Western Hemisphere solo deployment during which time T1 connectivity via ACTS provided the ship with a range of valuable tools for operational, administrative and quality-of-life tasks. In one instance, video

  10. Safety assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, M.W.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1984-10-01

    The Safety Assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry, prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1A, identifies and evaluates potential radiation and chemical hazards to personnel, and impacts on the environment. Site and facility characteristics, as well as routine and nonroutine operations are discussed. Hypothetical incidents and accidents are described and evaluated. 3 figures, 1 table

  11. KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL PADA PEKERJA LAUNDRY DI KECAMATAN DENPASAR SELATAN, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Sari Tampubolon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Keluhan muskuloskeletal adalah keluhan pada otot yang disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor kerja dan lingkungan saat melakukan pekerjaan. Keluhan muskuloskeletal merupakanmasalah kesehatan yang paling sering terjadi dalam dunia industri termasuk  industrirumah tangga laundry. Saat ini industri rumah tangga laundry  berkembang sangat pesatyang disebabkan oleh tingkat kesibukan yang sangat tinggi pada masyarakat terutamamasyarakat di kota besar. Oleh sebab itu, penulis ingin mengkaji tentang distribusikeluhan muskuloskeletal pada pekerja laundry di Kecamatan Denpasar Selatan, Bali.Studi deskriptif cross sectional dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner Nordic BodyMap yang dibagikan pada 30 orang pekerja di 26 tempat laundry yang berada diKecamatan Denpasar Selatan, Bali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mayoritaspekerja berumur < 35 tahun (63,33%, masa kerja 1-2 tahun (53,33%, durasi kerja 9-12jam/hari (80% dan lama istirahat 1 jam (83,33%. Keluhan muskuloskeletal yangterdapat pada pekerja yaitu bahu kanan 22 orang (73,33%, betis kiri dan betis kananmasing-masing berjumlah 17 orang (56,66% serta pinggang dan bahu kiri masingmasingberjumlah 16 orang (53,33%. Studi lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk mengkajifaktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya keluhan muskuloskeletal pada pekerja.

  12. Smart Shipboard Power System Operation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotis D. Kanellos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, optimal electrification of isolated offshore systems has become increasingly important and received extensive attention from the maritime industry. Especially with the introduction of electric propulsion, which has led to a total electrification of shipboard power systems known as all-electric ships (AESs, the need for more cost-effective and emission-aware solutions is augmented. Such onboard systems are prone to sudden load variations due to the changing weather conditions as well as mission profile, thus they require effective power management systems (PMSs to operate optimally under different working conditions. In this paper, coordinated optimal power management at the supply/demand side of a given AES is studied with regard to different objectives and related technical/environmental constraints. The optimal power management problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model and is solved using a metaheuristic algorithm. To show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed PMS, several test scenarios are implemented and related simulation results are analyzed and compared to those from conventional methods.

  13. Pembuatan Aplikasi Antar-Jemput Laundry Berbasis Web Service pada Platform Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenita Dwi Setiyawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisnis laundry yang telah menemukan pangsa pasarnya mengharuskan para pengusaha laundry memiliki strategi bisnis yang tepat, seperti menyediakan layanan antar-jemput laundry. Di sisi lain, banyaknya pengguna perangkat bergerak Android di masyarakat membuktikan bahwa Android merupakan platform yang lebih disukai oleh masyarakat. Oleh sebab itu, dilakukan penelitian untuk merancang aplikasi antar-jemput laundry pada platform Android yang efektif dan memberikan efisiensi waktu untuk mendata pakaian yang masuk dan keluar laundry maupun mendata pelanggan laundry untuk kemudian dikirmkan kepada komputer admin secara tepat waktu. Metode penelitian yang digunakan meliputi studi pustaka dan bimbingan, perancangan, dan pengujian. Pembuatan aplikasi ini menggunakan Eclipse Java EE IDE for Web Developers versi 4.4.2 atau Versi Luna Service Release 2 dan Android SDK sebagai tools API. Aplikasi dibuat dengan bahasa pemrograman Java dan XML. Pembuatan aplikasi ini menggunakan metode Rapid Application Development (RAD dan untuk pengujian menggunakan metode Pengujian Kotak Hitam. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan sebuah aplikasi antar-jemput laundry pada platform Android yang dibuat menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java dan akses basisdata melalui web service yang dapat digunakan untuk mendata pakaian yang masuk dan keluar laundry maupun mendata pelanggan yang akan menggunakan jasa laundry secara tepat waktu. Aplikasi ini juga telah menghasilkan sistem yang efisien yaitu bahwa pengusaha laundry bisa melakukan aktivitas bisnisnya dengan lebih singkat. Hasil Pengujian Kotak Hitam dari aplikasi ini menunjukkan bahwa semua fungsi menu yang terdapat dalam aplikasi telah berhasil sesuai dengan fungsinya.

  14. Handling of laundry in nursing homes in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2016 – laundry and professional clothing as potential pathways of bacterial transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In accordance with the German Infection Protection Act, the treatment and handling of laundry was checked by the Public Health Department in 2016 in all Frankfurt nursing homes with special focus on the staff’s clothing.Methods: On-site visits and surveys were conducted in all 44 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, and random microbiological examinations of 58 reprocessed and 58 already worn protective gowns were performed to determine the numbers of the colony forming units (cfu and microbiological differentiation of the pathogen species.Results: 41 (93% of the 44 homes tested had contracted a certified laundry service. 23 (52% of the homes also ran a laundry of their own; in 21 of these, laundry was reprocessed and disinfected in an industrial washing machine. Regular technical or microbiological tests were carried out in 16 or 12 of the home-owned laundries, respectively. Only (70% provided uniforms for their employees. The staff’s clothing was processed in 25 homes by the external laundry, in 9 homes by the internal laundry, and in 12 homes, the nursing staff had to do this privately at their own home.Used coats exhibited significantly higher contamination than freshly prepared ones (median: 80 vs. 2 cfu/25 cm; P 95 percentile: 256 cfu vs. 81 cfu/25 cm. Clothing prepared in private homes showed significantly higher contamination rates than those washed in the certified external laundry or in the nursing homes themselves (Median: vs. 0.5–1 cfu/25 cm.Conclusion: Considering various publications on pathogen transfers and outbreaks due to contaminated laundry in medical facilities, the treatment of laundry, in particular the uniforms, must be given more attention, also in nursing homes for the elderly. The private reprocessing of occupational clothing by the employees at home must be rejected on hygienic principles, and is furthermore prohibited by law in Germany.

  15. Hanford regulated laundry: inventory control and production improvement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C. J.; Imhoff, C. H.; Levine, L. O.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to assist the Hanford regulated laundry facility in reducing processing costs and in improving facility performance. Specific problem areas addressed were: no method for determining optimum manpower requirements, resulting in excessive amounts of employee overtime; no buffer inventory available to offset demand peaks, resulting in additional employee overtime and unmet demand; lack of adequate inventory control, resulting in unnecessary inventory costs; and no detailed analysis of the impact of 100% monitoring.

  16. Pembuatan Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry dan Integrasi Data dengan Web Service

    OpenAIRE

    Refika Khoirunnisa; R. Rizal Isnanto; Kurniawan Teguh Martono

    2016-01-01

    Selama ini banyak dari perusahaan di bidang jasa laundry masih menggunakan pencatatan secara manual seperti menggunakan buku, sehingga setiap data tidak terintegrasi secara waktu-nyata. Oleh sebab itu, perlu dibuat penelitian untuk merancang sebuah sistem terkomputerisasi yang dapat mempermudah pencatatan dan pengolahan data keuangan laundry. Pembuatan Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript dan basisdata MySQL sebagai tempat penyimpanan data. ...

  17. Specialized Hierarchical Control Strategy for DC Distribution based Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    (APSs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) into next-generation ships, and thus reducing cost and emission. In this context, the future shipboard power systems (SPSs) are expected to be compatible with various generation methods and complex onboard power consumers, which can be naturally identified...

  18. 78 FR 53479 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-891] Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice... certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of trademark infringement...

  19. Processing method for discharged radioactive laundry water waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    In order to process discharged radioactive laundry water wastes safely and decrease radioactive wastes, bubbling of a surface active agent in a detergent which causes a problem upon its condensation is suppressed, so that the liquid condensate are continuously and easily dried into a powder. A nonionic surface active agent is used against the bubbling of the surface active agent. In addition, the bubbling in an the evaporation can is reduced, and the powderization is facilitated by adding an appropriate inorganic builder. (T.M.)

  20. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes

  1. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  3. Test Results of an F/A-18 Automatic Carrier Landing Using Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sousa, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Defense's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System program, the Navy is responsible for developing the shipboard coreponent, termed Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS...

  4. Use of a tangential filtration unit for processing liquid waste from nuclear laundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Buzonniere, A. de; Barnier, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear laundries produce large quantities of weakly contaminated effluents charged with insoluble and soluble products. In collaboration with CEA, TECHNICATOME has developed an ultrafiltration process for liquid waste from nuclear laundries, associated with prior in-solubilization of the radiochemical activity. This process 'seeded ultrafiltration' is based on the use of decloggable mineral filter media and combines very high separation efficiency with long membrane life. The efficiency of the tangential filtration unit which has been processing effluents from the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center (CEA-France) nuclear laundry since mid-1988, has been confirmed on several sites

  5. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  6. Analysing Factors That Drives Customer Loyalty Of Shoes Laundry Quickcares Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mawa, Maria; Tumbuan, Willem J.F.Alfa; Tielung, Maria V.J

    2017-01-01

    This research is to analyzing what are the factors that drive customer loyalty of shoe laundry Quickcares Manado. Shoe Laundry is the services that offer to clean and taking care shoe, Customer Loyalty is the result of consistently positive emotional experience, physical attribute-based satisfaction and perceived value of an experience, which includes the product or services. It is important to know factors that drive customer Loyalty in business, in order to guarantee business continuity and...

  7. Characterizing Cyberbullying among College Students: Hacking, Dirty Laundry, and Mocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajitha Kota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behaviors occur across the lifespan and have increasingly migrated to online platforms where they are known as cyberbullying. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of cyberbullying among college students. Participants were recruited for focus groups through purposeful sampling, including recruitment from groups traditionally at risk for bullying. Focus groups discussed views and perceptions of cyberbullying on campuses. Groups were led by a trained facilitator and were audio recorded and manually transcribed. The constant comparative approach was used to identify themes and representative quotations. The 42 participants had an average age of 19.2 (SD = 1.2, 55% were female, 83% were Caucasian. Three themes emerged from the data: (1 lack of agreement on a definition of cyberbullying, but consensus on three representative scenarios: hacking, dirty laundry and mocking; (2 concerns with translating definitions of traditional bullying to cyberbullying; (3 opinions that cyberbullying may manifest differently in college compared to younger adolescents, including increased potential for long-term effects. College students were not in agreement about a theoretical definition, but they could agree upon specific representative instances of cyberbullying.  Future studies could consider using common case examples or vignettes of cyberbullying, or creation of developmentally representative definitions by age group.

  8. Treatment of shower and laundry liquid radwaste by foam flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Ha; Lee, Jeong Won; Park, Hee Seong; Lee, Chul Yong; Kang, Kwon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Shower and laundry water containing surfactant were treated by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation. In precipitate flotation, 99.8% of removal efficiency was attained at cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 30min. In adsorbing colloidal flotation using Fe(III) as a collector, 99.8% removal efficiency was attained at initial cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 8.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 15 min. By adding Al(III) 20ppm after coprecipitating cobalt ion with Fe(III), operation pH range was more enlarged than using Fe(III) or Al(III) each. NaNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaCl, CaCl{sub 2} were added as foreign ions. Removal efficiency by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation for the cobalt solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were about 90% and 72% due to the decreased Zeta potential and the interruption of precipitation. Using Al(III) as a activator at solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the removal efficiency was increased up to 99%. (author). 24 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  10. Quality Management Principles in the Management of Shipboard Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Koljatić

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental control of vessels is a management functionthat requires applied technology, training and diligentmanagement. Quality Management is a tool for developing environmentalprograms to control corporate environmental exposures.The management of environmental regulations, requirementsand concerns requires a systematic approach. QualityManagement (QM embodies principles of policy delineation,operations accountability, documentation and review.These principles are all transferable to most aspects of shipmanagement. Properly implemented, they assign respective responsibilitiesfor both shore side and shipboard staff Both ISMand IS0-9000 Certification requirements embody the principlesof QM as requirements for certification. If, however, onelooks beyond the certification process, these principles makegood business sense. The benefits of QM are both economic aswell as assisting in corporate risk management. This paper willfocus on the risk management benefits as they apply of environmentalhealth programs in the marine environment includingports.

  11. Pembuatan Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry dan Integrasi Data dengan Web Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika Khoirunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini banyak dari perusahaan di bidang jasa laundry masih menggunakan pencatatan secara manual seperti menggunakan buku, sehingga setiap data tidak terintegrasi secara waktu-nyata. Oleh sebab itu, perlu dibuat penelitian untuk merancang sebuah sistem terkomputerisasi yang dapat mempermudah pencatatan dan pengolahan data keuangan laundry. Pembuatan Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript dan basisdata MySQL sebagai tempat penyimpanan data. Aplikasi ini merupakan aplikasi yang terintegrasi dengan aplikasi melalui sebuah teknologi yang disebut web service. Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry dikembangkan dengan menggunakan metode RAD (Rapid Application Development yang terdiri dari tahap perencanaan kebutuhan, proses perancangan, implementasi, dan tahap pengujian. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa Aplikasi Web Manajemen Laundry memiliki fitur yang berfungsi untuk mempermudah pencatatan dan pengolahan data secara akurat dan waktu-nyata. Fitur-fitur utama dari aplikasi ini diantaranya adalah pengolahan data transaksi, pengeluaran, dan laporan laba/rugi. Dalam menunjang fitur-fitur utama agar dapat bekerja dengan baik maka terdapat fitur pendukung yaitu pengolahan data pelanggan dan data pengguna aplikasi. Berdasarkan pengujian dengan menggunakan metode black-box, seluruh fungsi menu yang ada dalam aplikasi web telah berhasil dan berjalan sesuai dengan kebutuhan.

  12. Diagnostic Indicators for Shipboard Mechanical Systems Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKay, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use of Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) in auxiliary shipboard systems, such as a low pressure air system, to determine the state of equipment in larger connected systems, such as the main propulsion engines...

  13. Quantum leap for treating wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    ,” explained West. “The high levels of available oxygen means nutrients are removed very rapidly.” The low energy requirements and high reliability of the systems make maintenance and operation simple and inexpensive. “Our technology costs a fraction of other technologies, especially when compared over the life of the system, because of the hugely reduced operating and capital expenses,” said West. BioGills can also be retro-fitted so existing wastewater treatment systems to improve efficiency and significantly improve the quality of the water being recycled. The BioGill technology has already been proven with wastewaters from food processors, canneries, breweries, wineries, abattoirs and even dairies. A large fruit juice manufacturer in regional New South Wales was facing a major issue; the NSW Office of Water was set to significantly increase its discharge fees unless the company could reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) levels in its wastewater from about 2500-4000 to down below 600, and preferably less than 300 for flexible discharge to sewer. After installation of a BioGill system, the client ran trials, which showed promising results. “Over a 24-hour period the BOD was reduced from 3500 to 270, that's an impressive 92% reduction,” said West. Planning and engineering for the installation of BioGills to treat up to 1801d, of wastewater per day is now underway, with the system due to be operational at the end of the year. A commercial system is currently operating in Fiji. Treated kitchen wastewater at an island resort had a BOD reduction from around 2000 to 35. BioGills were installed at the resort to treat 14IcL of wastewater each day from the kitchen, laundry, showers and composting toilets. The BioGill system produces a high standard of treated water which is reused on the gardens around the island. Trials have shown that in many cases FOGs can also be completely removed by a BioGill system.

  14. Pilot-Plant Demonstration of Wet Oxidation for Treatment of Shipboard Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Can. 4322.2.2___ Maource 1mvery Sys"= DvisisiDTM-12- I1W . fta Ave. lrI imm California- 22714 bapar.mt of TransportatlionSp.17 e.17 U.S. O~at Gurd I r...Kenneth L. Cachat. Chemical analysis was perfomed by Fred J. Gierke, Deborah Halberg and Calvin E. Fcster. Edwbard Gold, Hart A. West , George Pagonis...rdin’, home swimnming-pool filter was found to be suitable. These deic.-’, are nile to withstand chlorinatei waters which; are more corrosive than our

  15. Training and generalization of laundry skills: a multiple probe evaluation with handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T J; Braam, S J; Fugua, R W

    1982-01-01

    An instructional procedure composed of a graded sequence of prompts and token reinforcement was used to train a complex chain of behaviors which included sorting, washing, and drying clothes. A multiple probe design with sequential instruction across seven major components of the laundering routine was used to demonstrate experimental control. Students were taught to launder clothing using machines located in their school and generalization was assessed later on machines located in the public laundromat. A comparison of students' laundry skills with those of normal peers indicated similar levels of proficiency. Follow-up probes demonstrated maintenance of laundry skills over a 10-month period.

  16. Natural gas and laundry: an efficient duo; Conference Cegibat: Gaz naturel et blanchisserie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference about the use of natural gas in the laundry sector. This document summarizes the content of the different talks dealing with: the history and evolution of laundry activity, the energy consumption problem, the gas appliances (dryers) and their advantages, some testimonies in the health sector (hospitals), the regulatory aspects, the economic aspects (tariffs), Gaz de France energy diagnostic offer, and the testimony of a launderette. (J.S.)

  17. Potential application of cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis strains in laundry detergent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A K

    2007-09-01

    Crude cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) biosurfactants from two Bacillus subtilis strains (DM-03 and DM-04) were studied for their compatibility and stability with some locally available commercial laundry detergents. CLP biosurfactants from both B. subtilis strains were stable over the pH range of 7.0-12.0, and heating them at 80 degrees C for 60 min did not result in any loss of their surface-active property. Crude CLP biosurfactants showed good emulsion formation capability with vegetable oils, and demonstrated excellent compatibility and stability with all the tested laundry detergents. CLP biosurfactants from B. subtilis strains act additively with other components of the detergents to further improve the wash quality of detergents. The thermal resistance and extreme alkaline pH stability of B. subtilis CLP biosurfactants favour their inclusion in laundry detergent formulations. This study has great significance because it is already known that microbial biosurfactants are considered safer alternative to chemical or synthetic surfactants owing to lower toxicity, ease of biodegradability and low ecological impact. The present study provides further evidence that CLP biosurfactants from B. subtilis strains can be employed in laundry detergents.

  18. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  19. Environmental risk assessment of phosphonates, used in domestic laundry and cleaning agents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaworska, J.; Genderen-Takken, H. van; Hanstveit, A.; Plassche, E. van de; Feijtel, T.

    2002-01-01

    In the long-term cooperative project Voluntary Plan of Action (1990) between the Dutch Soap and Detergent Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) environmental risk assessments of several main components of laundry cleaning formulations were

  20. Ship's Serviceman Laundry Handbook: Rate Training Manual and Non-Resident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual and course form a self study package that enables laundrymen to fulfill the requirements of the Ship's Serviceman (Laundry) rating. Chapter 1 provides information regarding the administration of ship's service activities (equipment maintenance, supervisory responsibilities, and procurement of supplies). Chapters 2 through 12 cover the…

  1. Quality control in linen and laundry service at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dara; Qadri, Gj; Kotwal, Monica; Syed, At; Jan, Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The clean bedding and clean clothes installs psychological confidence in the patients and the public and enhances their faith in the services rendered by the hospital. Being an important Component in the management of the patients, a study was carried out to find out the current quality status and its conformity with the known standards and identify the areas of intervention in order to further increase the patient and staff satisfaction regarding the services provided by linen and laundry department Quality control practised in the Linen and Laundry Service was studied by conducting a prospective study on the concept of Donabedian model of structure, process and outcome. Study was done by pre-designed Proforma along with observation / Interviews / Questionnaire and study of records. The input studied included physical facilities, manpower, materials, equipments and environmental factors. The various elements of manpower studied consisted of number of staff working, their qualification, training, promotion avenues, motivation and job satisfaction. Process was studied by carrying out observations in linen and laundry service through a predesigned flow chart which was supplemented by interviews with different category of staff. Patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction and microbial count of laundered linen (quality dimensions) were studied in the outcome. The current study found that in spite of certain deficiencies in the equipment, manpower and process, the linen and laundry service is providing a satisfactory service to its users. However the services can be further improved by removing the present deficiencies both at structure and process level.

  2. Letters and Viewpoints Studies on the Effect of Laundry Effluent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topsoil, laundry effluent, soil physiochemical properties, pH, available phosphorus, exchangeable sodium, potassium, exchangeable sodium percentage, percentage base saturation, soil buffering capacity, cation exchange capacity, Edo, Nigeria Résume Des résidus issus des blanchisseries ont toujours prouvé leur effet ...

  3. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF THE QUON SANG LUNG LAUNDRY BUILDING, FORT MACLEOD, ALBERTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dawson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an emergency recording and archiving of a historic structure in Southern Alberta and explores the lessons learned. Digital recording of the Quon Sang Lung Laundry building in Fort Macleod, Alberta, was a joint initiative between Alberta Culture and Tourism and the University of Calgary. The Quon Sang Lung Laundry was a boomtown-style wood structure situated in the Fort Macleod Provincial Historic Area, Alberta. Built in the mid-1800s, the structure was one of the four buildings comprising Fort Macleod’s Chinatown. Its association with Chinese immigration, settlement, and emergence of Chinese-owned businesses in early twentieth-century Alberta, made the Quon Sang Lung Laundry a unique and very significant historic resource. In recent years, a condition assessment of the structure indicated that the building was not safe and that the extent of the instability could lead to a sudden collapse. In response, Alberta Culture and Tourism engaged the Departments of Anthropology and Archaeology and Geomatics Engineering from the University of Calgary, to digitally preserve the laundry building. A complete survey including the laser scanning of all the remaining elements of the original structure, was undertaken. Through digital modeling, the work guarantees that a three-dimensional representation of the building is available for future use. This includes accurate 3D renders of the exterior and interior spaces and a collection of architectural drawings comprising floor plans, sections, and elevations.

  4. Digital Preservation of the Quon Sang Lung Laundry Building, Fort Macleod, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Baradaran, F.; Jahraus, A.; Rubalcava, E.; Farrokhi, A.; Robinson, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the results of an emergency recording and archiving of a historic structure in Southern Alberta and explores the lessons learned. Digital recording of the Quon Sang Lung Laundry building in Fort Macleod, Alberta, was a joint initiative between Alberta Culture and Tourism and the University of Calgary. The Quon Sang Lung Laundry was a boomtown-style wood structure situated in the Fort Macleod Provincial Historic Area, Alberta. Built in the mid-1800s, the structure was one of the four buildings comprising Fort Macleod's Chinatown. Its association with Chinese immigration, settlement, and emergence of Chinese-owned businesses in early twentieth-century Alberta, made the Quon Sang Lung Laundry a unique and very significant historic resource. In recent years, a condition assessment of the structure indicated that the building was not safe and that the extent of the instability could lead to a sudden collapse. In response, Alberta Culture and Tourism engaged the Departments of Anthropology and Archaeology and Geomatics Engineering from the University of Calgary, to digitally preserve the laundry building. A complete survey including the laser scanning of all the remaining elements of the original structure, was undertaken. Through digital modeling, the work guarantees that a three-dimensional representation of the building is available for future use. This includes accurate 3D renders of the exterior and interior spaces and a collection of architectural drawings comprising floor plans, sections, and elevations.

  5. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  6. Megawatt-class free electron laser concept for shipboard self-defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Alan M.M.; Colson, William B.; Neil, George

    1997-01-01

    An efficient MW-class free electron laser (FEL) directed energy weapon (DEW) system holds promise for satisfying shipboard self-defense (SSD) requirements on future generations of Navy vessels because of the potential for high-power operation and the accessibility to all IR wavelengths. In order to meet shipboard packaging and prime power constraints, the power efficiency and high real-estate gradient achievable in an FEL driven by a superconducting RF accelerator is attractive. Configuration options and the key development issues for such a system are described

  7. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  8. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  9. Analisis Pengaruh Segmentasi Gaya Hidup terhadap Keputusan Penggunaan dan Kepuasan Konsumen Jasa Simply Fresh Laundry di Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Musfar, Tengku Firli; Hasanuddin, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This Research aim to to analyse comprehensive influence of eksogen construct which consist of Activity, Interest and Opinions on endogen construct which consist of Decision of Usage and Cutomer Satisfaction on Simply Fresh Laundry service in Pekanbaru City. In this research there are five variable that is Activity(X1), Interest(X2), Opinions( X3), Decision of Usage ( Y1) and Cutomer Satisfaction (Y2). Population of this research is all society who using Simply Fresh Laundry service in Pekanba...

  10. Adding further efficiencies to the laundry and hospitality industries : comissoned by CompanyX

    OpenAIRE

    Skews, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the number of customers who rent laundry from CompanyX and experience problems with the service process that they receive. The research gauges the significance of the problems experienced and explores what technologies could enhance the service processes of CompanyX. The research methodology used was an internet based customer survey, to empirically determine the quantity of customers who experience service process problems. Further investigation was perfo...

  11. Outline of laundry drainage treatment system combining catalytic oxidation and filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Susumu; Kikkawa, Ryouzo; Masuda, Kazumichi; Takeuchi, Kimihito; Urabe, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    We plan to use a laundry drainage treatment system that combines a device using a manganese dioxide-based catalyst for ozone oxidation with a ceramic microfiltration membrane (MF membrane). The high oxidizing power of ozone is enhanced by the catalyst, and the impurities (such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) causative substances and n-hexane extracts) in the drainage are sufficiently degraded to allow their releases to the environment. Ionic nuclides are also oxidized and in solubilized so that they can be separated with the MF membrane having fine pores of about 0.1 μm. The performance of the treatment system in removing radioactivity, COD causative substances, and n-hexane extracts was confirmed by hot demonstration tests using actual laundry drainage. Cold tests were also conducted using simulated laundry drainage to confirm the system operation conditions and the long-term stability of drainage treatment capability. While ozone has a high oxidizing power, it decays spontaneously in liquid within a short period of time. Therefore, the behavior of ozone under the operating conditions and its effect on the corrosion of structural materials were investigated to maintain a sufficient time for decay and select appropriate structural materials. (author)

  12. Assessment of Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic Bacteria at a Hospital Laundry Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Karen E; No, David; Daniell, William E; Seixas, Noah S; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2017-11-10

    Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Voluntary participation of 23 employees consisted of nasal swabs for detection of MRSA, observations during work, and questionnaires. Contamination with all three pathogens was observed in both dirty (laundry handling prior to washing) and clean areas (subsequent to washing). The dirty area had higher odds of overall contamination (≥1 pathogen) than the clean area (odds ratio, OR = 18.0, 95% confidence interval 8.9-36.5, P contamination were high for each individual pathogen: C. difficile, OR = 15.5; MRSA, OR = 14.8; and VRE, OR = 12.6 (each, P contamination occurred in the primary and secondary sort areas where soiled linens were manually sorted by employees (OR = 63.0, P contaminated by soiled linens. Workers who handle soiled linen may have a higher risk of exposure to C. difficile, MRSA, and VRE than those who handle clean linens. Improved protocols for prevention and reduction of environmental contamination were implemented because of this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Quality analysis, miceller behavior, and environmental impact of some laundry detergents available in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-E-Alam, M; Islam, M Monirul; Islam, M Nazrul; Rima, Farhana Rahman; Islam, M Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The cleansing efficiencies of laundry detergents depend on composition and variation of ingredients such as surfactants, phosphate, and co-builders. Among these ingredients, surfactants and phosphate are considered as hazardous materials. Knowledge on compositions and micellar behavior is very useful for understanding their cleansing efficiencies and environmental impact. With this view, composition, critical micelle concentration, and dissolved oxygen level in aqueous solution of some laundry detergents available in Bangladesh such as keya, Wheel Power White, Tibet, Surf Excel, and Chaka were determined. Surfactant and phosphate were found to be maximum in Surf Excel and Wheel Power White, respectively, while both of the ingredients were found to be minimum in Tibet. The critical micelle concentration decreased with increasing surfactant content. The amount of laundry detergents required for efficient cleansing was found to be minimum for Surf Excel and maximum for Chaka; however, cleansing cost was the highest for Surf Excel and the lowest for Tibet. The maximum amount of surfactants and phosphate was discharged by Surf Excel and Wheel Power White, respectively, while discharges of both of the ingredients were minimum for Tibet. The maximum decrease of dissolved oxygen level was caused by Surf Excel and the minimum by Tibet. Therefore, it can be concluded that Tibet is cost-effective and environment friendly, whereas Surf Excel and Wheel Power White are expensive and pose a threat to water environment.

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from surfaces and personnel at a hospital laundry facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K E; No, D; Roberts, M C

    2016-09-01

    Examine a clinical laundry facility for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on environmental surfaces and among personnel. Nasal and face samples along with surface samples were collected four times in 2015. MRSA isolates were confirmed using standardized biochemical assays and molecular characterization. MRSA was identified in 33/120 (28%) samples from the dirty and 3/120 (3%) samples from the clean environmental areas. MRSA isolates included: (dirty) ST5 SCCmec type II, ST8 SCCmec type IV, ST231 SCCmec type II, ST239 SCCmec type III, ST239 SCCmec type IV, ST256 SCCmec type IV and (clean) ST5 SCCmec type II and ST8 SCCmec type IV. Five different employees were MRSA positive, 4/8 (50%) from the dirty: and 1/15 (6·7%) from the clean, but there was a 10-fold higher MRSA carriage 6/22 (27%) dirty vs 1/38 (2·6%) clean when all 50 human samples were combined. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher (28 vs 3%) in dirty vs clean areas within the laundry facility suggesting a greater risk for personnel on the dirty side. This is the first report of isolation and characterization of MRSA from surfaces and personnel from a clinical laundry facility. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A survey of attitudes and acceptance of wastewater reuse in Iran: Shiraz City as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People's attitudes are a key issue in the use of reclaimed wastewater. Unfortunately, there is not enough research on the use of reclaimed wastewater in developing countries such as Iran. The present study aimed to investigate public acceptance and citizens' attitudes toward reclaimed wastewater in Shiraz, Iran. A two-part questionnaire, designed to collect demographic data and information about people's willingness to reuse wastewater, was distributed among 562 citizens of Shiraz. The results showed that most respondents knew nothing about the chemical quality (67.4% or microbiological quality (81.5% of the wastewater treatment plant effluent. The maximum acceptance of treated wastewater use was related to public consumption (87%, car washing (85% and flush tank (80%, respectively. The minimum acceptance was related to cooking and drinking (8%. Also, a significant correlation was observed between citizens' willingness to use reclaimed wastewater and variables such as level of education, gender, awareness of wastewater treatment process and awareness of quality of reclaimed wastewater. Shiraz citizens, like other people in the world, were less willing to use reclaimed wastewater for cooking, drinking, laundry and bathing, but their willingness was obviously greater in applications with less skin contact.

  16. Large-signal stability analysis of two power converters solutions for DC shipboard microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosich, Daniele; Gibescu, Madeleine; Sulligoi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Bus voltage stability is an essential requirement in DC shipboard microgrids. In presence of Constant Power Loads, voltage instability is strictly dependent on RLC filters. This paper evaluates two power converter solutions (Thyristor Converters, TCs, and diode rectifiers + DC-DC Converters, DCs)

  17. Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D.A.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment

  18. Analisis Kadar Fosfat Setelah Perlakuan Berbagai Ketebalan Karbon Aktif Pada Limbah Cair Pencucian Pakaian (Laundry) di Kelurahan Tanjung Sari Kecamatan Medan Selayang Tahun 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Oktorina, Anggia Rizky

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of laundry washing services at this time, allowing waste liquid detergents containing phosphate as the constituent materials has a major contribution as environmental contaminants. One of the efforts to reduce phosphate levels contained in the waste washing clothes or laundry is to use activated carbon. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of activated carbon to decrease the thickness of the phosphate in laundry liquid waste in the area of Tanjung Sari subd...

  19. Shipboard Analytical Capabilities on the Renovated JOIDES Resolution, IODP Riserless Drilling Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P.; Foster, P.; Houpt, D.; Bennight, C.; Brandt, L.; Cobine, T.; Crawford, W.; Fackler, D.; Fujine, K.; Hastedt, M.; Hornbacher, D.; Mateo, Z.; Moortgat, E.; Vasilyev, M.; Vasilyeva, Y.; Zeliadt, S.; Zhao, J.

    2008-12-01

    The JOIDES Resolution (JR) has conducted 121 scientific drilling expeditions during the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the first phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) (1983-2006). The vessel and scientific systems have just completed an NSF-sponsored renovation (2005-2008). Shipboard analytical systems have been upgraded, within funding constraints imposed by market driven vessel conversion cost increases, to include: (1) enhanced shipboard analytical services including instruments and software for sampling and the capture of chemistry, physical properties, and geological data; (2) new data management capabilities built around a laboratory information management system (LIMS), digital asset management system, and web services; (3) operations data services with enhanced access to navigation and rig instrumentation data; and (4) a combination of commercial and home-made user applications for workflow- specific data extractions, generic and customized data reporting, and data visualization within a shipboard production environment. The instrumented data capture systems include a new set of core loggers for rapid and non-destructive acquisition of images and other physical properties data from drill cores. Line-scan imaging and natural gamma ray loggers capture data at unprecedented quality due to new and innovative designs. Many instruments used to characterize chemical compounds of rocks, sediments, and interstitial fluids were upgraded with the latest technology. The shipboard analytical environment features a new and innovative framework (DESCinfo) and application (DESClogik) for capturing descriptive and interpretive data from geological sub-domains such as sedimentology, petrology, paleontology, structural geology, stratigraphy, etc. This system fills a long-standing gap by providing a global database, controlled vocabularies and taxa name lists with version control, a highly configurable spreadsheet environment for data capture, and

  20. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  1. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2 radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Haffner, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order

  2. Decontamination and dismantlement of the old hot laundry, CFA-669. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Perry, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) of the old hot laundry, located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Central Facilities Area (CFA). The report describes the site before and after D ampersand D, processes used, cost and duration, and waste volume generated. In addition, lessons learned are presented. Pre-D ampersand D characterization indicated gross alpha concentrations in the building ranged from 6 to 310 pCi/g and gross beta measurements from 6 to 15,000 pCi/g. Gamma spectrum analysis identified cobalt-60, cesium-137, antimony-125, europium-152, europium-154, and niobium-94

  3. The physico-chemical treatment of laundry waste water; Tratamiento fisicoquimica de aguas residuales de lavanderias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Jato, I. G.; Larranaga, I.

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the washing of clot her is treated with aluminium sulphate + acrylamide to achieve coagulation/flocculation. The analytical data obtained in a jar-test using the FTU as the control parameter demonstrate the efficacy of the process, as reductions in the FTU approaching 100% and elimination rates of 80% in detergents and 85% in the COD were achieved. These results show that coagulation and flocculation are sufficient to treat laundry waste water, even though it contains a high pollutant load, since both organic and inorganic pollutants can be significantly reduced by such operations. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. The Contribution of the Type of Detergent to Domestic Laundry Graywater Composition and Its Effect on Treatment Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Zavala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the contribution of liquid and powder detergents to the composition of domestic laundry graywater was evaluated. Dosages recommended by the manufacturers were used to prepare detergent solutions and generate laundry graywater. Solutions and graywater were characterized in terms of total solids (TS, total suspended solids (TSS, total dissolved solids (TDS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total organic carbon (TOC, and concentration of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS’s. Additionally, the effect of the type of detergent on the treatment performance was also assessed. The coagulation–flocculation process was selected as a potential alternative for treating domestic laundry graywater. Treatment performance was assessed based on the removals of TS, TSS, TDS, turbidity, COD, and electrical conductivity (EC. Optimum coagulant dosages and mixing conditions for flocculation were determined. The results indicate a differential contribution of the type of detergent to the domestic laundry graywater composition. Liquid detergents contributed with more COD and TOC and fewer solids and LAS’s, in comparison with powder detergents. Soiled clothes increased the solids and organic loads of laundry graywater; furthermore, the laundry process reduced the LAS concentration of graywater by 77% for the liquid detergent and 47% for the powder detergent. On the other hand, the coagulation–flocculation process was more effective in treating powder detergent graywater even though the liquid detergent graywater was less polluted. Removal efficiencies on the order of 95% for turbidity and 75% for TSS were achieved for powder detergent graywater; meanwhile, for liquid detergent graywater, the removals were 73% for turbidity and 51% for TSS.

  5. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed

  6. [Specialty specific reference values in linen use in public health and social service as a basis for determining laundry capacities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdorf, M; Häse, I

    1990-01-01

    The use of linen in health and social care should primarily be seen from a hygienic angle. Disproportions between the use of linen in the various fields of health care and the available laundry capacities have a negative hygienic and economic effect. Laundry capacities should, therefore, be calculated on the basis of specialty-specific guidevalues. The authors propose indicators suitable to this aim and present the results of a comprehensive analysis for the inpatient departments of internal medicine, surgery, urology, ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  8. Method for the disposal of laundry drain by inverse osmosis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio; Ebara, Katsuya.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively obtain clean water of high purity from laundry waste from work clothes or the like worn in the atomic power plant and to increase the concentration factor of the impurities. Constitution: The laundry drain is supplied to a forestage condensation tank through a supply pipe, via a control valve controlled by a level gage so as to always maintain the liquid level constant, and the liquid within the tank is increased in pressure by the fore-stage high pressure pump and supplied to the fore-stage inverse osmosis module. There occurs a phenomenon of inverse osmosis so that water in disposed liquid is urged through a film and discharged from a osmosed water discharge pipe. In this case, the concentration of a surface active agent in the disposed liquid is detected by a flow meter depending on the quantity of osmosed water, and when the concentration exceeds a predetermined level to decrease the quantity of osmosed water, the opening of the control valve is increased and the liquid is discharged from the discharge pipe into the final tank for disposal in substantially similar manner. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Effect of laundry surfactants on surface charge and colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Sara; Lowe, Troy A; Hedberg, Jonas; Blomberg, Eva; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Wold, Susanna; Lundin, Maria

    2013-07-16

    The stability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) potentially released from clothing during a laundry cycle and their interactions with laundry-relevant surfactants [anionic (LAS), cationic (DTAC), and nonionic (Berol)] have been investigated. Surface interactions between Ag NPs and surfactants influence their speciation and stability. In the absence of surfactants as well as in the presence of LAS, the negatively charged Ag NPs were stable in solution for more than 1 day. At low DTAC concentrations (≤1 mM), DTAC-Ag NP interactions resulted in charge neutralization and formation of agglomerates. The surface charge of the particles became positive at higher concentrations due to a bilayer type formation of DTAC that prevents from agglomeration due to repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged colloids. The adsorption of Berol was enhanced when above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). This resulted in a surface charge close to zero and subsequent agglomeration. Extended DLVO theory calculations were in compliance with observed findings. The stability of the Ag NPs was shown to depend on the charge and concentration of the adsorbed surfactants. Such knowledge is important as it may influence the subsequent transport of Ag NPs through different chemical transients and thus their potential bioavailability and toxicity.

  10. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  11. Report on the Best Available Technology (BAT) for the treatment of the INEL Central Laundry and Respirator Facility (CFA-617)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaki, D.H.; Heiser, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Central Laundry and Respirator Facility (CLRF) designated by the building number of CFA-617 has been addressed as a potential source of contamination to the Central Facilities Area (CFA) subsurface drainage field which also receives waste water from the current CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Currently, discharges from the CLRF have been below set guidelines, DCG. A new STP has been proposed for the CFA. Since the CLRF has been designated as a potential source of contamination, a Best Available Technology (BAT) assessment was requested to determine what action should be taken in respect to the aqueous discharges from the CLRF. The BAT assessment involved source definition, technology evaluation, BAT matrix development, BAT selection, and BAT documentation. The BAT for the Central laundry and Respirator Facility selected the treatment which would impact the CLRF and the new STP the least in all aspects considered and was the system of filtration and a lined pond for natural evaporation of the water. The system will provide an isolation of this waste stream from all other CFA waste water which will be treated at the new STP. Waste minimization possibilities exist within the laundry process and are considered. These minimization actions will reduce the amount of waste water being released, but will result in raising the contaminate's concentrations (the total mass will remain the same). The second option was the use of ion exchange to remove the contaminates and recycle the water back to the wash and rinse cycles in the laundry. 3 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Five years of experience with external laundry service for alpha-contaminated protective clothing in the decommissioning period Siemens PG formerly Siemens fuel rod factory Hanau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, E.; Hadders, R.; Wilke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The external decontamination of protective clothing is a new concept in Europe in the past, companies ran their own laundries and decontaminated their clothing themselves. Running a laundry within a nuclear facility bears a great deal of complicated problems. Firstly the operator must find suitable staffs, which has to pass the strict vetting and still not be overqualified for the job. In addition to the problem of finding and employing suitable, reliable staff the workload varies very much. Although this is not the main problem for the decommissioning project Siemens PG fuel rod factory. Nuclear power plants have to employ additional staff for their laundries during outages. (orig.)

  13. Perbedaan Efektivitas Zeolit Dan Manganese Greensand Untuk Menurunkan Kadar Fosfat Dan Chemical Oxygen Demand Limbah Cair “Laundry Zone” Di Tembalang

    OpenAIRE

    Lavina, Dahona Lenthe; Sulistyani, Sulistyani; Rahadjo, Mursid

    2016-01-01

    Laundry business is a business in clothes washing services. Preliminary test results show that the levels of phosphate and COD laundry liquid wastes is 12,36 mg/l and 5.920 mg/l. These levels exceeded the water quality standard of waste that phosphate concentration of 2 mg/l and COD concentration of 100 mg/l. This research aimed to determine the difference effectiveness of zeolite and manganese greensand to decrease phosphate and chemical oxygen demand on waste "laundry zone" in Tembalang. T...

  14. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of sensitive skin among the general population in industrialized countries is reported to be over 50%. Sensitive skin subjects often report significant reactions to contact with cosmetics, soaps and other consumer products. This paper describes the overall skin compatibility and mildness program for a newly developed, lightly fragranced, colorant free laundry product (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent), specially formulated for individuals with sensitive skin. The skin mildness of the product was compared to Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear liquid laundry detergent with no fragrance or colorant, and an established history of safe use by sensitive skin consumers. The test material was a liquid laundry product with a light scent formulated for sensitive skin consumers (Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent). The product was compared to commercially marketed products for sensitive skin with a history of skin safety in the marketplace, including: a very similar product formulation (Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear with no fragrance), and several selected competitors' products. Studies were conducted among individuals with self-assessed sensitive skin (based on a questionnaire) using standard protocols for the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT), 10-Day Cumulative Irritation, the Wrist Band Wear test, and the Safety In-Use testing. Responses in all protocols were evaluated by visual scoring of potential dermatologic reactions, and recording any sensory effects at the time of the examination. In addition, sensory effects collected from panelists' daily diaries were also evaluated. The HRIPT confirmed that neither the fragrance alone, nor the product formulation with fragrance, induced contact sensitization in sensitive skin subjects. The 10-Day cumulative irritation study conducted using sensitive skin subjects showed highly favorable skin compatibility, and the test product was comparable to the control

  15. Structural analysis of ceramic blocks sealing or structural incorporated with the industrial laundry sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.H.S.; Grippe, V.Y.Q.; Goulart, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial and commercial development of recent decades has led to an increase in waste generation. Thus, it is necessary to develop alternative and effective methods of treatment, replacing the simple disposal of these wastes in landfills. The objective of this work is to study the incorporation of textile industrial laundries sludge in ceramic blocks sealing or structural. Samples of ceramic blocks were produced using formulation with 20% sludge, the mass of ceramic clay. Structural analysis of the block was observed the tendency of most empty emergence (pores) during the firing of the blocks, as textile sludge was added in the ceramic paste composition. The mechanical testing of blocks compressive strength was above the minimum 3.0 MPa specified by the standard limit. The physical test water absorption of the blocks was within the range 8 to 22% specified by the standard. (author)

  16. Possibility of ozone application in purification of waste water of NPP special laundries from surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.; Permyakov, V.G.; Shulyat'ev, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of the medium pH, temperature, rate of ozone-air mixture (OAM) feed on ozonation rate of model solutions and actual sewage waters of Kursk NPP was studied. It is shown that pH≤11, 60, 50 deg C and OAM feed rate of 50 l/h are the optimal conditions of solutions of sewage waters of specialized laundry at Kursk NPP. Specific consumption of ozone for surfactant destruction (OP-10 and Kristall synthetic detergent) under the conditions mentioned was determined. The investigations show that preliminary ozonation of sewage waters to remove surfactants increases considerably the efficiency of evaporator operation, improves the quality of condensate and prolongs service life of ion-exchange filters

  17. External laundry service ensures clean textiles and a positive balance sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Protective clothes are used for many purposes in nuclear installations and facilities. The special treatment required in washing clothes worn within controlled areas in most cases entails special expenses in logistics, funding, and manpower, with the resultant need for economically reasonable solutions. Outsourcing to an external service provider everything connected with laundering textiles is an option attractive both technically and economically. Full service in this field is offered by Euro Nuclear Services. The client delivers the clothes to the service provider on the nuclear plant premises and receives them back after laundering. Transport, laundering, checking, and return transport are offered as a complete package. This comprehensive laundry service is a technically and economically attractive offering to customers. (orig.)

  18. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  19. Specific characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales in the use of textiles and laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonaka, Atsushi; Koga, Jinichiro; Baba, Yuko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Murashima, Koichiro; Kubota, Hidetoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2006-04-01

    We examined the characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases (glycoside hydrolases family 45; GH45) from Mucorales belonging to Zygomycota in the use of textiles and laundry. The defibrillation activities on lyocell fabric of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales, such as RCE1 and RCE2 from Rhizopus oryzae, MCE1 and MCE2 from Mucor circinelloides, and PCE1 from Phycomyces nitens, were much higher than those of the other family 45 endoglucanases. By contrast, family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales were less resistant to anionic surfactant and oxidizing agent, main components in detergents, than the other family 45 endoglucanases. RCE1 consists of two distinct modules, a catalytic module and a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1), and these common specific characteristics were considered to due to the catalytic module, but not to the CBM1.

  20. Modelling resource consumption for laundry and dish treatment in individual households for various consumer segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamminger, R. [Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Household and Appliance Technology Section, University of Bonn, Nussallee 5, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Recent research allocates up to 80% of environmental impact in energy and CO2 terms to direct and indirect consumer activities. Various models discussed how this impact can be assigned to specific lifestyles, production and consumption systems, and psychological motives in order to be able to predict and influence these effects. In this work, another approach is followed by showing on the example of laundry and dish washing how well-known factors of the technical status, consumer practices and demographic data allow building up a model to predict the energy and water consumption for these processes. The results show a variation of a factor of 5 between a more sustainable and a more careless behaviour and allow thus to identify levers to influence it. As results can also be easily transformed into monetary values, this may allow influencing the consumer via this channel as he/she can easily understand what may need to be changed.

  1. Ozone interaction with surfactants of waste waters of NPP specialized laundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ozone interaction with OP-10 and Kristall synthetic detergent contained in sewage water of NPP specialized laundries was investigated. It is shown that the medium acidity practically does not affect the rate of OP-10 oxidation -complete oxidation of the preparation with the concentration of 130 mg/l in pH range of 6-11 is achieved in 90 min in case of ozone consumption of 1.6 g/g of the substance. Absorption coefficient equals 0.64. Carbonic acids are products of OP-10 oxidation, which are then oxidized to carbonic acid and water. It is ascertained that ozonation rate of the Kristall synthetic detergent is decreased at pH 9)

  2. Effects of reaction conditions on nuclear laundry water treatment in Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilve, Miia; Hirvonen, Arja; Sillanpaeae, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the efficiency of Fenton process in the degradation of organic compounds of nuclear laundry water. The influence of Fe 2+ and hydrogen peroxide ratio, hydrogen peroxide dose, pH and treatment time were investigated. The degradation of non-ionic surfactant and other organic compounds was analysed as COD, TOC and molecular weight distribution (MWD). The most cost-effective degradation conditions were at H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ stoichiometric molar ratio of 2 with 5 min mixing and H 2 O 2 dose of 1000 mg l -1 . With the initial pH of 6, the reductions of COD and TOC were 85% and 69%, respectively. However, the removal of the organic compounds was mainly carried out by Fenton-based Fe 3+ coagulation rather than Fenton oxidation. Fenton process proved to be much more efficient than previously performed ozone-based oxidation processes.

  3. Treatment rate improvement of the ozone oxidation method for laundry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive laundry waste water generated in nuclear power plants includes organic compounds to be removed, for which ozone oxidation treatment is a possibility. To verify the applicability, its total organic carbon concentration (TOC) lowering rate improvement was examined in 0.5x10 -3 m 3 batch and 3x10 -2 m 3 pilot equipment experiments. In the batch experiments, ozone at a concentration of 200 g/Nm 3 was dispersed into 0.5x10 -3 m 3 of Simulated Laundry Waste Water (SLWW) with TOC of 11 mM. Total organic carbon concentration was measured every hour to see the effects of the temperature, and the initial concentrations of both H 2 O 2 and NaOH which were added to urge OH radical generation from ozone. In the pilot equipment experiments, 1x10 -2 to 3x10 -2 m 3 of the SLWW were circulated using an ejector to disperse the ozone. The influences of the flow rate and the SLWW volume on lowering TOC were examined, because they were related to the ejector dispersion performance and the appropriate ozone addition per SLWW volume. Appropriate initial H 2 O 2 and NaOH concentrations in the batch experiments were 14.7 mM and 1 mM, respectively. Lowering of TOC became faster at higher temperatures, because ozone self-decomposition and OH radial diffusion to the organic compound molecules were promoted. Lowering of TOC also became faster at higher flow rates, while the influence of the volume became saturated. (author)

  4. Development of a laundry waste treatment system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Ebara, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Horiuchi, S

    1978-02-01

    The test for putting the treatment of laundry waste containing very low radioactivity from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ ..mu..Ci/ml in practical use was carried out utilizing the new process combining reverse osmosis method and evaporation process. The special feature of this process is to use cleaning sponge balls for preventing the decrease of process capacity caused by the deposit of scale on reverse osmosis diaphragms and also to apply the newly developed, heat resistant and bubble-extinguishing silicon chemicals to control bubble generation which is caused by surfactant in evaporators. The test utilizing the practical scale model plant with the capacity of 200 l/h was carried out using dummy waste liquid. As the result of this test, it was recognized that the key operational characteristics including efficiency of eliminating radioactivity and concentration factor were satisfactory for practical use. The main specifications of the test facility are as follows: tubular type, diaphragm surface area 6.8 m/sup 2/, treated liquid temperature 25 deg C, treated liquid pH 5, and pressure 40 kg/cm/sup 2/g for the reverse osmosis system; and the forced circulation type, heat transfer area 4 m/sup 2/, and treated liquid pH 8 to 9 for the evaporator. The characteristic parameters of laundry waste liquid are as follows: cleanser 200 to 500 ppm, surfactant 30 to 60 ppm, suspending material 10 to 30 ppm, ion (Ca/sup + +/) 2 to 5 ppm, electric conductivity 100 to 300 ..mu..mho/cm, pH 7 to 8, and radioactivity 10/sup -7/ ..mu..Ci/ml. The flow sheet for this experimental facility system is shown, and the outline of the test, the features of the reverse osmosis facility and the evaporator are introduced. (Nakai, Y.).

  5. External laundry service. A tool for fleet management and flexible decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, Guenter; Schmitt, Burkhard; Micklinghoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While it is common in other countries such as the USA or Sweden to send out contaminated garments to an external laundering facility, this is not the case in Germany, where the preferred tendency in the nuclear industry is to remain independent from an external service provider. After the US based company 'UniTech' built a laundering facility for controlled area garment in Coevorden, Netherlands, in 1996, German operators began testing this service for decommissioning work. At the time, their justification for this choice was based on the following: - In case of a disrupted delivery the consequences would not be as severe for a nuclear power plant in the process of decommissioning. - Additional investments (evaporators) would have been necessary to install in the laundries of the individual nuclear power plants. - The existing on-site laundries and waste treatment equipment were often not suited to deal with nuclides, specific to decommissioning. It quickly became evident that a specialized service provider could conduct the necessary tasks more effectively, more flexibly, and with higher quality than an ancillary on-site facility. In addition, it became evident that central fleet management tasks are facilitated by contracting an external service provider. Business and technical processes, and requirements agreed upon in a framework agreement, supported the introduction of unified standards. The road map for future decommissioning projects in Germany is impacted by many uncertainties. Therefore, planning requires a great deal of flexibility. Here, as with other related operations, it is critical that enough protective garments are in the right place at the right time. If this does not happen, delays, additional costs and changes to process planning result. For these reasons, an external laundering and garment management service is the most reliable solution. Industry experience shows that even very short-term requests for large quantities of protective garments

  6. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Scheduling of Power Generation in Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids with Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor

    2018-01-01

    ship electrical network to achieve better fuel consumption with less emission. However, the low-load factor of the parallel diesel generators (DGs) in some operating conditions, can negatively affect the fuel consumption rate. As an alternative, two or more power sources such as batteries and renewable...... the operating cost of a shipboard system can be improved (based on estimation of specific fuel consumption (SFC) curve of a real system) considering the dynamic load profile with and without energy storage systems (ESSs). The case study in this paper is a ferry with a conversion from traditional diesel...

  8. The producers competition trimmed the laundries; Tillverkarnas taevling trimmade tvaettstugorna - om effekterna av Kansliets insatser inom omraadet energieffektiv tvaett och tork i fastighetstvaettstugor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Interviews have been made among 163 buyers and 28 suppliers of equipment for laundry-rooms in apartment houses. The aim was to study the opinion regarding new energy-efficient clothes washers and clothes dryers. 5 figs

  9. Anti-Swing Control of Suspended Loads on Shipboard Robotic Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackrit Suthakorn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the speed at which materials can be transferred between ships at sea is limited by sea conditions. Rough sea conditions cause the payload to swing making load transfer difficult and time-consuming. The objective of this research is to develop a real-time, command compensating control for reducing sea state induced payload swing for shipboard robotic cranes. The future use of this control strategy will be to facilitate faster "ship-to-ship" payload transfer in rough sea conditions. In this study, only the sea-induced rotational motion of the ship is considered, since it is assumed that a station-keeping control maintains a constant position of the ship. This rotational motion is modelled using pitch-yaw-roll Euler angles. The shipboard robotic crane is modelled as a spherical pendulum attached to a three-degree-of-freedom manipulator. The three degrees-of-freedom are azimuth (rotation about an axis normal to the ship's deck, elevation (rotation about an axis parallel with the ship's deck, also referred to as luffing, and lift-line length. An inverse kinematics based approach and a sliding mode control strategy are explored. Both approaches use the azimuth and the elevation capability of the crane manipulator to maintain a horizontal position of the suspended load to reduce sea-induced payload sway.

  10. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  11. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  12. Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fast development of renewable energy systems and the severe limitations enforced by the Marine Pollution Protocol, the utilizing of wind turbines, solar generation, sea wave energy and energy storage systems in marine vessel power systems has been attracting a lot of attention. Hence, ...

  13. An application of data mining techniques in designing catalogue for a laundry service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanah Annisa Uswatun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogues are the media that companies use to promote their products or services. Since catalogue is one of marketing media, the first essential step before designing product catalogue is determining the market target. Besides, it is also important to put some information that appeal to the target market, such as discount or promos by analysing customer pattern preferences in using services or buying product. This study conduct two data mining technique. The first is clustering analysis to segment customer and the second one is association rule mining to discover an interesting pattern about the services that commonly used by the customer at the same service time. Thus, the results will be used as a recommendation to make an attractive marketing strategy to be put in the service catalogue promo for a laundry in Sleman Yogyakarta. The clustering result showed that the biggest customer segment is university student who come 3 until 5 times in a month on weekends, while the association rule result showed that clothes, shoes, and bed sheet have strong relationship. The catalogue design is presented in the end of the paper.

  14. Treatment of radioactive waste water originating from the laundries of contaminated clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, O.; Friedrich, V.; Reti, Gy.

    1980-01-01

    The technology of purification of low radioactivity, high detergent content waste water from the laundries and shower stalls of the Paks Nuclear Power Station was developed. The technology consists of chemical treatment, clarification, filtration of clarified water, compaction and dehydratation of the slurry. During chemical treatment the concentration of radioactive isotopes is significantly lowered by separating a precipitate containing Cu 2 Fe(CN) 6 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Fe(OH) 3 . The precipitate is compacted into a slurry of 30-40% extract content by continuous operation of countercurrent suspension, sedimentation and a centrifuge, then dehydrated by hot air which serves as a transport medium of the steam, too. After having been filled the container is closed and transported to the burial site. The energy balance of the dryer-evaporator, the decontamination factor of evaporation for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I and the effect of the parameters of circulating air on the steam capacity were studied. (author)

  15. Market-based multiagent system for reconfiguration of shipboard power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kai; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Cartes, David A.; Sun, Li-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    On ships, the electric shipboard power system (SPS) supplies electrical power to critical functions such as navigation, communication, emergency systems, and in the case of warships, weapon systems. During ship operation, some parts of the SPS may become unavailable due to damage, fault, or maintenance. For the survivability and reliability of ships, it is desired to make the SPS highly reconfigurable. This paper presents a market-based multiagent system (MAS) for the reconfiguration of radial SPS. Radial SPSs are found on majority of ships. In the proposed MAS, each agent only communicates with its neighbor agents to make the system work in a fully decentralized manner. The MAS is implemented using Java Agent Development Framework (JADE), which is fully implemented in Java and compliant with Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA). An SPS with two generators and four loads is used for testing the proposed MAS. The results show the proposed MAS can successfully reconfigure a radial SPS. (author)

  16. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship 's hull. Optimal design specifications are determined through experimental analysis. The detailed design of the hybrid mount is determined through several design steps with electromagnetic numerical analysis using Maxwell Software(S/W. The hybrid mount that combines a rubber mount and an electromagnetic actuator has a fail-safe function for shock resistance. The mount is fabricated and tested using a universal testing machine to evaluate the design specifications. Finally, numerical simulation of the hybrid mount is performed to confirm control performance and applicability.

  17. Transports and tidal current estimates in the Taiwan Strait from shipboard ADCP observations (1999-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Jan, S.; Wang, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Tidal and mean flows in the Taiwan Strait are obtained from analysis of 2.5 years (1999-2001) of shipboard ADCP data using a spatial least-squares technique. The average tidal current amplitude is 0.46 ms -1, the maximum amplitude is 0.80 ms -1 at the northeast and southeast entrances and the minimum amplitude is 0.20 ms -1 in the middle of the Strait. The tidal current ellipses derived from the shipboard ADCP data compare well with the predictions of a high-resolution regional tidal model. For the mean currents, the average velocity is about 0.40 ms -1. The mean transport through the Strait is northward (into the East China Sea) at 1.8 Sv. The transport is related to the along Strait wind by a simple regression, transport (Sv)=2.42+0.12×wind (ms -1). Using this empirical formula, the maximum seasonal transport is in summer, about 2.7 Sv, the minimum transport is in winter, at 0.9 Sv, and the mean transport is 1.8 Sv. For comparison, this result indicates that the seasonal amplitude is almost identical to the classical estimate by Wyrtki (Physical oceanography of the southeast Asian waters, scientific results of marine investigations of the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, 1959-1961. Naga Report 2, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 195 pp.) based on the mass balance in the South China Sea, while the mean is close to the recent estimate by Isobe [Continental Shelf Research 19 (1999) 195] based on the mass balance in the East China Sea.

  18. Quality-Controlled Underway Oceanographic and Meteorological Data from the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Predictions Center (COAPS) - Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida State University has been operating a data assembly center (DAC) to collect, quality evaluate, and distribute Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  19. Temperature Profile Data Collected by Participating Ships in NOAA's Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System Program from 17 June 2000 to 23 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000417)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from the COLUMBUS COROMANDEL and other platforms participating in NOAA's Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System (SEAS)...

  20. PENURUNAN KANDUNGAN PHOSPHAT PADA LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENCUCIAN PAKAIAN (LAUNDRY MENGGUNAKAN KARBON AKTIF DARI SAMPAH PLASTIK DENGAN METODE BATCH DAN KONTINYU (Studi Kasus : Limbah Cair Industri Laundry Lumintu Tembalang, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Wisnu Wardhana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the number of laundry industry influences on the increasing of detergent utilizzation. Thedominant substance contained in the detergent is Natrium Tripolyphosphat, a builder and surfactant.Therefore the waste contains Phosphate. Most of the laundry industry throw their waste without treatmentfirst. The waste would cause Eutrofication where the water body became rich of dissolved nutrient,descending of the dissolved oxygen and capability of water body assist power to water biota. Lumintu isone of the laundry industries which located in Tembalang district. According to the result of preexperiment,industrial waste water containes 10,21 mg/l phosphate. This value exceeds standard quality ofPerda Prov. Jateng no. 10 year 2004 about maximum value for total of phosphate is 2 mg/l. One ofwastewater treatment method is adsorption using the active carbon from plastic rubbish kind ofPolyethylene. This reseach purposes to know the capability of active carbon from plastic rubbish inreducing phosphate content with batch and column operation. The batch operation use 1,2 and 3 gramvariation weight active carbon from plastic rubbish for 30 - 60 mesh and 100 - 200 mesh variation mediasize. The batch operation has 45,45 % from the highest phosphate efficiency lowering on the 3 gram.Otherwise, column operation need 1 inch column diameter with 50 ml/minute and 100 ml/minute debitvariation. Continue trial had 54,75 % from the highest phosphate efficiency lowering on the 50 ml/minute.Constant value speed (k1 is 0,0108 ml/mg.s with capacity of adsorption (qo 0,677 mg/g.

  1. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  2. Laundry Detergency of Solid Non-Particulate Soil Using Microemulsion-Based Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanwattanakit, Jarussri; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2018-02-01

    Laundry detergency of solid non-particulate soil on polyester and cotton was investigated using a microemulsion-based formulation, consisting of an anionic extended surfactant (C 12,13 -4PO-SO 4 Na) and sodium mono-and di-methyl naphthalene sulfonate (SMDNS) as the hydrophilic linker, to provide a Winsor Type III microemulsion with an ultralow interfacial tension (IFT). In this work, methyl palmitate (palmitic acid methyl ester) having a melting point around 30°C, was used as a model solid non-particulate (waxy) soil. A total surfactant concentration of 0.35 wt% of the selected formulation (4:0.65 weight ratio of C 12,13 -4PO-SO 4 Na:SMDNS) with 5.3 wt% NaCl was able to form a middle phase microemulsion at a high temperature (40°C),which provided the highest oil removal level with the lowest oil redeposition and the lowest IFT, and was much higher than that with a commercial detergent or de-ionized water. Most of the detached oil, whether in liquid or solid state, was in an unsolubilized form. Hence, the dispersion stability of the detached oil droplets or solidified oil particles that resulted from the surfactant adsorption played an important role in the oil redeposition. For an oily detergency, the lower the system IFT, the higher the oil removal whereas for a waxy (non-particulate) soil detergency, the lower the contact angle, the higher the solidified oil removal. For a liquefied oil, the detergency mechanism was roll up and emulsification with dispersion stability, while that for the waxy soil (solid oil) was the detachment by wettability with dispersion stability.

  3. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  4. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  5. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  6. Phytoremediation of Phosphate Content In Liquid Laundry Waste by Using Echinodorus paleafolius and Equisetum hyemale Used as Biology Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Maharani Siswandari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste is the remain water of clothes washing process which causes toxic effects to the biotic area in the water in case of the liquid waste without proper processing. Phytoremediation is a system which is conducted by plants to break a contaminant compound into the non-hazard materials. This research aimed to analyze the mechanism to reduce phosphate content in laundry liquid waste by through phytoremediation process which had been done by using Echinodorus paleafolius and Equisetum hyemale. The research is quantitative descriptive in which the data analysis method was descriptive. The research was conducted in 17 May to 10 June 2016 in the Laboratory of Water Quality of Perum Jasa Tirta Jl. Surabaya No. 2A Malang. The research results showed that the phosphate content in laundry liquid waste exceed of threshold limit value of liquid waste standard which has been issued as PP No. 82 Year 2001. Therefore, this over limit of phosphate content is hazardous to be released to the environment. Echinodorus paleafolius is able to reduce the phosphate content as much as 3.451 mg within the high-density-phosphate waste and as much as 2.271 mg within the lower one. However Equisetum hyemale could not be used to reduce the phosphate content even though it could reduce acidity degree (pH as much as 3.7 unit within this liquid waste through phytoremediation process. The implementation of the research results was the contextual handout which is completed with colored pictures.

  7. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order

  8. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, Christian; Denda, Anneke; Christiansen, Svenja; Kaufmann, Manfred; Peine, Florian; Springer, Barbara; Turnewitsch, Robert; Christiansen, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 20...

  9. Anti-Money Laundry regulation and Crime: A two-period model of money-in-the-utility-function

    OpenAIRE

    Fanta, F; Mohsin, H

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two period model with two types of money i.e. dirty and cleans (legal) money in utility function. Clean money is earned from working in legal sector and dirty from illegal sector. Our two-two period model reveals that an increase in labor wage in legal sector unambiguously decease the labor hours allocated for illegal sector by increasing the opportunity cost for illegal activities. However, the crime-reducing impact of anti-money laundry regulation and the probability of...

  10. Comprehensive simultaneous shipboard and airborne characterization of exhaust from a modern container ship at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padró, Luz T; Gates, Harmony; Hersey, Scott; Welch, W A; Lung, H; Miller, J W; Cocker, David R; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 +/- 0.03, and increased to 0.30 +/- 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the

  11. Incorporação de lodo de lavanderia industrial na fabricação de tijolos cerâmicos Incorporation of industrial laundry mud in the production of ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. S. Herek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O lodo gerado em ETEs de lavanderias industriais é um material não inerte de Classe IIA, devido �� sua solubilidade em água. Este resíduo tem recebido atenção especial devido à grande quantidade produzida e, consequentemente, ao custo demandado para destino em aterros industriais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a qualidade dos tijolos cerâmicos de vedação, fabricados com lodo de lavanderia industrial incorporado em massa cerâmica vermelha, pelo processo de extrusão, em escala de laboratório (73 x 35 x 55 mm, com os seguintes percentuais de lodo de lavanderia: 0 (modelo, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em peso. Após a queima, em indústria cerâmica, a qualidade dos tijolos foi analisada por meio de ensaios de resistência à compressão, absorção de água, lixiviação e solubilização. Nos resultados obtidos observou-se que a resistência à compressão é inversamente proporcional à quantidade de lodo adicionada, enquanto a absorção de água é diretamente proporcional à mesma quantidade de lodo adicionada na fabricação dos tijolos. No ensaio de lixiviação nenhum dos metais pesados analisados foi lixiviado; para o ensaio de solubilização nenhum dos metais analisados foi detectado, comprovando que o produto é inerte. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, é possível a fabricação de tijolos de vedação com até 20% de resíduo de lavanderias industriais incorporados em argila.The sludge from wastewater treatment in industrial laundries is a II-A class non-inert material, due to its solubility in water. This waste has been paid special attention, due to the large quantities that are produced and therefore the high cost of the final destination in landfills. This way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of sealing ceramic bricks manufactured with sludge from industrial laundry incorporated in red ceramic mass, by the extrusion process, in laboratory scale (73 x 35 x 55 mm, with the following weight

  12. A Study of the Linen and Laundry Control Procedures at the U.S. Air Force Medical Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    effective accounting system for "tracking" of inventory and its ccsts is a very real requirement. S ecurity A matter of considerable concern should be...The Wash. Modern Nursing Home; March 1971. Danks , R.T. Automation For A New Central Laundry. Hospitals; J.A.TI.A.; 16 September 1971. Durham, R.C

  13. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kim; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    . Heavy metals originate from the dirt in the workwear that is washed in the laundry. It is further concluded that the studied water treatment technologies satisfy both the need of clean water for recycling and simultaneously help controlling a safe disposal of pollutants by concentration of the residues...

  14. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  15. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  16. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  18. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  19. Application of Rhizon Porewater Samplers to Shipboard Operations, IODP Expedition 308, Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Macko, S. A.; Flemings, P. B.

    2005-12-01

    Pleistocene and Recent sediments within the Brazos-Trinity and Ursa Basins (northwestern Gulf of Mexico) were largely deposited by turbidity currents and have been deformed by a number of mass transport events. The geochemical composition of interstitial waters was determined in order to assess fluid flow within these sediments. Typical porewater sampling resolution, using advanced piston coring and the traditional Manheim squeezer technique, is approximately one sample every other core (20m) with the highest working resolution at one sample every 1.5m. In this study, Rhizon soil moisture samplers were used to attain high-resolution porewater profiles within sea floor surface sediments and for permeable sediments at depth. The small dimensions (2mm x 30mm) and pore-size (1μm) of the devices enable high-frequency placement within a core, specific targeting of the sequence of interest, and do not require sediment removal from the core, or filtering of extracted porewaters. Initial shipboard analyses derived from sediments at the Ursa Basin (Site 1322) indicate a linear decrease in salinity with depth at U1322 where the overpressure gradient is thought to be greatest. The less saline waters with depth lends evidence for potential mixing between deep-seated fluids and low salinity ones derived from the Blue Unit and seawater. Isotopic composition and concentrations of sulfur species (SO4 and H2S) dissolved in porewaters, as well as, ionic compositions (Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg) and chemical composition of associated sediments (%C, %N, 13C, and 15N) are compared with chemical results obtained with squeezers.

  20. Frequency-Division Power Sharing and Hierarchical Control Design for DC Shipboard Microgrids with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to reduce the cost and emission of ships, shipboard applications are calling advanced technologies to go onboard. Recently, cleaner power sources (i.e. gas turbines, fuel cell, solar and wind power), energy storage, advanced control and power/energy management......, the operation point of prime movers can be maintained at their optimal area, meanwhile, different energy storages will provide characteristic based response. On the basis of the proposed power sharing method, voltage restoration and power management-level control methods are also introduced to form hierarchical...

  1. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Miechel, Clayton; O'Halloran, Kelly; Muthukaruppan, Muthu; Listowski, Adnrzej

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ 2 = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ 2 = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water

  2. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Miechel, Clayton [Port Macquarie-Hastings Council, Port Macquarie, NSW 2444 (Australia); O' Halloran, Kelly [Gold Coast Water, Gold Coast, MC 9726 (Australia); Muthukaruppan, Muthu [City West Water, Sunshine, VIC 3020 (Australia); Listowski, Adnrzej [Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW 2127 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ{sup 2} = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ{sup 2} = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water.

  3. Preliminary studies on mud stabilization / solidification, from textile laundry treatments, for re-utilization as building mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia da Rocha Pietrobon

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The laundries and industrial dry cleaner's generate liquid effluents that, after treatment for matter in suspension floculation, produce sludge. This residue has varied chemical composition, due to the products used in the process. Such residue is considered inadequate for in natura disposition in the environment, and it should have, as final destination, an industrial landfill. In the studied case, such industrial landfill is not available and the residues are truck-driven for about 400 Km, causing a strong financial impact over the production of an emergent local textile industry market. This work presents the physical-chemical characterization of the sludge produced by an industrial laundry, studying its final disposition in the process of E/S addition in Portland cement, seeking its re-utilization in civil construction materials, to minimize this residue's final disposition costs. The analysis contemplated: COD total, fixed and volatile solids in the sludge, sludge density, pH and metals presence. The presence of the metals: Fe, Mg, Al, Sn, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn and Zn was detected in the sludge. The incorporation of this sludge in mortar was studied as residue final destination. Samples of this mortar were submitted to compression resistance analysis. Results demonstrate that the mortar with sludge contents lower than 25% in relation to the cement mass, after 28 days, shows mechanical resistance values larger than 10 Mpa, being fit to be used as civil construction secondary material, without structural function. Posterior studies will be necessary to evaluate the organic matter influence in the composite's durability.

  4. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mohn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 2015 in the tropical and subtropical Northeast Atlantic to narrow this gap. Measurements were conducted at seamount locations between the island of Madeira and the Portuguese mainland (Ampère, Seine Seamount, as well as east of the Cape Verde archipelago (Senghor Seamount. The dataset includes two-minute ensemble averaged continuous velocity and backscatter profiles, supplemented by spatially gridded maps for each velocity component, error velocity and local bathymetry. The dataset is freely available from the digital data library PANGAEA at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.883193. Keywords: Seamounts, Northeast Atlantic, Shipboard ADCP, CODAS processing, DIVA gridding

  5. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  6. A distributed control approach for power and energy management in a notional shipboard power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qunying

    The main goal of this thesis is to present a power control module (PCON) based approach for power and energy management and to examine its control capability in shipboard power system (SPS). The proposed control scheme is implemented in a notional medium voltage direct current (MVDC) integrated power system (IPS) for electric ship. To realize the control functions such as ship mode selection, generator launch schedule, blackout monitoring, and fault ride-through, a PCON based distributed power and energy management system (PEMS) is developed. The control scheme is proposed as two-layer hierarchical architecture with system level on the top as the supervisory control and zonal level on the bottom as the decentralized control, which is based on the zonal distribution characteristic of the notional MVDC IPS that was proposed as one of the approaches for Next Generation Integrated Power System (NGIPS) by Norbert Doerry. Several types of modules with different functionalities are used to derive the control scheme in detail for the notional MVDC IPS. Those modules include the power generation module (PGM) that controls the function of generators, the power conversion module (PCM) that controls the functions of DC/DC or DC/AC converters, etc. Among them, the power control module (PCON) plays a critical role in the PEMS. It is the core of the control process. PCONs in the PEMS interact with all the other modules, such as power propulsion module (PPM), energy storage module (ESM), load shedding module (LSHED), and human machine interface (HMI) to realize the control algorithm in PEMS. The proposed control scheme is implemented in real time using the real time digital simulator (RTDS) to verify its validity. To achieve this, a system level energy storage module (SESM) and a zonal level energy storage module (ZESM) are developed in RTDS to cooperate with PCONs to realize the control functionalities. In addition, a load shedding module which takes into account the reliability

  7. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  8. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  9. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  10. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  11. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  12. The effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on the acquisition and generalization of community laundry skills by students with severe handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, S A; Bates, P E

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on acquisition and generalization of a community laundry skill by nine students with severe handicaps. School-based instruction involved artificial materials (pictures), simulated materials (cardboard replica of a community washing machine), and natural materials (modified home model washing machine). Generalization assessments were conducted at two different community laundromats, on two machines represented fully by the school-based instructional materials and two machines not represented fully by these materials. After three phases of school-based instruction, the students were provided ten community training trials in one laundromat setting and a final assessment was conducted in both the trained and untrained community settings. A multiple probe design across students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the three types of school instruction and community training. After systematic training, most of the students increased their laundry performance with all three sets of school-based materials; however, generalization of these acquired skills was limited in the two community settings. Direct training in one of the community settings resulted in more efficient acquisition of the laundry skills and enhanced generalization to the untrained laundromat setting for most of the students. Results of this study are discussed in regard to the issue of school versus community-based instruction and recommendations are made for future research in this area.

  13. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    1998). Research is directed on quantifying the C, N and P fractions in the secondary ... and prefermented wastewater, applicable for a basic in-line APT and other prefermenter ... representative composite samples, and from these samples the ... Constituents in true solution (dissolved) (particle size < 1 nm);. • not visible by ...

  14. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  15. Microbial activities in hydrocarbon-laden wastewaters: Impact on diesel fuel stability and the biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Duncan, Kathleen E; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Davidova, Irene; Yakimov, Michail M; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-20

    Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation not only diminishes fuel quality, but also exacerbates the biocorrosion of the metallic infrastructure. While successional events in marine microbial ecosystems impacted by petroleum are well documented, far less is known about the response of communities chronically exposed to hydrocarbons. Shipboard oily wastewater was used to assess the biotransformation of different diesel fuels and their propensity to impact carbon steel corrosion. When amended with sulfate and an F76 military diesel fuel, the sulfate removal rate in the assay mixtures was elevated (26.8μM/d) relative to incubations receiving a hydroprocessed biofuel (16.1μM/d) or a fuel-unamended control (17.8μM/d). Microbial community analysis revealed the predominance of Anaerolineae and Deltaproteobacteria in F76-amended incubations, in contrast to the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the original wastewater. The dominant Smithella-like sequences suggested the potential for syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism. The general corrosion rate was relatively low (0.83 - 1.29±0.12mpy) and independent of the particular fuel, but pitting corrosion was more pronounced in F76-amended incubations. Desulfovibrionaceae constituted 50-77% of the sessile organisms on carbon steel coupons. Thus, chronically exposed microflora in oily wastewater were differentially acclimated to the syntrophic metabolism of traditional hydrocarbons but tended to resist isoalkane-laden biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christian; Denda, Anneke; Christiansen, Svenja; Kaufmann, Manfred; Peine, Florian; Springer, Barbara; Turnewitsch, Robert; Christiansen, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 2015 in the tropical and subtropical Northeast Atlantic to narrow this gap. Measurements were conducted at seamount locations between the island of Madeira and the Portuguese mainland (Ampère, Seine Seamount), as well as east of the Cape Verde archipelago (Senghor Seamount). The dataset includes two-minute ensemble averaged continuous velocity and backscatter profiles, supplemented by spatially gridded maps for each velocity component, error velocity and local bathymetry. The dataset is freely available from the digital data library PANGAEA at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.883193.

  17. Quantifying K, U and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G.; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H.; Brumsack, Hans; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael C.; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A.; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W.; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists, IODP

    2017-04-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions, shipboard-generated data provide the first insights into the cored sequences. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) of the recovered material, for example, is routinely measured on the ocean drilling research vessel DV JOIDES Resolution. At present, only total NGR counts are readily available as shipboard data, although full NGR spectra (counts as a function of gamma-ray energy level) are produced and archived. These spectra contain unexploited information, as one can estimate the sedimentary contents of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) from the characteristic gamma-ray energies of isotopes in the 40K, 232Th, and 238U radioactive decay series. Dunlea et al. [2013] quantified K, Th and U contents in sediment from the South Pacific Gyre by integrating counts over specific energy levels of the NGR spectrum. However, the algorithm used in their study is unavailable to the wider scientific community due to commercial proprietary reasons. Here, we present a new MATLAB algorithm for the quantification of NGR spectra that is transparent and accessible to future NGR users. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance by comparing its results to shore-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), and quantitative wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Samples for these comparisons come from eleven sites (U1341, U1343, U1366-U1369, U1414, U1428-U1430, U1463) cored in two oceans during five expeditions. In short, our algorithm rapidly produces detailed high-quality information on sediment properties during IODP expeditions at no extra cost. Dunlea, A. G., R. W. Murray, R. N. Harris, M. A. Vasiliev, H. Evans, A. J. Spivack, and S. D'Hondt (2013), Assessment and use of NGR instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution to quantify U, Th, and K concentrations in marine sediment, Scientific Drilling, 15, 57-63.

  18. Compatibility of the ultraviolet light-ozone system for laundry waste water treatment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Izumida, Tatsuo

    1997-01-01

    As an alternative treatment system for laundry waste water in nuclear power plants, a system was chosen in which such organic compounds as surfactant would be oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) light and ozone. The system compatibility, UV light source, and dissolved ozone concentration were examined through experiments. First, ozone gas was absorbed in the waste water. After the dissolved ozone concentration equilibrated at the desired value, the waste water was irradiated by a mercury lamp. Then, the time dependence of the concentrations of the organic compounds, the dissolved ozone, and the hydrogen peroxide were measured to estimate the treatment rate of the system. The mercury lamp with a 10 5 -Pa vapor pressure achieved large UV radiation and a treatment rate increase, leading to a compatible system without secondary waste generation. The effect of the dissolved ozone concentration on the treatment rate was saturated when concentration was >3.3 x 10 -4 mol/10 -3 m 3 at the time UV radiation was started. Numerical results indicated the saturation was due to hydrogen peroxide generation, which prevents hydroxyl radical generation

  19. Development of the pilot system for radioactive laundry waste treatment using UV photo-oxidation process and reverse osmosis membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Park, J. K.; Kim, J. B.; Shin, S. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The pilot system for radioactive liquid laundry waste was developed with treatment capacity 1ton/hr and set up in the Yonkwang unit No.4. The system is composed of tank module, reverse osmosis membrane system and UV/H2O2 photo-oxidation process unit. The R/O system consists of the BW unit for low concentration and the SW unit for high concentration. The BW unit possesses 4 of R/O membranes and it can concentrate the feed water volume down to 1/10. This concentrated feed water can be reduced again 1/10 in its volume in the SW unit which is composed of 4 of R/O membranes. The UV/H2O2 photo-oxidation process unit was determined for the detergent removal process. The pilot system was verified in its capability through the continuous operation and enrichment operation using the actual liquid waste of the power plant. The design criteria and data for the industrial system were yielded. The efficiency of the UV/H2O2 photo-oxidation process and the optimum operational procedure were analysed. The decontamination factor of radionuclides, cobalt and cesium was measured. This on-site test showed the experimental result of the DF more than 100 and concentration rate more than 100

  20. Cleaning by Surfactant Gradients: Particulate Removal from Porous Materials and the Significance of Rinsing in Laundry Detergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-03-01

    Removing particles from fibrous materials involves loosening via surfactants followed by particle transfer in a flow. While flow advection is commonly believed to be the major driver for pore-scale transport, small pores within the fabric do not allow any significant fluid flow inside them, thus significantly reducing the role of advection. However, rinsing the fabric with fresh water naturally establishes a surfactant gradient within the pore space, providing a suitable environment for particles to undergo diffusiophoresis. We demonstrate that this mechanism can remove particles from deep within fabric pores at an accelerated rate. The nonlinear aspect of diffusiophoresis significantly prolongs the lifetime of the phoretic motion beyond the naive solute diffusion time scale during rinsing, allowing long-lasting, continuous removal of particles. Moreover, owing to the fine balance between chemiphoresis and electrophoresis for particles in anionic surfactant concentration gradients, we show that the particle removal is sensitive to the counterion mobility, suggesting a simple route to control the effect. We thus claim to have resolved the "stagnant core problem"—a long-standing mystery in laundry detergency—and have identified a physicochemical approach to particle transport in fibrous media with broad applicability.

  1. [Microbiological public health aspects in the use of rain water as water reservoirs for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, R; Bullermann, M; Gross, C; Hartung, H; König, K; Lücke, F K; Nolde, E

    1996-05-01

    From a total of 102 rain water cisterns in use for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundering washing about 1,600 water samples were collected and subjected to microbiological analysis. The assays included aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms growing at 20 and 37 degrees C, respectively, as well as the identification of Escherichia coli, coliform organisms, faecal streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, yersiniae, salmonellae, shigellae, legionellae and yeasts. The median of the total number of cells per ml was 1,200 at 20 degrees C and 230 at 37 degrees C, respectively. Approximately 26 E. coli cells and 198 coliform organisms (median values) were found per 100 ml. In the case of cisterns manufactured of plastic the total number of cells was generally found to be lower than in samples collected from concrete or brick-made storage tanks. With the exception of the ubiquitously distributed organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa (found in 11.8% of the samples) and salmonella in only one sample, no other pathogens were detected. More than 95% of all analysed samples met the quality standards for bathing waters as set by the European Community. Provided certain precautions are taken, such as strict separation of mains for drinking water and rain water, as well as correct labelling of pipelines and collection sites, the use of rain water for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundry washing presents no unacceptable risk to public health.

  2. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  3. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  4. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig

  5. Cytogenotoxicity Screening of Untreated Hospital Wastewaters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2005-09-05

    Sep 5, 2005 ... as X-Ray, laboratory reagents, morgue chemicals and un-metabolized ... our environment with little or no knowledge whether they may ... epidemics, water contamination, radioactive pollution and a host of .... laundry unit, staining laboratory and general ... The peeled bulbs were washed in water to remove.

  6. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  7. Microplastic in Danish wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the role of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the emission of microplastic to the environment in terms of amounts and types of plastic polymers emitted and if possible, to evaluate which sources these plastic polymers could originate...... investigations (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy imaging applying a Focal Plane Array). This method allows both determination of the microplastic concentrations in the samples and identification of the type of plastic polymer of each microplastic particle....

  8. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  9. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  10. Elimination of Acid Cleaning of High Temperature Salt Water Heat Exchangers: Redesigned Pre-Production Full-Scale Heat Pipe Bleed Air Cooler for Shipboard Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Acronyms ASW Anti Submarine Warfare AUX Auxillary Room BAC Bleed Air Cooler BAS Bleed Air System BTU British Thermal Unit BOSS...improvements which should be considered when making a production decision following successful shipboard tests. 5. Since this technology was proposed...However, to maintain schedule, a decision was made prior to this structural analysis being completed on how long to make the heat pipes. With using the

  11. Multi-criteria analysis towards the new end use of recycled water for household laundry: a case study in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; O'Halloran, K; Thompson, M; Muthukaruppan, M

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF+existing WMs; (3) MF+new WMs; (4) MF-GAC+existing WMs; and (5) MF-RO+existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  13. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  14. Neutralization of wastewater from nitrite passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Mientki, B.; Wasag, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method for neutralization of wastewater formed in nitrite passivation has been presented. The method consists of introducing urea into wastewater and acidifying it with sulphuric acid. Wastewater is neutralized with lime. After clarification, wastewater can be drained outside the plant

  15. A polar-region-adaptable systematic bias collaborative measurement method for shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wu, Wenqi; Wei, Guo; Lian, Junxiang; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-05-01

    The shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation system (RINS) configuration, including a dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, can satisfy the demand of marine INSs of especially high reliability as well as achieving trade-off between position accuracy and cost. Generally, the dual-axis RINS is the master INS, and the single-axis RINS is the hot backup INS for high reliability purposes. An integrity monitoring system performs a fault detection function to ensure sailing safety. However, improving the accuracy of the backup INS in case of master INS failure has not been given enough attention. Without the aid of any external information, a systematic bias collaborative measurement method based on an augmented Kalman filter is proposed for the redundant RINSs. Estimates of inertial sensor biases can be used by the built-in integrity monitoring system to monitor the RINS running condition. On the other hand, a position error prediction model is designed for the single-axis RINS to estimate the systematic error caused by its azimuth gyro bias. After position error compensation, the position information provided by the single-axis RINS still remains highly accurate, even if the integrity monitoring system detects a dual-axis RINS fault. Moreover, use of a grid frame as a navigation frame makes the proposed method applicable in any area, including the polar regions. Semi-physical simulation and experiments including sea trials verify the validity of the method.

  16. Some conclusions from shipboard experiments on the radurization of whole fish in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Reinacher, E.

    1978-01-01

    Redfish and haddock were radurized (100krad) with the X-ray facility onboard the research vessel ''Anton Dohrn''. The whole fish were stored under crushed ice. In addition whole haddock packaged in plastic pouches under vacuum were studied. In general, during the first 16 days of storage no marked difference in the sensory quality between irradiated and unirradiated samples was observed. Bacteriological and chemical analyses proved the effectiveness of radurization to reduce the microbial flora usually responsible for spoilage. When compared with the results from other shipboard experiments and laboratory studies, the results of sensory evaluation are also in general accordance - if the same criterion for the judgement of final quality is used. After a storage period longer than 16 days occasionally the irradiated samples were scored higher than the unirradiated ones, but then the quality was no longer acceptable. If a lower criterion for shelf-life extension is used, it may be stated that a considerable shelf-life extension results from irradiation. By the standards used in our experiments, it is not possible to preserve an acceptable quality and to extend the shelf-life of ocean fish under the conditions prevailing in practical fishing. Taking into account the many factors that influence the results of such studies, it is not excluded that under other conditions the beneficial effects of radiation processing may be observed. (author)

  17. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  18. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  19. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  20. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    to analyze and quantify the effect of the Aeration Tank Settling (ATS) operating mode, which is used during rain events. Furthermore, the model is used to propose a control algorithm for the phase lengths during ATS operation. The models are mainly formulated as state space model in continuous time......In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...... at modelling the fluxes in terms of the multiple correlation coefficient R2. The model of the SS concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP as well as in the effluent from the aeration tanks is a mass balance model based on measurements of SS in one aeration tank and in the common outlet...

  1. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  2. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M. [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avancats, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Spain); Cerda, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Cerda@uib.es [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry Carreterra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07011 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}. Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L{sup -1} DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  3. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Cerda, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I 2 /I 3 - ), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I 2 /I 3 - in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I 2 /I 3 - with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I 2 /I 3 - . Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L -1 DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  4. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  5. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  6. Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater The NESC has provided of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Agencies, The Office of Wastewater Management at EPA, in cooperation with the Global Environment and

  7. Properties of Concrete Mixes with Carwash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the car wash industry today results in the need for wastewater reclamation. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the effect of using car wash wastewater on concrete properties in terms of mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 3 00.0 while the mechanical properties of concrete with car wash wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentages of wastewater replaced in the concrete mix ranged from 0% up to 40%. In addition, the results also suggest that the concrete with 20% car wash wastewater achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other compositions of wastewater. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete mixed with car wash wastewater has better compressive strength compared to conventional concrete.

  8. 30 PENGGUNAAN KARBON AKTIF DARI SAMPAH PLASTIK UNTUK MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN PHOSPHAT PADA LIMBAH CAI R (Studi Kasus: Limbah Cair Industri Laundry di Temb alang, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Wisnu Wardhana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya jumlah industri laundry akan mengakibatkan meningkatnya penggunaan deterjen. Zat yang dominan terkandung dalam deterjen adalah natrium tripolyphosphat yang berfungsi sebagai builder dan surfaktan, sehingga limbahnyapun mengandung phosphat. Hampir semua industri laundry membuang limbahnya tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu, hal tersebut akan menyebabkan eutrofikasi dimana badan air menjadi kaya akan nutrien terlarut, menurunnya kandungan oksigen terlarut dan kemampuan daya dukung badan air terhad ap biota air. Menurut hasi uji pendahuluan, limbah cair industri tersebut mengandung kadar phos phat sebesar 10,21 mg/l. Kadar tersebut melebihi baku mutu Perda Prop. Jateng No 10 tahun 2004, dimana kadar maksimum untuk phosphat total adalah 2 mg/l. Salah satu cara pengolahan limbah adalah dengan proses adsorpsi menggunakan karbon aktif dari sampah plastik jenis polyethylene. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemamapuan karbon aktif dari sampah plas tik dalam menurunkan kandungan phosphat dengan percobaan batch dan kontinyu. Percobaan batch menggunakan variasi berat karbon aktif dari sampah plastik 1,2, dan 3 gram untuk masing-masimg variasi ukuran media 30-60 mesh dan 100-200 mesh. Percobaan batch mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat tertinggi pada berat 3 gram (100-200mesh sebesar 45,45%. Sedangkan percobaan kontinyu dilakukan pada kolom berdiameter 1 inchi dengan variasi debit 50 ml/menit dan 100 ml/menit. Percobaan kontinyu mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat terbesar pada debit 50 ml/menit sebesar 54,75%. Nilai konstanta kecepatan (k1 0,0108 ml/mg.dtk dengan kapasitas serap (qo 0,677 mg/g.

  9. External laundry service. A tool for fleet management and flexible decommissioning; Externer Waescheservice. Ein Werkzeug der zentralen Steuerung und der flexiblen Rueckbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Guenter [Unitech, Hartford, CT (United States); Schmitt, Burkhard [Unitech, Coevorden (Netherlands); Micklinghoff, Michael

    2014-07-15

    While it is common in other countries such as the USA or Sweden to send out contaminated garments to an external laundering facility, this is not the case in Germany, where the preferred tendency in the nuclear industry is to remain independent from an external service provider. After the US based company 'UniTech' built a laundering facility for controlled area garment in Coevorden, Netherlands, in 1996, German operators began testing this service for decommissioning work. At the time, their justification for this choice was based on the following: - In case of a disrupted delivery the consequences would not be as severe for a nuclear power plant in the process of decommissioning. - Additional investments (evaporators) would have been necessary to install in the laundries of the individual nuclear power plants. - The existing on-site laundries and waste treatment equipment were often not suited to deal with nuclides, specific to decommissioning. It quickly became evident that a specialized service provider could conduct the necessary tasks more effectively, more flexibly, and with higher quality than an ancillary on-site facility. In addition, it became evident that central fleet management tasks are facilitated by contracting an external service provider. Business and technical processes, and requirements agreed upon in a framework agreement, supported the introduction of unified standards. The road map for future decommissioning projects in Germany is impacted by many uncertainties. Therefore, planning requires a great deal of flexibility. Here, as with other related operations, it is critical that enough protective garments are in the right place at the right time. If this does not happen, delays, additional costs and changes to process planning result. For these reasons, an external laundering and garment management service is the most reliable solution. Industry experience shows that even very short-term requests for large quantities of protective

  10. Understanding farmers' preferences for wastewater reuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater has emerged as an alternative source of water. Since the agricultural sector remains the largest water user world-wide, it is the main potential user of treated wastewater. However, while there are trade-offs in using wastewater, it may be the only option in water scarce regions. South Africa has included water ...

  11. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  12. Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.F.; Van Woy, F.A.; Salameh, P.K.; Sepanski, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO 2 by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard

  13. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  14. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  15. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  16. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  17. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  18. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  19. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  20. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  1. The impact of an international initiative on exposures to liquid laundry detergent capsules reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 2008 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Rachael; Eddleston, Michael; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2017-03-01

    Although the majority of those exposed to liquid laundry detergent capsules remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor clinical features after exposure, a small proportion develop central nervous system depression, stridor, pulmonary aspiration and/or airway burns following ingestion or conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration following eye exposure. As a consequence, the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (AISE) established a Product Stewardship Programme in Europe, requiring that safety measures be implemented to reduce the visibility of, and restrict access to, these detergent capsules by small children. Implementation occurred in the United Kingdom over several months during the first half of 2013. This study investigated whether the AISE Programme had an impact on the number and severity of exposures reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service. Telephone enquiries to the National Poisons Information Service relating to liquid laundry detergent capsules were analysed for the period January 2008 to December 2015. While there was a significant difference (p = 0.0002) between the mean number of annual exposures (469.4) reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number reported between 2014 and 2015 (403.5), the number of exposures was decreasing steadily prior to implementation of the Programme in 2013, which did not impact this fall from 2013 onwards. In addition, the number of exposures per million units sold was not impacted by the Programme. There was no significant difference (p = 0.68) between the mean number of exposures (11.8) with PSS ≥2 reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number (13.0) reported between 2014 and 2015. Although there was a 28.7% decrease between 2010-2012 and 2014-2015 in the number of exposures with PSS ≥2 per million units sold, this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). There is no evidence that the Product Stewardship Programme had a

  2. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  3. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  4. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  5. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  6. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  7. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  8. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  9. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  10. The variability of expiration peak flow of workers employed in the washing installation (laundry) of Haji Adam Malik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, W.; Tarigan, A. P.; Nainggolan, N.; Eyanoer, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Laundress in hospitals is very susceptible to respiratory disorders, especially occupational asthma. To investigate the occurrence of an obstruction, the daily Expiration Peak Flow (EPF) examination was carried to compare the EPF, before and after work. It is a descriptive study conducted in November 2016. The samplewas 24 workers in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan Laundry Installation, without any exclusion criteria, where all workers have been working for more than one year. Sampling was by distributing daily questionnaires and EPF examination for 14 days. From the results of EPF examinations that have been conducted, there were nine persons were indicated to experience a decreased in lung function. Based on the most sex category, men were 5 people (55.6%), age ≥ 40 years were 2 people (22.2%), working duration ≥10 years were 3 people (33.3%), with the smoking habit were 5 people (55.6%), total dust ≥0.2 micron were 6 people (66.7), total exposure of bacterium ≥500 were 3 people (33.3%), poor APD usage was 3 people (33.3%). In conclusion, there was a decrease in lung function by ≥ 3.1% found in 9 workers.

  11. A unified framework for developing effective hygiene procedures for hands, environmental surfaces and laundry in healthcare, domestic, food handling and other settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Sally F.; Carling, Philip C.; Exner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hygiene procedures for hands, surfaces and fabrics are central to preventing spread of infection in settings including healthcare, food production, catering, agriculture, public settings, and home and everyday life. They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on. Although the principles are common to all, approaches currently used in different settings are inconsistent. A concern is the use of inconsistent terminology which is misleading, especially to people we need to communicate with such as the public or cleaning professionals. This paper reviews the data on current approaches, alongside new insights to developing hygiene procedures. Using this data, we propose a more scientifically-grounded framework for developing procedures that maximize protection against infection, based on consistent principles and terminology, and applicable across all settings. A key feature is use of test models which assess the state of surfaces after treatment rather than product performance alone. This allows procedures that rely on removal of microbes to be compared with those employing chemical or thermal inactivation. This makes it possible to ensure that a consistent “safety target level” is achieved regardless of the type of procedure used, and allows us deliver maximum health benefit whilst ensuring prudent usage of antimicrobial agents, detergents, water and energy. PMID:28670508

  12. The consistent differential expression of genetic pathways following exposure of an industrial Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain to preservatives and a laundry detergent formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Alejandro; Le Marc, Yvan; Bull, Matthew J; Connor, Thomas R; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common contaminant associated with product recalls in the home and personal care industry. Preservation systems are used to prevent spoilage and protect consumers, but greater knowledge is needed of preservative resistance mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa contaminants. We aimed to identify genetic pathways associated with preservative exposure by using an industrial P. aeruginosa strain and implementing RNA-Seq to understand gene expression changes in response to industry relevant conditions. The consistent differential expression of five genetic pathways during exposure to multiple industrial growth conditions associated with benzisothiazolone (BIT) and phenoxyethanol (POE) preservatives, and a laundry detergent (LD) formulation, was observed. A MexPQ-OpmE Resistance Nodulation Division efflux pump system was commonly upregulated in response to POE, a combination of BIT and POE, and LD together with BIT. In response to all industry conditions, a putative sialic acid transporter and isoprenoid biosynthesis gnyRDBHAL operon demonstrated consistent upregulation. Two operons phnBA and pqsEDCBA involved in Pseudomonas quinolone signaling production and quorum-sensing were also consistently downregulated during exposure to all the industry conditions. The ability to identify consistently differentially expressed genetic pathways in P. aeruginosa can inform the development of future targeted preservation systems that maintain product safety and minimise resistance development. PMID:29548026

  13. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  15. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  16. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  17. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  18. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  19. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Cytogenotoxicity screening of untreated hospital wastewaters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters of the wastewaters were determined in accordance with standard methods. Onions root growth inhibition test was used to assess the toxic status of the wastewaters, while cytogenotoxicity was measured by microscopic investigation of the chromosomal aberrations. Onion bulbs were exposed ...

  1. Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhapi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable management of wastewater should aim at pollution prevention and reduction first, followed by resource recovery and reuse. This thesis shows that substantial water quality improvements could be achieved through a so-called 3-Step Strategic Approach to wastewater management. This

  2. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  3. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  4. THE USE OF SILICA SAND, ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CHARCOAL TO REDUCE BOD, COD AND TSS OF LAUNDRY WASTE WATER AS A BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Assiddieq

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment contaminated with detergent waste in high concentrations can endanger the lives human and biota in the water. This study aimed to determine the decrease of BOD, COD and TSS content of laundry liquid waste by using filter media of silica sand, zeolite, and activated charcoal. Filter medium 1a can reduce BOD level from 98.6 mg/L to 58.80 mg/L (40.36%, while medium 1b can decrease BOD level to 21.20 mg/L (78.48%. It showed that media 1a had not fulfilled the quality standard of BOD of waste water that is 50 mg/L, while media 1b had fulfilled the standard of quality. Filter media 1a can decrease COD level from 210 mg/L to 78.80 mg/L (62.47%, whereas medium 1b can decrease COD to 25.60 mg/L (87.80%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of COD of waste water that is 100 mg/L. Filter media 1a can decrease TSS level from 465 mg/L to 122.5 mg/L (73.65%, whereas medium 1b can decrease TSS level to 52.3 mg/L (88.75%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of TSS of waste water that is 150 mg/L.

  5. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  6. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  7. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  8. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  9. Hazardous substances in wastewater systems:a delicate issue for wastewater management

    OpenAIRE

    Palmquist, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Many substances derived from human activity end up in wastewater systems at some point. A large number of different substances - up to 30,000 - are present in wastewater. Some of them are valuable, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, but there are also hazardous substances such as heavy metals and anthropogenic organic substances. To be able to utilise the wastewater nutrients on arable land (agriculture, forestry or other alternatives), it is of great importance to investigate the sources of ha...

  10. Analysis of shipboard aerosol optical thickness measurements from multiple sunphotometers aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark A.; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Frouin, Robert; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Reynolds, R. Michael; Pietras, Christophe; Fargion, Giulietta; Quinn, Patricia; Thieuleux, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Marine sunphotometer measurements collected aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia) are used to evaluate the ability of complementary instrumentation to obtain the best possible estimates of aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from ships at sea. A wide range of aerosol conditions, including clean maritime conditions and highly polluted coastal environments, were encountered during the ACE-Asia cruise. The results of this study suggest that shipboard hand-held sunphotometers and fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) yield similar measurements and uncertainties if proper measurement protocols are used and if the instruments are properly calibrated. The automated FRSR has significantly better temporal resolution (2 min) than the hand-held sunphotometers when standard measurement protocols are used, so it more faithfully represents the variability of the local aerosol structure in polluted regions. Conversely, results suggest that the hand-held sunphotometers may perform better in clean, maritime air masses for unknown reasons. Results also show that the statistical distribution of the Angstrom exponent measurements is different when the distributions from hand-held sunphotometers are compared with those from the FRSR and that the differences may arise from a combination of factors

  11. Density surface fitting to estimate the abundance of humpback whales based on the NASS-95 and NASS- 2001 aerial and shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles GM Paxton

    2009-09-01

    The estimated humpback whale abundance for the region covered by the aerial and shipboard surveys in 1995 was 10,521 (95% CI: 3,716–24,636 using all available data and 7,625 (3,641–22,424 if survey blocks with 0 sightings around the Faroes and south of 60˚ N where no humpback whales were detected were excluded from the analysis. The estimate for the total survey region in 2001 was 14,662 (9,441–29,879. The high upper bounds of the confidence intervals were thought to be caused by a paucity of effort over wide areas of the survey leading to interpolation. Overall, the uncertainty associated with these abundance estimates was approximately equal to, or greater than, that associated with a stratified distance analysis. Given these wide CIs the evidence for a substantial difference in abundance between years was equivocal. However there was evidence to suggest that humpback whales congregated in shallower waters between 6–8˚C.

  12. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  13. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  14. Duckweed cultures in animal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, M; Copelli, M; Ghetti, P F

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of duckweed (Lemna gibba and L. minor) were made for 2 months in 2 ponds fed by a semicontinuous flow of partially treated animal wastewaters. The growth rate of the organic load were obtained from weekly data and the rate of removal of N and P was evaluated. At high loads (concentrations greater than 400 COD, 60 NH/sub 4/+, 10 mg/L PO/sub 4/ to the power of 3-) an average yield (dry weight) of approximately 7 g/square meters/day was established. The mean dry weight of biomass was 6%. The N and P content in duckweed was 1.1 and 4.7%, respective, and the daily absorption rates were 415 N and 97 mg/square meters/day P. The technique of skimming biomass at a rate proportional to the growth rate is useful to maintain duckweed cultures in continuous active growth conditions.

  15. Quality of concrete plant wastewater for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Paula

    Full Text Available Efficient water use is one of the most important requirements of cleaner production, and the use of the wastewater from concrete production can be an important means to this end. However, there are no Brazilian studies on the quality of concrete plant wastewater and the activities in which such water can be used. This paper aims to evaluate the quality of concrete plant wastewater and to propose guidelines for its treatment for non-potable applications. Wastewater samples were collected from three points in the studied treatment system, and tests were later performed in the laboratory to evaluate the water quality. The results obtained were compared with the limit values for the quality parameters that have been used for the analysis of the non-potable water supply in Brazil. The results indicate a need to at least add coagulation and pH correction processes to the treatment system.

  16. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  17. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  18. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  19. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  20. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  1. Chemical Characterisation of Printed Circuit Board Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobri, S; Ali, A H M, E-mail: eeza@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Manufacturing of PCBs is highly complicated and involves many processes. Recycling of PCB wastewater receives wide concerns as the recent international growth in the electronics industry has generated a drastic increase in the amount of waste PCBs with profound environmental impacts such as soil and groundwater contamination. This paper reports on the chemical characterization of PCB wastewater as the initial investigation for selective metal recovery.

  2. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  3. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  4. Crystal structure of a cold-active protease (Pro21717) from the psychrophilic bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas arctica PAMC 21717, at 1.4 Å resolution: Structural adaptations to cold and functional analysis of a laundry detergent enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ha Ju; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Dockyu; Do, Hackwon; Han, Se Jong; Kim, Jung Eun; Koo, Bon-Hun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Joung Han

    2018-01-01

    Enzymes isolated from organisms found in cold habitats generally exhibit higher catalytic activity at low temperatures than their mesophilic homologs and are therefore known as cold-active enzymes. Cold-active proteases are very useful in a variety of biotechnological applications, particularly as active ingredients in laundry and dishwashing detergents, where they provide strong protein-degrading activity in cold water. We identified a cold-active protease (Pro21717) from a psychrophilic bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas arctica PAMC 21717, and determined the crystal structure of its catalytic domain (CD) at a resolution of 1.4 Å. The Pro21717-CD structure shows a conserved subtilisin-like fold with a typical catalytic triad (Asp185, His244, and Ser425) and contains four calcium ions and three disulfide bonds. Interestingly, we observed an unexpected electron density at the substrate-binding site from a co-purified peptide. Although the sequence of this peptide is unknown, analysis of the peptide-complexed structure nonetheless provides some indication of the substrate recognition and binding mode of Pro21717. Moreover, various parameters, including a wide substrate pocket size, an abundant active-site loop content, and a flexible structure provide potential explanations for the cold-adapted properties of Pro21717. In conclusion, this is first structural characterization of a cold-adapted subtilisin-like protease, and these findings provide a structural and functional basis for industrial applications of Pro21717 as a cold-active laundry or dishwashing detergent enzyme.

  5. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  6. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  8. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  9. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES OF AMMONIUM WITHDRAWAL FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shved

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of the current technologies, as well as their trends and developments in the field of wastewater treatment in Ukraine and the world are given. The legal documents and the system of state regulation and control in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine have been analyzed. The information about government programs aimed at protecting the natural water bodies is also included. The global trends concerning development of biotechnology in the field of wastewater from nitrogen compounds have been investigated. The analysis of traditional (nitrification-denitrification and the latest biotechnology wastewater from inorganic nitrogen has been done. Current status of the present key technologies of nitrogen removal from wastewater has been formulated. The main advantages and disadvantages of these biotechnologies are described. It was determined that a major problem in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine is the usage of outdated technologies and regulatory documentation that is a consequence of the lack of sufficient funding for the sector and the low level of environmental awareness of the government and the population.

  11. A wastewater game-changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a biotechnology that could slash energy use, chemical inputs and greenhouse emissions in wastewater treatment. The Australian water sector is slowly tuning in to one of the world's most promising wastewater and trade waste treatment technologies, anammox. SA Water, Queensland United Utilities and Veolia Water are each at different stages of trials of ''anaerobic ammonium oxidation'' to replace activated sludge in removing nitrogen. It relies on special anammox bacteria, which were first identified in 1999 and have been heavily researched ever since. The bacteria short circuit the normal nitrification/denitrification process and oxidise ammonia (NH_3) to nitrogen (N_2) under anaerobic conditions, promising deep cuts in energy demand, chemical use, fugitive greenhouse emissions and waterway impacts. Most local utilities have taken a look at it, but WME is aware of only three that have proceeded to trial stage. Veolia Water is keeping the trial it is supporting with its ANITA Mox technology under wraps for now, but municipal client manager Voon Chin said the technology has been proven for numerous applications overseas, including sludge dewatering effluent (SDE). QUU is in now stepping up from bench-scale tests to a full pilot at its Luggage Point sewage treatment plant (STP). It is currently enriching anammox cultures in 200-litre drums onsite to speed up the painstaking conditioning process when the plant gets up and running shortly in a 40-foot shipping container. But the most advanced are SA Water and Degremont through their Allwater joint venture, which runs Adelaide's water and sewerage network. It has wrapped up Australia's first pilot project, a 4m"3 plant treating SDE at the Bolivar STP. An Allwater spokesperson told WME in a statement that the pilot was a success and they are now assessing full- scale options. A paper to Enviro 2012anticipated a full-scale plant at Bolivar would create operational savings of $650

  12. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  13. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  14. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  15. A sensitive flow-batch system for on board determination of ultra-trace ammonium in seawater: Method development and shipboard application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Yuan, Dongxing; Huang, Yongming; Ma, Jian; Feng, Sichao

    2013-09-10

    Combining fluorescence detection with flow analysis and solid phase extraction (SPE), a highly sensitive and automatic flow system for measurement of ultra-trace ammonium in open ocean water was established. Determination was based on fluorescence detection of a typical product of o-phthaldialdehyde and ammonium. In this study, the fluorescence reaction product could be efficiently extracted onto an SPE cartridge (HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance). The extracted fluorescence compounds were rapidly eluted with ethanol and directed into a flow cell for fluorescence detection. Compared with the common used fluorescence method, the proposed one offered the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced reagent consumption, negligible salinity effect and lower cost. Experimental parameters were optimized using a univariate experimental design. Calibration curves, ranging from 1.67 to 300nM, were obtained with different reaction times. The recoveries were between 89.5 and 96.5%, and the detection limits in land-based and shipboard laboratories were 0.7 and 1.2nM, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 3.5% (n=5) for an aged seawater sample spiked with 20nM ammonium. Compared with the analytical results obtained using the indophenol blue method coupled to a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell, the proposed method showed good agreement. The method had been applied on board during a South China Sea cruise in August 2012. A vertical profile of ammonium in the South East Asia Time-Series (SEATS, 18° N, 116° E) station was produced. The distribution of ammonium in the surface seawater of the Qiongdong upwelling in South China Sea is also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

  17. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  18. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao

    2006-01-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H 2 /kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H 2 /kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  19. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  20. The Role of Anaerobic Digestion in Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater systems potentially contribute significant negative impacts not only on regional water bodies, but also on global energy, climate, and sustainability. Energy recovery from wastewater is one way to reduce the negative impacts and achieve greater resource recovery. The ...

  1. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  2. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation MUSA, J J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    waste-water discharge and disposal practices that may ... impacts from sewage contamination in urban areas are well documented ... tanks, aerated wastewater treatment systems (AWTS) ..... water sources in selected rural communities of the.

  3. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  4. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for the Californian wastewater industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Wastewater treatment is of vital importance for protecting human health and minimizing the environmental impact of polluted water. Since the beginning of the 20th century public facilities have been installed globally which treat wastewater at a

  5. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  6. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water ... water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. ... in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater ...

  7. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  8. Improved Electrocoagulation Reactor for Rapid Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yushi; He, Weihua; Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Ren, Nanqi; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    by electrocoagulation. The performance of this process, called a reverse-electric field, air cathode electrocoagulation (REAEC) reactor, was tested using domestic wastewater as a function of charging time and electrocoagulation time. REAEC wastewater treatment removed

  9. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  10. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  11. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  12. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  13. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  14. Fluidized bed anaerobic biodegration of food industry wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toldra, F.; Flors, A.; Lequerica, J.L.; Valles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized bed reactors were used to reduce the COD of low-strength food industry wastewaters. Soluble organic removal efficiencies of 75%, 80% and 50% were obtained for hog slaughterhouse, dairy and brewery wastewaters, respectively, at 35 degrees C and 8 hours hydraulic retention time. Removal efficiencies decreased with decreasing temperature (35 degrees C to 20 degrees C); no detrimental effect of temperature was observed when treating the slaughterhouse wastewater. Methane production rate was only relevant on brewery wastewater treatment. (Refs. 17).

  15. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  16. Wastewater screening method for evaluating applicability of zero-valent iron to industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Cha, D.K.; Oh, Y.K.; Ko, K.B.; Jin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a screening protocol to evaluate the applicability of the ZVI pretreatment to various industrial wastewaters of which major constituents are not identified. The screening protocol consisted of a sequential analysis of UV-vis spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and bioassay. The UV-vis and HPLC analyses represented the potential reductive transformation of unknown constituents in wastewater by the ZVI. The UV-vis and HPLC results were quantified using principal component analysis (PCA) and Euclidian distance (ED). The short-term bioassay was used to assess the increased biodegradability of wastewater constituents after ZVI treatment. The screening protocol was applied to seven different types of real industrial wastewaters. After identifying one wastewater as the best candidate for the ZVI treatment, the benefit of ZVI pretreatment was verified through continuous operation of an integrated iron-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) resulting in the increased organic removal efficiency compared to the control. The iron pretreatment was suggested as an economical option to modify some costly physico-chemical processes in the existing wastewater treatment facility. The screening protocol could be used as a robust strategy to estimate the applicability of ZVI pretreatment to a certain wastewater with unknown composition.

  17. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  18. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  19. Sustainable Approach to Wastewater Management in the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As population grows and urbanization increases, more wastewater is generated and there is great awareness on the health and environmental implication of poorly disposed wastewater. This research work develops a sustainable approach to wastewater disposal in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The existing ...

  20. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  1. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  2. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  3. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  4. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  5. Ion Chromatography Applications in Wastewater Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater analysis is an important area in analytical and environmental chemistry. It can be performed with both the classic wet methods and instrumental techniques. The development of new methods, and modification of the existing ones, constitute a major task for researchers. Ion chromatography plays a predominant role in ion determinations with the instrumental methods. It offers several advantages over the conventional methods, such as simultaneous determinations of alkali and alkaline earth cations and ammonia. Ammonium ions cannot be determined by spectroscopic methods. Ion chromatography has been accepted world-wide as a reference method for analyzing anions and cations in water and wastewater due to the fact that it enables the replacement of several individual wet chemistry methods for common ions with one instrumental technique. The following article describes the principles of ion chromatography, such as stationary phases, eluents, detectors, and sample preparation methods. Moreover, the applications of ion chromatography in wastewater analyses and international standards are presented.

  6. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  7. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  8. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  9. Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory.

  10. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  11. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  12. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  13. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  14. Analyzing water/wastewater infrastructure interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J. L.; Fisher, R. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Whitfield, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes four general categories of infrastructure interdependencies (physical, cyber, geographic, and logical) as they apply to the water/wastewater infrastructure, and provides an overview of one of the analytic approaches and tools used by Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate interdependencies. Also discussed are the dimensions of infrastructure interdependency that create spatial, temporal, and system representation complexities that make analyzing the water/wastewater infrastructure particularly challenging. An analytical model developed to incorporate the impacts of interdependencies on infrastructure repair times is briefly addressed

  15. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  16. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  17. Structural analysis of ceramic blocks sealing or structural incorporated with the industrial laundry sludge; Anllise estrutural de blocos ceramicos de vedacao ou estruturais incorporados com lodo de lavanderia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P.H.S.; Grippe, V.Y.Q.; Goulart, J.V., E-mail: phsoal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Industrial and commercial development of recent decades has led to an increase in waste generation. Thus, it is necessary to develop alternative and effective methods of treatment, replacing the simple disposal of these wastes in landfills. The objective of this work is to study the incorporation of textile industrial laundries sludge in ceramic blocks sealing or structural. Samples of ceramic blocks were produced using formulation with 20% sludge, the mass of ceramic clay. Structural analysis of the block was observed the tendency of most empty emergence (pores) during the firing of the blocks, as textile sludge was added in the ceramic paste composition. The mechanical testing of blocks compressive strength was above the minimum 3.0 MPa specified by the standard limit. The physical test water absorption of the blocks was within the range 8 to 22% specified by the standard. (author)

  18. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  19. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  20. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  1. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  2. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  3. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  4. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  5. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  6. Modeling Trihalomethane Formation Potential from Wastewater Chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Aerated Lagoon Chlor/Dechlor - - - King Salmon River Luke, AZ Tertiary Ultraviolet 1.2 MGD Agua Fria River / Irrigation MacDD, FL Activated Sludge...November 1988). Tchobanoglous, George and Burton, Franklin L. Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal, and reuse / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. -3rd ed

  7. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  8. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  9. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  10. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  11. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  12. Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Örvös; T. Balázs; K. F. Both

    2008-01-01

    From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

  13. Anaerobic prefermentation and primary sedimentation of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating the solubilisation and acidification capacity of fermenting organisms in suspension in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which had a volume of 1 800 ℓ. Using 8 h cycles with 340 min of anaerobic reaction time, the wastewater fed to the SBR presented an average of ...

  14. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  15. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions... operation of the treatment process or control technique, the owner or operator shall instead comply with the... calibration gas for Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A shall be the single organic HAP representing the...

  17. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  18. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  19. Environmental systems analysis of wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerrman, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The history of wastewater management tells us that efforts have been made at solving only one problem at the time; sanitation during the first half of the 20th Century followed by eutrophication of lakes and sea and, for the past ten years, recycling of nutrients. After the 'Brundtland Report', 1987, a reversal of the debate occurred where water management was discussed in a more holistic manner than before. The concept sustainable development became widely accepted and was put into practice. This thesis suggests a framework for evaluating the sustainability of wastewater systems, which contains the use of criteria and system analytical evaluation methods matching each criterion. The main categories of criteria are identified as: Health and Hygiene, Social and Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Functional and Technical. The usability of different concepts of Environmental Systems Analysis for evaluating environmental criteria of wastewater systems is also investigated. These studies show that a substance-flow model combined with evaluation methods from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), sometimes complemented with Exergy Analysis or Analysis of Primary Energy, is a beneficial approach for evaluating environmental impacts and the usage of resources. The substance-flow model ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) combined with LCA was used to compare four systems structures for the management of household wastewater and solid organic waste, namely Conventional System, Irrigation of Energy Forests, Liquid Composting and Urine Separation. This study shows a potential for further development of the three alternative systems. The comparative study also included some development of system analytical methods. This thesis shows how the contribution from oxidation of ammonia should be included in the eutrophication impact category. Furthermore, a method is given for prioritization of the most relevant impacts from wastewater management by using normalisation of these impacts in

  20. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  1. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  2. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  3. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  4. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  5. Calculations of Shipboard Heat Exchangers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    40 C. Absolute, either real, pxessuze: Pa F6 ( where P6 - atmospheric, or tarcmetric, pressure, am Hg; p - overpressure (reading mancmeter), ikm Hal. A...21,oA 44 wxv BOX. CT. I *OyllTKU. .2lObin 0.0703 Acca (32) ()I *ynl’/XB. ite0Ms 0.068o 4(?ii. anm I *0yHlt/Ku. itoil. 51 .712 .1A PT. CT. DOC

  6. Wireless Smart Shipboard Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nozik, Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    .... Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP 8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information...

  7. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative behavior of americium and plutonium in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetaeva, N.E.; Filin, V.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Rudaya, L.Y.; Shapiro, K.Y.; Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of trace americium and plutoniumin wastewater fed into purification systems. Activities of the elements were determined on a semiconductive alpha-ray spectrometer. the distributio nonuniformity, or heterogeneity, of americium and plutonium per unit volume of wastewater was determined quantitatively before and after passage through filter papers. The two elements were found to be in a colloidal or pseudocolloidal state in the original wastewater sample at pH 6. On acidifying the wastewater from pH 4 to 1 M nitric acid the americium passed quantitatively into the water phase but the most plutonium remained in the colloidal or pseudocolloidal state. the plutonium also passed quantitatively into the water phase in wastewater at a 1 M nitric acid acidity but only after a prolonged (12-day) hold. A knowledge of the heterogeneity of plutonium and americium in wastewaters made it possible to quickly distinguish their state, i.e., colloidal, pseudocolloidal, or in true solution

  10. Utilization of portable effluent wastewater in brick manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Mahllawy, M.S.; El-Sokkary, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Portable wastewater is produced from sedimentation and filtration tanks in portable water treatment plants. Usually, this useless wastewater is drained into River Nile Canal and not to the sewer system causing a potential pollution. Wastewater has been taken from Portable Treatment Plant located at Qalubia Province, Delta, Egypt. Evaluation of raw materials was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) as well as plasticity and drying sensitivity coefficient (DSC) measurements. Technological properties of fired bricks were investigated according to Egyptian and American Specifications. The obtained experimental results encourage substitution of the drained portable wastewater for the tap water in bricks manufacturing. Thus, utilization of the studied portable effluent wastewater in such industry is possible and fulfills the double target of saving drinking water used in clay bricks manufacturing, rather than its environmental pollution prevention. Keywords: Portable wastewater, tap water, clay building bricks, physicomechanical properties

  11. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  12. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  13. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  14. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  15. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  16. Electron beam processing of wastewater in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton A. Bakar

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing technology started in Malaysia in 1991 when two accelerators were installed through JICA cooperation to perform medical product sterilization project. Since then several private companies have installed electron accelerators to develop in removing volatile organic materials and to demonstrate flue gas treatment. In this country report, effort on electron beam processing of wastewater or contaminated groundwater is presented: After de-coloration tests using gamma rays as function of radiation doses, electron beam treatment of textile industry wastewater as function of beam energy and current intensity as well as with combined treatment such as aeration or biological treatment to examine the effectiveness in color and BOD or COD change has been carried out and the main results are reported. Furthermore, the present technique was examined to apply in river water treatment for use as drinking water. Techno-economic feasibility study for recycling of industrial waste water using electron beam technology is now underway. (S. Ohno)

  17. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  18. Method and apparatus for processing oily wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torline, W.N.; Williams, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A method of treating oily wastewater is described comprising the steps of passing oily wastewater through a coalescer to coalesce dispersed oil droplets; separating a free oil fraction as a liquid stream having a lower specific gravity from a contaminated water stream having a higher specific gravity; filtering particulate material from said contaminated water stream; passing the filtered water stream under pressure across an ultrafiltration membrane to separate a retentate fraction enriched in residual emulsified oil from an aqueous permeate fraction; recycling said substantially only retentate fraction to said coalescer; filtering said aqueous permeate through an activated carbon filter to remove low molecular weight organic materials; subjecting the filtrate from said activated carbon filter to cation exchange to remove heavy metal ions; and periodically flushing said ultra filter with filtrate from said particulate filter to maintain the permeability of said ultrafiltration membrane

  19. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor: Sludge characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Application of slaughterhouse wastewater as feed wastewater demonstrated that the slaughterhouse wastewater to be more effective in promoting the formation of anaerobic granules and granule size in UASB reactor.

  20. Wastewater minimization in multipurpose batch plants with a regeneration unit: multiple contaminants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization can be achieved by employing water reuse opportunities. This paper presents a methodology to address the problem of wastewater minimization by extending the concept of water reuse to include a wastewater regenerator...

  1. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Lughano J. M. Kusiluk

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater use for crop irrigation and aquaculture is commonly practiced by communities situated close to wastewater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from wastewater and Tilapia fish...

  2. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  3. Phycoremediation of industrial wastewater containing azo compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Parin D. Shah; Dipti Galani; M S. Rao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art biological wastewater treatment technique that uses eukaryotic microalgae as well as several prokaryotic photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Micro algae are known to remove dyes by bioadsorption (sorption of dye molecules over the surface of algal cells), biodegradation and bioconversion (diffusion of dye molecules into the algal cells and subsequent conversion). This paper mainly focuses on biodegradation abilities of microalgae for t...

  4. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  5. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  6. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Rubino; Maurizia Catalano; Antonio Lonigro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being coll...

  7. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  9. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  10. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  11. Wastewater disinfection with peracetic acid and UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caretti, C.; Lubello, C.

    2001-01-01

    Was investigated the synergy between UV and peracetic acid (PAA) through a five months on-site experimental study in a pilot plant fed by the secondary effluent of the central wastewater treatment plant of Pistoia, Italy. This experiment is a part of a larger research project on advanced treatment for municipal wastewater reuse in agriculture. Because of Italy's strict limits on unrestricted wastewater reuse in agriculture (2 CFU total coliform/100 ml), a very high degree of disinfection is necessary. In the investigated experimental conditions, it has been impossible to meet such values through an exclusive use of UV irradiation (the UV unit reaches at most 4 Log inactivation). Low levels of PAA greatly enhance the decline of indicator levels, but higher unsustainable doses are required to hit the Italian limit. Through a poor amount of information on the subject was available in literature, it was tried to find out how the disinfection efficiency could improve by simultaneously using UV and PAA. It was found out that a combined treatment is satisfactory and that it is more advantage of the hydroxyl radicals formation due to the PAA photo lysis. The application of 2 ppm of PAA with an UV dose of 192 mWscm - 2 is enough to meet the Italian limit [it

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  13. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  14. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  15. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  16. (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khoramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheriyoun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a Biofilter System for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khorramabad Abstract The biofilter system is one of the methods commonly used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide as the main source of odors emitted from wastewater facilities. The system is based on using the contaminant material as bedding to feed microorganisms. To achieve the desirable removal efficiency, it is, therefore, essential to create the proper conditions for the bacteria to grow on the bedding. In this study, a pilot-scale biofilter made of compost and woodchip (with a compost/woodchip ratio of 5:1 was used as the bedding material at Khorrmabad wastewater pumping station to investigate the performance of the system under real conditions. The experiment was carried out over 75 days during which time the input and output H2S concentrations were measured on a regular basis. Moisture was adjusted between 40% and 60% throughout the experiment to provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth. The results showed that the concentration of H2S emitted from the pumping station during 24 hours varied greatly between 0 and 48 PPM. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biological bedding was recorded at 2.874 g/m3.hr and the mean efficiency of H2S removal including the startup time was 89%. The mean performance efficiency during the biological activity after the startup was recorded at 98%.

  17. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  18. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  19. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  20. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  1. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Grabic, R.; Ledin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater spiked with a mixture of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was treated with 0–20mg/L chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in laboratory-scale experiments. Wastewater effluents were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with extended......O2, while in high COD effluent a significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8mg/L ClO2. This study illustrates the successful degradation of several APIs during treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide....

  2. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  3. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  4. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  5. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  6. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  7. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Energy and Environment Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn-Woo, E-mail: ywlee@snu.ac.kr [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 deg. C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2 s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O{sub 2} concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 deg. C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 deg. C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper.

  8. Disinfection of water and wastewater of Isfahan water and wastewater treatment plants by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: At gamma doses used in this study, the coliforms were removed completely. But for wastewater samples, although the removal efficiencies were above 80%, the environmental standards related to microbial parameters were not satisfied. Therefore, it is necessary to use higher doses of gamma radiation.

  9. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  10. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... exothermic reaction or the contents of the tank is sparged, the owner or operator shall comply with the... barometric pressure, or (B) An engineering evaluation that the Administrator determines is an accurate method...

  11. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  12. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  13. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  14. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  15. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  16. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  17. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  18. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  19. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  20. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-containers. 63.135 Section 63.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  1. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  2. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of Wastewaters from a Cluster of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myina O M

    chlorides – of the wastewaters from the various industries were investigated using standard protocols. The ranges of the ... water bodies of these wastewaters are at risk of being polluted. ... Most of it is in oceans, ice caps, underground aquifers ...

  4. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  5. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  6. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reuse of treated effluent (for agriculture and as supplement for drinking water needs) is currently receiving attention as a reliable water source. This paper is aimed at reviewing the environmental and health impacts of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater effluents. The quality of wastewater effluents is ...

  7. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  8. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 déc. 2009 ... The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which focus on high-end treatment options and the use of treated wastewater. ... Pay Drechsel is Global Theme Leader on Water Quality, Health and Environment at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  9. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  10. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  11. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  12. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... concentration in the simulated wastewater as in the RCVBN medium. Optimization of wastewater composition and treatment conditions. SW with pollutants strength of 3600 mgl-1 COD was used to incubate the phototrophic bacteria microaerobically in the light (appro- ximately 2000 lx), the COD reduction ...

  13. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  14. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  15. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  16. Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples ...

  17. Optimization of the Ethanol Fermentation of Cassava Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on the optimisation of the cassava wastewater medium for ethanol fermentation. The main thrust was the investigation of the influence of the glucose concentration, nutrient (NH4Cl) level, and cell concentration on the yield of ethanol from cassava wastewater. Twenty experiments based on ...

  18. Effects of high salinity wastewater on methanogenic sludge bed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Jeison, D.A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The attainable loading potentials of anaerobic sludge bed systems are strongly dependent on the growth of granular biomass with a particular wastewater. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of high salinity wastewater on the biological and physical properties of methanogenic sludge.

  19. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  20. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic drinks companies' ...

  1. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  2. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  3. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  4. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  5. physico-chemical evaluation of wastewater in katsina metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    associated sludge and grey water kitchen and bathroom wastewater or the mixture of domestic wastewater from commercial establishments and institutions ... oil mill Ltd and Katsina steel rolling company Ltd. K/Durbi:- It is located on latitude. 59'44.10”N and. 37'00.73”E, the midpoint of the water and irrigational activities ...

  6. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW) and treated ... municipal wastewater (from 1.34 to 0.95 ds/m) and the EC of raw ... wastes are generated daily from highly populated cities ... plants is an integral part of the biogeochemical cycle of .... Waste Management and Treatment, 2nd ed.

  7. Parasitological Profile of Raw Wastewater and the Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    960 L of wastewater was examined and a significant level of parasite eggs, cysts and oocysts were .... crop irrigation is less than one (≤ 1) Helminth Ova. (HO) per Litre .... due to wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara City ...

  8. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the vulnerability of the wastewater collection and disposal infrastructure (i.e. pipelines and manholes, pumping stations and wastewater treatment plants) to sea-level rise in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. By using geographical information systems (GIS) and a multi-criteria analysis considering ...

  9. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  10. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  11. Wastewater and sludge management and research in Oman: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Abdul Khaliq, Suaad; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Wardy, Malik; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Choudri, B S

    2017-03-01

    It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and sludge production take place under different technical, economic, and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations, as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to provide useful information about the current wastewater and sludge treatment, management, regulations, and research in Oman. Based on the review and discussion, the wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman has been evolving over the years. Further, the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman. Wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman have been evolving over the years. Sludge utilization has been a challenge due to its association with human waste. Therefore, composting of sewage sludge is the best option in agriculture activities. Sludge and wastewater utilization can add up positively in the economic aspects of the country in terms of creating jobs and improving annual income rate. The number of research projects done on wastewater reuse and other ongoing ones related to the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman.

  12. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  13. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  14. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  15. Phycoremediation of Heavy Metals in Wet Market Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apandi, Najeeha; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Al-Gheethi, Adel; Latiffi, Atikah; Nor Hidayah Arifin, Siti; Gani, Paran

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of phycoremediation using microalgae for removing nutrients and heavy metals from wastewaters has been proved. However, the differences in the composition of wastewaters as well as microalgae species play an important role in the efficient of this process. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Scenedesmus sp. to removal of heavy metals from wet market wastewater. Scenedesmus sp. was inoculated with 106 cells/mL into each wet market wastewater concentration included 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and incubated for 18 days. The highest growth rate was recorded in 50% WM with a maximum dry weight of 2006 mg L-1 which subsequently removed 93.06% of Cd, 91.5% of Cr, 92.47% of Fe, 92.40% of Zn. These findings reflected the high potential of Scenedesmus sp. in the treatment of wet market wastewater and production microalgae biomass.

  16. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  17. Planning of Eka Hospital Pekanbaru wastewater recycling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecky, A.; Andrio, D.; Sasmita, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Ministry of Public Works No. 06 2011 required the large scale of water to conserve the water resource, Eka Hospital Pekanbaru have to improve the sewage treatment plant through the wastewater recycling. The effluent from the plant can be used to landscape gardening and non-potable activities. The wastewater recycling design was done by analyzing the existing condition of thesewage treatment plant, determine the effluent quality standards for wastewater recycling, selected of alternative technology and processing, design the treatment unit and analyze the economic aspects. The design of recycling facility by using of combination cartridge filters processing, ultrafiltration membranes, and desinfection by chlorination. The wastewater recycling capacity approximately of 75 m3/day or 75% of the STP effluent. The estimated costs for installation of wastewater recycling and operation and maintenance per month are Rp 111,708,000 and Rp 2,498,000 respectively.

  18. Tofu wastewater treatment by sediment microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, W.; Abubakar; Rahmi, R. F.; Silmina

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to measure power density generated by sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) by varying anode position and wastewater concentration. Anode position was varied at 2 cm and 4 cm under the surface of sediment, while wastewater concentration varied into 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The electrodes employed was stainless steel mesh, while the organic subtrate source was taken from wastewater of soybean washing and boiling process. The sediment was taken from the Lamnyong River around the outlet of tofu industry wastewater. SMFCs was run until the power density was relatively small. The produced electricity represented in power density. The results of this research showed that power density was decreased over time. Generated power density by varying 2 cm and 4 cm position of anode under the sediment surface was not significantly different, while the lowest wastewater concentration, 25%, gave the highest power density.

  19. Effect of activated sludge culture conditions on Waxberry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Treated activated sludge is suitable for the treatment of wastewater. Biochemical method is used to treat the wastewater, and the influence of time on the COD index is investigated. The results showed that time had a significant effect on COD, and then affected the performance of activated sludge. Under different time, according to the order of time from short to long, COD decreases in turn. Under the action of activated sludge, the degradation of myrica rubra wastewater samples, after 25 h aeration for 96 h, the effect is better. Under this condition, the COD value was reduced at 72 mg/L, and the COD removal efficiency of myrica rubra wastewater was up to 93.39 %, and reached the two level discharge standard of municipal wastewater treatment.

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  1. Application of a membrane bioreactor for winery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Pavan, P; Cecchi, F

    2010-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are variable in nature and are hard to treat by means of the conventional activated sludge process because of the high organic loading associated with their production, especially during vintage. To face this situation, recently, membrane bioreactors have been widely applied to treat winery wastewaters. In this study, a full-scale membrane bioreactor treated some 110 m(3)/d of wastewater and organic loadings up to 1,600 kg COD per day. The average removal efficiency was 95% while the corresponding sludge yield was only 0.1 kg MLVSS per kg COD removed, as usual for these wastewaters. A detailed analysis of energy consumption showed specific energy demands of 2.0-3.6 kWh/m(3) of treated wastewater or 1 kWh per kg of COD removed.

  2. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  3. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  4. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  5. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  7. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  8. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  9. Heat recovery from wastewater systems; Waermerueckgewinnung aus Abwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, O.

    2004-07-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of heat energy which can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer system. Practical problems, which may arise and have been investigated in this research project, are the reduction of the heat transfer efficiency due to heat exchanger fouling and the reduction of the nitrification capacity of downstream wastewater treatment plants due to lower wastewater temperatures. A mathematical model was developed by which the decrease of the wastewater temperature in the treatment plant influent can be determined as a function of the amount of heat energy gathered from the wastewater in the sewer system. By this model the variation in time and space of the wastewater temperature in a sewer pipe is calculated for given hydraulics, geometry and environmental conditions. By analysis of data from a large wastewater treatment plant and simulations with a calibrated model, the effect of lowered influent temperatures on nitrification safety, total nitrogen removal efficiency and ammonium effluent concentrations could be quantified. A procedure is suggested by which the reserve nitrification capacity of an existing treatment plant and the increase of the ammonium effluent concentration resulting from a permanent decrease of the wastewater influent temperature can be estimated. By experiments with a pilot scale heat exchanger in a small wastewater channel, the significance of parameters known to have an effect on fouling was investigated and measures to reduce fouling were tested. The measures tested included controlled variation of the wastewater flow velocity (flushing), coatings and finish of the heat exchanger surface and obstacles mounted on the surface. The best results were obtained by regular short term increases of the flow velocity. By this measure, the efficiency of the fouled heat exchanger, which on the average was 60% of the efficiency of the clean heat exchanger, could repeatedly be raised to an

  10. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  11. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  12. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  13. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  14. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  16. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  17. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  18. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  19. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  20. Glutaraldehyde degradation in hospital wastewater by photoozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Lourdes Teresinha; Rosa, Ellen Caroline; Machado, Enio Leandro; Camargo, Maria Emilia; Moro, Celso Camilo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), a chemical used for the disinfection of hospital materials, using advanced oxidative processes, O3, and UV, and the combination of the latter two. Assays with different ozone concentrations at distinct pH levels were conducted to determine the best treatment process. GA concentrations before and after each treatment were measured by spectrophotometry. The best treatment was that which combined O3 and UV, yielding a degradation of 72.0-75.0% in relation to the initial concentration with pH between 4 and 9. Kinetics demonstrated that GA degradation is not dependent on pH, as there was a first-order reaction with a rate constant of k = 0.0180 min(-1) for initial pH 9 and of k = 0.0179 min(-1) for initial pH 7, that is, the values are virtually the same. Secondary wastewater samples were also analysed using the septic tank/filter system of a regional hospital in Vale do Rio Pardo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In this case, the characteristics of the wastewater were described and, after treatment, a GA degradation rate of 23.3% was noted, with reductions of 75% for chemical oxygen demand, 81% for biochemical oxygen demand, 68% for turbidity, 70% for surfactants and total disinfection in terms of thermotolerant coliforms.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  2. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  3. Sustainable management of leakage from wastewater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, D; Burn, S; Tjandraatmadja, G; Moglia, M; Davis, P; Wolf, L; Held, I; Vollertsen, J; Williams, W; Hafskjold, L

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater pipeline leakage is an emerging concern in Europe, especially with regards to the potential effect of leaking effluent on groundwater contamination and the effects infiltration has on the management of sewer reticulation systems. This paper describes efforts by Australia, in association with several European partners, towards the development of decision support tools to prioritize proactive rehabilitation of wastewater pipe networks to account for leakage. In the fundamental models for the decision support system, leakage is viewed as a function of pipeline system deterioration. The models rely on soil type identification across the service area to determine the aggressiveness of the pipe environment and for division of the area into zones based on pipe properties and operational conditions. By understanding the interaction between pipe materials, operating conditions, and the pipe environment in the mechanisms leading to pipe deterioration, the models allow the prediction of leakage rates in different zones across a network. The decision support system utilizes these models to predict the condition of pipes in individual zones, and to optimize the utilization of rehabilitation resources by targeting the areas with the highest leakage rates.

  4. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  5. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  6. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  9. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  10. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  11. Effect of wastewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of wastewaters on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Fourteen water treatment plants were found out in the Narasaraopet municipality region in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, from each plant, between 3500 and 4000 L/day of potable water is selling to consumers. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. During water treatment, plants are discharging approximately 1,00,000 L/day as wastewater in side drains in Narasaraopet municipality. Physical and chemical analysis was carried out on fourteen plants wastewater and distilled water as per producer described in APHA. In the present work, based on the concentrations of constituent's in wastewater, four typical plants i.e., Narasaraopeta Engineering College (NECWW), Patan Khasim Charitable Trust (PKTWW), Mahmadh Khasim Charitable Trust (MKTWW) and Amara (ARWW) were considered. The performance of four plants wastewater on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were performed in laboratories and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time but setting times of selected wastewaters were retarded as compared to that of reference water. Almost, no change was observed in 90 days compressive and flexural strengths in four plants wastewaters specimens compared to that of reference water specimens. XRD technique was employed to find out main hydration compounds formed in the process.

  12. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  13. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  14. Determination of aromatic and PAH content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I. (Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA); Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    A method for analysis of oil and grease in water is described. The method is used to provide data on total, dissolved, and suspended organic content of wastewater sample and the concentration of hydrocarbons. Additionally, volatile and water soluble fractions which contain many organic compounds critical to the environment are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. A number of real-life treated and untreated bilge waste samples were collected at the U.S. Army Fort Eustis facility and analyzed using this method. It was found that untreated bilge wastewater contained both suspended and dissolved organic matter. The suspended organics ranged between 10 and 300 ppM, while the dissolved organics were in the 10 to 150 ppM range. Treated bilge wastewater usually contained no suspended organics but did contain rather high levels of dissolved organic matter 700 to 200 ppM). Up to 70% of the dissolved organics in untreated bilge wastewater were chloroform extractable, while less than 10% of the dissolved organis in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater is biologically derived from the degradation of petroleum, while smaller portions consist of refractory, petroleum derived, water-soluble organic compounds.

  15. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  16. Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m 3 /wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  17. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  18. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  19. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  20. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...