WorldWideScience

Sample records for shellfish including fillets

  1. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Shellfish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  2. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download this resource about how to identify shellfish on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  4. Shellfish Hemocyte Data from Flow Cytometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various immune function tests using shellfish hemolymph have been developed to determine shellfish health. These tests including viability, phagocytosis, adhesion,...

  5. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  6. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  7. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  8. [Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risk related to shellfish consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, J C

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are present in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Thus, the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish is a substantial source of foodborne poisoning, mostly epidemic and sometimes sporadic. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: thyphoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias) among very susceptible consumers (immunocompromised). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plancton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are cocentrated. Although acute or chronic effects of the chemical contamination of shellfish have not been clearly documented, the cadmium pollution of some shellfish harvesting waters raises a serious problem. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh (coliform count, Dinophysis toxins, heavy metals...). This surveillance allows the classification of growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, this surveillance is not always sensitive enough. Indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved

  9. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  10. Shellfish as reservoirs of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hariharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview on bacterial pathogens associated with shellfish in Grenada and other countries including the authors’ experience. Although there have been considerable published work on vibrios, there is a lack of information on Salmonella serovars associated with various shellfish. In Grenada, for instance the blue land crabs collected from their habitats were found to harbor several Salmonella serovars. Also, it is notable that only minimal research has been done on shellfish such as conchs and whelks, which are common in the Caribbean and West Indies. Information on anaerobic bacteria, particularly, non-spore forming bacteria associated with shellfish, in general, is also scanty. This review re-examines this globally important topic based on the recent findings as well as past observations. Strategies for reduction of bacteria in oysters are briefly mentioned because of the fact that oysters are consumed commonly without complete cooking.

  11. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  12. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Lipophilic Toxins in WA - Clear and present danger: monitoring and management of lipophilic shellfish toxins in Washington State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lipophilic shellfish toxins comprise an extensive suite of compounds including those associated with the human syndromes known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...

  14. Consumer Attitude Towards Shellfish In The Greek Market: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. BATZIOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the Greek shellfish industry has experienced significant changes affecting both the market demand and the availability of the end products. Although, shellfish and seafood in general have been promoted as healthy food by marketing boards and private seafood companies in many countries all over the world, no attention has been paid so far to analysing the Greek consumer’s purchasing behaviour and attitudes towards the shellfish market. This paper presents the results of the first survey in this field of research, which was carried out in northern Greece (area of Katerini and Greater Thessaloniki from January to March 2002. A randomly selected sample of 400 consumers filled in a questionnaire, which covered basic marketing aspects of shellfish consumption such as choice, purchase, reasons for consuming shellfish, confidence in shellfish hygiene certification, media influence, etc. Data analysis includes descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square (― 2 tests (crosstabulation to examine possible relations between consumers’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics and shellfish marketing aspects. Analyses of the results have shown that the majority of Greek consumers prefer the exploitable to cultured shellfish and in general do not eat shellfish often. They prefer the traditional fish shops for purchasing shellfish and consume them mainly in summer. The strongest reason to buy shellfish is their taste, while freshness is considered as the most important criterion when deciding to buy shellfish. Moreover, the vast majority of the consumers prefer a certification of quality, trust the confirmation provided by the veterinary authorities, but do not prefer ready-to-eat shellfish. Results revealed that consumers’ behaviour and attitudes vary considerably according to their demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The results of this study could prove to be helpful for decision makers towards a more rational

  15. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  16. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  17. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    a safe and statically admissible stress distribution is established. The plasticity solutions are compared with tests carried out at the Engineering Academy of Denmark, Lyngby, in the early nineties, and old fillet weld tests. The new failure conditions are in very good agreement with the yield load......This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...... tests, but not so good agreement with the old failure load tests....

  18. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  19. Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risks due to shellfish consumption; Epidemiologie des risques toxiques et infectieux lies a la consommation de coquillages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desenclos, J C

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are resent in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plankton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are concentrated. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh. This surveillance allows the classification o growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved surveillance, the development of more sensitive indicators, the responsibleness of the industry and the information of the public on the health hazards associated with shellfish consumption are the key issues for the improvement of shellfish-borne disease prevention. (author) 106 refs.

  20. COMPETITIVEVENESS STRATEGIES OF INDONESIA PANGASIUS FILLET

    OpenAIRE

    Arfin Ramadhan; Ruddy Suwandi; Wini Trilaksani

    2016-01-01

    Pangasius fillet industry in Indonesia that has grown in recent years will face the ASEAN regional competitiveness that began in late 2015. To face competitiveness from other countries, especially Vietnam as the largest Pangasius fillet producer, this study was carried out with regard to internal and external factors as a consideration in determining future strategies. This study aims to generate alternative competitiveness strategies of Pangasius fillet through descriptive analysis, SWOT, an...

  1. Detection of hepatitis A in shellfish in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitouni, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Our study was aimed at developing a method of extraction and concentration of hepatitis A. We used two methods T1 and T2 described previously in the literature. 23 samples shellfish from different area of Tunisia were included in this study. Technique T2 based only on glycine revealed the highest yield. The reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction was performed in this study in order to investigate HAV in our samples. The results of molecular analyses of shellfish showed that 8.6% of the samples were contaminated. (Author)

  2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  3. Fillet Weld Stress Using Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhoff, T. F.; Green, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Average elastic Von Mises equivalent stresses were calculated along the throat of a single lap fillet weld. The average elastic stresses were compared to initial yield and to plastic instability conditions to modify conventional design formulas is presented. The factor is a linear function of the thicknesses of the parent plates attached by the fillet weld.

  4. Optimization of bridge cables with concave fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, Søren V.

    In this paper the aerodynamic performance of new cable surfaces with concave fillet are examined and compared to plain, dimpled and helically filleted surfaces. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel campaign was undertaken. Preliminary flow visualizations tests and static tests were performed to ...

  5. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in a dried dressed fish fillet implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Yu-Wen; Shiu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Kong; Cheng, Chao-An

    2002-02-01

    There were five victims of neurotoxic food poisoning from a dried dressed fish fillet in Changhua County, Taiwan, in February 2000. The toxicity of the dried dressed fish fillets was 243 mouse units per g according to a tetrodotoxin bioassay. The partially purified toxin was identified as tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin. The sequence of the 376-nucleotide region in the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA exhibited the same genotype as that of the toxic puffer fish Lagocephalus lunaris. The same single restriction site for Hinfl was found in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the dried dressed fish fillet and the muscle of L. lunaris, yielding two DNA fragments of 170 and 206 bp. However, no restriction site for Hinfl was found in the PCR products from other toxic puffer fishes, including Takifugu niphobles, Takifugu oblongus, and Takifugu rubripes. Therefore, the species of the dried dressed fish fillet was identified as L. lunaris and its causative agent was identified as tetrodotoxin.

  6. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  7. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Reguera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP, even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1. They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins, and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  8. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  10. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  11. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  12. COMPETITIVEVENESS STRATEGIES OF INDONESIA PANGASIUS FILLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfin Ramadhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pangasius fillet industry in Indonesia that has grown in recent years will face the ASEAN regional competitiveness that began in late 2015. To face competitiveness from other countries, especially Vietnam as the largest Pangasius fillet producer, this study was carried out with regard to internal and external factors as a consideration in determining future strategies. This study aims to generate alternative competitiveness strategies of Pangasius fillet through descriptive analysis, SWOT, and AHP. The analysis result of internal forces obtains the total scores of 2.645 and external forces with the score of 2.505; this means that suggested strategy belongs to hold and maintain category. AHP analysis shows that alternative strategy with the highest score consecutively is the development of aquaculture technology for quality and efficient raw material, institutional strengthening of fish farmers and suppliers, diversification and product innovation, encouragement in investment on an integrated Pangasius fillet industry, branding of the Indonesian yellow fillet. The main objective of the strategy is focusing on the continuity of production and fulfillment of consumer preferences in order to create stability of supply and demand.Keywords: AHP, competitiveness, Pangasius fillet, SWOT

  13. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  14. Irradiation preservation of Korean shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.R.; Kim, S.I.; Lee, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Pacific oyster, hard clam and mussel were irradiated at doses up to 0.5 Mrad, the optimum dose rather than the maximum permissible was sought for in each species and post-irradiation storage characteristics studied at 0 0 and 5 0 C. No shellfish meat irradiated at doses as high as 0.5 Mrad produced any adverse odor. However the organoleptic quality of each sample irradiated at lower doses was superior to those irradiated at the higher during the early storage period. The optimum dose was determined to be 0.2 Mrad for Pacific oyster and mussel and 0.1 Mrad for hard clam. By irradiating at the optimum dose, the storage life of Pacific oyster could be extended from less than 14 days to 35 days at 0 0 C and from only 3 days to 21 days at 5 0 C. A similar storage extension was observed from 7 days to 14 days at 0 0 C and from 3 days to 12 days at 5 0 C. The hard clam meats were particularly susceptible to tissue softening by irradiation; an earlier onset and more extensive softening were observed with increasing dose. (author)

  15. [Cross reactivity between fish and shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Borrego, J; Martínez Cuevas, J F; Tejero García, J

    2003-01-01

    In Spain, fish allergy represents 18 % of all cases of food allergy in children while reactions caused by crustacea and mollusks account for 3.8 % and 1.6 % respectively. Cross-reactivity is defined as the recognition of distinct antigens by the same IgE antibody, demonstrable by in vivo and in vitro tests, which clinically manifests as reactions caused by antigens homologous to different species. Subclinical sensitization can also occur, giving rise to patients sensitized to particular fish or shellfish but who do not present symptoms on consumption.Cod and shrimp have been the models used to study allergy to fish and crustacea respectively. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are proteins that control calcium flow in the muscular sarcoplasm of these animals, called parvalbumins, with a molecular weight of approximately 12 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.75, resistant to the action of heat and enzymatic digestion. Recently, recombinant carp parvalbumin has been reproduced, confirming that this allergen contains 70 % of the IgE epitopes present in natural extract of cod, tuna and salmon, which makes it a valid tool in the diagnosis of patients with fish allergy. Moreover, this recombinant allergen could constitute the basis for the development of immunotherapy against food allergy. In the case of shellfish, a non-taxonomic group that includes crustacea and mollusks, the major allergen is tropomyosin, an essential protein in muscle contraction both in invertebrates and vertebrates. In invertebrates, tropomyosins, which have a molecular weight of between 38 and 41 kD, show great homology in their amino acid sequence and are the panallergens responsible for cross-reactions between crustacea, insects, mites, nematodes, and different classes of mollusks. It is estimated that 50 % of individuals allergic to some type of fish are at risk for reacting to a second species, while those allergic to some type of

  16. STUDI KELAYAKAN AGROINDUSTRI FILLET IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus DI KABUPATEN MESUJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masithoh Priyantini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the feasibility of tilapia’s fillet agroindustry in Mesuji District. A series of analysis including the determination of agroindustry location, feasibility analysis in terms of market, technique and technology, management aspects, as well as the financial aspects, and added value analysis has been done. The results showed that this agroindustry was feasible to be developed in Mesuji District based on significant increasing demand for export every year and great potential of tilapia production as raw material of fillet in Mesuji District. Financially, This fillet industry met all the criteria of feasibility such as NPV value was Rp. 1.601.906.357, break even point was reached on the sale of 34.785 kg, with  2,68 year payback period, IRR was greater than the discount factor of 12.75%, that was 39,85%, and the B/C ratio was 1,12. Based on Hayami Methods, processing of tilapia into fillet gave Rp.10.264 of added value. Keywords : agroindustry, tilapia, fillet, feasibility.

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of paralytic shellfish toxins and their relationships with environmental variables in British Columbia, Canada from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, Stephen; Krstic, Nikolas; McIntyre, Lorraine; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Henderson, Sarah B

    2017-07-01

    Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables. The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produces the most potent paralytic shellfish toxin, saxitoxin (STX). Data on all STX measurements were obtained from 49 different shellfish monitoring sites along the coast of British Columbia for 2002-2012, and monthly toxicity events were identified. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis to group sites that had events in similar areas with similar timing. Machine learning techniques were used to model the complex relationships between toxicity events and environmental variables in each group. The Strait of Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver Island had unique toxicity regimes. Out of the seven environmental variables used, toxicity in each cluster could be described by multivariable models including monthly sea surface temperature, air temperature, sea surface salinity, freshwater discharge, upwelling, and photosynthetically active radiation. The sea surface salinity and freshwater discharge variables produced the strongest univariate models for both geographic areas. Applying these methods in coastal regions could allow for the prediction of shellfish toxicity events by environmental conditions. This has the potential to optimize biotoxin monitoring, improve public health surveillance, and engage the shellfish industry in helping to reduce the risk of PSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified at...

  19. Radiopasteurization of Merlucius-merlucius hubsi fillet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, Norma; Ferreiro, Nora.

    1974-11-01

    The composition in amino acids of the ''Merlucius-merlucius hubsi'' fillet exposed to a dose of 0,50 Mrad gamma radiation was studied. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the feeding value of protein component from fillet that has been irradiated to extend its storage time at 4 0 C. The extraction and subsequent hydrolysis of fish proteins, was made immediately after irradiation, at the same time control samples were processed. The results, obtained for each one of the analized amino acids, show that there are no important changes of values in their concentration due to irradiation effects. (author)

  20. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, V V; Yang, F L; Kuttappan, V A; Alvarado, C Z; Coon, C N; Owens, C M

    2016-09-01

    The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS, white striations parallel to muscle fibers) and woody breast (WB, hardness of raw fillet). Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WB hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In Exp. 1, birds were processed at approximately 9 wk of age and deboned at 4 h postmortem (PM); in Exp. 2, birds were processed at approximately 6 and 9 wk of age and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (NORM); moderate for white striping and mild for woody breast (MILD); severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (WS); severe for woody breast and moderate for white striping (WB); or severe for both white striping and woody breast (BOTH). Sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, marination uptake, cook loss, and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy (MORSE) values on non-marinated and marinated fillets were assessed. Sarcomeres tended to be longer (P = 0.07) with increasing severity of WS and WB in both experiments and gravimetric fragmentation index did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories. Marinade uptake decreased (P  0.05) in non-marinated fillets, the marinated BOTH fillets had greater MORSE values (P  0.05) among categories of marinated breasts. At 9 wk, WS and BOTH were higher (P white striping and woody breast, individually or in combination, negatively impact meat quality, especially water holding capacity attributes such as marinade uptake and cook loss. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Shellfish reef restoration pilots: Voordelta The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, H.; Kamermans, P.; Have, van der T.M.; Lengkeek, W.; Smaal, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Once, shellfish reefs - mainly flat oysters - covered about 20% of the North Sea floor, but diseases, pollution and overfishing have led to a significant decline. As part of the Haringvliet Dream Fund Project (www.haringvliet.nu), ARK
    Nature and World Wildlife Fund Netherlands are working on

  2. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using column (CC), thin- layer (TLC) and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), carotenoid content was examined in the fillets (muscles with skin) of 16 fish species from the fisheries of West African Coast. 15 carotenoids, including 6 ketocarotenoids (4'- hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, phoenicopterone, ...

  3. Forecasting the Human Pathogen Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Tissue within Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, M. M.; DeRosia-Banick, K.

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium that occurs naturally in brackish and saltwater environments and may be found in higher concentrations in the warmest months. Vp is a growing threat to producing safe seafood. Consumption of shellfish with high Vp levels can result in gastrointestinal human illnesses. Management response to Vp-related illness outbreaks includes closure of shellfish growing areas. Water quality observations, Vp measurements, and model forecasts are key components to effective management of shellfish growing areas. There is a clear need for observations within the growing area themselves. These areas are offshore of coastal stations and typically inshore of the observing system moorings. New field observations in Long Island Sound (LIS) shellfish growing areas are described and their agreement with high-resolution satellite sea surface temperature data is discussed. A new dataset of Vp concentrations in shellfish tissue is used to determine the LIS-specific Vp vs. temperature relationship following methods in the FDA pre-harvest Vp risk model. This information is combined with output from a high-resolution hydrodynamic model of LIS to make daily forecasts of Vp levels. The influence of river inflows, the role of heat waves, and predictions for future warmer climates are discussed. The key elements of this observational-modeling approach to pathogen forecasting are extendable to other coastal systems.

  4. Effect of pre- and post-marination aging on meat quality attributes of early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Gunsaulis, V B; Mauromoustakos, A; Meullenet, J F; Owens, C M

    2016-11-01

    Marination is an effective method that can be used to improve the tenderness of early deboned breast fillets. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of pre- and post-marination aging of 2 h postmortem (PM) deboned chicken fillets to get optimum meat quality. In this study, a total of 300 broilers (43 to 46 d of age) were processed using an in-line system and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were marinated, at either 2.5, 4, 6, 8 or 24 h PM, using vacuum tumbling (20 min) with a 15% marinade (final concentration of 0.5% salt and 0.45% phosphate). A non-marinated control (CON) was included. The left (HOLD) fillets were aged (held at 4°C for 24 h) prior to freezing post-marination while the right (NO HOLD) fillets were frozen immediately after marination to simulate various commercial practices. Marination pickup (MPU), total marinade retained after thawing (TMR), total purge loss after thawing (TPL), cook loss (CL), and Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear energy (MORSE) values were measured. Both in HOLD and NO HOLD fillets, there was an increase (P water holding capacity. However, both in HOLD and NO HOLD groups, the MORSE values for the marinated fillets decreased (P retention as well as tenderness (or lower shear values). © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Warm temperature acclimation impacts metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in commercial oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Seebacher, Frank; O'Connor, Wayne; Zammit, Anthony; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna

    2015-09-01

    Species of Alexandrium produce potent neurotoxins termed paralytic shellfish toxins and are expanding their ranges worldwide, concurrent with increases in sea surface temperature. The metabolism of molluscs is temperature dependent, and increases in ocean temperature may influence both the abundance and distribution of Alexandrium and the dynamics of toxin uptake and depuration in shellfish. Here, we conducted a large-scale study of the effect of temperature on the uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in three commercial oysters (Saccostrea glomerata and diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas, n = 252 per species/ploidy level). Oysters were acclimated to two constant temperatures, reflecting current and predicted climate scenarios (22 and 27 °C), and fed a diet including the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing species Alexandrium minutum. While the oysters fed on A. minutum in similar quantities, concentrations of the toxin analogue GTX1,4 were significantly lower in warm-acclimated S. glomerata and diploid C. gigas after 12 days. Following exposure to A. minutum, toxicity of triploid C. gigas was not affected by temperature. Generally, detoxification rates were reduced in warm-acclimated oysters. The routine metabolism of the oysters was not affected by the toxins, but a significant effect was found at a cellular level in diploid C. gigas. The increasing incidences of Alexandrium blooms worldwide are a challenge for shellfish food safety regulation. Our findings indicate that rising ocean temperatures may reduce paralytic shellfish toxin accumulation in two of the three oyster types; however, they may persist for longer periods in oyster tissue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Critical Review on the Public Health Impact of Norovirus Contamination in Shellfish and the Environment: A UK Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Francis; Sharp, Jasmine H; Taft, Helen; LeVay, Lewis; Harris, John P; McDonald, James E; Tuson, Karen; Wilson, James; Jones, David L; Malham, Shelagh K

    2017-06-01

    We review the risk of norovirus (NoV) infection to the human population from consumption of contaminated shellfish. From a UK perspective, risk is apportioned for different vectors of NoV infection within the population. NoV spreads mainly by person-to-person contact or via unsanitary food handling. NoV also enters the coastal zone via wastewater discharges resulting in contamination of shellfish waters. Typically, NoV persists in the marine environment for several days, with its presence strongly linked to human population density, wastewater discharge rate, and efficacy of wastewater treatment. Shellfish bioaccumulate NoV and current post-harvest depuration is inefficient in its removal. While NoV can be inactivated by cooking (e.g. mussels), consumption of contaminated raw shellfish (e.g. oysters) represents a risk to human health. Consumption of contaminated food accounts for 3-11% of NoV cases in the UK (~74,000 cases/year), of which 16% are attributable to oyster consumption (11,800 cases/year). However, environmental and human factors influencing NoV infectivity remain poorly understood. Lack of standard methods for accurate quantification of infective and non-infective (damaged) NoV particles represent a major barrier, hampering identification of an appropriate lower NoV contamination limit for shellfish. Future management strategies may include shellfish quality assessment (at point of harvest or at point of supply) or harvesting controls. However, poor understanding of NoV inactivation in shellfish and the environment currently limits accurate apportionment and risk assessment for NoV and hence the identification of appropriate shellfish or environmental quality standards.

  7. 76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... transmission of norovirus from infected or ill food workers in food manufacturing or retail establishments to... Molluscan Shellfish Contamination Levels During Food Preparation and Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish Consumption... and other factors influencing bivalve molluscan shellfish contamination levels during food preparation...

  8. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') that meets the statutory... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  9. 77 FR 73424 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., 2011. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic...

  10. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The..., DC 20230; telephone: 202-482-0238. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets...

  11. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  12. Detection of salmonella in shellfish grown in polluted seawater

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Three bays along the South African coast were studied for the presence of Salmonella spp in seawater, effluent and storm water discharges into the bays and in shellfish harvested at the same sites. The microbial quality of water and shellfish...

  13. Accumulation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in the oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a significant threat to the safe consumption of shellfish in the southern Benguela ecosystem. The accumulation of DSP toxins was investigated in two cultivated bivalve species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the mussel Choromytilus meridionalis, suspended from a ...

  14. Communicating Environmental Risks: Local Newspaper Coverage of Shellfish Bacterial Contamination in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Suldovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal resources play a vital role in Maine’s cultural and economic wellbeing, contributing an estimated 168 billion dollars to the Maine economy. There are numerous risks to the sustainability of Maine’s shellfishing industry and working waterfront, including pathogenic bacterial pollution. In this study, we ask a broad fundamental question central to science and environmental journalism: how do newspapers cover localized environmental risks and what are the implications of those approaches? Utilizing the northeastern US state of Maine’s shellfishing industry as an exemplar environmental issue, this study examines how Maine’s two most read newspapers, the Bangor Daily News and the Portland Press Herald, report on bacterial contamination and shellfish. This study examines the themes that are present in the newspaper articles published about shellfish between 2003 and 2014 and analyses the types of sources journalists used within their coverage of these issues. Overall, we identified seven key themes: economic concerns, environmental impacts, political and regulatory issues, issues of public health and safety, reference to cultural values, technical and infrastructural issues, and aesthetic concerns. The most commonly cited individuals in the articles were government officials and scientists. The least cited groups were clammers and shellfishermen, general citizens, advocacy groups, and worm diggers. Implications for local coverage of environmental risks in Maine, science communication, and sustainability science are discussed.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams and mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.C.; Imagire, S.J.; Yasaei, P.; Ragelis, E.P.; Park, D.L.; Page, S.W.; Carlson, R.E.; Guire, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) compromise human health. The threat of this contamination results in enormous economic losses in the recreational and commercial exploitation of shellfish resources in the affected areas. Most states deal with the PSP problem either by prohibiting the collection of shellfish during certain time periods or by instituting monitoring programs. The only recognized method of analysis for PSP that is currently and routinely used in monitoring programs is the time-of-death mouse bioassay. Several attempts to develop simple and highly specific biochemical assays for the detection and quantitation of the PSP toxins have been reported. More recently, much improved immunoassays have been developed. To evaluate the validity and usefulness of the immunoassay for the determination of PSP toxins, the authors have used extracts of shellfish gathered from Maine and Connecticut to compare the results of the mouse bioassay and HPLC methods with the radioimmunoassay developed previously

  16. Radiopasteurization of Merluccius, merluccius hubbsi fillet. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, Norma.

    1977-11-01

    The actomyosin system of the ''Merluccius merluccius hubbsi'' fillet exposed to a dose of 0,50 Mrad gamma radiation was studied. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the physical properties of these proteins from fillet that has been irradiated to extend its storage time at 4 deg C. The proteins extraction was made immediately after irradiation; at the same time, control samples were processed. A Spinco L2-65 Ultracentrifuge with a Schlieren Optics Accessory was used for velocity sedimentation measurements on the protein solutions. The results show that there are no changes in the sedimentation diagram of actomyosin system from irradiated fillet. (author) [es

  17. Longitudinal analyses of correlated response efficiencies of fillet traits in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, E M; Fernandes, A F A; de Alvarenga, E R; Teixeira, E A; Alves, G F O; Manduca, L G; Murphy, T W; Silva, M A

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies with Nile tilapia have shown divergent results regarding the possibility of selecting on morphometric measurements to promote indirect genetic gains in fillet yield (FY). The use of indirect selection for fillet traits is important as these traits are only measurable after harvesting. Random regression models are a powerful tool in association studies to identify the best time point to measure and select animals. Random regression models can also be applied in a multiple trait approach to analyze indirect response to selection, which would avoid the need to sacrifice candidate fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships between several body measurements, weight and fillet traits throughout the growth period and to evaluate the possibility of indirect selection for fillet traits in Nile tilapia. Data were collected from 2042 fish and was divided into two subsets. The first subset was used to estimate genetic parameters, including the permanent environmental effect for BW and body measurements (8758 records for each body measurement, as each fish was individually weighed and measured a maximum of six times). The second subset (2042 records for each trait) was used to estimate genetic correlations and heritabilities, which enabled the calculation of correlated response efficiencies between body measurements and the fillet traits. Heritability estimates across ages ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 for height, 0.02 to 0.48 for corrected length (CL), 0.05 to 0.68 for width, 0.08 to 0.57 for fillet weight (FW) and 0.12 to 0.42 for FY. All genetic correlation estimates between body measurements and FW were positive and strong (0.64 to 0.98). The estimates of genetic correlation between body measurements and FY were positive (except for CL at some ages), but weak to moderate (-0.08 to 0.68). These estimates resulted in strong and favorable correlated response efficiencies for FW and positive, but moderate for FY. These results

  18. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, H S; Bøknaes, N; Osterberg, C; Nielsen, J; Dalgaard, P

    1998-09-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified atmospheres with and without added oxygen. The shelf life of 11 to 12 days in the fresh MAP cod was extended to more than 20 days in the thawed MAP cod at 2 degrees C. This shelf life extension was most likely due to the inactivation of the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum during frozen storage as reflected both in chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. In contrast to fresh MAP cod fillets no significant production of trimethylamine occurred and almost no amine odor and taste were detected during 20 days of chill storage of thawed MAP cod fillets. The use of frozen fillets as raw material not only provides a more stable product in MAP but also allows much greater flexibility for production and distribution. However, a slightly increased concentration of dimethylamine, a larger drip loss, and detection of weak frozen storage flavor were observed in the thawed MAP cod fillets.

  19. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Baked in Convention Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozen fish fillets designed to be baked or reheated in the home oven have been one of the major ways fish are consumed in the US. Examples includes frozen salmon, tilapia, pollock, and cod with different types of pre-treatment such as precooked, marinated, or breaded and par-fried products. However...

  20. Prediction of quality attributes of chicken breast fillets by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy with wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm combined with factor analysis method was tested to predict quality attributes of chicken breast fillets. Quality attributes, including color (L*, a*, b*), pH, and drip loss were analyzed using factor analysis ...

  1. Determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in shark fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Three samples of deep-frozen shark fillets were analysed according to the following procedure: dissolution in tetramethylammonium hydroxide, derivatization/ethylation with sodium tetraethylborate, extraction into iso-octane and measurement with gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled

  2. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Qualitative assessment of imported frozen fish fillets in Sulaimani markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.K. Khidhir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the quality of frozen fish fillets sold in Sulaimani city markets a total number of (64 sample of frozen fish fillets belonged to 4 foreign trademarks were collected from different parts of Sulaimani markets. The samples were subjected to physical and chemical tests to determine their quality and suitability for human consumption. The proximate chemical analysis referred to presence of significant differences in moisture, fat and protein content among the four trademarks except for ash content. While the physical indices showed that White fish fillets recorded the lowest thawing and cooking loss which in return recorded the highest WHC. Chemical indices showed that the pH mean values of Myanmar and Flander mark were significantly differed (P<0.05 than Hasson and White fish fillet, Although, the results of FFA recorded no significant differences among the trademarks, and Flander mark recorded the highest PV and TBA among the other which made it significantly differed than them and White fish fillet recorded the lowest, still, they were within the international standard limits. Where, the results of TVN values recorded no significant differences ( among the inspected marks. All obtained results referred to the validity of these fish fillets for human consumption.

  4. 50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eggs, unless otherwise specified. (4) You may not use explosives and chemicals, except that you may use...) Cook Inlet Area. (i) You may take shellfish for subsistence purposes only as allowed in this section (k...

  5. 36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from buying or selling subsistence-taken shellfish, their parts, or their eggs, unless otherwise... currently identified under Federal subsistence management jurisdiction. (3) Cook Inlet Area. (i) You may...

  6. Kaftas prepared with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to smoking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaftas with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were developed and the effects of the smoking technique on the characteristics of chemical composition, microbiological, sensory and benzo(apyrene were investigated. The filleting chips were ground and filleting included condiments and bacon. Kaftas were molded, frozen and distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T 1 = baked in a grid; T 2 = smoked by friction and T 3 = smoked by liquid smoke with 10 replications. The kaftas subjected to hot smoke had lower moisture content (13.97%, whereas the no-smoking kaftas had the highest content (20.49%. Kaftas with liquid smoke had high crude protein content (48.06% and ash (9.49%, whereas the ash content was different only from no-smoking kaftas (8.79%. There was no significant difference in sensory parameters, except for flavor; smoked kaftas with liquid smoke were more accepted by the judges and the worst kaftas were no-smoked kaftas. Microbiological analysis showed that kaftas developed were appropriate to feed human beings within the required standards. Chips filleting is an alternative for the development of kaftas and those subjected to liquid smoke were considered the best.

  7. Surveillance of Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Shellfish in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenyang Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV has been confirmed to be a zoonotic virus of worldwide distribution. HEV contamination in the water environment has not been well examined in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate HEV contamination in shellfish in a coastal area of China. Such contamination would be significant for evaluating public health risks. Methods: samples of three species shellfish were collected from thirteen points of estuarine tidal flats around the Bohai Gulf and screened for HEV RNA using an in-house nested RT-PCR assay. The detected HEV-positive samples were further verified by gene cloning and sequencing analysis. Results: the overall HEV-positive detection rate is approximately 17.5% per kilogram of shellfish.  HEV was more common among S. subcrenata (28.2%, followed by A. granosa (14.3% and R. philippinarum (11.5%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 13 HEV strains detected revealed that gene fragments fell into two known 4 sub-genotypes (4b/4d groups and another unknown group. Conclusions: 13 different sub-genotype 4 HEVs were found in contaminated shellfish in the Bohai Gulf rim. The findings suggest that a health risk may exist for users of waters in the Bonhai area and to consumers of shellfish.  Further research is needed to assess the sources and infectivity of HEV in these settings, and to evaluate additional shellfish harvesting areas.

  8. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68...

  9. 75 FR 15416 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish... order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2003. See Notice...

  10. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... four new shipper reviews (``NSRs'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909...

  11. 76 FR 17837 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish... INFORMATION: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on fish fillets from Vietnam was...

  12. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1... Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  13. Modelling of fillet traits based on body measurements in three Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Nile tilapia, breeding programs focus mainly on growth, and information on genetic improvement of fillet yield is scarce. In this study, slaughter data were collected on 1215 tilapia and used to analyze the relationship between body measurements and fillet weight and fillet yield. Fish were

  14. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boismenu, D.; Lepine, F.; Thibault, C.; Gagnon, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Dugas, H.

    1991-01-01

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  15. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n = 7154 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (n = 2658 were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4–5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis.

  16. Evaluation of a method for determining concentrations of isoeugenol, an AQUI-S residue, in fillet tissue from freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Bernardy, Jeffry A

    2008-01-01

    AQUI-S is a fish anesthetic/sedative that is approved for use in a number of countries throughout the world and has the potential for use in the United States. The active ingredient in AQUI-S is isoeugenol. A method for determining isoeugenol concentrations in edible fillet tissue is needed for regulatory purposes, including surveillance and potential use in studies fulfilling human food safety data requirements if U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval is pursued. A method was developed and evaluated for determining isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue using relatively common procedures and equipment. The method produced accurate and precise results with fillet tissue from 10 freshwater fish species. The percentage of isoeugenol recovered from samples fortified with isoeugenol at nominal concentrations of 1, 50, and 100 microg/g for all species was always >80 and fillet tissue containing biologically incurred isoeugenol was fillet tissue extracts from 9 of the 10 species. The method detection limits for all but one species ranged from 0.004 to 0.014 microg/g, and the quantitation limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.048 microg/g.

  17. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist... August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic...

  18. 78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist...

  19. 78 FR 29323 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... administrative review and aligned new shipper reviews on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the... (``POR'') is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the...

  20. Microplastics in the context of regulation of commercial shellfish aquaculture operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Rosalind A; DeNike, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter. Published survey data on sources of marine plastic debris demonstrate the very limited contribution of aquaculture gear. Both permits and industry codes of practice provide procedures to minimize loss of gear to the marine environment. Plastic gear is also designed specifically to maintain its integrity and not degrade in the marine environment. Plastic degradation is greatest on beaches with high UV exposure, whereas aquaculture gear is mostly underwater and/or covered by biofoulants. Available data for microplastics in water, sediment, and biota of the Salish Sea do not suggest significant release of microplastics from shellfish aquaculture operations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:522-527. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  2. The high diversity of arsenolipids in herring fillet (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, S; Arroyo-Abad, U; Mattusch, J; Kühn, A; Piechotta, Ch

    2013-06-15

    Arsenolipids represent a relevant step in the biosynthesis of organoarsenicals from inorganic arsenic compounds. Their fate after human consumption is still uncertain. By means of a HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-Q-TOF-MS method, 16 lipid soluble arsenic compounds, including seven formerly unknown organoarsenicals, have been identified in commercial herring fillet. The structural assignment was done by exact mass and high resolution MS/MS data. This is the first identification of arsenolipids in herring (Clupea harengus). They contribute with (3.6±0.2) mg kg(-1) arsenic to 62.3% of the total arsenic content of (5.7±0.3) mg of arsenic per kg dry mass. Current studies indicate that a metabolization by humans to cancerous dimethylarsinic acid is very likely. The presented results are highly relevant as herring is a very popular food fish species in Europe. Moreover, the screening of different fish species revealed that arsenolipids are more widespread than previously assumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, J.C.; Beghian, L.E.; Metcalf, T.G.; Kaylor, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is shown capable of serving as an effective sanitizing treatment improving the sanitary quality of shellfish and providing an increased margin of safety for shellfish consumers. 60Co irradiation of the hard-shelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, significantly reduced virus carriage numbers without unduly affecting shellfish survival rates or desirable organoleptic qualities. A D10 value of 2 kGy was determined for depletion of hepatitis A virus in clams and oysters as measured by in situ hybridization fluorescent foci and cytopathology enumeration methods. A D10 value of 2.4 kGy was determined for depletion of rotavirus SA11 in clams and oysters as measured by a plaque forming unit enumeration method. Study results showed ionizing radiation capable of providing an extra, highly effective safeguard of shellfish sanitary quality when combined with traditional depuration treatment. Data drawn from other studies is introduced which shows D10 values as low as 1.0 kGy effectively eliminate Vibrio cholerae, and V. parahemolyticus, from shellfish

  4. Weakening Pin Bone Attachment in Fish Fillets Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjelvareid, Martin H; Stormo, Svein Kristian; Þórarinsdóttir, Kristín Anna; Heia, Karsten

    2017-09-18

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish fillets to enable easier removal of such bones. This was shown in the present study, where a series of experiments were performed on HIFU phantoms and fillets of cod and salmon. In thin objects such as fish fillets, the heat is mainly dissipated at the surfaces. However, bones inside the fillet absorb ultrasound energy more efficiently than the surrounding tissue, resulting in a "self-focusing" heating of the bones. Salmon skin was found to effectively block the ultrasound, resulting in a significantly lower heating effect in fillets with skin. Cod skin partly blocked the ultrasound, but only to a small degree, enabling HIFU treatment through the skin. The treatment of fillets to reduce the pin bone attachment yielded an average reduction in the required pulling force by 50% in cod fillets with skin, with little muscle denaturation, and 72% in skinned fillets, with significant muscle denaturation. Salmon fillets were treated from the muscle side of the fillet to circumvent the need for penetration through skin. The treatment resulted in a 30% reduction in the peak pulling force and 10% reduction in the total pulling work, with a slight denaturation of the fillet surface.

  5. Disease Resistant Fish and Shellfish Are within Reach: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Gjedrem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease in fish and shellfish is one of the main problems facing aquaculture production. Therefore, all attempts should be made to increase the rate of survival and, thus, reduce economic losses. Much has been done to develop vaccines and medical treatments to reduce mortality; and however, farming of aquatic species has a long way to go to optimize the environmental conditions for the animals and, thus, reduce stress and improve animal welfare. However, the good news is that there is the potential to increase disease resistance by selective breeding. By challenge-testing fingerlings from a number of families per generation, and including the rate of survival in the breeding goal, the results so far are very promising. By focusing on one disease at a time it is possible to increase the rate of survival by at least 12.5% per generation for most diseases studied. Unfortunately, selective breeding is only used to a small degree in aquatic species. In 2010, it was estimated that only 8.2% of aquaculture production was based on genetically improved stocks.

  6. Shellfish Culture at the Milford Laboratory: hatchery production, stock enhancement and aquaculture research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide shellfish in support of Milford Lab efforts, external research projects and regional shellfish restoration. Conduct aquaculture experiments aimed at...

  7. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  8. Prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysakh Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala. Materials and Methods: The shellfish samples after processing was concentrated using proteinase K. RNA was isolated from the concentrated samples using phenol chloroform method. Rota viral RNA was detected using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Results: A low prevalence of 2.5% (5/200 was obtained during the study. Rotavirus was detected in 2 out of 60 brown mussels (3.33%, 2 out of 70 yellow clams (2.86% and 1 out of 70 black clams (1.43%. Conclusion: Low prevalence of Rotavirus was obtained in our study. A more extensive study need to be conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric virus in shellfish.

  9. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  10. Torsional stresses in the transverse fillet weld tubular joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunay, D.; Aydemir, A.; Özer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Torsional stresses, 'tre and tel , in tbe transverse fillet tubular weld joint subjected to torsional load have been analyzed by the finite element method using triangular and quadrilateral izoparametric axisymmetric fourier type torus finite elements. There is an axisymmetry with respect to

  11. FILLETING YIELD, BODY CHARACTERISTICS AND LENGTH WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP OF FOUR FISH SPECIES FROM LOWER RIVER BENUE MAKURDI NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ikape, Simon Ihie; Solomon, Shola Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Fillet yield, length-weight relationship and condition factor of four commercial fishspecies including: Protopterusannectens, Labeo coubie,Auchenoglanis occidentalis and Mormyrus rume from lowerriver Benue Makurdi Nigeria were determined. Atotal of 600 fish samples were used, 50 individuals regarding each species forthe period of three months. Fish samples were collected and transported to theUniversity of Agriculture Makurdi, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculturelaboratory where data were ...

  12. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  13. Differences in growth, fillet quality, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression between juvenile male and female rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Meghan L; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Yao, Jianbo; Leeds, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Sexual maturation occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids; however, little is known regarding sex effects on nutrient regulatory mechanisms in rainbow trout prior to maturity. Thirty-two, 14-month-old, male and female rainbow trout were sampled for growth, carcass yield, fillet composition, and gene expression of liver, white muscle, and visceral adipose tissue. Growth parameters, including gonadosomatic index, were not affected by sex. Females had higher percent separable muscle yield, but there were no sex effects on fillet proximate composition. Fillet shear force indicated females produce firmer fillets than males. Male livers had greater expression of three cofactors within the mTOR signaling pathway that act to inhibit TORC1 assembly; mo25, rictor, and pras40. Male liver also exhibited increased expression of β-oxidation genes cpt1b and ehhadh. These findings are indicative of increased mitochondrial β-oxidation in male liver. Females exhibited increased expression of the mTOR cofactor raptor in white muscle and had higher expression levels of several genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway, including gpat, srebp1, scd1, and cd36. Female muscle also had increased expression of β-oxidation genes cpt1d and cpt2. Increased expression of both fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation genes suggests female muscle may have greater fatty acid turnover. Differences between sexes were primarily associated with variation of gene expression within the mTOR signaling pathway. Overall, data suggest there is differential regulation of gene expression in male and female rainbow trout tissues prior to the onset of sexual maturity that may lead to nutrient repartitioning during maturation.

  14. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, J S; Larsen, L E; Schultz, A C

    2014-09-01

    Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were tested for porcine pathogens and indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). All samples tested negative for HEV, RV and Salmonella, whereas E. coli and the highly stable porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected in eight and 12 samples, respectively. This is the first study to report the detection of PCV2 in commercial mussels. Based on the detection of PCV2 in clean areas with low prevalence of the normally applied fecal indicator E. coli, testing for PCV2 may be a more sensitive and robust specific porcine waste indicator in shellfish harvesting areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Establishing a National Shellfish Sanitation Program in The Gambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanbi Wetlands and other estuaries of Gambia support shellfisheries for oysters, Crassostrea tulipa, and the senile ark, Senelia senilis, conducted by the TRY Oyster Women's ... Since August 2010, water was sampled bimonthly for total (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC) at stations near shellfish harvesting areas. Sanitary ...

  16. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  17. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Lars Erik; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were...

  18. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science.

  19. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  20. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  1. Incorporation and profile of fatty acids in tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus fed with tung oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Guntendorfer Bonafé

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of tung oil enriched diet and the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acid - CLnA into fillets of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT were investigated. The diet was well accepted, and after 10 days CLnA was incorporated into the fillets with a 1.02% content of total fatty acids (FA. In addition, biosynthesis of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers - CLA (0.31% of fillet total FA content from CLnA, and the presence of alpha-linolenic acid - LNA (1.08% of fillet total FA content, eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA (2.85% of fillet total FA content and docosahexaenoic acid - DHA (3.08% of fillet total FA content were observed. Therefore, the consumption of this fish can increase the intake of different FA (CLnA, CLA, LNA, EPA and DHA, which play an important role in human metabolism.

  2. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  3. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M.; Vital, Helio C.

    2009-01-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  4. PROCESSING YELD AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF Rhamdia voulezi FILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of slaughter weight and sex on processing yield and on the proximate composition of Rhamdia voulezi. We calculated the percentage yield of the whole fish (carcass, clean trunk, abdominal muscle, fillet, edible parts, head, skin, gonads and visceral fat yield. There was no statistical difference in yields among weight classes (P>0.05. However, when assessing the income between sexes we observed significant difference (P0.05 among the classes, however, moisture, lipids and calories had significant difference (P<0.05 among the classes, and humidity decreased with increasing size of the fish, and lipid content and calorific value were higher for fish weighing 301-400 g. We oncluded R. voulezi with mass between 100 and 400 g presents equal yield processing, and fish weighing 301-400 g have higher lipid content in the fillet.

  5. Beneficial of Coriander Leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) to Reduce Heavy Metals Contamination in Rod Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarti, S.; Pertiwi, C. N.; Hanani, A. Z.; Mujamil, S. I.; Putra, K. A.; Herlambang, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in certain levels of food can disrupt human health. Heavy metals have toxic properties, cannot be overhauled or destroyed by living organisms, can accumulate in the body of organisms including humans, either directly or indirectly. Heavy metal Hg, Cd, Cr is a very toxic metals (can result in death or health problems that are not recovered in a short time), while heavy metal Co, Pb, Cu toxicity is moderate (can lead to both recoverable and non-recoverable health problems in a relatively long time). Hence the heavy metal contaminating the food must be eliminated or reduced to a safe level. One effort was use coriander leaves to reduce the contamination of heavy metals in fish/shellfish. The objective of the research was to prove the extract of coriander leaves can reduce heavy metal contamination of Pb, Hg and Cu in rod shellfish (lorjuk). The treatment of this research was long soaking in coriander leaves extract that were 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The results showed that the longer time of soaking can decrease Pb level from 4.4 ± 0.424 ppb to 1.7 ± 0.5 ppb, Hg level from 4.11± 0.07 to 1.12± 0.6 ppb, and Cu level from 433.7 ± 0.1 ppb to 117 ± 0.78 ppb. Protein content not significant decrease in rod shellfish (lorjuk) after 90 minutes soaking time, that was from 28.56 ± 0.403% to 26,625 ± 0.19%.

  6. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Doucette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracids (AZA are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.

  7. Fatigue Analysis of Load-Carrying Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tychsen, Jesper; Andersen, Jens Ulfkjær

    2006-01-01

    that the degree of bending (DOB) has an influence on the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue lifetime decreases significantly when increasing the bending stress. In order to take into account the effect of the bending, a new fatigue stress definition applicable for fillet welds failing through the weld is presented....... Using the test results, it is shown that the new definition of fatigue stress can be used for a wide range of DOB with a low standard deviation of the resulting SN curve....

  8. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  9. Fillet proximate composition, lipid quality, yields, and organoleptic quality of Mediterranean-farmed marine fish: A review with emphasis on new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorakis, Kriton

    2017-09-22

    Species diversification in Mediterranean mariculture involves various important fish that contribute to the diet of many human populations. These include meagres (Sciaenidae), flatfishes, mullets, and various sparids. Their quality aspects (yields, fillet proximate composition, and lipid quality) are discussed in this review. Their filleting yield is mostly 40-45%. The viscerosomatic index ranges from 1.5% to 14%, depending on species. Low muscle fat contents of flatfishes and meagres differentiate them from the rest of the farmed species. Farmed fish contain high n-3 polyunsaturates fatty acids (PUFA; 12.3-36.3% vs. 5.48-37.2% in the wild) and have higher muscle fat and n-6 PUFA contents (mainly 18:2 n-6) than their wild counterparts. The aquaculture management, diet, and season can affect fillet composition and fatty acids, while season (i.e. food availability and maturation) largely affects lipid quality in wild fish. Data on the sensory quality of Mediterranean-farmed species are mainly limited to whether specific management differentiates the sensory quality; thus, further development of tools for sensory analysis is required. Observations on the quality features in farmed Mediterranean fish indicate that species diversification can also provide product diversification based on different commercial weights and fillet quality specifications.

  10. Concentration Trends for Lead and Calcium-Normalized Lead in Fish Fillets from the Big River, a Mining-Contaminated Stream in Southeastern Missouri USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; McKee, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005-2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005-2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  11. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  12. 76 FR 59658 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets..., the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... of initiation for the new shipper review of [[Page 59659

  13. Sterol composition of shellfish species commonly consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Phillips

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shellfish can be a component of a healthy diet due to a low fat and high protein content, but the cholesterol content of some species is often cited as a reason to limit their consumption. Data on levels of non-cholesterol sterols in commonly consumed species are lacking. Objective: Shellfish were sampled and analyzed to update sterol data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Design: Using a nationwide sampling plan, raw shrimp and sea scallops, canned clams, and steamed oysters, blue crab, and lobster were sampled from 12 statistically selected supermarkets across the United States in 2007-08. For each species, four composites were analyzed, each comprised of samples from three locations; shrimp and scallops from six single locations were also analyzed separately. Using validated analytical methodology, 14 sterols were determined in total lipid extracts after saponification and derivatization to trimethylsilyethers, using gas chromatography for quantitation and mass spectrometry for confirmation of components. Results: Crab, lobster, and shrimp contained significant cholesterol (96.2–27 mg/100 g; scallops and clams had the lowest concentrations (23.4–30.1 mg/100 g. Variability in cholesterol among single-location samples of shrimp was low. The major sterols in the mollusks were brassicasterol (12.6–45.6 mg/100 g and 24-methylenecholesterol (16.7–41.9 mg/100 g, with the highest concentrations in oysters. Total non-cholesterol sterols were 46.5–75.6 mg/100 g in five single-location scallops samples, but 107 mg/100 g in the sixth, with cholesterol also higher in that sample. Other prominent non-cholesterol sterols in mollusks were 22-dehydrocholesterol, isofucosterol, clionasterol, campesterol, and 24-norcholesta-5,22-diene-3β-ol (4–21 mg/100 g. Conclusions: The presence of a wide range of sterols, including isomeric forms, in shellfish makes the analysis

  14. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  15. Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, J E; Naustvoll, L-J; Friocourt, Y; Mengelers, M J B; Christensen, J H

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect food and feed safety, including the occurrence of natural toxins in primary crop and seafood production; however, to date, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change effects on mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains cultivated in the terrestrial area of north west Europe, and on the frequency of harmful algal blooms and contamination of shellfish with marine biotoxins in the North Sea coastal zone. The study focused on contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol, and on abundance of Dinophysis spp. and the possible relationship with diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The study used currently available data and models. Global and regional climate models were combined with models of crop phenology, mycotoxin prediction models, hydrodynamic models and ecological models, with the output of one model being used as input for the other. In addition, statistical data analyses using existing national datasets from the study area were performed to obtain information on the relationships between Dinophysis spp. cell counts and contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins as well as on frequency of cereal cropping. In this paper, a summary of the study is presented, and overall conclusions and recommendations are given. Climate change projections for the years 2031-2050 were used as the starting point of the analyses relative to a preceding 20-year baseline period from which the climate change signal was calculated. Results showed that, in general, climate change effects lead to advanced flowering and harvest of wheat, and increased risk of contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol. Blooms of dinoflagellates were estimated to occur more often. If the group of Dinophysis spp. behaves similarly to other flagellates in the future then frequency of harmful algal blooms of Dinophysis spp. may also increase, but consequences for contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish

  16. Native Shellfish in Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    California Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). California Fish and Game 63:43-51. Griffin, K. 1997. Commercial oyster cultivation and eelgrass...A.M. 2007. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-06. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of...non-native Pacific oyster, but more than $40 million is from native crabs , clams, and mussels. Recreationally, personal harvest of shellfish is a

  17. LiveOcean: A Daily Forecast Model of Ocean Acidification for Shellfish Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCready, P.; Siedlecki, S. A.; McCabe, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The coastal estuaries of the NE Pacific host a highly productive shellfish industry, but in the past decade they have suffered from many years in which no natural set of oysters occurred. It appears that coastal waters with low Aragonite saturation state may be the cause. This "acidified" water is the result of (i) upwelling of NE Pacific water from near the shelf break that is already low in pH, and (ii) further acidification of that water by productivity and remineralization on the shelf, and (iii) increasing atmospheric CO2. As part of a coordinated research response to this issue, we have developed the LiveOcean modeling system, which creates daily three-day forecasts of circulation and biogeochemical properties in Oregon-Washington-British Columbia coastal and estuarine waters. The system includes realistic tides, atmospheric forcing (from a regional WRF model), ocean boundary conditions (from HYCOM), and rivers (from USGS and Environment Canada). The model is also used for Harmful Algal Bloom prediction. There has been extensive validation of hindcast runs for currents and hydrography, and more limited validation of biogeochemical variables. Model results are pushed daily to the cloud, and made available to the public through the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS). NVS also includes automated model-data comparisons with real-time NDBC and OOI moorings. Future work will focus on optimizing the utility of this system for regional shellfish growers.

  18. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  19. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies

  20. Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nádia S; Cruz, Marco G N; Gomes, Maria Teresa S R; Rudnitskaya, Alisa

    2018-05-01

    Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins have been developed. Four toxins typically encountered in Portuguese waters, namely saxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, gonyautoxin GTX5 and C1&C2, were selected for the study. A series of miniaturized sensors with solid inner contact and plasticized polyvinylchloride membranes containing ionophores, nine compositions in total, were prepared and their characteristics evaluated. Sensors displayed cross-sensitivity to four studied toxins, i.e. response to several toxins together with low selectivity. High selectivity towards paralytic shellfish toxins was observed in the presence of inorganic cations with selectivity coefficients ranging from 0.04 to 0.001 for Na + and K + and 3.6*10 -4 to 3.4*10 -5 for Ca 2+ . Detection limits were in the range from 0.25 to 0.9 μmolL -1 for saxitoxin and decarbamoyl saxitoxin, and from 0.08 to 1.8 μmolL -1 for GTX5 and C1&C2, which allows toxin detection at the concentration levels corresponding to the legal limits. Characteristics of the developed sensors allow their use in the electronic tongue multisensor system for simultaneous quantification of paralytic shellfish toxins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating shellfish gathering ( Lucina pectinata) in a tropical mangrove system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, S. F.; Barros, F.

    2010-10-01

    Fish resources are important sources of income and protein to traditional inhabitants of coastal zones. In Garapuá village, the shellfish Lucina pectinata is the main resource exploited in mangroves. This study tests whether if in less explored areas (far from the village) L. pectinata individuals have higher densities and greater lengths, and if there was a decrease in cpue's over the last years. Samples were taken monthly in two habitats (mangrove channels and mangrove roots) in six mangrove areas by random squares. The results indicated that closer areas showed significantly lower densities than areas far from the village. Densities were significantly higher in mangrove roots (quizangas) than at channels. There was a significant increase in monthly L. pectinata cpue, from 18.2 dz./shellfish gatherers/day in 2001 to 19.3 in 2007, showing that this stock does not seem to be overexploited. However, (i) a long-term monitoring of Garapuá shellfish gatherers to evaluate if the stock will support an increasing pressure and (ii) several manipulative experiments to better understand ecological processes are suggested.

  2. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval; Jacoby, Cliffton B; Reagen, William K

    2011-01-10

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100±13% with a precision (%RSD) ≤18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: Method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval; Jacoby, Cliffton B.; Reagen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100 ± 13% with a precision (%RSD) ≤18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented.

  4. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: Method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval, E-mail: mmalinsky@mmm.com [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Jacoby, Cliffton B.; Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)

    2011-01-10

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100 {+-} 13% with a precision (%RSD) {<=}18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented.

  5. VISION, STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR SHELLFISH FARMING DEVELOPMENT IN THE KRKA RIVER ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Maguš

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the vision, strategic guidelines/measures and the action plan for shellfish farming development in the Krka river estuary. They came as a result from several discussions that were held with shellfish farmers of the estuary area in year 2008 while writing the Integrated Plan for Shellfish Farming for Krka Estuary Area, which was realized in the framework of the Green Business Support Programme (UNDP COST Project — Conservation, and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Dalmatian Coast through Greening Coastal Development. For a short–term, a considerable impetus for the development of shellfish farming in the Krka river estuary could be the construction of common distribution and purification center, building of warehouse for shellfish farming equipment, and providing work space for the preparation of the equipment as well as the space for waste disposal; for a long–term it could be building of shellfish hatchery at the location of Martinska marine station.

  6. 76 FR 81913 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Subsequent to..., 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

  7. 76 FR 12939 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... the Preliminary Results of the seventh new shipper reviews of certain frozen fish fillets from the... later than April 14, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  8. 76 FR 70111 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Deadline for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1... 4, 2011.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist...

  9. 75 FR 30374 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets.... See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of New.... See Memorandum to the File, from Javier Barrientos, Senior Case Analyst, Certain Frozen Fish Fillets...

  10. 75 FR 29726 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Partial Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  11. 76 FR 20626 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... and requests for revocation in part for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of... administrative reviews and requests for revocation in part for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist...

  12. 77 FR 1470 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of... due no later than March 4, 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  13. 75 FR 20983 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2008, through...''), covering the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the...

  14. 75 FR 80795 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... of the sixth administrative and new shipper reviews of certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist... January 13, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of...

  15. 75 FR 12726 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... two new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the... of price or production. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  16. 75 FR 44938 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist...: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  17. 75 FR 26199 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results... Barrientos, Senior Case Analyst, Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, dated...

  18. 76 FR 47149 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Partial Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  19. 75 FR 57261 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Correction of Date for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... reviews for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2009, through February 15, 2010. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  20. 76 FR 61088 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, received between... on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was published in the Federal...

  1. Prediction of pH of fresh chicken breast fillets by VNIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (400–900 nm) was used to evaluate pH of fresh chicken breast fillets (pectoralis major muscle) from the bone (dorsal) side of individual fillets. After the principal component analysis (PCA), a band threshold method was applied to the first prin...

  2. Predicting water-holding capacity of intact chicken broiler breast fillets with Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of using visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact chicken broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was assessed in this study. Boneless and skinless chicken fillets (214 in total) were procured from a commercial processing plant ...

  3. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20–300 ng/mL, incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.

  4. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Coupled with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for Simultaneous Quantification of Eight Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianli; Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yanglan; Shi, Xizhi; Zhao, Zhiyong; Nie, Dongxia; Zhou, Changyan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins (GTX1–4) and the N-sulfo carbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, in sea shellfish. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with C18 silica and acidic alumina. Qualitative and quantitative detection for the target toxins were conducted under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by using the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode after chromatographic separation on a TSK-gel Amide-80 HILIC column with water and acetonitrile. Matrix-matched calibration was used to compensate for matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9900), average recovery (81.52–116.50%), sensitivity (limits of detection (LODs): 0.33–5.52 μg·kg−1; limits of quantitation (LOQs): 1.32–11.29 μg·kg−1) and precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 19.10%). The application of this proposed approach to thirty shellfish samples proved its desirable performance and sufficient capability for simultaneous determination of multiclass PSP toxins in sea foods. PMID:28661471

  5. Identification of Salmonella serovars isolated from live molluscan shellfish and their significance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; Hernandez-Cordova, Gustavo; Lozano, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar; Espinosa, Joaquin

    2003-02-01

    A study on the presence of Salmonella spp. in live molluscs was performed, which included a description of the different serovars isolated and their relationship to the marine environment. A total of 2,980 samples of shellfish from Galicia (N.W. Spain) were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. between September 1998 and August 2001. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 1.8% and showed a slight rise during the 3 years of the study. Mussels and oysters presented a higher incidence than clams and cockles, possibly because of their distinct growing habitat. A seasonal pattern was noted for the isolation of Salmonella spp.: 54% of the isolations were detected from September to November. That nearly 67% of the total Salmonella was isolated from shellfish with fecal coliform levels fecal coliforms do not necessarily indicate the absence of Salmonella. A total of nine serovars were found in the 54 Salmonella isolated. Salmonella Senftenberg was the most frequent (50%), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (18%) and Salmonella Agona (17%). Salmonella Senftenberg was detected frequently during the year, whereas the remaining serovars were detected only on occasional contamination events.

  6. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  7. Improvement of the quality of nile bolti fish fillets by combination treatments with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hammad, A.A.I.; Yousef, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Immersing bolti fish fillets in saturated solution of sodium chloride alone or plus 10 ppm of chlorotetracycline (CTC) resulted in remarkable reduction of total bacterial counts, psychrophilic, proteolytic and H 2 S producing bacteria. The treatments also decreased the growth rate of these groups of microorganisms during storage at 5 0 C and hence increased the shelf-life of fillets to 24 days storage. Treating the bolti fillets by 3 KGy gamma rays combined with salt and CTC caused highly depression in the mentioned groups but spots of fungi started to appear at the twenty first day of storage on the surface of irradiated fillets. Application of potassium sorbate as anti fungus instead of sodium chloride and CTC kept the bolti fillet in good quality as indicated by microbial, chemical and sensory determinations for more than four weeks at 5 0 C with decreasing the irradiation dose to only 1.5 kGy

  8. Effects of coating chitosan inhibition to quality of fish fillet Oreochromis niloticus at room temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Eka; Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Patmawati

    2017-02-01

    Fresh fish shelf life can be extended by adding antibacterial compounds such as synthetic chemicals or natural materials. One of the natural ingredients that are safe to use to prolong the freshness of the fish is chitosan. Chitosan is able to provide quality deterioration inhibitory effect of fillet of tilapia. The rate of decline in the value of organoleptic fillet of tilapia treated chitosan solution is slower when compared to no treatment tilapia fillet chitosan solution. In the organoleptic test until the 18 hours of storage, 2% chitosan solution capable of maintaining the highest organoleptic value for the parameter sightings meat, texture, and smell fillet. The use of 2% chitosan solution provided the best results based on the parameters of the appearance of meat, the texture, the smell, the pH value and the value of TVB fillet.

  9. Analysis of the production of salmon fillet - Prediction of production yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of raw material variation in Atlantic salmon from aquaculture on filleting yield, and to develop a decision tool for choosing the appropriate raw material for optimized yield. This was achieved by tracking salmon on an individual level (n = 60) through...... a primary production site. The majority of the salmon exhibited a heavier right fillet compared to the left fillet after filleting. No explicit explanation was found for this observation although the heading procedure was shown to have a large impact. A Partial Least Square model was built to predict....... This may facilitate optimal planning of the production of salmon fillets by ordering and assigning the right batch to the right product category to obtain an optimal yield and quality....

  10. Some results of recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption by age and region of U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.; Baes, C.F. III; Miller, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since ingestion of foods is considered a major source of pollutant intake by man, the knowledge of detailed food consumption patterns is necessary to determine health risks and compliance with regulatory standards. As currently available literature lacks data necessary for complete evaluation of aquatic foods via human consumption of fish and shellfish, a review of recent surveys of fish consumption in the U.S. was performed. The data in these surveys were subjected to statistical analysis to determine percentage distributions of individuals eating different quantities of marine and freshwater fish and shellfish. Included are surveys on consumption of sportfish from the Columbia River and Lake Michigan areas and a comprehensive study of fish consumption in the nine census regions of the U.S. The results of these studies indicate that the quantity, as reported, of each type of fish eaten increases as a function of the age of consumers. Regional differences are most apparent in the use of shellfish and freshwater fish. About 94% of children and 96-100% of adults eat some kind of fish with a per capita average of 4.97 kg/yr. Since this quantity is on an actual consumption basis, as as opposed to 'as purchased', the per capita consumption rate is lower than usually reported in the literature. (author)

  11. Does traditional shellfishing affect foraging by waders? The case of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Peste, Filipa; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-03-01

    Estuarine intertidal flats are often exploited by humans and waders since they provide food, particularly shellfish. This raises important conservation issues. Waders can be affected by shellfishing activities in multiple ways, such as a reduction of the available shellfish, disturbance by the presence of shellfishers on their feeding areas, and changes in micro-habitat, due to sediment reworking. In this study we quantified the impact of traditional shellfishing on waders in the Tagus estuary. Particular attention was given to hand-raking of clams Scrobicularia plana, which constitutes most of the consumed food by waders. Shellfishers did not cause a relevant depletion of clams for waders; they removed less than 0.3% of its total production and focused on size classes that were usually not taken by birds. Hand-raking caused temporary changes in the vertical distribution and availability of invertebrate prey in the sediment. However, this did not affect the bird's feeding rates, presumably because prey availability remained above the threshold at which intake rates are expected to decline. The presence of shellfishers in the birds foraging areas potentially affects waders by keeping them away from foraging areas, but even the most affected species lost less than 10% of their foraging grounds due to this factor. Overall, we conclude that the current low harvesting levels of shellfishing are compatible with the preservation of the estuary as a key site for waders. Nevertheless, simulations showed that traditional shellfishing could have much greater potential to affect waders through disturbance than through prey removal. The results for the Tagus show that even small harvest rates, representing a negligible loss of food for waders and potentially considered sustainable by shellfish managers, could have a great impact on waders due to increased disturbance. This effect of disturbance likely occurs in most estuaries and should be taken into consideration when planning

  12. Moritella viscosa, a pathogenic bacterium affecting the fillet quality in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Moritella viscosa is a bacterium belonging to the family Moritellaceae and was formerly known as Vibrio viscosus. The name ‘viscosa’ originates from the slimy nature of the bacterium. M. viscosa is considered to be the main causative agent of the phenomenon ‘winter ulcer’ or ‘cold-water ulcer......’ which affects various fish species in seawater during cold periods (Lunder et al. 1995). The bacterium is mainly a problem for farmed salmonid species, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but has also been isolated from other fish species, including Atlantic...... market price because of a quality downgrade caused by textural changes in the fillet....

  13. Characterization of the NIST shellfish Standard Reference Material 4358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, S.; Inn, K.G.W.; Filliben, J.; Gaast van der, H.; Men, L.C.; Calmet, D.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Povinec, P.; Takata, Y.; Wisdom, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new shellfish Standard Reference Material 4358 was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology through an international interlaboratory comparison that involved twelve laboratories-participants from nine countries. The results from the participants were statistically evaluated, and the most robust certified values were based on the median of laboratories’ reported means and the uncertainties derived using the bootstrap method. Massic activity certified values were established for fourteen radionuclides, five activity ratios, and informational massic activity values for eight more radionuclides and two activity ratios. (author)

  14. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  15. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  16. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  17. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  18. International Standardisation of a Method for Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses in Molluscan Shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, David; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The viruses primarily associated with shellfish-borne illness are norovirus, causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Recent years have seen a proliferation of publications on methods for detection of these viruses in shellfish using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, currently...

  19. Shellsim: A Generic Model of Growth and Environmental Effects Validated Across Contrasting Habitats in Bivalve Shellfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, A.; Pascoe, P.L.; Parry, H.; Brinsley, M.; Black, K.; McGonigle, C.; Smaal, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous shellfish models have, in general, been calibrated for 1 location, unable to simulate growth across habitats that contrast in seston abundance and composition, as may vary between turbid, eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. Here, we describe the generic shellfish model ShellSIM,

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoli Cyprian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

  2. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  3. Recent trends in paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound, relationships to climate, and capacity for prediction of toxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie K. Moore; Nathan J. Mantua; Barbara M. Hickey; Vera L. Trainer

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial trends in paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in Puget Sound shellfish and their relationships with climate are investigated using long-term monitoring data since 1957. Data are selected for trend analyses based on the sensitivity of shellfish species to PSTs and their depuration rates, and the frequency of sample collection at individual sites....

  4. Fish quality – linking previous infections to the quality of consumers’ fillet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological factors. In the present study it has been established that previous infections by Vibrio anguillarum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) influence the quality of the fish meat (fillet) at slaughter more...... than after the fish have recovered from the infection. The texture of the fillet analysed by sensory analysis showed changes, which could be explained by previous tissue damage caused by the infection. These changes indicated formation of scars in affected tissue during the processes of tissue repair......, which gave rise to a more fibrous, tougher and flaky texture of the fillets....

  5. Analysis of Residual Stress and Deformation of Rolling Strengthen Crankshaft Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of crankshaft fillet rolling process, used ANSYS finite element analysis software to conduct the elastic-plastic mechanical simulation of crankshaft rolling process, and gained the variation law of the residual stress and plastic deformation in the radial path of the fillet under different rolling laps and rolling pressure. Established the relationship between the rolling pressure and the plastic deformation and residual stress of the fillet, and provided theoretical support for the evaluation and detection of the crankshaft rolling quality.

  6. Selective accumulation may account for shellfish-associated viral illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W; Calci, K R

    2000-04-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F(+) coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F(+) coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters.

  7. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  8. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  9. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  10. Effects of low dose irradiation on the K-value and hypoxanthine concentration of fish fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.; Jarrett, S.J.; Petroff, M.

    1993-01-01

    Fillets of five fish species were irradiated at 0, 1 and 3kGy to investigate whether the K-value test of freshness can be applied to irradiated fish. Following irradiation, the fillets were stored on ice and sampled regularly for K-value analysis. Hypoxanthine (Hx) and total nucleotide content were also determined on fillets of two species. K-values of irradiated fillets were generally lower than those of unirradiated controls. Hypoxanthine levels paralleled the K-value changes. These results indicated that quality standards based on K-values or Hx levels that have been set for unirradiated species cannot be directly applied to fish that has been irradiated. Total nucleotide content did not appear to be affected by irradiation

  11. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Microwave Cooking on Aeromonas Hydrophila in Bolti Fish Fillet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W.S.; Megahed, A.A.; El-Ghaiaty, H.A.; Hafez, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the bactericidal effect of gamma and microwave radiation on Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in fish fillets. The study revealed that treatment of fish fillets with a dose of 1 kGy gamma radiation reduced the population of A.hydrophila by 104 cfu/g, while the dose of 2 and 3 kGy completely eliminated the microorganism. Treatment of fish fillets with microwave cooking for 1 and 2 minutes completely eliminated the microorganism. The physical examination of fish after gamma radiation treatment revealed that the used doses had no significant changes on fish fillets. The changes in protein profile (amino acids %) depended on radiation dose and period of cooking in microwave alongside controls while the total protein content was not affected.

  12. Simplified welding distortion analysis for fillet welding using composite shell elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the simplified welding distortion analysis method to predict the welding deformation of both plate and stiffener in fillet welds. Currently, the methods based on equivalent thermal strain like Strain as Direct Boundary (SDB has been widely used due to effective prediction of welding deformation. Regarding the fillet welding, however, those methods cannot represent deformation of both members at once since the temperature degree of freedom is shared at the intersection nodes in both members. In this paper, we propose new approach to simulate deformation of both members. The method can simulate fillet weld deformations by employing composite shell element and using different thermal expansion coefficients according to thickness direction with fixed temperature at intersection nodes. For verification purpose, we compare of result from experiments, 3D thermo elastic plastic analysis, SDB method and proposed method. Compared of experiments results, the proposed method can effectively predict welding deformation for fillet welds.

  13. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  14. Surveillance of hepatitis A and E viruses contamination in shellfish in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsai, A; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Wongchinda, N; Siripanyaphinyo, U; Virulhakul, P; Puthavathana, P; Myint, K S; Gannarong, M; Ittapong, R

    2011-12-01

    To survey for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) contamination in edible bivalve shellfish. A total of 213 shellfish (52 oysters, 69 cockles and 92 mussels) collected from a culture farm and two retailed markets were investigated for HAV and HEV contamination by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using HA2-HA1 (capsid region) and HE366-HE363 (ORF2/3 overlapping region) primers, respectively. It was found that 3.8% of the shellfish and 2.9 and 6.5% of the cockle and mussel, respectively, showed positive for HAV detection. Nucleotide sequencing of all the 8 HAV-positive shellfish revealed 97-100% similarity to HAV subgenotype IA. Interestingly, viruses were found more frequently in the gills than in digestive tissue (4.5%vs 0.5%, P = 0.045). All the shellfish were negative for HEV. Significant contamination of HAV in edible bivalve shellfish was observed. Beside digestive tissue, gills are one of the important samples for viral genome detection. HAV-contaminated shellfish can play a role as reservoirs and/or vehicles in faecal-oral transmission in Thailand, and further monitoring of such a contamination is required. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Modelling the effects of preheating on angular distortions in one sided fillet welds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sadat Ali; S. Rao; N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    In all fusion welded joints, residual, transverse, lateral, angular and bowing deformations are observed. In fillet joints the angular distortion is the predominant deformation. The distortions and thermal history of a fillet joint can be measured experimentally which is not economically viable all times. It is time consuming and the deformation can be measured only after the completion of the joining process. So prevention is not possible. In the present work a numerical elasto-plastic therm...

  16. Prevalence and contamination patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in catfish processing environment and fresh fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Pyla, Rajkumar; Kim, Tae-Jo; Silva, Juan L; Jung, Yean-Sung

    2010-08-01

    Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of fin-endwall fillet on thermal hydraulic performance of airfoil printed circuit heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ting; Xin, Fei; Li, Lei; Xu, Xiang-yang; Chen, Yi-tung; Wang, Qiu-wang

    2015-01-01

    Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recommended to be used for intermediate heat exchanger in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). One of the key features is that it is manufactured by the photochemical etching in order to maintain the internal structure and metal properties. In this paper, a photochemical etching experiment is conducted to manufacture the airfoil PCHE plate. The result indicates that the airfoil fin is not an ideal airfoil profile, but has a fin-endwall fillet. For the purpose of simplifying the numerical model and saving computational time, a validated model with a single fluid is used to further study the effect of fin-endwall fillet on the thermal hydraulic performance of airfoil PCHE. It is found that the fin-endwall fillet can increase the heat transfer and pressure drop in the cases with the non-dimensional longitudinal pitch being 1.63. The effect of fin-endwall fillet on thermal hydraulic performance decreases with the increase of transverse pitch, but the longitudinal pitch has little effect when the non-dimensional longitudinal pitch is greater than 1.88. In the studied cases, the maximum difference of Nusselt number and friction factor between the two models with and without fin-endwall fillet is up to 6.7% and 6.4%. - Highlights: • Fillets are formed in the endwall of airfoil fins during the photochemical etching. • Two-fluid model can be replaced by single-fluid model to perform simulation. • Fin-endwall fillet can increase heat transfer and pressure drop at ζ_l = 1.63. • Effect of fin-endwall fillet decreases as transverse pitch increases at ζ_l = 1.63. • Longitudinal pitch has little effect at ζ_l ≥ 1.88.

  18. Radionuclides in shellfishes collected on and off the coast of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Minowa, Haruka; Satou, Yukihiko; Kojima, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    Huge amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and the sea by the disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, TEPCO. Some elements tend to concentrate in certain species by food chain in marline lives. We collected several species of shellfishes in the coast and offshore area of Fukushima Prefecture, and analysed them by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Japanese Grata Limpet, Japanese oyster, Common Blue Mussel, Arthritic Whelks, and Purple sea urchin was collected. The shells and bodies were dried up, and were measured with a high-pure Ge detector. The activity concentration (Bq/kg) was calculated by the activity divided by the raw weight. Certain amounts of radiocaesiums ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs) were detected in all of the bodies. And "1"1"0"mAg was detected in limpet, oyster, and whelks. The concentrations of the radionuclides were ranged from not-detectable level (∼ 0.1 Bq/kg) to 300 Bq/kg. Although oyster and mussel were collected at the same place, oyster included "1"1"0"mAg and mussel did not. While whelks and sea urchin was caught at the same offshore area, whelks had relative high "1"1"0"mAg and sea urchin did not. The ratios of "1"1"0"mAg to "1"3"7Cs were three to ten for limpet and whelks, and the ratios were different for each species. Some shellfishes were confirmed to concentrate "1"1"0"mAg in their bodies. Not only radiocaesiums but also radiosilver should be noticed to monitor fishes. (author)

  19. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  20. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  1. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  2. Evaluation of a Method for Quantifying Eugenol Concentrations in the Fillet Tissue from Freshwater Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Porcher, Scott T; Smerud, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    AQUI-S 20E(®) (active ingredient, eugenol; AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) is being pursued for approval as an immediate-release sedative in the United States. A validated method to quantify the primary residue (the marker residue) in fillet tissue from AQUI-S 20E-exposed fish was needed. A method was evaluated for determining concentrations of the AQUI-S 20E marker residue, eugenol, in freshwater fish fillet tissue. Method accuracies from fillet tissue fortified at nominal concentrations of 0.15, 1, and 60 μg/g from six fish species ranged from 88-102%. Within-day and between-day method precisions (% CV) from the fortified tissue were ≤8.4% CV. There were no coextracted compounds from the control fillet tissue of seven fish species that interfered with eugenol analyses. Six compounds used as aquaculture drugs did not interfere with eugenol analyses. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.012 μg/g. The method was robust, i.e., in most cases, minor changes to the method did not impact method performance. Eugenol was stable in acetonitrile-water (3 + 7, v/v) for at least 14 days, in fillet tissue extracts for 4 days, and in fillet tissue stored at ~ -80°C for at least 84 days.

  3. Sensory and Physical Assessment of Microbiologically Safe Culinary Processes for Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, Renee Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Numerous food-borne illnesses are associated with fish and shellfish annually due to consumers choosing to eat seafood raw or undercooked and consumers not properly handling and preparing seafood. The 2009 FDA Food Code suggests intact fish and shellfish should be cooked to an internal temperature of 63°C to target Salmonella spp. Selected fish and shellfish were cooked to 64°C ± 1 and 74°C ± 1 and evaluated for consumer acceptability, characteristics of doneness at temperature endpoints...

  4. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  5. Screening for the presence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish samples using the neuro-2a bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Bovee, Toine F H; Wang, Si; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klijnstra, Mirjam D; Portier, Liza; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Gerssen, Arjen

    2018-02-01

    The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples. In the present study, the standard extraction procedure for LMBs was adjusted by introducing an additional clean-up step with n-hexane. Recovery losses due to this extra step were less than 10%. This wash step was a crucial addition in order to eliminate false-positive outcomes due to matrix effects. Next, the applicability of this assay was assessed by testing a broad range of shellfish samples contaminated with various LMBs, including diarrhetic shellfish toxins/poisons (DSPs). For comparison, the samples were also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Standards of all regulated LMBs were tested, including analogues of some of these toxins. The neuro-2a cells showed good sensitivity towards all compounds. Extracts of 87 samples, both blank and contaminated with various toxins, were tested. The neuro-2a outcomes were in line with those of LC-MS/MS analysis and support the applicability of this assay for the screening of samples for LMBs. However, for use in a daily routine setting, the test might be further improved and we discuss several recommended modifications which should be considered before a full validation is carried out.

  6. Perspektif Six Sigma dalam Analisis Manajemen Kualitas Kasus Produksi Fish Fillet di PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry, Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Farmayanti, Narni; ., Dinarwan; S, I I Fithri Yunindari

    2006-01-01

    Fish fillet is a superior commodity for the company of PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry (DSFI), and having the highest production and demand. The product of fish fillet giving a big opportunity for defect level of fish fillet and it´s caused from some mistakes that happen in process production. Hence, the optimalization of input process of fish fillet production is related with six sigma methods application which try to eliminate or minimize mistakes and wastes of time and money. It is hope...

  7. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  8. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  9. Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, George J.

    This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

  10. Effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on benthic communities and sediment chemistry 2009-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on the ecology of biological communities and chemistry of benthic sediments were investigated through a series of...

  11. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  12. Assessment of Current Guidelines for Culinary Preparation Methods of Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kostal, Jeri Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Consumers regularly decide to consume fish and shellfish raw or undercooked, which can cause foodborne illness due to product contamination or unsafe handling by the consumer.  In order to be considered safe for consumption, intact fish and shellfish should be prepared to an internal temperature of 63"C, according to the 2009 FDA Food Code, with Salmonella spp. as the target organism.  Focus groups (5 groups, 32 participants) were conducted to determine consumer beliefs and concerns regarding...

  13. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  14. Microbial ecology of Vietnamese Tra fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) fillets during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong Thi, Anh Ngoc; Noseda, Bert; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Nguyen, Binh Ly; Broekaert, Katrien; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Devlieghere, Frank

    2013-10-15

    There are numerous factors that can have an impact on the microbial ecology and quality of frozen Pangasius hypophthalmus fillets during processing in Vietnam. The presence of spoilage bacteria along the processing line can shorten the shelf-life of thawed frozen fish products. Therefore, the spoilage microbiota throughout the processing chain of two companies (BC: large scale factory, chlorine-based process, BW: large scale factory, water-based process and SC: small scale factory, chlorine-based process) was identified by culture-dependent techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbiological counts were observed to be insignificantly different (p>0.05) between BC and BW. Surprisingly, chlorine treated fillets from the SC line were revealed to have significantly higher microbial counts than potable water treated fillets at BW line. This was determined to be a result of temperature abuse during processing at SC, with temperatures even greater than 10 °C being recorded from skinning onwards. On the contrary, the microbiota related to spoilage for BC and BW lines was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing to be more diverse than that on the SC line. A total of 174 isolates, 20 genera and 38 species were identified along the processing chains. The genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were prevalent at various processing steps on all the processing lines evaluated. A diverse range of isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae such as Providencia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Wautersiella were isolated from fillets sampled on the SC line whereas Serratia was only observed on fillets sampled on the BC and BW lines. The results can be used to improve Good Manufacturing Practices for processed Pangasius fillets and to select effective measures to prolong the shelf-life of thawed Vietnamese Pangasius fillets products. © 2013.

  15. Optimization of PMAxx pretreatment to distinguish between human norovirus with intact and altered capsids in shellfish and sewage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Walter; Khezri, Mohammad; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Aznar, Rosa; Sánchez, Gloria

    2018-02-02

    Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0.5% of Triton, and double photoactivation) were applied to mussels, oysters and cockles artificially inoculated with thermally-inactivated (99°C for 5min) HuNoV GI and GII. This pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI in cockles and HuNoV GII in mussels by >3 log. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI and GII between 1 and 1.5 log in oysters. Thermal inactivation of HuNoV GI and GII in PBS, sewage and bioaccumulated oysters was also evaluated by the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment. Results showed significant differences between reductions observed in the control and PMAxx-treated samples in PBS following treatment at 72 and 95°C for 15min. In sewage, the RT-qPCR signal of HuNoV GI was completely removed by the PMAxx pretreatment after heating at 72 and 95°C, while the RT-qPCR signal for HuNoV GII was completely eliminated only at 95°C. Finally, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment was applied to naturally contaminated sewage and oysters, resulting in most of the HuNoV genomes quantified in sewage and oyster samples (12 out of 17) corresponding to undamaged capsids. Although this procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment represents a step forward to better interpret the quantification of intact HuNoVs in complex matrices, such as sewage and shellfish, and it could certainly be included in the procedures based on RT-qPCR. Copyright

  16. Recent innovation in microbial source tracking using bacterial real-time PCR markers in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauffret, A.; Mieszkin, S.; Morizur, M.; Alfiansah, Y.; Lozach, S.; Gourmelon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DNA extraction from intravalvular liquid is promising for microbial source tracking in oysters. ► Host-associated bacterial markers in shellfish digestive tissues were difficult to assess with real-time PCR. ► DNA extracts from shellfish flesh appeared to have low inhibitor levels but low marker levels. ► Protocol transfer from one shellfish species to another does not appear possible. -- Abstract: We assessed the capacity of real-time PCR markers to identify the origin of contamination in shellfish. Oyster, cockles or clams were either contaminated with fecal materials and host-associated markers designed from Bacteroidales or Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S RNA genes were extracted from their intravalvular liquid, digestive tissues or shellfish flesh. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the oyster intravalvular liquid with FastDNA spin kit for soil enabled the selected markers to be quantified in 100% of artificially contaminated samples, and the source of contamination to be identified in 13 out of 38 naturally contaminated batches from European Class B and Class C areas. However, this protocol did not enable the origin of the contamination to be identified in cockle or clam samples. Although results are promising for extracts from intravalvular liquid in oyster, it is unlikely that a single protocol could be the best across all bacterial markers and types of shellfish

  17. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  18. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  19. COMPARISON OF POND AND RACEWAY PRODUCTION METHODS ON TEXTURE OF CHANNEL CATFISH (Ictalurus punctatus) FILLETS, SHOWING A DEPENDENCY ON SIZE AND FILLET POSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the production environment (pond vs in-pond raceway) on the chemical composition, color, and textural properties of channel catfish fillets. Compositional analysis consisted of percent moisture, lipid, protein, and ash content. Additional sa...

  20. PBDE and PCB levels correlated in wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, D.; Wong, J.; Krynitsky, A. [US Food and Drug Administration, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two classes of industrial chemicals that have been widely used in the manufacture of many materials found commonly in highly industrial societies. PCBs used as an electrical insulator and in plastics have been banned in the US since 1977. PCB levels have steadily declined in foods. PBDEs are currently used as effective flame retardant in electronics, automobiles, home furnishings, textiles and in building materials. Environmental levels have not reached equilibrium. Both classes are ubiquitous contaminants with a strong tendency for bioaccumulation. The detection of PBDEs in human and some animal fats and fish/shellfish has been reported1. Recent reports of PBDEs in the US population have reported PBDE levels higher than most other industrialized countries. The pathway of these exposures is not precisely known, but one likely pathway is food. US FDA is planning to monitor some PBDE congeners beginning 2005. Data collection will begin with fish and shellfish and most likely be expanded to other foods. Fish/shellfish are already being monitored for PCDD/F and some PCB content. Several different instrumental approaches have been used successfully to measure PBDEs in human tissues and in environmental media including HRGC/HRMS, ECNI-LRMS, EI-LRMS and tandem mass spectrometry. The focus of this study is to determine PBDE levels in fish that are already known to have higher levels of PCBs relative to other fish or other foods. EI-LRMS was selected for initial testing with PBDE measurements in fish for its simplicity and availability in every FDA field laboratory.

  1. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238 U ( 226 Ra), 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 40 K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg −1 . The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg −1 for 238 U ( 226 Ra), 0.16 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 18 Bq kg −1 for 40 K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg −1 , 0.16 Bq kg −1 and 23 Bq kg −1 . Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226 Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228 Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40 K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values. - Highlights: ► Activity concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides were assessed for shellfish. ► 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K intake via shellfish showed several times higher than world averages. ► Committed effective doses due to the ingestions of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K are the first report in Malaysia. ► Estimated committed effective dose also showed higher values than the world average

  2. Studies On Quality Criteria For Irradiated Breaded Chicken Breast Fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, I.M.; IBRAHIM, M.T.; MAHMOUD, A.A.; SHAMS EL DIN, N.M.M.; MOHAMMAD, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quality criteria of irradiated breaded chicken breast fillets were studied. Fresh boneless and skinless breaded chicken breast meats samples were divided into four separate batches and packed in plastic bags and sealed by an impulse sealer. Samples in plastic bags were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7 kGy) at ambient temperature. Just after irradiation, the samples were stored at 4 ±1 0 C. All samples were evaluated for microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. During storage, the total bacterial count was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all samples with higher rates of increase in non-irradiated samples. In all irradiated samples, Staphylococcus aureus did not detected up to 6 days then detected after 22 days in samples treated with 2.5 kGy as well as 31 days in samples treated with 5 kGy. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was detected after 45 days in samples treated with 7 kGy. Salmonella sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni could not detected in untreated and treated samples. The protein content showed significant decrease immediately after irradiation and during the refrigerated storage. The TVN values for non-irradiated samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than irradiated samples. The present data showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in protein solubility percentages of irradiated samples at day 0 and 6 of refrigerated storage. The observed decrease was related to the increase of radiation dose. At the end of storage period (62 days), 2.5 kGy samples were significantly higher in TBA values than other irradiated samples. On the other hand, irradiation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) the amount of major mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Sensory attributes of breaded chicken breast fillets did not affected by irradiation. It could be concluded that irradiation dose of 5 kGy can be used in chicken samples stored in

  3. Molecular authentication of Pargo fillets Lutjanus purpureus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae by DNA barcoding reveals commercial fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Veneza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caribbean Red Snapper (Pargo Lutjanus purpureus is the most economically important snapper in Brazil, which is sold, among other forms, as frozen fillets. During the process of transformation into fillets there is the removal of the distinctive morphological traits, being able to favor the substitution by less valued species. In addition, there is no national legislation requiring the insertion of the specific name on the product label. However, according to a Normative Instruction (IN N ° 29/2015 MAPA that correlates the common and specific names of the products destined to the national trade, in Brazil only L. purpureus and L. campechanus can be denominated “Pargo”. Thus, the DNA barcode tool was used to identify the fillets sold in north of Brazil, labeled “Pargo”, with the aid of sequences from the public and control databases. The results showed that among 142 fillets examined, 78% was identified as L. purpureus and 22% as Rhomboplites aurorubens, a snapper with low commercial value in the country, revealing commercial fraud. The molecular identification method successfully used in this study to authenticate fillets snappers may also be used by surveillance authorities in the quality control of processed fish products, towards ensuring consumer rights.

  4. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  5. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Nauta, M.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the decimal reduction times of bacteria present on chicken fillet in boiling water. The experiments were conducted with Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Whole chicken breast fillets were inoculated with the pathogens, stored overnight

  6. Relating instrumental texture, determined relating instrumental texture, determined attachments, to sensory analysis of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most important quality attributes of fish fillets, and accurate assessment of variation in this attribute, as affected by storage and handling, is critical in providing consistent quality product. Trout fillets received 4 treatments: 3-d refrigeration (R3), 7-d refrigeration (R...

  7. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... initiation of antidumping duty new shipper reviews for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2009, through February 15, 2010. See Certain Frozen Fish...

  8. Particle size fractionation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs): seasonal distribution and bacterial production in the St Lawrence estuary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, S; Levasseur, M; Doucette, G; Cantin, G

    2002-10-01

    We determined the seasonal distribution of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and PST producing bacteria in > 15, 5-15, and 0.22-5 microm size fractions in the St Lawrence. We also measured PSTs in a local population of Mytilus edulis. PST concentrations were determined in each size fraction and in laboratory incubations of sub-samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), including the rigorous elimination of suspected toxin 'imposter' peaks. Mussel toxin levels were determined by mouse bioassay and HPLC. PSTs were detected in all size fractions during the summer sampling season, with 47% of the water column toxin levels associated with particles smaller than Alexandrium tamarense ( 15 microm size fraction, we estimated that as much as 92% of PSTs could be associated with particles other than A. tamarense. Our results stress the importance of taking into account the potential presence of PSTs in size fractions other than that containing the known algal producer when attempting to model shellfish intoxication, especially during years of low cell abundance. Finally, our HPLC results confirmed the presence of bacteria capable of autonomous PST production in the St Lawrence as well as demonstrating their regular presence and apparent diversity in the plankton. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Two quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eischeid, Anne C; Kim, Bang-hyun; Kasko, Sasha M

    2013-06-19

    Food allergen detection methods must be able to specifically detect minute quantities of an allergenic food in a complex food matrix. One technique that can be used is real-time PCR. For the work described here, real-time PCR assays were developed to detect penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens. The method was tested using shrimp meat and crab meat spiked into several types of foods, including canned soups, deli foods, meat, seafood, and prepared seafood products. Foods were spiked with either shrimp or crab at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10⁶ parts per million (ppm) and analyzed either raw or cooked by a variety of methods. Real-time PCR data were used to generate linear standard curves, and assays were evaluated with respect to linear range and reaction efficiency. Results indicate that both assays performed well in a variety of food types. High reaction efficiencies were achieved across a linear range of 6-8 orders of magnitude. Limits of detection were generally between 0.1 and 1 ppm. Cooking methods used to simulate thermal processing of foods had little effect on assay performance. This work demonstrates that real-time PCR can be a valuable tool in the detection of crustacean shellfish.

  10. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  11. A model for estimating pathogen variability in shellfish and predicting minimum depuration times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenemy, Paul; Kleczkowski, Adam; Lees, David N; Lowther, James; Taylor, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with shellfish consumption being identified as one potential norovirus entry point into the human population. Minimising shellfish norovirus levels is therefore important for both the consumer's protection and the shellfish industry's reputation. One method used to reduce microbiological risks in shellfish is depuration; however, this process also presents additional costs to industry. Providing a mechanism to estimate norovirus levels during depuration would therefore be useful to stakeholders. This paper presents a mathematical model of the depuration process and its impact on norovirus levels found in shellfish. Two fundamental stages of norovirus depuration are considered: (i) the initial distribution of norovirus loads within a shellfish population and (ii) the way in which the initial norovirus loads evolve during depuration. Realistic assumptions are made about the dynamics of norovirus during depuration, and mathematical descriptions of both stages are derived and combined into a single model. Parameters to describe the depuration effect and norovirus load values are derived from existing norovirus data obtained from U.K. harvest sites. However, obtaining population estimates of norovirus variability is time-consuming and expensive; this model addresses the issue by assuming a 'worst case scenario' for variability of pathogens, which is independent of mean pathogen levels. The model is then used to predict minimum depuration times required to achieve norovirus levels which fall within possible risk management levels, as well as predictions of minimum depuration times for other water-borne pathogens found in shellfish. Times for Escherichia coli predicted by the model all fall within the minimum 42 hours required for class B harvest sites, whereas minimum depuration times for norovirus and FRNA+ bacteriophage are substantially longer. Thus this study provides relevant information and tools to assist

  12. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George

    2014-05-01

    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  13. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  14. Irradiation of fish fillets: Relation of vapor phase reactions to storage quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, J.; Dollar, A.M.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Gallagher, E.C.

    1969-01-01

    Fish fillets irradiated under air, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon dioxide atmospheres developed rancidlike flavors when they were stored at refrigerated temperatures. Packing and irradiating under vacuum or helium prevented development of off-flavors during storage.Significant quantities of nitrate and oxidizing substances were formed when oxygen, nitrogen, or air were present in the vapor or liquid phases contained in a Pyrex glass model system exposed to ionizing radiation supplied by a 60Co source. It was demonstrated that the delayed flavor changes that occur in stored fish fillets result from the reaction of vapor phase radiolysis products and the fish tissue substrates.

  15. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  16. Dietary α-tocopheryl acetate on fillet quality of tilapia - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.6929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Silvia Sant'Ana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the effects of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate on storage life of tilapia fillets. Three experimental diets containing increasing α-tocopherol levels (zero, 100, and 200 mg kg-1 were used. The fish, with a mean initial weight of 184.23 ± 1.68 g, were fed diets for 63 days. After that period, they were slaughtered, filleted, and the fillets were grounded to accelerate lipid oxidation. Fish growth, survival, fillet yield, chemical composition and lipid oxidation of tilapia ground fillets were evaluated 0, 30 and 60 days after frozen storage. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between treatments for performance, and also, tocopherol did not influence the chemical composition values of fillets. Increased tocopherol levels in the feeds promoted a reduction in ground fillets lipid oxidation values.

  17. PENGARUH MINYAK ATSIRI JAHE MERAH DAN LENGKUAS MERAH PADA EDIBLE COATING TERHADAP KUALITAS FILLET IKAN PATIN (Effect of Edible Coating Enriched with Red Ginger and Red Galangal Essential Oil on the Quality of Patin Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohula Utami

    2014-02-01

    edible coating will retain the patin fillets quality. In terms of microbial quality and TVB value, 1% essential oil of red ginger and red galangal enrichment in edible coating could extend shelf life of patin fillets for 2-4 days. Keywords: Edible coating, essential oil, patin, red ginger, red galangal   ABSTRAK Penentuan pengaruh penambahan minyak atsiri jahe merah dan lengkuas merah dalam edible coating terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin dilakukan pada periode waktu 8 hari. Parameter kualitas ikan yang dianalisis adalah kualitas mikrobiologis (Total Plate Count/TPc, dan kualitas fisikokimia (Total Volatile Bases/TVB, Thiobarbituricacid/TBa, pH, dan warna. Variasi perlakuan fillet ikan patin yaitu konsentrasi minyak atsiri (0 %; 0,1%; 1% yang ditambahkan dalam edible coating. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa penambahan minyak atsiri baik jahe merah maupun lengkuas merah berpengaruh terhadap kualitas fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan dingin. Penambahan minyak atsiri dalam edible coating mampu mempertahankan kualitas fillet ikan patin lebih baik dibandingkan perlakuan edible coating tanpa minyak atsiri. Berdasarkan kualitas mikrobiologis dan nilai TVB, perlakuan minyak atsiri jahe merah 1% dan minyak atsiri lengkuas merah 1% mampu meningkatkan umur simpan fillet ikan patin selama 2-4 hari. Kata kunci: Edible coating, jahe merah, lengkuas merah, minyak atsiri, patin

  18. Crab and shellfish occurrences in the newly-grown mangrove habitats in southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeesin, P.; Bautip, S.; Chesoh, S.

    2018-04-01

    Mangrove crabs and shellfish populating in Prince of Songkla University’s new grown mangrove forest were investigated from January 2011 to December 2011 and then repeated annually. A total of 12 species under 6 families of crab and 11 species under 5 families of shellfish were recorded. The most abundant family of crab was Sesarmidae (64.18 %), followed by Ocypodidae, Varunidae, Macrophthalmidae, Portunidae and Dotillidae. Episesarma mederi ( H. Milne Edwards, 1853) showed highest dominant species. In addition, the most dominant family of shellfish was Potamididae (13.79 %), followed by Melampidae, Assimineidae, Onchidiidae and Littorinidae. Sea snail (Cerithidae quadrata; Sowerby, 1866) presented the most dominant coastal mollusc species. Abundance and diversification crabs and mollusks show important component of food web of this type ecosystem. However, only trapped hold samples during low tide were collected but this preliminary finding enables reasonable specified regulation measures.

  19. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  20. Slaughter yield and fatty acid profiles of fillets of pike (Esox lucius L. caught before and after spawning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakęś Zdzisław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact pike fishing season (before spawning in fall (group A and after spawning in spring (group B had on the slaughter yield and fillet fatty acid profile. The slaughter yield of fillets with skin and skinned fillets from the group B fish was significantly lower (by approximately 7.5% of body weight. The fatty acid profile of the fish meat from the groups examined differed significantly. The fillets of pike caught before spawning were dominated by unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while those from fish caught after spawning had mainly saturated fatty acids (SFA. The share of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the fillets of fish that had spawned was sixfold lower, and the n-3 PUFA differences were nearly ninefold. The content of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids in fillets of fish that had spawned was ninefold lower than in those that had not yet done so. Consequently, the ratio of n-3 PUFA/n-6 PUFA in pike from group A was over three times higher than that in the fish that had spawned (2.61 vs 0.82. Fillets from pike that have spawned are a significantly poorer source of valuable fatty acids for consumers.

  1. Experimental Study of Fillets to Reduce Corner Effects in an Oblique Shock-Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted in the 15 cm x 15 cm supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center that focused on corner effects of an oblique shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In an attempt to control the interaction in the corner region, eight corner fillet configurations were tested. Three parameters were considered for the fillet configurations: the radius, the fillet length, and the taper length from the square corner to the fillet radius. Fillets effectively reduced the boundary-layer thickness in the corner; however, there was an associated penalty in the form of increased boundary-layer thickness at the tunnel centerline. Larger fillet radii caused greater reductions in boundary-layer thickness along the corner bisector. To a lesser, but measureable, extent, shorter fillet lengths resulted in thinner corner boundary layers. Overall, of the configurations tested, the largest radius resulted in the best combination of control in the corner, evidenced by a reduction in boundary-layer thickness, coupled with minimal impacts at the tunnel centerline.

  2. Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible coating on the storage quality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Huijun; Jin, Wengang; Li, Lirong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5, 10 and 15 g kg -1 ) combined with nisin and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated. TBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent compared to the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC and sensory scores, the shelf life of the control tilapia fillets was 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8-10 days. Edible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narceda, Ronald Jefferson A.; Montojo, Ulysses M.; Cayme, Mirriam F.; Borja, Valeriano M.

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  4. Production of omega-3 enriched tilapia through the dietary use of algae meal or fish oil: Improved nutrient value of fillet and offal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Tyler R; Kuhn, David D; Taylor, Daniel P; Neilson, Andrew P; Smith, Stephen A; Gatlin, Delbert M; Chu, Hyun Sik S; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project was to increase the nutrient value of fillets, by-product muscle, and offal of aquacultured tilapia. A diet that includes seafood with a high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid content, more specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to have numerous health benefits for consumers. Improved nutrient value of the offal may also attract new market opportunities for the aquaculture industry. Tilapia were cultured on different experimental feeds that contained various levels of n-3 fatty acids from either fish oil (FO) or algae meal (AM) that were used to replace corn oil. The experimental diets included a control (corn oil 6.3%), FO1%, FO3%, FO5%, AM1.75%, AM5.26%, and AM8.77%. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipid. Three hundred and fifty tilapia with an initial mean weight of 158±2 g were cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system (seven diets replicated at the tank level, 14 tanks, 25 fish per tank). For all of the production performance data, no differences (P>0.05) were observed between the experimental groups which included survival (overall mean ± standard error, 99.4±0.3%), growth per week (45.4±1.0 g/wk), food conversion ratio (1.32±0.03), fillet yield (44.4±0.2%), hepatosomatic index (1.61±0.02), viscerosomatic index (2.86±0.06), and mesenteric fat index (0.97±0.04). Fillet and rib meat tissues were collected at weeks four and eight, and liver and mesenteric fat tissues were collected at week eight. Fatty acids were extracted, methylated and identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All tissues had improved fatty acid profiles (higher n-3, lower n-6, n-6:n-3) with increasing levels of FO and AM in the diet. For example, the best diet for significantly (Pfillets at week eight was diet AM8.77%. In the fillet, total n-3 was increased (control versus AM8.77%) from 151.2±19.0 to 438.7±14.2 mg per 4 ounce (113 g) serving and n-6:n-3 ratio was

  5. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  6. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

  7. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation. Progress report No. 1, October 1, 1985-July 25, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-01-01

    Objective is to investigate the feasibility of employing food irradiation technology to reduce or eliminate the threat of viral diseases contracted as a result of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish. Several recently published studies warn of the health risks associated with eating of raw shellfish - particularly American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and the hardshelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. This study addresses the possibility of reducing the incidence of molluscanborne diseases through the application of 60 Co gamma irradiation processing to effect the inactivation of pathogenic viruses in live, raw shwllfish. Dosimetry, D 10 doses, and organoleptic effects were studied

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  9. Effect of sex on the fillet quality of Nile tilapia fed varying lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Molnár

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sex and three different oil supplementations on main production traits, and fatty acid composition of the fillet and gonads was investigated in Nile tilapia. Males and females had significantly different final weights owing to the occasional reproduction of fish. Diets had no significant effects on the main production traits. The percentage of ALA in the fillet was significantly higher in the males in all diets. Significant differences were found between the two sexes in the n-3 PUFA, resulting in a higher n-3/ n-6 ratio in the males. MUFA and n-6 PUFA percentages and EPA/DHA ratio in the fillet were affected by the fat sources in the diet. The proportion of the main fatty acids showed significant changes in the gonads. Both sex and the diet had a significant effect on LA, AA, and DHA percentages. In case of EPA the males had significantly higher values than the females. ALA was affected by the different diets, the fillets of the LO group containing the highest percentage Regarding the main FA groups, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, n-3/n-6 ratio and the DHA/EPA ratio were affected by sex and diets.

  10. Genetic parameters for fillet traits and body measurements in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fillet weight is an economically important trait in Nile tilapia production for the European market which asks for fish with average body weights of at least 700 g. Genetic parameters to design or optimize breeding programs for these body weights are lacking. In an earlier study we showed that high

  11. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  12. The effect of nisin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on refrigerated patin fillet quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilla, S. N.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of nisin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis with spraying method application on quality of patin fillet during refrigerated storage (4±1°C) was investigated. The quality of patin fillet based on total plate count (TPC), pH, TVB-N, and TBA values during 16 days at 4±1°C. Completely Randomized Design (CDR) was used in one factor (nisin activity) at 0 IU/ml, 500 IU/ml, 1000 IU/ml, and 2000 IU/ml. The observation was done at 0, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 16th days of storage. The result showed that variation of nisin activity significantly affected the quality of fillet according to TPC, pH, and TVB-N values, however no significant difference on the obtained of TBA value. Nisin in 500 IU/ml, 1000 IU/ml, and 2000 IU/ml could extend the shelf-life of fillet until 4th, 8th, and 12th days respectively based on standard in all parameters.

  13. Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Juan, Edith M

    2000-04-01

    Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins, obtained from Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in shellstocks of green mussels, was determined by subjecting the semi-purified toxin extract as well as the shellstocks of green mussels to high doses of ionizing radiation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The concentration of the PSP toxins was determined by the Standard Mouse Bioassay (SMB) method. The radiation assistance of the toxins was determined by plotting the PSP toxin concentration versus applied dose in a semilog paper. The D{sub 10} value or decimal reduction dose was obtained from the straight line which is the dose required to reduce the toxicity level by 90%. The effects of irradiation on the quality of green mussels in terms of its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were also conducted. The effect of irradiation on the fatty acid components of green mussels was determined by gas chromatography. Radiation resistance of the PSP toxins was determined to be lower in samples with initially high toxicity level as compared with samples with initially low toxicity level. The D{sub 10} values of samples with initially high PSP level were 28.5 kGy in shellstocks of green musssels and 17.5 kGy in the semi-purified toxin extract. When the PSP level was low initially, the D{sub 10} values were as high as 57.5 and 43.5 kGy in shellstocks of green mussels for the two trials, and 43.0 kGy in semi-purified toxin extract. The microbial load of the irradiated mussels was remarkably reduced. No differnce in color and odor characteristics were observed in the mussel samples subjected to varying doses of ionizing radiation. There was darkening in the color of mussel meat and its juice. The concentration of the fatty acid components in the fresh green mussels were considerably higher as compared with those present in the irradiated mussels, though some volatile fatty acids were detected as a result of irradiation. (Author)

  14. Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, Edith M.

    2000-04-01

    Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins, obtained from Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in shellstocks of green mussels, was determined by subjecting the semi-purified toxin extract as well as the shellstocks of green mussels to high doses of ionizing radiation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The concentration of the PSP toxins was determined by the Standard Mouse Bioassay (SMB) method. The radiation assistance of the toxins was determined by plotting the PSP toxin concentration versus applied dose in a semilog paper. The D 10 value or decimal reduction dose was obtained from the straight line which is the dose required to reduce the toxicity level by 90%. The effects of irradiation on the quality of green mussels in terms of its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were also conducted. The effect of irradiation on the fatty acid components of green mussels was determined by gas chromatography. Radiation resistance of the PSP toxins was determined to be lower in samples with initially high toxicity level as compared with samples with initially low toxicity level. The D 10 values of samples with initially high PSP level were 28.5 kGy in shellstocks of green musssels and 17.5 kGy in the semi-purified toxin extract. When the PSP level was low initially, the D 10 values were as high as 57.5 and 43.5 kGy in shellstocks of green mussels for the two trials, and 43.0 kGy in semi-purified toxin extract. The microbial load of the irradiated mussels was remarkably reduced. No differnce in color and odor characteristics were observed in the mussel samples subjected to varying doses of ionizing radiation. There was darkening in the color of mussel meat and its juice. The concentration of the fatty acid components in the fresh green mussels were considerably higher as compared with those present in the irradiated mussels, though some volatile fatty acids were detected as a result of irradiation. (Author)

  15. Fatty Acid Profile of Sunshine Bass: II. Profile Change Differs Among Fillet Lipid Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, Jesse T; Lewis, Heidi A; Kohler, Christopher C

    2008-07-01

    Fatty acid (FA) profile of fish tissue mirrors dietary FA profile and changes in a time-dependent manner following a change in dietary FA composition. To determine whether FA profile change varies among lipid classes, we evaluated the FA composition of fillet cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) of sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) raised on feeds containing fish oil or 50:50 blend of fish oil and coconut, grapeseed, linseed, or poultry oil, with or without implementation of a finishing period (100% FO feed) prior to harvest. Each lipid class was associated with a generalized FA signature, irrespective of nutritional history: fillet PL was comprised largely of saturated FA (SFA), long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA), and total n-3 FA; fillet TAG was higher in MC-PUFA and total n-6 FA; and fillet CE was highest in monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Neutral lipids reflected dietary composition in a near-direct fashion; conversely, PL showed evidence of selectivity for MC- and LC-PUFA. Shorter-chain SFA were not strongly reflected within any lipid fraction, even when dietary availability was high, suggesting catabolism of these FA. FA metabolism in SB is apparently characterized by a division between saturated and unsaturated FA, whereby LC-PUFA are preferentially incorporated into tissues and SFA are preferentially oxidized for energy production. We demonstrated provision of SFA in grow-out feeds for SB, instead MC-PUFA which compete for tissue deposition, meets energy demands and allows for maximum inclusion of LC-PUFA within fillet lipids.

  16. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  17. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-09

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  18. The first closure of shellfish harvesting due to domoic acid in Puget ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the early 1990s, blooms containing multiple. Pseudo-nitzschia species have been observed in Puget Sound and low levels of DA have been detected in shellfish, but highly toxic, nearly monospecific blooms had not been observed. We speculate that a more toxic 'oceanic' strain may recently have been advected from ...

  19. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated shellfish and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Linke, B.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A multilateral study on common shrimps, Norway lobster and paprika powder. The use of ESR spectroscopy in shellfish and some types of spice for the detection of previous irradiation is possible even on a routine basis. The radicals producing the specific ESR signals observed could at least in part be identified (CO 2 radicals in shellfish, cellulose radicals in paprica) and the overall rate of correct classifications was seen to be very high for this multicentre study. The multicentre study has further been able to prove that previous reservations about ESR as a method of detection are no longer justified. The authors hold that there is no reason in principle why ESR should not be on the list of officially recommended methods for the examination of shellfish and spices according to paragraph35 LMBG. Nevertheless, the two groups of food at issue here need to be investigated in more detail in a number of further research projects, some of which are mentioned in the following: -investigations on further species of shellfish so as to obtain a broad range of spectra for routine controls; - structural identification of radiation-specific radicals generated in addition to the CO 2 radical; - investigations into the influences of origin, time of fishing and stage of development on the ESR spectra of fishes; - examinations of further spices; - elucidation of links between cellulose contents and radical concentration. (orig./vhe) [de

  20. 77 FR 36260 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Project AGENCY: National Oceanic..., as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be submitted on or... for a new collection of information. The Puget Sound estuary provides one of the most valuable...

  1. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  2. 76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    .... vulnificus control plan; 11. In conjunction with FDA, conduct of retail and processing plant product sampling... levels of Vibrios; and; 12. In conjunction with FDA, conduct of a retail shellfish study to look at the...; funding support to research the influence of water and air temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients on...

  3. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Heide, van der T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g. seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associated communities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy

  4. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; van der Heide, T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; van der Reijden, K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g.seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associatedcommunities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy of

  5. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; van der Heide, T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; van der Reijden, K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g. seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associated communities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy

  6. Detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by nested reverse transcription-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, L.; Medici, de D.; Morace, G.; Fiore, A.; Scalfaro, C.; Beneduce, F.; Toti, L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the detection of HAV in shellfish, based on the use of guanidinium isothiocyanate-contg. soln. for RNA extn. and purifn. steps, followed by nested PCR, is hereby proposed. Tests were carried out on mollusc samples spiked with HAV strain FG. Results showed that in samples subjected only

  7. Environmental contaminants in fillets of sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2008 and 2010, skin‐on fillets from seven dead adult sea‐run Atlantic salmon from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment (GOM DPS) were analyzed for...

  8. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    . The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing......Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  9. A New Approach to Predict the Fish Fillet Shelf-Life in Presence of Natural Preservative Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Alessandro; Giarratana, Filippo; Valenti, Davide; Muscolino, Daniele; Parisi, Roberta; Parco, Alessio; Marotta, Stefania; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio

    2017-04-13

    Three data sets concerning the behaviour of spoilage flora of fillets treated with natural preservative substances (NPS) were used to construct a new kind of mathematical predictive model. This model, unlike other ones, allows expressing the antibacterial effect of the NPS separately from the prediction of the growth rate. This approach, based on the introduction of a parameter into the predictive primary model, produced a good fitting of observed data and allowed characterising quantitatively the increase of shelf-life of fillets.

  10. Atlantic salmon skin and fillet color changes effected by perimortem handling stress, rigor mortis, and ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, U; Misimi, E

    2008-03-01

    The changes in skin and fillet color of anesthetized and exhausted Atlantic salmon were determined immediately after killing, during rigor mortis, and after ice storage for 7 d. Skin color (CIE L*, a*, b*, and related values) was determined by a Minolta Chroma Meter. Roche SalmoFan Lineal and Roche Color Card values were determined by a computer vision method and a sensory panel. Before color assessment, the stress levels of the 2 fish groups were characterized in terms of white muscle parameters (pH, rigor mortis, and core temperature). The results showed that perimortem handling stress initially significantly affected several color parameters of skin and fillets. Significant transient fillet color changes also occurred in the prerigor phase and during the development of rigor mortis. Our results suggested that fillet color was affected by postmortem glycolysis (pH drop, particularly in anesthetized fillets), then by onset and development of rigor mortis. The color change patterns during storage were different for the 2 groups of fish. The computer vision method was considered suitable for automated (online) quality control and grading of salmonid fillets according to color.

  11. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

  12. Effects of Chilling and Partial Freezing on Rigor Mortis Changes of Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Fillets: Cathepsin Activity, Protein Degradation and Microstructure of Myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Han; Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of chilling and partial freezing on rigor mortis changes in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), pH, cathepsin B, cathepsin B+L activities, SDS-PAGE of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, texture, and changes in microstructure of fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after slaughter. The results indicated that pH of fillets (6.50 to 6.80) was appropriate for cathepsin function during the rigor mortis. For fillets that were chilled and partially frozen, the cathepsin activity in lysosome increased consistently during the first 12 h, followed by a decrease from the 12 to 24 h, which paralleled an increase in activity in heavy mitochondria, myofibrils and sarcoplasm. There was no significant difference in cathepsin activity in lysosomes between fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C (P > 0.05). Partially frozen fillets had greater cathepsin activity in heavy mitochondria than chilled samples from the 48 to 72 h. In addition, partially frozen fillets showed higher cathepsin activity in sarcoplasm and lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils compared with chilled fillets. Correspondingly, we observed degradation of α-actinin (105 kDa) by cathepsin L in chilled fillets and degradation of creatine kinase (41 kDa) by cathepsin B in partially frozen fillets during the rigor mortis. The decline of hardness for both fillets might be attributed to the accumulation of cathepsin in myofibrils from the 8 to 24 h. The lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils for fillets that were partially frozen might induce a more intact cytoskeletal structure than fillets that were chilled. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The effects of washing with Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Zakipour Rahimabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of tamarind water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage. Treatments of this study were unwashed samples (control, and samples washed with 1% and 2% tamarind water solution. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory analysis including total viable count (TVC, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile base (TVB-N and pH were measured during 15 day storage at refrigerator (with 3 days intervals. Proximate analysis of samples also measured at day 0. TVC content was 0.93, 0.50 and 0.10 log CFU/g for control and treatments 1% and 2%, respectively and reached to 6.24, 5.82 and 5.21 log CFU/g at the end of storage period. At the end of storage period, the PV, TBA and TVB-N content were 8.4, 4.3, and 3.0 meq O2/Kg for control, 2.75, 1.35, and 0.50 mg/100g for 1% treatment, and 33.17, 23.90, and 22.10 mg N/100g for 2% treatment, respectively. This results showed the positive effect of tamarind to inhibit and delay fish fillet spoilage. According to sensory evaluation, the density of 1% tamarind was selected as the best density.

  14. Chemometrics applied to the incorporation of omega-3 in tilapia fillet feed flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding flaxseed flour to the diet of Nile tilapia on the fatty acid composition of fillets using chemometrics. A traditional and an experimental diet containing flaxseed flour were used to feed the fish for 60 days. An increase of 18:3 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 and a decrease of 18:2 n-6 were observed in the tilapia fillets fed the experimental diet. There was a reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio. A period of 45 days of incorporation caused a significant change in tilapia chemical composition. Principal Component Analysis showed that the time periods of 45 and 60 days positively contributed to the total content of n-3, LNA, and DHA, highlighting the effect of omega-3 incorporation in the treatment containing flaxseed flour.

  15. Seasonal and sexual variations of fatty acid composition in fillet of Capoeta erhani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Emre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lowest lipid levels of Capoeta erhani observed in winter and vice versa in summer. The fatty acid composition of the fillets was significantly different among seasons (P0.05. The ratios of the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs were higher than half of the total fatty acids among all seasons. The level of PUFA was highest in autumn (25.91%, and lowest in summer (22.11%. Among seasons and sexes, the levels of total n3 PUFAs in total fatty acids changed from 15.43% to 21.89% and n6 PUFAs from 3.8% to 7.97%, respectively. The level of n3 PUFAs was present in excess that of the n6 PUFAs. The ratios of the n3 PUFAs to n6 PUFAs in the fillets of C. erhani were highest in autumn for both sexes and remarkably influenced by seasons.

  16. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish.

  17. Preliminary studies on nutritive and organoleptic properties in processed fish fillets obtained from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boiling, frying, and roasting methods on nutrients and properties some of marine fishes were studies. AOAC official methods were used for the analyses of the samples. Frying reduced the protein content of Nemipterus japonicas, while roasting reduced the protein content of Carangoides malabaricus and Saurida undosquamis. Fresh and fried C. malabaricus had 71.2% and 57.05% protein content, respectively, while N. japonicas had 57.39% and 47.51%, respectively. The highest oil content in C.malabaricus was 16.80%, followed by N.japonicus 12.80%; while the lowest oil content in S.undosquamis was 5.88%. N.japonicusis protein content reduced with frying. Some cooking methods used in the processing can have an effect on of fish nutrient composition. The texture of fried and boiled fish fillets significantly differ from that of the roasted fillets (p<0.05.

  18. Quantification of fatty acids in salmon fillets conserved by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Menoci Gonçalves

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid contents and the composition of fatty acids of fillets from Chilean salmon (Salmo salar were determined under different conservation methods: fresh salmon, frozen salmon, water-conserved canned salmon and frozen salmon in long-term storage. Fatty acid contents were determined by gas chromatography. The fillets had high lipid levels, ranging between 9.71 and 12.86%. All samples presented high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, between 363.69 and 425.30 mg g-1 of total lipids, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (294.46 - 342.45 mg g-1 of total lipids and saturated fatty acids (203.32 - 223.17 mg g-1 of total lipids. Although samples revealed different lipid contents, all proved to be great sources of omega-3 fatty acids, regardless of the manner of conservation.

  19. Improving the safety and quality of raw tuna fillets by x-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, raw tuna fillet (25 g) samples were inoculated by immersing in 0.1% peptone water that contained 108-9 CFU ml-1 of a three-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica for 1 min. The samples were then air dried at 22 oC for 30 min and were packaged separately in sterilized bags prior to X-ra...

  20. Modeling and monitoring of tooth fillet crack growth in dynamic simulation of spur gear set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien; Thomas, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This study integrates a linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis of the tooth fillet crack propagation into a nonlinear dynamic model of spur gear sets. An original formulation establishes the rigidity of sound and damaged teeth. The formula incorporates the contribution of the flexible gear body and real crack trajectories in the fillet zone. The work also develops a KI prediction formula. A validation of the equation estimates shows that the predicted KI are in close agreement with published numerical and experimental values. The representation also relies on the Paris-Erdogan equation completed with crack closure effects. The analysis considers that during dN fatigue cycles, a harmonic mean of ΔK assures optimal evaluations. The paper evaluates the influence of the mesh frequency distance from the resonances of the system. The obtained results indicate that while the dependence may demonstrate obvious nonlinearities, the crack progression rate increases with a mesh frequency augmentation. The study develops a tooth fillet crack propagation detection procedure based on residual signals (RS) prepared in the frequency domain. The proposed approach accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. The standard deviation and mean values of the RS are evaluated as gear condition descriptors. A trend tracking of their responses obtained from a moving linear regression completes the analysis. Globally, the results show that, regardless of the reference signal, both descriptors are sensitive to the tooth fillet crack and sharply react to tooth breakage. On average, the mean value detected the crack propagation after a size increase of 3.69 percent as compared to the reference condition, whereas the standard deviation required crack progressions of 12.24 percent. Moreover, the mean descriptor shows evolutions closer to the crack size progression.

  1. Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Cooking Loss Classification of Fresh Broiler Breast Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking loss (CL is a critical quality attribute directly relating to meat juiciness. The potential of the hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was investigated for non-invasively classifying and visualizing the CL of fresh broiler breast meat. Hyperspectral images of total 75 fresh broiler breast fillets were acquired by the system operating in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR, 400–1000 nm range. Mean spectra were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs determined by pure muscle tissue pixels. CL was firstly measured by calculating the weight loss in cooking, and then fillets were grouped into high-CL and low-CL according to the threshold of 20%. The classification methods partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and radial basis function-support vector machine (RBF-SVM were applied, respectively, to determine the optimal spectral calibration strategy. Results showed that the PLS-DA model developed using the data, that is, first-order derivative (Der1 of VNIR full spectra, performed best with correct classification rates (CCRs of 0.90 and 0.79 for the calibration and prediction sets, respectively. Furthermore, to simplify the optimal PLS-DA model and make it practical, effective wavelengths were individually selected using uninformative variable elimination (UVE and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS. Through performance comparison, the CARS-PLS-DA combination was identified as the optimal method and the PLS-DA model built with 18 informative wavelengths selected by CARS resulted in good CCRs of 0.86 and 0.79. Finally, classification maps were created by predicting CL categories of each pixel in the VNIR hyperspectral images using the CARS-PLS-DA model, and the general CL categories of fillets were readily discernible. The overall results were encouraging and showed the promising potential of the VNIR HSI technique for classifying fresh broiler breast fillets into different CL categories.

  2. Shelf Life of Tilapia Fillets Treated with low dose Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W.S.; El-Mossalami, I.I.

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial load (total bacterial count), Psychrophilic count, chemical and sensory examinations in Tilapia fish fillets were determined to evaluate its sanitary status and to increase its storage period during storage at -18 degree C for one year. The experiment was carried out at the time of receiving the samples and after gamma radiation treatment with dose levels of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The initial total bacterial count was 5.4x10 0 cfu/gm and the psychrophilic count was 4x10 5 cfu/gm; it was slightly increased during freezing storage. The chemical parameters were more indicative in evaluating the shelf life of frozen fish; as they exceeded the permissible limits, so that the frozen non-irradiated samples were rejected after 6 months. The exposure to gamma irradiation at a dose of 1 kGy extended the storage time of the samples to 9 months while irradiation with 3 kGy extended the storage time of the samples to 12 months without changing its quality attributes. The quality during storage at -18 degree C of non irradiated and irradiated fish fillets was investigated every 3 months for one year by measuring the bacterial counts, chemical parameters and sensorial evaluation of the samples to study the effect of irradiation on increasing the storage time of fish fillets. So, it is recommended that fish fillets should be properly cleaned, packaged and exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy to extend its freezing storage period

  3. RANCIDITY DEVELOPMENT DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF FILLETS FROM GILTHEAD SEABREAM (Sparus aurata REARED IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  4. Stable isotope database - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Fish and Shellfish Surveys (F123) Data (1948-1992) (NODC Accession 0014195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data from field sampling of marine fish and shellfish. The data derive from analyses of midwater or bottom tow catches and provide...

  6. Oil spill off the coast of Guimaras Island, Philippines: Distributions and changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Añasco, Nathaniel C; Iwai, Takenori; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-11-30

    The sinking of the Solar 1 tanker caused serious heavy oil pollution around Guimaras Island, Philippines. In the present study, variations of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs (alkPAHs) in some shellfish were investigated around Guimaras Island and other small islands from 3months to 5years after the spill. The total PAHs and alkPAHs in shellfish were detected in high concentrations at 448 and 33,666ng/g dry weight, respectively, in November 2006. The concentrations of alkPAHs gradually decreased, while the parent PAHs in shellfish degraded more slowly than the alkPAHs, which was likely due to the persistent characteristics of PAHs. The risks based on European Union regulations were insignificant in 2008, but total PAHs in shellfish were still over 8 times higher at the investigated sites in November 2011 than that before the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiology, sensory evaluation and shelf life of irradiated chicken breast fillets stored in air or vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of different packaging methods (air and vacuum combined with irradiation (0.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on the preservation of chicken breast fillets stored at 1ºC for up to 18 days by sensorial test, determination of pH and bacterial growth. The findings indicated that the post-irradiation lag phase increased with the dose, leading to an extension in shelf-life. Vacuum-packed samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy exhibited the longest shelf life. Among the analyzed bacteria, coliforms and Listeria spp. were most sensitive to gamma radiation. All the fillets acquired more attractive coloration and better overall impression with irradiation. The combined use of vacuum packaging and irradiation (3.0 kGy reduced the microbial populations without causing change in pH and yielded a significant shelf-life extension of refrigerated fillets, besides improving its appearance.

  8. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  9. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom Reservoir, California, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom Reservoir in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fillets ranged from 0.031 to 0.20 micrograms per gram wet weight in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples and 0.071 to 0.16 micrograms per gram wet weight in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) samples. Mercury concentration was 0.98 microgram per gram wet weight in a single spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) sample, which was the only one in the sample set which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  10. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Influence of ionizing radiation on the fatty acid composition of herring fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.; Paul, G.; Ehlermann, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation (absorbed dose: 50 kGy, dose-rate: 2.9 kGy/h) on the distribution of fatty acid components in herring fillets has been examined using high-resolution gas chromatographic methods. Radiolytic treatment at 0 0 C and exclusion of atmospheric oxygen caused no significant decrease in the relative amounts of the constituent saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid components. Specifically, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), which are of particular physiological interest were not affected by γ-rays, even after additional storage of the irradiated material at 0 0 C for 4 weeks. Irradiation of oil extracted from herring fillets or of herring oil/water emulsions under aerobic conditions, however, destroyed eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid significantly. The loss of radio-resistance - as compared to the radiation-induced processes in the fillets - is explained by the absence of proteins, which effectively protect the lipid components from radiolytic decomposition. It is concluded that the commercial radiation processing of herring at the recommended dose levels (1 to 2 kGy) should not reduce the content of unsaturated fatty acid components. (author)

  12. Effect of a traditional marinating on properties of rainbow trout fillet during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabi, Siavash; Zarei, Mehdi; Chadorbaf, Milad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using food additives from natural sources to improve taste and also extend the shelf-life of semi-preserved foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to examine the chemical and microbiological changes promoted by a local marinating process in rainbow trout fillets during chilled storage. Fish fillets were immersed in marinades and stored at 4 ˚C for 10 days and were analyzed for total volatile basic nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbitoric acid (TBA), water holding capacity (WHC), pH, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial count every two days. Variations in TBA and WHC were not statistically significant between marinated and control groups. The values of TVN, pH, total psychrophilic bacteria count (TPC) and total mesophilic bacteria count (TMC) in marinated samples were significantly lower than controls. The most obvious finding of this study was that traditional marinated rainbow trout fillet stored in 4 ˚C had no undesirable changes at least for eight days.

  13. Effects of transportation stress on quality and sensory profiles of Nile tilapia fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated pre-slaughter stress and its influence on the stress indicators, quality characteristics and sensory characteristics of Nile tilapia fillets. To this end, two experiments were conducted: (1 two transportation times (60 and 240 min, with a density of 200 kg m−3, were compared to control treatment fish (in which the fish were removed from the net cage and immediately euthanized; and (2 two transportation densities (100 and 400 kg m−3, transported for 180 min, compared with control treatment fish. In experiment 1, the transportation time of 60 min resulted in higher levels of serum cortisol and plasma glucose compared to the transportation time of 240 min and the control. Fish fillets transported for 240 min had higher water-holding capacity, less water loss by pressure and higher levels of juiciness compared to fish transported for 60 min. Color, pH and water loss during cooking were not affected by transportation time. In experiment 2, transportation densities of 100 and 400 kg m−3 did not significantly affect the stress indicators nor the instrumental quality parameters of the fillets, but fish transported at 400 kg m−3 showed better visual acceptance by panellists.

  14. Application of Highly Purified Electrolyzed Chlorine Dioxide for Tilapia Fillet Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop an electrolysis method to generate high-concentration chlorine dioxide (ClO2 for tilapia fillet disinfection. The designed generator produced up to 3500 ppm of ClO2 at up to 99% purity. Tilapia fillets were soaked in a 400 ppm ClO2 solution for 5, 10, and 25 min. Results show that total plate counts of tilapia, respectively, decreased by 5.72 to 3.23, 2.10, and 1.09 log CFU/g. In addition, a 200 ppm ClO2 solution eliminated coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in 5 min with shaking treatment. Furthermore, ClO2 and trihalomethanes (THMs residuals on tilapia fillets were analyzed by GC/MS and were nondetectable (GC-MS detection limit was 0.12 ppb. The results conform to Taiwan’s environmental protection regulations and act governing food sanitation.

  15. Application of Chitosan as Antibacterial for Pangasius Fillet at Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Damayanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis research were to obtain the optimal concentration of chitosan as an antibacterial material wich had the longest of storage period of pangasius fillet at low temperature storage (5-10oC. The method used is an experimental method with a completely randomized design, four treatments and three replications. Pangasius fillet was soaked with chitosan 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% for 3 minutes, then packed with styrofoam and plastic wrap and stored at low teperature. The observation were made on day 1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th ,7th, 9th,10th, 11th and 12th. The parameters observed total bacterial colonies, the degree of acidity (pH, weight loss, and antibacterial activity of chitosan using disc diffusion methods. The conclusion of research was that the 2% chitosan is optimal concentration for pangasius fillet storage at a low temperature until day 11th, with a total 6.7 X105 cfu/g of bacterial colonies, pH 6.67 and total 6,78 % of weight loss.Chitosan also has a higher antibacterial capability against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria than Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive bacteria.

  16. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shengjun; Yang, Xianqing; Li, Laihao

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic products are extremely perishable food commodities. Developing methods to keep the freshness of fish represents a major task of the fishery processing industry. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as food preservative is a novel approach. In the present study, the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi was examined. Fish fillets were dipped in Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 (obtained from China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) suspension as LAB-treated group. Changes in K-value, APC, sensory properties and microbial flora were analyzed. Results showed that LAB treatment slowed the increase of K-value and APC in the earlier storage, and caused a smooth decrease in sensory score. Gram-negative bacteria dominated during refrigerated storage, with Pseudomonas and Aeromonas being relatively abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 had no obvious inhibitory effect against these Gram-negatives. However, Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 changed the composition of Gram-positive bacteria. No Micrococcus were detected and the proportion of Staphylococcus decreased in the spoiled LAB-treated samples. The period that tilapia fillets could be used as sashimi material extended from 24 h to 48 h after LAB treatment. The potential of using LAB in sashimi processing was confirmed.

  17. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.; Astrup, J.; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  18. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were sign...

  19. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E; Astrup, J; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  20. Teknik Pengawetan Fillet Ikan Nila Merah dengan Senyawa Anti Bakteri asal Lactobacillus Acidophilus dan Bifido Bacteria Biffidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Saputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red tilapia is a good commodity to be developed because it has a high nutritional value composition, with a protein content 17.8%, fat 2.8%, and others composition. The fillet of red tilapia fish is easy to spoil, because of S. aureus, Salmonella sp., and other microbes. Many methods are used to save and preserve the quality of fillet, such fillet preparation through good sanitation practices, cooling process, but the effort were not optimal. The objectives of this study were to 1 evaluate the potency of antibacterial produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria biffidum to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria that contaminated the red tilapia fillet; 2 evaluate the effect of antibacterial compounds produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria biffidum of inhibiting the setback fillet quality, 3 determine the shelf life of red tilapia fillet at room temperature. Antibacterial activity test is done by using the well diffusion method; the rate of deterioration of quality of fish tests done by observing the organoleptic parameters, pH measurement test, total volatile base method. Total number of bacteria were performed by Standard Plate Count (SPC test. The LAB’s are able to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa about 8.67-9.00 mm and Listeria monocytogenes about 8.33-9.00 mm through the well diffusion method. pH values about 5.71-5.74, TVB values about 1,26-21.43 with SPC test about 1.39-4.83 CFU/mL. The antibacterial compounds could inhibit  the rate of deterioration of quality red tilapia fillets until 14 hours.

  1. Paralytic shellfish poison algal biotoxins: Sardinia report 2002-2011 and non-compliance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppa Lorenzoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several microalgae of the genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenelle can produce an algal biotoxin, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP that can be accumulated in the shellfish edible tissues making them hazardous to the consumer’s health. In this paper we report i the results of PSP toxins survey carried out by mouse bioassays (mouse test AOAC 958.08 on 7457 samples of bivalve molluscs farmed in Sardinia and in other European countries and marketed in Sardinia region from 2002 to 2011, and ii the management of positive cases. Based on our experience it is very important to strictly apply the planned activities in order to prevent any risk and to protect the consumer’s and producer’s health.

  2. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John F.; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  3. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed....... importance because of the increased use of chemical methods instead of mouse bioassay for the detection of DSP toxicity....

  4. Modeling of Faecal Contamination in Water from Catchment to Shellfish Growing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Perenne, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique

    2009-01-01

    During rainstorms, watersheds can introduce large amounts of faecal pollution into the rivers and sea, leading to shellfish contamination. In this study, we assessed Escherichia coli fluxes from a catchment, and their impact on estuarine water quality, using two assembled models. For the catchment, the agro-hydrological model SWAT was implemented integrating land uses, soil, topography, rainfall and other climatic data on Daoulas watershed (France). Initially, the SWAT model was calibrated an...

  5. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-01-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently ...

  6. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  7. Time-series prediction of shellfish farm closure: A comparison of alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish farms are closed for harvest when microbial pollutants are present. Such pollutants are typically present in rainfall runoff from various land uses in catchments. Experts currently use a number of observable parameters (river flow, rainfall, salinity as proxies to determine when to close farms. We have proposed using the short term historical rainfall data as a time-series prediction problem where we aim to predict the closure of shellfish farms based only on rainfall. Time-series event prediction consists of two steps: (i feature extraction, and (ii prediction. A number of data mining challenges exist for these scenarios: (i which feature extraction method best captures the rainfall pattern over successive days that leads to opening or closure of the farms?, (ii The farm closure events occur infrequently and this leads to a class imbalance problem; the question is what is the best way to deal with this problem? In this paper we have analysed and compared different combinations of balancing methods (under-sampling and over-sampling, feature extraction methods (cluster profile, curve fitting, Fourier Transform, Piecewise Aggregate Approximation, and Wavelet Transform and learning algorithms (neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, and Bayesian Network to predict closure events accurately considering the above data mining challenges. We have identified the best combination of techniques to accurately predict shellfish farm closure from rainfall, given the above data mining challenges.

  8. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  10. Comparison of hematologic and serologic profiles of broiler birds with normal and severe degrees of white striping in breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Hargis, B M; Apple, J K; Coon, C; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is the white striation occasionally observed parallel to the direction of muscle fibers in broiler breast fillets and thighs at the processing plant. Broiler breast fillets can be categorized as normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), or severe (SEV) based on the degree of white striping. Histologically, SEV fillets are characterized by the highest degree of degeneration of muscle fibers along with fibrosis and lipidosis when compared with NORM. The present study was undertaken to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles of broilers with NORM and SEV degrees of white striping to get more information on the systemic changes associated with the condition. Day-old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain were grown on the same diet in 6 replicate pens (n = 32 birds/pen). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the wing vein of each bird on the day before processing for analyzing hematologic and serologic profiles. At 63 d, the birds were weighed and processed in a commercial inline processing system. Weight of the butterfly fillets, liver, and abdominal fat pad were recorded. Left-side fillets were scored to obtain the degree of white striping for each bird. Representative samples for NORM (n = 24) and SEV (n = 17) categories were selected to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles. The SEV birds had greater (P white striping. The elevated serum enzyme levels confirm the muscle damage associated with the degenerative myopathy in SEV birds.

  11. Effect of electron irradiation and bayberry polyphenols on the quality change of yellowfin tuna fillets during refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Tingting; Jin, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jinjie; Xu, Dalun; Yang, Wenge; Lou, Qiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic effect of bayberry polyphenols and electron irradiation in controlling the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of raw yellowfin tuna fillets at 4 °C for 7 days. The results indicated that the initial values of each index were dose-dependent. The dose of 5 kGy notably accelerated adenosine triphosphate degradation and lipid oxidation, while the doses of 1 and 3 kGy had acceptable sensory quality and yielded a shelf-life of 5 days. The addition of bayberry polyphenols had evident effect in inhibiting freshness breakdown, bacteria growth, histamine formation, and discoloration of tuna fillets. Bayberry polyphenols, as an antioxidant, could inhibit lipid oxidation and sensory side-effects made by irradiation up to 3 kGy. The dose of 1–3 kGy coupled with bayberry polyphenols was optimum to preserve tuna fillets which prolonged the shelf-life to 7 days. - Highlights: • Electron irradiation inhibited bacteria growth and histamine formation. • Electron irradiation increased the red color of tuna fillets. • 5 kGy irradiation decreased the sensory quality of raw tuna fillets. • Bayberry polyphenols combined with irradiation could retard the quality change. • Bayberry polyphenols could be used as natural antioxidant and color fixative.

  12. Fish gelatin combined with chitosan coating inhibits myofibril degradation of golden pomfret (Trachinotus blochii) fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Bansal, Nidhi; Yang, Hongshun

    2016-06-01

    Coating of gelatin and chitosan can improve fish fillet's quality, but the mechanism is not clear. Chitosan/gelatin coatings significantly prevented deterioration of golden pomfret fillet at 4 °C. Chitosan with 7.2% gelatin group showed the best effect on preserving the length of myofibril, which remained greater than 15 μm at day 17 of storage, while for control, chitosan and chitosan combined with 3.6% gelatin group, it was 5.03, 10.04 and 9.02 μm, respectively. The MALDI-TOF MS result revealed that the coatings slowed down the protein deterioration of fillet. On days 13 and 17, the myosin light chain and myoglobin in control group degraded, while the two proteins still existed in chitosan/gelatin coated groups. Overall, the chitosan with 7.2% gelatin coating had the best effect on preserving fillet's quality during storage. The coating may exert its protective effect via inhibiting myofibril degradation within fillet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination of vibrio cholerae El Tor, in jurel fillets (trachurus picturatus murphyi) by gamma radiation and product organoleptic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Kahn, G.; Bernuy, B.; Vivanco, M.

    1999-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to establish D 10 value for vibrio cholerae 'El Tor' in fresh jurel fillets. D value was estimated in 122 Gy, suggesting an elimination dose of 0,96 kGy (8D), and evaluating a life span extension for the 1 kGy dose, also suggested as optimal dose. Based on the method of least squares, life span extension for appearance, smell and texture of radiated raw fillets was estimated in 20, 15 and 32 days, respectively, compared with 13, 8 and 16 days estimated for non-radiated samples. Acceptance time for flavor and texture of radiated cooked fillets was estimated in 27 and 22 days, respectively, compared with 10 and 13 days estimated for non-radiated fillets, under the same conditions. Based on a partially unsteady statistical design, reliability limits during storage at 0-1 o C for a period of 15 days were determined, considering smell evaluation of raw products as the most reliable one. Pretreatment with sodium tripoli phosphate, lead to a 2% reduction in the exudation of radiated fillets with respect to the non-radiated ones the fifteenth day of storage. (authors)

  14. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  16. Evaluation of Rapid, Early Warning Approaches to Track Shellfish Toxins Associated with Dinophysis and Alexandrium Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa K. Hattenrath-Lehmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP, respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2. Multiple species of wild shellfish were also collected during Dinophysis blooms and used to compare toxin content using two different extraction techniques (single dispersive and double exhaustive and two different toxin analysis assays (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP2A for the measurement of DSP toxins. DSP toxins measured in the HP20 resin were significantly correlated (R2 = 0.7–0.9, p < 0.001 with total DSP toxins in shellfish, but were detected more than three weeks prior to detection in deployed mussels. Both resins adsorbed measurable levels of PSP toxins, but neither quantitatively tracked Alexandrium cell densities, toxicity in plankton or toxins in shellfish. DSP extraction and toxin analysis methods did not differ significantly (p > 0.05, were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98–0.99; p < 0.001 and provided complete recovery of DSP toxins from standard reference materials. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa were found to accumulate DSP toxins above federal and international standards (160 ng g−1 during Dinophysis blooms while Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and soft shell clams (Mya

  17. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  18. Effect of electron irradiation and bayberry polyphenols on the quality change of yellowfin tuna fillets during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Tingting; Jin, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jinjie; Xu, Dalun; Yang, Wenge; Lou, Qiaoming

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic effect of bayberry polyphenols and electron irradiation in controlling the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of raw yellowfin tuna fillets at 4 °C for 7 days. The results indicated that the initial values of each index were dose-dependent. The dose of 5 kGy notably accelerated adenosine triphosphate degradation and lipid oxidation, while the doses of 1 and 3 kGy had acceptable sensory quality and yielded a shelf-life of 5 days. The addition of bayberry polyphenols had evident effect in inhibiting freshness breakdown, bacteria growth, histamine formation, and discoloration of tuna fillets. Bayberry polyphenols, as an antioxidant, could inhibit lipid oxidation and sensory side-effects made by irradiation up to 3 kGy. The dose of 1-3 kGy coupled with bayberry polyphenols was optimum to preserve tuna fillets which prolonged the shelf-life to 7 days.

  19. Radiation decontamination of Bolti Nile fish (Tilapia nilotica) and its fillets from some pathogenic and market bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfouly, M.Z.; Abdelbaki, M.M.; Roushdy, M.M.; Taha, R.A.; Yousef, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Application of different dose levels of gamma radiation (0.25-3.0 KGy) on bolti fish resulted in remarkable suppression of the pathogenic organisms contaminating the samples. The D 10 values were found to be 0.31, 0.55 and 0.63 KGy for the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis respectively. It has been found that the dose of 3.0 KGy is almost sufficient for 5 log cycles reduction of strept. faecalis being the most radio-resistant species of these organisms. Irradiation considerably decreased the numbers of salmonella typhimurium artificially contaminated the whole bolti fish and bolti fillets. The D 10 value of S.thyphimurium for whole bolti fillets. For the reduction of 5 log cycles of S.typhimurium, radiation dose levels of at least 4.50 KGy for the whole fish and 2.0 KGy for fish fillets were required

  20. Microbiological changes occurring in trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. 1792) salted and treated with potassium sorbate during production and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksüztepe, Gülsüm; Gürel Inanli, Ayşe

    2007-08-15

    In this study, microbiological changes during processing and storage of salted-cured trout fillets treated with potassium sorbate were investigated. For this purpose, 10 and 15% (w/w) NaCl and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) potassium sorbate were applied to the fillets. The processed fillets were vacuum-packed and storage at 4 degrees C. The samples were analyzed in some periods of production and in the storage days of 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 for numbers of total mesophilic aerob, psycrophylic, yeast and mould. In conclusion, the microbiological quality of all samples treated with 15% NaCl and potassium sorbate were found better. Consequently, it can be concluded that the usage of potassium sorbate may be useful and a synergistic effect between salt and potassium sorbate determined.

  1. The shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets by chitosan coating combined with glycerol monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-08-01

    A novel chitosan-based coating solution was prepared by combining glycerol monolaurate (GML) for shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp fillets. The control and coated fillets were analyzed periodically for physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and shear force), microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacteria counts (PTC), Pseudomonads and H 2 S-producing bacteria) and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that chitosan-GML coated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan coating alone. In addition, 2% chitosan enriched with 0.3% GML showed the significant (Pchitosan coating enriched with GML was a promising method to extend the shelf life of refrigerated fillets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Analysis of banned veterinary drugs and herbicide residues in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Lin, Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seafood safety is a crucial public health concern for consumers. In this study, we applied a validated method to analyze the residue of banned veterinary drugs in shellfish, namely chloramphenicol, malachite green, leucomalachite green, and nitrofuran metabolites; additionally, the QuEChERS method was employed to detect 76 herbicides by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. In total, 42 shellfish samples, which included hard clams, freshwater clams, and oysters, were collected from aquafarms and production areas in Taiwan during 2012. Our results revealed 3.8 ng/g of chloramphenicol in one hard clam, 19.9–32.1 ng/g of ametryn in two hard clams, 16.1–60.1 ng/g of pendimethalin in four hard clams, and 17.0 ng/g of mefenacet in one oyster, indicating that 19.1% of the samples contained residues from banned veterinary drugs and pesticides. These data can be used to monitor the residue of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic organisms and as a reference for food safety. - Highlights: • A certified method was employed for analyzing residues of banned veterinary drugs and herbicides in shellfish samples. • The trace levels of chloramphenicol, ametryn, pendimethalin were detected in hard clam samples. • For ensuring food safety, continual monitoring of aquatic products is necessary.

  3. Development of automatic pre-tracking system for fillet weld based on laser trigonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Yu, Fusheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic fillet weld pre-tracking system for welding the work piece of lorry back boards with several bend in haul automobile is developed basing on laser trigonometry. The optical measuring head based on laser-PSD trigonometry is used as position sensor. It is placed in front of the traveling direction of welding wire to get the distances from welding wire to the two side boards of the welding lines, upper board and bottom board of the fillet weld respectively. A chip of AT89S52 is used as the micro controller in this system. The AC servomotors, ball-screws and straight guide rails constitute the sliding table to take welding wire move. The laser-PSD sensors pass through the vertical board, upper board and bottom board of the fillet weld when welding wire moves and then get the distance. The laser-PSD sensors output the analog signals. After A/D conversion, the digital signal is input into AT89S52 and calculated. Then the information of the position and lateral deviation of the welding wire when welding a certain position are gotten to control welding wires. So the weld pre-tracking for welding the work piece with long distance and large bend in haul automobile is realized. The position information is input into EEPROM to be saved for short time after handled by AT89S52. The information is as the welding position information as well as the speed adjusting data of the welding wire when it welds the several bend of the work piece. The practice indicates that this system has high pre-tracking precision, good anti-disturb ability, excellent reliability, easy operating ability and good adaptability to the field of production.

  4. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Descriptive sensory analysis of marinated and non-marinated wooden breast fillet portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A D; Bowker, B C; Zhuang, H; Chatterjee, D; Adhikari, K

    2018-05-14

    The wooden breast (WB) myopathy influences muscle composition and texture characteristics in broiler breast meat. It is unknown if marination reduces the negative influence of WB on meat sensory quality or if WB effects are uniform throughout the Pectoralis major. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of marination on the sensory attributes and instrumental shear force measurements of the ventral (skin-side) and dorsal (bone-side) portions of normal and severe WB meat. Sixty butterfly fillets (30 normal and 30 severe WB) were selected from the deboning line of a commercial processing plant. Individual fillets were portioned into ventral and dorsal halves. Portions from one side of each butterfly were used as non-marinated controls, and portions from the other side were vacuum-tumble marinated (16 rpm, -0.6 atm, 4°C, 20 min) with 20% (wt/wt) marinade to meat ratio. Marinade was formulated to target a concentration of 0.75% (w/v) salt and 0.45% (w/v) sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Descriptive sensory analysis (9 trained panelists) was conducted to evaluate visual, texture, and flavor attributes (0-15 point scale) of breast portions along with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant interaction effects between WB and marination were not observed for the sensory attributes. Greater springiness, cohesiveness, hardness, fibrousness, and chewiness scores were observed in WB samples (P sensory texture attributes were more apparent in the ventral portions of the breast fillets. Flavor attributes (salty and brothy) increased (P sensory quality is not uniform throughout the Pectoralis major and that WB-related differences in cooked meat sensory texture attributes are lessened but not eliminated by vacuum-tumbling marination.

  6. Elimination of vibrio cholerae in lisa fillets (Mugil cephalus) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.

    1999-03-01

    The elimination of Vibrio cholerae 01 biotype El Tor (1,87 8 cuf/g) in fresh lisa fillets (Mugil cephalus) with radiation doses of 0 and 0,5 kGy was investigated. Furthermore, in order to evaluate physical, chemical and sensory changes, doses of 1,2,3 and 4 kGy were applied to non inoculated fillets of lisa. Finally, D 10 for Vibrio cholerae was determined in a saline suspension (5,2x10 8 cfu/ml) based on the Most Probable Number (MPN) method and radiation doses of 0,5, 0,75, 1,0, 1,25 and 1,5 kGy. D value found in a 1,87 8 cfu/g concentration of fillet was 0,13 kGy. Humidity, protein, fat and ash contents were not affected significantly and remained around 73 to 75,5, 3,8 to 4,2 and 1% respectively. Control samples showed a 'drip' variation ranging between 0,82 and 0,88% and a N-BVT variation between 1,77 and 1,56, 0,89 and 1,99, 2,13 and 2,47, 1,86 and 2,10%, and a N-BVT variation between 17,79 and 30,16, 16,37 and 26,88 16,33 and 25,12, 15,31 and 33,54 mg N/100 g, respectively. The highest life span for the appearance characteristic was obtained by control samples (23 days) and the lowest by samples radiated at 3 and 4 kGy (28 days). 4 kGy dose resulted in organoleptic changes perceived by panelists during tasting of cooked fish. D 10 found in a saline suspension was 0,13 kGy

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON EFFECTS OF FREEZING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLETS TWO FISH SPECIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of fishes Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus in the southern of Iran are consumed abundant in a particular season and it should be frozen for consumption throughout the year. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the effects of freezing on some of the physicochemical properties of fillets the fishes. Factors such as fat with chloroform-methanol method, amount of TBA (Thiobarbituric acid in fish muscle accordance method of Pearson, pH using a pH meter, FFA (Free fatty acids with titration in the presence of phenolphthalein was determined based on the percentage of oleic acid, peroxide value according to AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, in fresh samples at time zero and after different periods of freezing were tested respectively. Result showd that TBA (Thiobarbituric acid content in fish fillet, found Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta 0.65 and 0.53 respectively. The results showed that the highest percentage of fat found for Pampus argenteus at 95 days 24.2(%2 and for Sparidentex hasta at 35 days (25.19%, free fatty acids contents found highest (0.9% and (0.97% for Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus after 95 days. It can conclude that the TBA (Thiobarbituric acid, FFA (Free fatty acids  contents and pH of both fish species during storage in freezer were increased. Peroxide value in fish Pampus argenteus was reduced but, in Sparidentex hasta showed no significant differently.  The best time of storage of fishes Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta at -18 °C was 35 days freezing, but nutritional value of fillets and fatty acids greatly reduced

  8. Determination of ten perfluorinated compounds in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delinsky, Amy D.; Strynar, Mark J.; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Varns, Jerry L.; Ye, XiBiao; McCann, Patricia J.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish fillets is described and applied to fillets of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) collected from selected areas of Minnesota and North Carolina. The 4 PFC analytes routinely detected in bluegill fillets were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (C11), and perflurododecanoic acid (C12). Measures of method accuracy and precision for these compounds showed that calculated concentrations of PFCs in spiked samples differed by less than 20% from their theoretical values and that the %RSD for repeated measurements was less than 20%. Minnesota samples were collected from areas of the Mississippi River near historical PFC sources, from the St. Croix River as a background site, and from Lake Calhoun, which has no documented PFC sources. PFOS was the most prevalent PFC found in the Minnesota samples, with median concentrations of 47.0-102 ng/g at locations along the Mississippi River, 2.08 ng/g in the St. Croix River, and 275 ng/g in Lake Calhoun. North Carolina samples were collected from two rivers with no known historical PFC sources. PFOS was the predominant analyte in fish taken from the Haw and Deep Rivers, with median concentrations of 30.3 and 62.2 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of C10, C11, and C12 in NC samples were among the highest reported in the literature, with respective median values of 9.08, 23.9, and 6.60 ng/g in fish from the Haw River and 2.90, 9.15, and 3.46 ng/g in fish from the Deep River. These results suggest that PFC contamination in freshwater fish may not be limited to areas with known historical PFC inputs.

  9. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Aarieke E. I.; van Asselt, Esther D.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Nauta, Maarten J.; de Jonge, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the decimal reduction times of bacteria present on chicken fillet in boiling water. The experiments were conducted with Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Whole chicken breast fillets were inoculated with the pathogens, stored overnight (4∘C), and subsequently cooked. The surface temperature reached 70∘C within 30 sec and 85∘C within one minute. Extremely high decimal reduction times of 1.90, 1.97, and 2.20 min were obtained fo...

  10. A new approach to predict the fish fillet shelf-life in presence of natural preservative agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Giufffrida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three data sets concerning the behaviour of spoilage flora of fillets treated with natural preservative substances (NPS were used to construct a new kind of mathematical predictive model. This model, unlike other ones, allows expressing the antibacterial effect of the NPS separately from the prediction of the growth rate. This approach, based on the introduction of a parameter into the predictive primary model, produced a good fitting of observed data and allowed characterising quantitatively the increase of shelf-life of fillets.

  11. Comparison of the aerodynamics of bridge cables with helical fillets and a pattern-indented surface in normal flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modi-fications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is often installed for the protection of inner strands. The main goal of this is rain rivulet impedance, leading to the suppression of rain......-wind induced vibrations (RWIVs). The modifications are based on re-search undertaken predominantly in Europe and Japan, with two different systems prevailing; HDPE tubing fitted with helical surface fillets and HDPE tubing with pattern-indented sur-faces. In the US and Europe, helical fillets dominate, whilst...

  12. Microbiology, sensory evaluation and shelf life of irradiated chicken breast fillets stored in air or vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; Vital, Helio de Carvalho; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Freitas, Mônica Queiroz de; Franco, Robson Maia

    2011-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of different packaging methods (air and vacuum) combined with irradiation (0.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy) on the preservation of chicken breast fillets stored at 1ºC for up to 18 days by sensorial test, determination of pH and bacterial growth. The findings indicated that the post-irradiation lag phase increased with the dose, leading to an extension in shelf-life. Vacuum-packed samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy exhibited the longest shelf life. Among the analyzed bacter...

  13. Pengaruh Perbedaan Konsentrasi Ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Lama Penyimpanan terhadap Oksidasi Lemak pada Fillet Ikan Patin (Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ikan patin merupakan ikan air tawar yang mengandung lemak dan protein tinggi sehingga apabila dilakukan penyimpanan rentan terjadi oksidasi yang mengakibatkan ketengikan. Sargassum sp. dengan kandungan fenol dan flavonoid mampu menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan dalam menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan fillet ikan patin. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah experimental laboratories dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. (0%, 1%, 1,5% dan 2% dan lama penyimpanan (hari ke-0, hari ke-2, hari ke-4, dan hari ke-6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan penambahan konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai PV, nilai TBA, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar air serta organoleptik (P < 0,05. Hasil penelitian tahap I didapatkan rendemen Sargassum sp. dengan pelarut etanol 96% sebesar 1,39%, kandungan fenol 1,813%, flavonoid 0,278% dan aktivitas antioksidan 99,1659 ppm (kuat. Hasil penelitian tahap II didapatkan nilai PV berkisar antara 2,03 - 19,82 meq/kg, nilai TBA 0,63 - 6,72 mg.mal/kg. Konsentrasi 1,5% merupakan konsentrasi terbaik ekstrak Sargassum sp. dalam menghambat oksidasi lemak pada fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Antioksidan, Ekstrak Sargassum sp., Lama Penyimpanan, Oksidasi lemak, Fillet Ikan patin ABSTRACT Catfish is a freshwater fish that contain high fat and protein so that if its stored it will susceptible to oxidation process which leads to rancidity. Sargassum sp. with its phenolic and flavonoid content are able to inhibit the oxidation process in catfish fillet. This research was aimed to know the effects of different concentrations of Sargassum sp. extracts and

  14. Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui; Costa, Pedro Reis

    2014-01-01

    Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1+2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses' excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  16. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  18. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these

  19. Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Natasha C; Wan, Alex H L; Soler-Vila, Anna; FitzGerald, Richard D; Johnson, Mark P; Kerry, Joe P

    2015-03-30

    The use of Palmaria palmata (PP) as a natural ingredient in farmed Atlantic salmon diets was investigated. The effect of salmon diet supplementation with P. palmata (0, 5, 10 and 15%) or synthetic astaxanthin (positive control, PC) for 16 weeks pre-slaughter on quality indices of fresh salmon fillets was examined. The susceptibility of salmon fillets/homogenates to oxidative stress conditions was also measured. In salmon fillets stored in modified atmosphere packs (60% N2 /40% CO2 ) for up to 15 days at 4 °C, P. palmata increased surface -a* (greenness) and b* (yellowness) values in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a final yellow/orange flesh colour. In general, the dietary addition of P. palmata had no effect on pH, lipid oxidation (fresh, cooked and fillet homogenates) and microbiological status. 'Eating quality' sensory descriptors (texture, odour and oxidation flavour) in cooked salmon fillets were not influenced by dietary P. palmata. Salmon fed 5% PP showed increased overall acceptability compared with those fed PC and 0% PP. Dietary P. palmata was ineffective at providing red coloration in salmon fillets, but pigment deposition enhanced fillets with a yellow/orange colour. Carotenoids from P. palmata may prove to be a natural pigment alternative to canthaxanthin in salmon feeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Variation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in shellfishes on the coast of Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes collected from the coast around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) from 1975 to 2005 were analyzed for environmental radiological monitoring. The measured concentrations of 238 Pu were under the detection limits and these concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu showed no significant short-term increase tendency. It was confirmed that 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes around the TRP were derived from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Also the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration was dependent on the shellfish species (bivalve and abalone). It was presumed that the different of feeding behavior of bivalve and abalone caused the difference of the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration. (author)

  1. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  2. Diphyllobothrium latum in Italy: plerocercoids larvae distribution in perch (Perca fluviatilis fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaLetizia Fioravanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the diffusion of new eating habits (consumption of uncooked, undercooked, marinated or cold-smoked fish, some cases of parasitic zoonosis from freshwater fish are recently reappeared in Italy. One of these is tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, whose final host could be human. This study aimed to individuate the position of plerocercoid larvae inside perch fillets (Perca fluviatilis caught in 4 different sites on Como lake in 2011. The fish analyzed were 390. The larvae totally isolated from 112 positive fishes were 164: 85 found in the right fillets and 79 in left ones. According to dorso-ventral disposition in fish, 144 larvae were individuated in dorsal muscles and 20 in ventral ones. Data collected confirm that plerocercoid larvae prefer the upper mass of perch muscle. Dietary education and sanitary care on fish supply are necessary to prevent the diffusion of tapeworm zoonosis in high-risk zones. European legislation establishes freezing to sanitize fish to be eaten raw, marinated or cold-smoked.

  3. Modified toe pulp fillet flap coverage: Better wound healing and satisfactory length preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Oon; Suh, Hyo Wan; Lee, Jun Yong

    2018-01-01

    Amputation is commonly performed for toe necrosis secondary to peripheral vascular diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. When amputating a necrotic toe, preservation of the bony structure is important for preventing the collapse of adjacent digits into the amputated space. However, in the popular terminal Syme's amputation technique, partial amputation of the distal phalanx could cause increased tension on the wound margin. Herein, we introduce a new way to resect sufficient bony structure while maintaining the normal length, based on a morphological analysis of the toes. Unlike the pulp of the finger in the distal phalanx, the toe has abundant teardrop-shaped pulp tissue. The ratio of the vertical length to the longitudinal length in the distal phalanx was compared between the toes and fingers. Amputation was performed at the proximal interphalangeal joint level. Then, a mobilizable pulp flap was rotated 90° cephalad to replace the distal soft tissue defect. This modified toe fillet flap was performed in 5 patients. The toe pulp was found to have a vertically oriented morphology compared to that of the fingers, enabling length preservation through cephalad rotation. All defects were successfully covered without marginal ischemia. While conventional toe fillet flap coverage focuses on the principle of length preservation as the first priority, our modified method takes both wound healing and length into account. The fattiest part of the pulp is advanced to the toe tip, providing a cushioning effect and enough length to substitute for phalangeal bone loss. Our modified method led to satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  4. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension. - Highlights: • Marinated anchovies were γ-irradiated at 2, 3 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 °C (10 months). • Irradiation slightly hardened the texture and reduced its softening during storage. • Irradiated marinades had good sensory acceptability without differences with controls. • Irradiation improved the quality by reducing texture softening and color changes

  5. Characterization of calpastatin gene in fish: its potential role in muscle growth and fillet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed; Yao, Jianbo; Rexroad, Caird E; Kenney, P Brett; Semmens, Kenneth; Killefer, John; Nath, Joginder

    2005-08-01

    Calpastatin (CAST), the specific inhibitor of the calpain proteases, plays a role in muscle growth and meat quality. In rainbow trout (RBT), we identified cDNAs coding for two CAST isoforms, a long (CAST-L) and a short isoform (CAST-S), apparently derived from two different genes. Zebrafish and pufferfish CAST cDNA and genomic sequences were retrieved from GenBank and their exon/intron structures were characterized. Fish CASTs are novel in that they have fewer repetitive inhibitory domains as compared to their mammalian counterparts (one or two vs. four). The expressions of CAST mRNAs were measured in three RBT strains with different growth rates and fillet firmness that were fed either high energy or control diets. CAST-L and S expressions were significantly lower (pfillet. Strain or diet did not affect level of calpain mRNAs. However, the decrease in the CAST/calpain ratio at the mRNA level did not lead to a corresponding change in the calpain catalytic activity. Further investigation should reveal a potential use of the CAST gene as a tool to monitor fish muscle growth and fillet firmness.

  6. Relatively rapid loss of lampricide residues from fillet tissue of fish after routine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, C.; Bernardy, J.A.; Hubert, T.D.; Gingerich, W.H.; Stehly, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    The selective sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is currently used to control parasitic sea lampreys in tributaries to the Great Lakes basin. The concentration and persistence of TFM and its major metabolite, TFM glucuronide (TFM-glu), was determined in fillet tissue of fish after a typical stream application. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to a nominal concentration of 12.6 nmol/mL TFM for about 12 h during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River in Michigan. Concentrations of TFM and TFM-glu were greatest in the fillet tissues during the exposure period, with greater residues in channel catfish (wet wt; mean, 6.95 nmol/g TFM; mean, 2.40 nmol/g TFM-glu) than in rainbow trout (wet wt; mean, 1.45 nmol/g TFM; mean, 0.93 nmol/g TFM-glu). After the exposure period, residues in both species decreased by 90-99% within 6-12 h and were less than the quantitation limit (<0.03 nmol/g) within 36 h.

  7. Rheological and microstructural properties of beef sausage batter formulated with fish fillet mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P  0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.

  8. Effect of Physical Osmosis Methods on Quality of Tilapia Fillets Processed by Heat Pump Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the influence of different pretreatment methods on heat pump dried tilapia fillets, the effects of trehalose, ultrasound-assisted and freeze-thaw cycle assisted osmotic dehydration on the color, rehydration, texture and Ca2+-ATPase activity were investigated. Tilapia fillets (100 mm length × 50 mm width × 5 mm height were first osmoconcentrated in a trehalose solution combined with 4°C under atmospheric pressure for 1 h, different power of ultrasound and freeze-thawing respectively, then heat pump dried. The results showed that under the same drying method, the comprehensive score of ultrasound in 400 Watt was best, compared to freeze-thaw, the ultrasound pretreatment had a significant (p0.05 effect on the rehydration and texture. However, both of them significantly (p<0.05 affected the quality in comparison to that of osmosis at 4°C. It indicates that suitable ultrasonic pretreatment conditions improve the quality of dried products effectively and the conclusion of this research provides reference for heat pump dried similar products.

  9. Variations in the microbial log reduction curves of irradiated cod fillets, shrimp, and their respective homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.H.; Kaylor, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    When cod (Gadus morhua morhua) and headless white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) were gamma irradiated with a series of low-ionizing radiation doses, a ''shoulder(s)'' was observed in the graph (log microbial counts versus dose) in the approximate range of 25 to 75 krads. When the microbiological survivors were differentiated into total counts, proteolytic and pseudomonad-type bacteria, it was observed that the pseudomonad-type bacteria were rapidly destroyed by 25 krads and that proteolytic bacteria were destroyed at a faster rate than the rest of the microorganisms. When cod fillets and shrimp were compared with their respective homogenates and irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 krads, the homogenates did not exhibt the characteristic shoulders. A further experiment was designed to test surface versus uniform dispersion of microorganisms on/in gelatin disks subject to low doses of irradiation. Differences were found that may explain the observed differences between solid food materials such as fish fillets and shrimp and their homogenates

  10. Influence of essential oils in diet and life-stage on gut microbiota and fillet quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Florencia; Faccenda, Filippo; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Pindo, Massimo; Martelli, Roberta; Marconi, Paola; Lunelli, Fernando; Fava, Francesca; Parisi, Giuliana

    2018-05-01

    Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg). Gut microbiota 16S rRNA profiling indicated that the fish gut was dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Although the dietary supplementation with MixOil had no impact on either the composition or architecture of gut microbiota, significant changes in alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of groups of gut bacteria were evident during growth stages on test feeds, especially upon prolonged growth on finishing feed. Fish fillet quality to guarantee palatability and safety for human consumption was also evaluated. Significant differences within the gut microbiota of juvenile and adult trout under the same rearing conditions were observed, The addition of essential oil blend affected some physicochemical characteristics of trout fillets, including their resistance to oxidative damage and their weight loss (as liquid loss and water holding capacity) during the first period of storage, that are two important parameters related to product shelf life and susceptibility to spoilage. The results highlighted the need for further studies concern dietary microbiome modulation at different life stages and its influence on animal health, growth performance and final product quality.

  11. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  12. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  13. The effect of single and double doses of gamma radiation on pre-rigor mortis filleted saithe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdahl, B.; Lunde, G.

    1973-01-01

    Saithe, caught off the western coast of Norway, were filleted immediately after killing, packed in plastic bags and irradiated using a cobalt-60 source at the Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller. The doses were 50, 100, 150, 50+50 and 50+100 krad. All samples were analysed for their total bacterial count, proteolytic activity, ammonia, total volatile acids, trimethylamine oxide, tri- and dimethylamine and formaldehyde. The organoleptic quality was evaluated by a panel of tasters. Double doses were more effective in reducing the total bacterial count than an equivalent single dose. A close relation was found between the bacterial count and the proteolytic activity. The trimethylamine oxide concentration was found to vary between 33 and 44 mg/100 g muscle, decreasing rapidly in non-irradiated fillets to 3 mg/100 g. In non-irradiated fillets trimethylamine oxide was mainly reduced to trimethylamine and in irradiated fillets to dimethylamine and formaldehyde. A split dose of 50+50 krad may have a favourable effect on the total bacterial number, but the analyses of proteolytic activity, the volatile acids and the trimethylamine indicate that a higher proportion of spoilage bacteria survive. The low proteolytic activity and the high content of DMA/FA prove that the split doses of 50+100 krad as compared with a single dose of 150 krad are particularly favourable in the case of saithe. (Auth.)

  14. Effect of pancreas disease (PD) on quality attributes of raw and smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerfall, Jørgen; Larsson, Thomas; Birkeland, Sveinung

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pancreas disease (PD) on fillet quality of raw and cold-smoked Atlantic salmon was investigated. Commercially reared fish were sorted into six groups: (1) Control (healthy fish), (2) SAV (infection with salmonid alphavirus, without PD outbreak), (3) PD0 (PD diagnosis at slaughter), (4...

  15. Disinfection of fresh chicken breast fillets with in-package atmospheric cold plasma: effect of treatment voltage and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of treatment voltage and time of in-package atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) were studied on ozone formation, microbiological quality, surface color, and pH of fresh chicken fillets. Samples were sealed in food trays in air, treated with a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) ACP system, and stor...

  16. Effect of hydrocolloids and pretreatments on the keeping quality of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponte, da D.J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of additions of hydrocolloids and pretreatments (precooking and irradiation) on the stability of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage (-18°C).

    Some hydrocolloids (Xanthan gum, alginates, carboxymethyl celluloses and Iota and Lambda

  17. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-01-01

    cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function...

  18. [Study on tetrodotoxin detection and toxic puffer fish identification of roasted fish fillet at the retail in Beijing and Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Jiang, Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Dongfeng; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    The roasted fish fillet sample at the retail collected in Beijing and Qingdao were detected for TTX, and the TTX positive samples was analyzed for fish species identification. TTX was tested by EUSA method and the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genome of TTX-positive samples was extracted and identified by DNA barcode. Totally, 90 samples were tested by EUSA and 58 (64.4%) samples were positive for TTX with the levels ranging from 0.10 mg/kg to 63.81 mg/kg. Among the TTX positive samples, 24 (41.3%) were identified containing toxic puffer fish and 21 (87.5%) were Lagocephalus lunaris, the highly toxic puffer fish. Some roasted fish fillet samples obtained from the retail in two cities were positive for TTX and contained toxic puffer fish. Based on these results, we suggest that roasted fish fillet producers should prevent toxic puffer fish from mixing in the raw material and the I regulators should strengthen the TTX surveillance and product labeling supervision of roasted fish fillet.

  19. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...

  20. Rancidity development of refrigerated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets: comparative effects of in vivo and in vitro lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Agh, Naser; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    The problem of lipid oxidation in fish during storage is well known and is related to both temperature and storage time. Antioxidants could have a main role in limiting the deteriorative effects of lipid oxidation in fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplement against postmortem addition of lycopene on the deterioration of trout fillets during storage at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 days. At the end of the feeding trial, no significant differences were observed with respect to the fatty acid composition of different dietary groups. However, a strong positive correlation (r = 0.96) was observed between fillet and diet lycopene levels. Lower indices of lipid oxidation (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid) and lipid hydrolysis (free fatty acids) were observed in fillets that received lycopene (P lycopene was more effective (P lycopene in delaying lipid oxidation, the fatty acid composition of fillets that received dietary lycopene supplement showed a higher stability (P lycopene, especially at higher levels, was more effective in terms of quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  2. Effects of baked and raw salmon fillet on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues in Zucker fa/fa rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vikøren, Linn Anja Slåke; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Bergseth, Marthe Tønder; Mjøs, Svein Are; Mola, Nazanin; Leh, Sabine Maria; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the health impact of consuming heat-treated versus raw fish fillet is limited. To investigate effects of baked or raw salmon fillet intake on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues, obese Zucker fa/fa rats were fed diets containing 25% of protein from baked or raw salmon fillet and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for four weeks. Salmon diets had similar composition of amino and fatty acids. Growth and energy intake were...

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  5. Apparent bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxins by finfish in Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J P; Jaja-Chimedza, A; Dávalos-Lind, L; Lind, O

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the well-characterized health threats associated with contamination of fish and shellfish by algal toxins in marine fisheries, the toxicological relevance of the bioaccumulation of toxins from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), as the primary toxigenic algae in freshwater systems, remains relatively unknown. Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico) is a small, tropical lake system specifically characterized by a year-round dominance of the known toxigenic cyanobacterial genus, Cylindrospermopsis, and by low, but detectable, levels of both a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). In the present study, we evaluated, using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), levels of both toxins in several species of finfish caught and consumed locally in the region to investigate the bioaccumulation of, and possible health threats associated with, these toxins as potential foodborne contaminants. ELISA detected levels of both CYN and PSTs in fish tissues from the lake. Levels were generally low (≤ 1 ng g(-1) tissue); however, calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) indicate that toxin levels exceed the rather low levels in the water column and, consequently, indicated bioaccumulation (BAF >1). A reasonable correlation was observed between measured bioaccumulation of CYN and PSTs, possibly indicating a mutual source of both toxins, and most likely cells of Cylindrospermopsis, the dominant cyanobacteria in the lake, and a known producer of both metabolites. The potential roles of trophic transport in the system, as well as possible implications for human health with regards to bioaccumulation, are discussed.

  6. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. 137Cs levels in fish and shellfish in the Filipino diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Enriquez, E.B.; Yulo-Nazarea, M.T.; Asada, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Among the artificially produced radionuclides, 137 Cs is considered the most significant contributor to radiation dose due to consumption of marine products. 137 Cs is present in the marine environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and nuclear accidents. 137 Cs was analyzed in predominant fisn and shellfish species in the Filipino diet and in seawater collected from major fishing grounds. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs in thirteen fish species which are commonly eaten by Filipinos was 0.53 ± 0.47 Bq kg -1 wet edible fraction (E.F.). In molluscs, the mean activity concentration measured was 0.24 ± 0.20 Bq kg -1 wet E.F. A similar value of 0.23 ± 0.12 Bq kg -1 was observed in crustaceans. A mean activity concentration of 4.76 ± 2.66 was observed in seawater which suggests approximate concentration factors of 100 for 137 Cs in fish and 40 for 137 Cs in shellfish. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Mercury in fish and shellfish of the northeast Pacific. III. Spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.S.; Teeny, F.M.; Gauglitz, E.J. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in commercial exploitation of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, in Puget Sound, primarily because of the export demand and increased price for frozen dogfish fillets and bellyflaps in Europe. In 1975 only 0.43 million lb of dogfish were landed in the State of Washington for both food and reduction purposes, in contrast to 4.9 million lb landed during 1976 in Puget Sound ports and processed for export to Great Britain and West Germany. As a result of the current interest in the use of Puget Sound dogfish as food and the mercury levels in relation to import regulations of various countries, an investigation was undertaken to determine the mercury levels in dogfish from inland waters of the State of Washington. This report summarizes the findings.

  9. Estuarine shellfish

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mhamal, N.; Kavlekar, D

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.7_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.7_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  10. The genetic architecture of growth and fillet traits in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin Yuan; Hamilton, Alastair; Guy, Derrick R; Tinch, Alan E; Bishop, Stephen C; Houston, Ross D

    2015-05-19

    Performance and quality traits such as harvest weight, fillet weight and flesh color are of economic importance to the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. The genetic factors underlying these traits are of scientific and commercial interest. However, such traits are typically polygenic in nature, with the number and size of QTL likely to vary between studies and populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of several growth and fillet traits measured at harvest in a large farmed salmon population by using SNP markers. Due to the marked heterochiasmy in salmonids, an efficient two-stage mapping approach was applied whereby QTL were detected using a sire-based linkage analysis, a sparse SNP marker map and exploiting low rates of recombination, while a subsequent dam-based analysis focused on the significant chromosomes with a denser map to confirm QTL and estimate their position. The harvest traits all showed significant heritability, ranging from 0.05 for fillet yield up to 0.53 for the weight traits. In the sire-based analysis, 1695 offspring with trait records and their 20 sires were successfully genotyped for the SNPs on the sparse map. Chromosomes 13, 18, 19 and 20 were shown to harbor genome-wide significant QTL affecting several growth-related traits. The QTL on chr. 13, 18 and 20 were detected in the dam-based analysis using 512 offspring from 10 dams and explained approximately 6-7 % of the within-family variation in these traits. We have detected several QTL affecting economically important complex traits in a commercial salmon population. Overall, the results suggest that the traits are relatively polygenic and that QTL tend to be pleiotropic (affecting the weight of several components of the harvested fish). Comparison of QTL regions across studies suggests that harvest trait QTL tend to be relatively population-specific. Therefore, the application of marker or genomic selection for improvement in these traits is likely to be

  11. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  12. Effects of Various Fillet Shapes on a 76/40 Double Delta Wing from Mach 0.18 to 0.7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    .... These fillets were developed to control the shedding, trajectory, and subsequent breakdown of vortices to enhance aircraft aerodynamic performance at subsonic and transonic speeds, and at elevated angles of attack...

  13. Identification of Mercury in Tembang Fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari Coastal Beach, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani Erlani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury was one of heavy metals that became pollutant. High level of mercury in aquatic environment could cause adverse effects on living organisms in that environment, even endanger human health in using the water and consuming the organism. This reasearch was a descriptive survey that was supported by laboratory test result in order to know mercury (Hg level in Tembang fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari coastal beach, Makassar. The result of mercury examination at Center Health Laboratory Makasar was obtained that mercury levels in Tembang Fish were 0.0150 mg/kg, 0.0133 mg/kg and 0.0126 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Tembang fish was 0.0409 mg/kg. Meanwhile, based on examination results of mercury level in Shellfish at Center Health Laboratory, Makasar, were obtained 0.0228 mg/kg, 0.0266 mg/kg, and 0.1105 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Shellfish was 0.1599 mg/kg. Moreover, mercury level in either Tembang fish or Shellfish in ​​Losari coastal beach Makassar had fulfilled the requirement based on SNI 7387/2009 regarding Maximum Limit of Heavy Metal of Mercury.

  14. Determinants of the consumption of fish and shellfish in Denmark: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    Consumers differ considerably in the degree to which they eat fish and shell-fish relative to other meat types. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) was used to explain intention to buy three specific sea-food categories ­ fish, frozen fish and shelled shrimps. The impact...

  15. PCDD and PCDF exposures among fishing community through intake of fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Nasir, Nurul Nadiah Mohamad; Shamsudin, Norashikin; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-07-21

    Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community. The risk of fish and shellfish consumption and exposure to PCDD/PCDF among fishermen living in coastal areas of the Straits were evaluated based on a cross-sectional study involving face to face interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and administration of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Skin examination was done by a dermatologist after the interview session. Determination of 17 congeners of PCDD/PCDF in 48 composite samples of fish and shellfish was performed based on HRGC/HRMS analysis. The total PCDD/PCDF in the seafood samples ranged from 0.12 to 1.24 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (4.6-21.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). No significant difference found for the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF between the same types of seafood samples obtained from the three different regions. The concentrations of the most potent congener, 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the seafood samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 pg WHO-TEQ/g FW (1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A positive moderate correlation was found between the fat contents and concentrations of PCDD/PCDF determined in the seafood samples. The total PCDD/PCDF in all seafood samples were below the 1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, with the exception of grey eel-catfish. The respondents had consumed fish and shellfish with the amounts ranging between 2.02 g and 44.06 g per person per day. The total PCDD/PCDF exposures through consumption of fish and shellfish among the respondents were between 0.01 and 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg BW/day. With regard to the two PCDD/PCDF-related skin diseases, no chloracne case was found among the respondents, but 2.2% of the respondents were diagnosed to have

  16. Double fillet lap of laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Salleh, M. N. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the experimental laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B using double fillet lap joint method. Laser welding is capable of producing high quality weld seams especially for small weld bead on thin sheet product. In this experiment, both edges for upper and lower sheets were subjected to the laser beam from the pulse wave (PW) mode of fiber laser. Welded sample were tested their joint strength by tensile-shear strength method and the fracture loads were studied. Strength for all welded samples were investigated and the effect of laser parameters on the joint strength and appearances were studied. Pulsed energy (EP) from laser process give higher effect on joint strength compared to the welding speed (WS) and angle of irradiation (AOI). Highest joint strength was possessed by sample with high EP with the same value of WS and AOI. The strength was low due to the crack defect at the centre of weld region.

  17. A control system for uniform bead in fillet arc welding on tack welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-01-01

    Positioning a workpiece accurately and preventing weld distortion, tack welding is often adopted before main welding in the construction of welded structures. However, this tack weld deteriorates the final weld bead profile, so that the grinding process is usually performed for a uniform weld bead profile. In this study, a control system for uniform weld bead is proposed for the fillet arc welding on tack welds. The system consists of GMA welding machine, torch manipulator, laser vision sensor for measuring the tack weld size and the database for optimal welding conditions. Experiments have been performed for constructing the database and for evaluating the control capability of the system. It has been shown that the system has the capability to smooth the bead at the high level of quality

  18. Traumatic Hemipelvectomy with Free Gluteus Maximus Fillet Flap Covers: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WI Faisham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available threatening injury. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy involved in a traffic accident who presented with an almost circumferential pelvic wound with wide diastasis of the right sacroiliac joint and symphysis pubis. The injury was associated with complete avulsion of external and internal iliac vessels as well as the femoral and sciatic nerves. He also had ipsilateral open comminuted fractures of the femur and tibia. Emergency debridement and completion of amputation with preservation of the posterior gluteal flap and primary anastomosis of the inferior gluteal vessels to the internal iliac artery stump were performed. A free fillet flap was used to close the massive exposed area.

  19. PCR detection and identification of histamine-forming bacteria in filleted tuna fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Chiara; Pegollo, Chiara; Ricci, Giovanni; Borgo, Francesca; Fortina, M Grazia

    2012-02-01

    Total of 14 filleted yellowfin tuna fish (Thunnus albacares) sold in wholesale fish market and supermarkets in Milan, Italy, were purchased and tested to determine microbial count, histamine level, histamine-forming bacteria, and their ability to produce histamine in culture broth. Although histamine level was less than 10 ppm, many samples showed high total viable bacterial and enterobacterial counts that reached dangerous levels after temperature abuse for short periods of time. A PCR assay targeting a 709-bp fragment of the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc) revealed that 30.5% of the 141 enteric bacteria isolated from samples were positive and potentially able to produce histamine. The hdc positive strains were mainly isolated from fish bought at wholesale fish market, where we observed several possible risk factors, such as handling in poor and non-refrigerated conditions during fillet preparation. These positive strains were identified as Citrobacter koseri/Enterobacter spp. and Morganella morganii, by 16S/23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer amplification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The strains showed a variable ability of histamine production, with Morganella morganii being the most active histamine-producing species. A direct DNA extraction from fish and a PCR targeting the hdc gene showed a high degree of concordance with the results obtained through microbiological and chemical analyses, and could aid in the prompt detection of potentially contaminated fish products, before histamine accumulates. The use of methods for the early and rapid detection of bacteria producing biogenic amines is important for preventing accumulation of these toxic substances in food products. In this study, we used a molecular approach for the detection of histamine-forming bacteria in fish. PCR-based methods require expensive equipment and a high degree of training for the user, but are fast (marketing and can be used in the investigation of risk reduction strategies.

  20. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  1. Microstructure, texture and colour development during crust formation on whole muscle chicken fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2013-01-01

    1. The development of crust during a 22-min period was evaluated in an oven, and in previously cooked-in-bag products (no crust) placed in an oven for 10 min. The oven-roasted products started to develop a thin (2-4 μm) crust layer after 4 min. At that point, the colour of the fillets turned white but no browning was observed. As roasting time increased, crust thickness and shear force increased, the product turned brown and eventually black at certain spots. 2. Light microscopy revealed the shrinking of muscle fibres close to the surface, as they also lost water. At a certain point, tears between the different layers started to appear. The inner muscle fibres also progressively shrank and the spaces between them increased. Microscopy of cook-in-bag products revealed no crust formation during heating. Upon moving to the oven, crust started to form but was much faster compared with the other products. 3. Cook-in-the-bag samples showed a higher rate of cook loss during the first 12 min (to internal 70°C) compared with oven heating. This could have been due to the fast heating rate in water and/or no crust formation. 4. White colour was fully formed on water-cooked fillets within 2 min (L* = 83), while it was gradually forming on oven-roasted samples (max L* of 79 after 12 min). 5. Shear force measurements showed an increase in both treatments up to 18 min, with a decrease thereafter (when dry crust started to crack).

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of aqueous extract of Channa striatus fillet in mice models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A M; Taufik Hidayat, M; Mat Jais, A M; Fakurazi, S; Moklas, Mohamad; Sulaiman, M R; Amom, Z

    2011-07-01

    Channa (C.) striatus (Malay-Haruan), is a fresh water snakehead fish, consumed as a rejuvenating diet in post-parturition period in local Malay population. The aqueous extract of C. striatus fillet (AECSF) was reported to act through serotonergic receptor system in a previous study. There is no scientific report on neuropharmacological effects of C. striatus. Based on these data, the antidepressant-like effect of C. striatus was evaluated in mice models of depression. AECSF was prepared by steaming the fillets as described previously. Antidepressant activity was studied in male ICR mice using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Open-field test was used to evaluate any psychomotor stimulant activity. AECSF was administered intraperitoneally at the concentrations of 30%, 40% and 50% w/v at the dosage of 10 ml/kg. Amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) was used as positive control. All the three concentrations of AECSF (30%, 40% and 50% w/v) significantly reduced the immobility time (p open-field test. AECSF produced significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST. Amitriptyline produced a significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST similar to previous findings. The AECSF produced a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity in the open-field test. This hypolocomotion effect indicated the absence of any psychomotor stimulant activity thereby supporting the antidepressant-like effect of the AECSF. The pharmacological mechanisms of the observed antidepressant-like effect and hypolocomotion effect are not understood from our study. Hence, further studies are required.

  3. Efficacy evaluation of a new water sanitizer for increasing the shelf life of Southern Australian King George Whiting and Tasmanian Atlantic Salmon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Deo, Permal; Ferro, Sergio; Venter, Henrietta; Pi, Hongfei; Crabb, Simon; Amorico, Tony; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Trott, Darren J

    2017-12-01

    The bacterial species and specific spoilage organisms associated with the Southern Australian King George Whiting (KGW) and Tasmanian Atlantic Salmon (TAS), and the efficacy of a HOCl-containing water-based sanitization product (Electro-Chemically Activated Solution, by ECAS4) in extending the shelf life of KGW and TAS fillets were evaluated. Fillets were washed with an ECAS4 solution containing either 45 ppm or 150 ppm of free chlorine and bacterial species enumerated on selective and non-selective media, followed by identification of pure isolates by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. The dominant spoilage microbiota in KGW and TAS fillets stored at 4 ± 1 °C were Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. At either concentration, ECAS4 significantly reduced total bacterial load and specific spoilage organisms on KGW and TAS fillets (approx. 1-2 log colony-forming units) during storage and significantly extended the shelf life of the fillets by 2 and 4 days, respectively. The significant increase in shelf life and quality of fillets was corroborated by raw and cooked sensory evaluation. ECAS4 sanitization could have a significant impact on the overall food industry, translating into health and economic benefits through reduction of food spoilage bacteria and potentially, foodborne pathogens without many of the disadvantages of currently approved biocides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of various concentration of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) surimi for edible coating on the shelf-life of Pangasius sp. fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama, M. A. P.; Agustono; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Pangasius sp. fillets prone to deterioration the quality that will affect the appearance and the shelf life of fillets. The effort to extend the shelf life of fish fillet that is by using an edible coating. Surimi can be used as a protein-based edible coating because they have superior inhibitory and mechanical properties compared to the polysaccharides based material. Surimi can be made from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fish. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of surimi (0 gr, 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, 8 gr) with four replications. The results showed that Pangasius sp. fillets with an edible coating 8 gr surimi have the highest value in the organoleptic test. The pH testing on Pangasius sp. fillets with edible coating 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, and 8 gr surimi from the 0th hour to 18th hour have increased but slower than Pangasius sp. fillets without edible coating surimi. The best value of Total Plate Count (TPC) test is in edible coating 6 gr and 8 gr surimi as it is in accordance with SNI 2696:2013 at room temperature storage until the 18th hours.

  5. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizielińska, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Urszula; Jarosz, Michał; Sumińska, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples), which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC) coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage. PMID:29534544

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mizielińska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples, which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage.

  7. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  9. Screening and evaluation of local bacteria isolated from shellfish as potential probiotics against pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, M Y; Wagaman, Hazimah; Yin, Tan Ai; Ina-salwany, M Y; Daud, H M; Karim, Murni

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to isolate, screen and evaluate potential candidates of local bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and slipper cupped oysters Crassostrea iredalei as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. A total of 144 of bacteria were successfully isolated from the intestine and stomach of 20 tails of healthy adult tiger shrimp P. monodon, while 136 were successfully isolated from the digestive tract, gills and inner shells of 10 healthy adult C. iredalei. The number of potential isolates was narrowed down to two from tiger shrimp, and one from slipper cupped oyster after in vitro screening assays. The three isolates, labeled as G11, I24 and S66, were identified as Virgibacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and Exiquobacterium sp., respectively, using 16S rDNA gene analysis. The antagonistic ability of the isolates towards Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in stagnant and liquid modes via spot lawn and broth co-culture assay, respectively. In these assays, all the potential probionts were inhibitory to both pathogenic vibrios. In the in-vivo assay, Artemia was used as host and treated with different concentrations of potential probionts (10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1)), and challenged with V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi at 105 CFU ml(-1), respectively. Artemia treated with probiont G11 at all concentrations and challenged with V. alginolyticus had increased survival (70 ? 80 %), which was significantly higher as compared with group with only the pathogen (20 %). Meanwhile, probiont I24 increased the survival of Artemia by 70 % at a concentration of 10(8) CFU ml(-1) after being challenged with V. alginolyticus and Artemia treated with 10(6) CFU ml(-1) of probiont S66 had increased survival of 90% after being challenged with V. harveyi. Thus, the three isolates might have potential applications as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture against vibriosis. ?

  10. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods: A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of >1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion: This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized.

  11. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide.

  12. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  13. Effect of some potentially synergistic treatments in combination with 100 Krad irradiation on the iced shelf life of cod fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licciardello, J.J.; Ravesi, E.M.; Tuhkunen, B.E.; Racicot, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of cod fillets with a maximum absorbed dose of 100 Krad extended iced storage life by about 9 days. Further extension of several days resulted when irradiation was combined concurrently with either 60% CO 2 packaging atmosphere or sorbate additive. Packaging at low oxygen tension did not provide any additional benefit for irradiated fish. No important difference in storage life of treated fish was observed due to one vs three day postmortem age. The 100 Krad treatment extended grade B quality market life as opposed to grade A (prime quality) market life. Certain physical/chemical tests were evaluated for their efficacy in estimating spoilage. Concentrations of TMA, DMA, hypoxanthine, APC and pH at spoilage were comparable in control and air-irradiated samples, but were less in sorbate-irradiated fillets. 48 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  14. Tetrodotoxin detection and species identification of pufferfish in retail roasted fish fillet by DNA barcoding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Shen, Qing; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Chunhui; Ji, Rong; Li, Fengqin; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the pufferfish species and detects tetrodotoxin (TTX) in roasted fish fillet samples collected in Beijing, Qingdao and Xiamen, China. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was used as the target gene for identification of the pufferfish species in the samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screened the TTX levels in samples that had been detected as containing pufferfish by DNA barcode. A total of 125 samples were identified by DNA barcodes; 32 (26%) samples contained pufferfish composition and, among them, 26 (81%) were the highly toxic species Lagocephalus lunaris. All 32 samples containing the pufferfish composition were positive for TTX with levels ranging from 100 to 63,800 ng g(-1). Most of the 32 samples contained the highly toxic L. lunaris. Based on the results, we suggest that the monitoring of roasted fish fillet should be strengthened and the processing procedures should be standardised to minimise TTX poisoning caused by pufferfish.

  15. Impact of carbon dioxide level, water velocity, and feeding regimen on growth and fillet attributes of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Patricia M.; Mazik, P.M.; Kenney, P.B.; Silverstein, J.T

    2016-01-01

    Production and management variables such as carbon dioxide (CO2) level, water velocity, and feeding frequency influence the growth and fillet attributes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as cost of production. More information is needed to determine the contributions of these variables to growth and fillet attributes to find the right balance between input costs and fish performance. Two studies, of 84 and 90 days duration, were conducted to determine the effects of CO2 level, water velocity, and feed frequency on rainbow trout growth, fillet yield, and fillet quality. In the first study, two CO2levels (30 and 49 mg/L) and two velocity levels (0.5 and 2.0 body lengths/s) were tested. In the second study two CO2 levels (30 and 49 mg/L) and two feeding regimens (fed once daily to satiation or three times daily to satiation) were tested. In the first study, after 84 days, fillet weight from high CO2 tanks was 13.5% lower than the fillet weights of fish from low CO2 tanks. Percent fat of fillets was higher in low CO2 fish (P = 0.05) after 84 days and, fish from the low CO2 treatment were larger (P < 0.01). Both studies had similar results in regards to fat content and weight of fillets in response to elevated CO2levels. Velocity had little affect on either whole wet weight or fillet attributes of rainbow trout in this study. Muscle tissue contained more (P < 0.01) fat when fish were fed three times daily (7.3%; day 90) compared to once daily (5.4%; day 90). Also, fish were larger (P < 0.05) when fed 3 times per day (1079 g; day 90) in comparison to only one daily feeding (792 g; day 90). Fish in high feed/high CO2 tanks were larger and had more fillet fat than fish from low feed/low CO2 tanks. To maximize rainbow trout growth at aquaculture facilities, management strategies should attempt to keep CO2 levels below 30 mg/L when cost efficient. However, feeding 2–3 times daily should reduce production losses if CO2 cannot be minimized. The

  16. A New Approach to Predict the Fish Fillet Shelf-Life in Presence of Natural Preservative Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giuffrida, Alessandro; Giarratana, Filippo; Valenti, Davide; Muscolino, Daniele; Parisi, Roberta; Parco, Alessio; Marotta, Stefania; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Three data sets concerning the behaviour of spoilage flora of fillets treated with natural preservative substances (NPS) were used to construct a new kind of mathematical predictive model. This model, unlike other ones, allows expressing the antibacterial effect of the NPS separately from the prediction of the growth rate. This approach, based on the introduction of a parameter into the predictive primary model, produced a good fitting of observed data and allowed characterising quantitativel...

  17. Prevalence and characterization of Shiga Toxin-producing and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balière eCharlotte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study, the presence of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC was investigated in shellfish (n=238, seawater (n=12 and surface sediment (n=39 collected from three French coastal shellfish-harvesting areas and freshwaters (n=216 in their watersheds. PCR detection of Shiga toxin- (stx1/stx2 and intimin- (eae genes following enrichment from these samples revealed the presence of least one of the stx genes in 30.3% of shellfish batches, 85.9% of freshwater, 41.7% of seawater, and 28.2% of sediment samples, while the eae gene was observed in 74.8%, 100%, 100%, and 43.6% of shellfish batches, freshwater, seawater, and sediment samples, respectively. Twenty-eight STEC and 89 EPEC strains were isolated and analyzed in order to determine their serotype, phylogroup, and genetic relatedness and to evaluate the presence of the saa and ehxA genes encoding the STEC autoagglutinating adhesin and the enterohemolysin A, respectively. Finally, the ability to form biofilms and antimicrobial susceptibility were investigated for a selection of strains. Eighteen serotypes were identified among the STEC isolates and 57 among the EPEC isolates. A high diversity was observed within these strains, as 79 different PFGE patterns and 48 distinguishable sequence types were identified. Strains were found to belong mainly to phylogroups B1 and B2 and virulence was observed to be low as more than 85% of the strains possessed only stx1, stx2 or eae genes. One STEC and several EPEC strains belonged to three of the five highly pathogenic serogroups (i.e., O26, O103, and O145. The subset of strains tested for their capacity to form biofilms was mainly strongly to moderately adherent and more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18°C than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these

  18. Effects of irradiation, antimicrobial agents and modified packaging on histamine production by Morganella morganii in mackerel fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytac, S.A.; Ozbas, Z.Y.; Vural, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 2.0 kGy), antimicrobial agents (5% sodium chloride and 1% potassium sorbate) and modified atmosphere (100% CO2) packaging (MAP) on histamine production by Morganella morganii were examined in mackerel fillets during 8 days of cold storage. MAP combined with antimicrobial agents was also applied to the fillets. The changes in histamine levels, M. morganii and total aerobic bacterial counts were determined during the storage. All methods used in this study showed beneficial effect in controlling bacterial growth and histamine production on mackerel fillets during 2-3 days of storage. MAP combined with 5% sodium chloride has more retarding effect on production of histamine than the other methods. For M. morganii, maximum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 2.0 kGy. Irradiation with a dose of 2.0 kGy, MAP combined with sodium chloride and MAP were also found to have the most inhibiting effects on total aerobic bacterial count during the storage

  19. The effect of glaze on the quality of frozen stored Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma fillets under stable and unstable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Žoldoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen fillets (n = 288 of Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma were used to evaluate the effect of glaze on lipid oxidation and microbiological indicators during 6 months of freezing storage under stable (−18 °C and unstable temperature (varying from −5 to −18 °C conditions. The amount of glaze, moisture, fat and protein content were measured. Despite the low fat content in Alaska pollack, a positive effect of glazing and stable freezing conditions of storage on the range of oxidative changes of lipids expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was found. Total counts of viable cells slightly rose before the end of the storage period in both groups with commercially glazed fish. The average counts of psychrotrophs in each group ( were at the same level, ranging from 9.1 ×103 CFU·g-1 to 1.1 × 104 CFU·g-1. According to the microbiological results fillets stored under unstable conditions were considered to be acceptable, but sensory evaluation showed that at the end of frozen storage they could not be consumed because of rancidity. Based on our results, glaze application ranged from 10 to 15% guarantee of final quality, however, prevention of temperature fluctuation during storage is important to keep the quality of the frozen fillets. This is the first similar study in Alaska pollack.

  20. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality.

  1. Macronutrient and fatty acid profiles of meagre (Argyrosomus regius fillets as influenced by harvesting time and boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvesting time and cooking on water, protein, lipid, ash and fatty acid content of farmed meagre was assessed. Significant differences in nutrient content of raw fillets were detected in relation to harvesting time. Cooking by boiling induced loss of some macronutrients, mainly lipids and some fatty acids. Retention of total lipids, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 decreased significantly with harvesting time, while C20:5n-3 (EPA and C22:6n-3 (DHA were retained in the same quantity. DHA retention was higher than that of the other FAs considered, at all harvesting times. The changes detected did not diminish the nutritional value of the fish. Despite losses induced by cooking and the low fat content, typical of this species, 100 g of fillet ensured an intake of EPA plus DHA more than double the recommended daily intake (250 mg day–1, at all harvesting times. The ability to preserve nutrients is an essential requirement for quality maintenance and suggests the possibility of heat-processing fillets

  2. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  3. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-02-02

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Digest of data from the measurement of radioactivity in the Irish Marine Environment 1982-1984. Part I: Fish and Shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, John

    1985-11-01

    Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurement are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was directed at the measurement of radioactivity, in particular radiocaesium, in fish and shellfish from the Irish Sea where the polluting effect of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield is greatest. The measured levels of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the popular species of fish and shellfish allow the estimation of the population dose to the Irish public as a result of eating seafood contaminated with radiocaseium. This report attempts to set out, in summarised form, a comprehensive review of sampling, analytical and dose assessment details for the three-year period 1982 to 1984. Levels of K-40, the naturally occurring radionuclide, in the fish and shellfish samples are also reported. (author)

  5. EPA oyster project: nitrogen in water. - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  7. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Linglin; Shuai Jiangbing; Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia; Li Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG) 5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG) 5 -PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG) 5 -PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  8. Modifications in the chemical compounds and sensorial attributes of Engraulis anchoita fillet during marinating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Yeannes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Marinated fish are fish products preserved by the combined action of salt and organic acids. The objective of this work was to analyze the variations in the chemical compounds of anchovy fillets that give them sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita. The protein content decreased slightly and the TVB-N level decreased significantly in both the brining and marinating stages. In the marinating stage an increase in the total free aminoacids was observed. The NBV level in the brining and marinating solutions increased during these stages due to the solubilization of the non-protein nitrogenous compounds and the degradation of some protein compounds.The decrease of the contents of protein and TVB-N, and the increase of the acidity and the free aminoacids content during the marinating process give the marinated fillets the characteristic texture and aroma.Peixes marinados são produtos obtidos pela ação combinada de sal e ácidos orgânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações químicas e sensoriais em filés de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita durante o processo de marinado. O conteúdo de proteína apresentou decréscimo significativo durante a salga. O teor de Bases Voláteis Totais-N-BVT, apresentou uma diminuição considerável durante a salga e marinacão. Na fase de marinado, foi observado um aumento em aminoácidos livres totais. Foi constatada a presença de N-BVT na salmoura e na solução oriunda do processo de obtenção de marinado, devido à solubilização de nitrogênio não protéico, que podem ter sido acrescidos de alguns compostos de degradação protéica. A redução do conteúdo de proteína e N-BVT e o aumento de acidez e de aminoácidos livres gerados durante ou processo de elaboração do marinado fazem com que os filés marinados adquiram textura e aroma característicos.

  9. Detection of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Growing along the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Gu, Run-Run; Shen, Xiao-Sheng; Chen, Yuan-Ge; Tian, Liang-Liang; Zhou, Wei-Feng; Cai, You-Qiong

    2017-10-17

    This study was conducted to monitor the densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 300 samples of nine shellfish species harvested from the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (N 23° to 34°, E 116° to 124°), People's Republic of China, between May and October 2015. Total V. parahaemolyticus densities were measured, and V. parahaemolyticus isolates were biochemically identified with probes for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin gene (trh). We found that 202 of the 300 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus from all the sites: 58 of the 100 samples from the Fujian province, 71 of the 100 samples from the Zhejiang province, and 73 of the 100 samples from the Jiangsu province. In most (170) of the 300 samples, V. parahaemolyticus densities were 0.3 to 10 most probable number (MPN)/g; five lots exceeded 110 MPN/g, and two lots were estimated at 110 MPN/g. Among the 202 V. parahaemolyticus strains, only one was trh positive. Densities of V. parahaemolyticus in these shellfish were temperature dependent, with highest densities in June and July. Among the nine mollusk species, V. parahaemolyticus was most abundant in the agemaki clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The highest and lowest V. parahaemolyticus prevalences were found in oriental cyclina (Cyclina sinensis, 93.8%) and mussels (Mytilus edulis, 28.1%), respectively. Overall, although V. parahaemolyticus is widely distributed in marine environments, the density of V. parahaemolyticus was low and the prevalence of the main virulence factor was very low in shellfish along the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, which is important from a public health perspective. Data presented here will be useful for correlational research and can be utilized for developing risk management plans that establish food safety guidelines for V. parahaemolyticus in Chinese shellfish.

  10. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BMAA in shellfish from two Portuguese transitional water bodies suggests the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as a potential BMAA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Rydberg, Sara Jonasson

    2014-07-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases have been intensely studied since 2005 when the toxin was discovered to be produced by worldwide-distributed cyanobacterial species inhabiting terrestrial, marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems. Recently, BMAA production was also associated with one eukaryotic group, namely, diatoms, raising questions about its production by other phytoplanktonic groups. To test for BMAA bioavailability in ecosystems where abundant phytoplanktonic blooms regularly occur, samples of filter-feeding shellfish were collected in two Portuguese transitional water bodies. BMAA content in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) collected weekly between September and November 2009 from Ria de Aveiro and at least once a month from May to November from Ria Formosa, fluctuated from 0.079±0.055 to 0.354±0.066μg/g DW and from below the limit of detection to 0.434±0.110μg/g DW, respectively. Simultaneously to BMAA occurrence in cockles, paralytic shellfish toxins were detected in shellfish as a result of Gymnodinium catenatum blooms indicating a possible link between this marine dinoflagellate and BMAA production. Moreover, considerable high BMAA levels, 0.457±0.186μg/g DW, were then determined in a laboratory grown culture of G. catenatum. This work reveals for the first time the presence of BMAA in shellfish from Atlantic transitional water bodies and consubstantiate evidences of G. catenatum as one of the main sources of BMAA in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Simple Model to Rank Shellfish Farming Areas Based on the Risk of Disease Introduction and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Pearce, F M; Gubbins, M J; Oidtmann, B C; Peeler, E J

    2017-08-01

    The European Union Council Directive 2006/88/EC requires that risk-based surveillance (RBS) for listed aquatic animal diseases is applied to all aquaculture production businesses. The principle behind this is the efficient use of resources directed towards high-risk farm categories, animal types and geographic areas. To achieve this requirement, fish and shellfish farms must be ranked according to their risk of disease introduction and spread. We present a method to risk rank shellfish farming areas based on the risk of disease introduction and spread and demonstrate how the approach was applied in 45 shellfish farming areas in England and Wales. Ten parameters were used to inform the risk model, which were grouped into four risk themes based on related pathways for transmission of pathogens: (i) live animal movement, (ii) transmission via water, (iii) short distance mechanical spread (birds) and (iv) long distance mechanical spread (vessels). Weights (informed by expert knowledge) were applied both to individual parameters and to risk themes for introduction and spread to reflect their relative importance. A spreadsheet model was developed to determine quantitative scores for the risk of pathogen introduction and risk of pathogen spread for each shellfish farming area. These scores were used to independently rank areas for risk of introduction and for risk of spread. Thresholds were set to establish risk categories (low, medium and high) for introduction and spread based on risk scores. Risk categories for introduction and spread for each area were combined to provide overall risk categories to inform a risk-based surveillance programme directed at the area level. Applying the combined risk category designation framework for risk of introduction and spread suggested by European Commission guidance for risk-based surveillance, 4, 10 and 31 areas were classified as high, medium and low risk, respectively. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  13. Testing the potential effects of shellfish farming on swimming activity and spatial distribution of sole (Solea solea) in a mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Laffargue, Pascal; Begout, Marie-laure; Lagardere, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring coastal fish nursery habitats by extensive shellfish fanning in the French part of the Bay of Biscay could influence fish physiology and behaviour and affect the ecological performance of the species. The influence of oyster-trestle cultivation installations on sole (Solea solea) swimming behaviour was investigated using an experimental pond mesocosm. A pen was constructed with three interconnected zones (two with bags of live oysters or oyster shells on trestles, and one free z...

  14. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The distribution, contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and shellfish from the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Ragab, Safaa; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2016-12-01

    Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, lipid and water contents were determined in the soft tissues of different shellfish species collected along the Red Sea shoreline. Metal contents showed a descending order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Al > V > Pb > Cd > Hg. The leachable concentrations found in the sediments gathered from the studied locations gave another descending order: Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > V > Cu > Cd. The determined leachable heavy metal contents in the sediment did not exceed the NOAA and CCME (Anonymous 1999) sediment quality guidelines. Accordingly, the sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea area did not pose any adverse impacts on the biological life. According to the hazard quotient (HQ) calculations for heavy metal contents in the soft tissue of shellfish, mercury did not pose any risk on human health; whereas, the other determined heavy metals gave HQ values of 1 < HQ < 10 and showed a possibility of risk on the long term. Cu is above the desirable levels in mussels. The RQ calculations of toddlers and adults reflected that Cu was the only heavy metal that had an adverse effect on toddlers' health. Based on the human organizations (EPA, BOE, MAFF, and NHMRC) that proposed safety concentrations of heavy metals, the studied shellfish were somewhat safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Sanitary Status of Imported Frozen Fish Fillets and its Improvement by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W.S.; EL-Mossalami, E.I.; Nosier, Sh.M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred samples of imported frozen fish fillets were collected from Cairo markets and analyzed for their hygienic status through bacteriological and chemical examinations. The count of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus were 9.7 x 105 cfu/g, 2.2 x 102 cfu/g, and 2.64 x 10 cfu/g, respectively. The survey results revealed that the isolation of Staph. aureus was 3%, E.coli 5%, Salmonella species zero% and Listeria monocytogenes 10%. The value of TVBN, pH and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) were in the normal levels recommended by the Egyptian Standards (EOSQC). The samples were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy and it was found that a dose of 3 kGy was enough to eliminate Staph. aureus and E.coli from the examined samples while a dose of 4 kGy eliminated Listeria monocytogenes without affecting the chemical attributes of the samples.

  18. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TILAPIA FILLETING WASTE MEAL FOR SWINE IN THE NURSERY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON RICHART

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional composition of tilapia filleting waste meal (TFWM for pigs in the initial phase. In the first experiment, the chemical composition and the values of digestible and metabolizable energy of TFWM were determined using 10 pigs (15.10 ± 0.74 kg, distributed in cages for metabolic research (2 treatments X 5 replicates. The TFWM replaced 20% of the reference diet based on corn and soybean meal. In the second experiment, the ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids present in TFWM were determined, using chromic oxide as a marker, through the method of sacrifice, using 10 pigs (15.00 ± 0.27 kg, distributed in cages for metabolic research (2 treatments X 5 replicates. Treatments consisted of a basal diet and one without protein. In the third experiment, the performance of pigs fed diets containing different concentrations of TFWM (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% was evaluated. Forty pigs (15.00 ± 0.87 kg, distributed in pairs in nursery pens (5 treatments X 4 replicates were used. The values of digestible and metabolizable energy corresponded to 3,632 and 3,260 kcal/kg, respectively. Inclusion of up to 10% TFWM in the diet of barrows from 15 to 30 kg did not affect the average daily gain and feed conversion of the animals.

  19. Application of Chitosan as Antibacterial for Pangasius Fillet at Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Damayanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Fishery Products Processing, Faculty of Fisheries andMarine Science, University of Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The purpose of this research is to obtain the optimalconcentration of chitosan as an antibacterial material wich had the longest of storage period of pangasiusfillet at low temperature storage (5-10oC. The method used is an experimental method with a completelyrandomized design, four treatments and three replications. Pangasius fillet was soaked with chitosan 0%,1%, 2% and 3% for 3 minutes, then packed with styrofoam and plastic wrap and stored at low teperature.The observation were made on day 1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th ,7th, 9th,10th, 11th and 12th. The parameters observedtotal bacterial colonies, the degree of acidity (pH, weight loss, and antibacterial activity of chitosan usingdisc diffusion methods. The final conclusion is that the 2% chitosan is optimal concentration for pangasiusfillet storage at a low temperature until day 11th, with a total 6.7 X105 cfu/g of bacterial colonies, pH 6.67 andtotal 6,78 % of weight loss.Chitosan also has a higher antibacterial capability against Escherichia coli (Gramnegative bacteria than Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive bacteria.

  20. Development and evaluation of an intelligent traceability system for frozen tilapia fillet processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Fu, Zetian; Qi, Lin; Mira, Trebar; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2015-10-01

    The main export varieties in China are brand-name, high-quality bred aquatic products. Among them, tilapia has become the most important and fast-growing species since extensive consumer markets in North America and Europe have evolved as a result of commodity prices, year-round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the largest tilapia farming country, China has over one-third of its tilapia production devoted to further processing and meeting foreign market demand. Using by tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating ITS-TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated with statistical process control (SPC) and fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and expert questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS-TF performance. The results show that traceability requirement is evolved from a firefighting model to a proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS-TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS-TF was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Depuration of shellfish by irradiation: Final technical report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.E.; Mallett, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin.

  3. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  4. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Cyanotoxins in the Mediterranean: New Data from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugliè, Antonella; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riccardi, Elena; Bruno, Milena; Pigozzi, Silvia; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Satta, Cecilia Teodora; Stacca, Daniela; Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Farina, Pasqualina; Padedda, Bachisio Mario; Pulina, Silvia; Sechi, Nicola; Milandri, Anna

    2017-11-16

    Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses indicated the highest toxicity for A. pacificum strains (total PSTs up to 17.811 fmol cell-1). The PSTs were also assessed in a strain of A. tamarense. The results encourage further investigation to increase the knowledge of toxic species still debated in the Mediterranean. This study also reports new data on microcystins (MCs) and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from a Sardinian artificial lake (Lake Bidighinzu). The presence of MCs and BMAA was assessed in natural samples and in cell cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BMAA positives were found in all the analysed samples with a maximum of 17.84 µg L-1. The obtained results added further information on cyanotoxins in Mediterranean reservoirs, particularly BMAA, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  5. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin

  6. Mining the transcriptomes of four commercially important shellfish species for single nucleotide polymorphisms within biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrami, David L J; Shah, Abhijeet; Telesca, Luca; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional profiling not only provides insights into patterns of gene expression, but also generates sequences that can be mined for molecular markers, which in turn can be used for population genetic studies. As part of a large-scale effort to better understand how commercially important European shellfish species may respond to ocean acidification, we therefore mined the transcriptomes of four species (the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the great scallop Pecten maximus and the blunt gaper Mya truncata) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Illumina data for C. gigas, M. edulis and P. maximus and 454 data for M. truncata were interrogated using GATK and SWAP454 respectively to identify between 8267 and 47,159 high quality SNPs per species (total=121,053 SNPs residing within 34,716 different contigs). We then annotated the transcripts containing SNPs to reveal homology to diverse genes. Finally, as oceanic pH affects the ability of organisms to incorporate calcium carbonate, we honed in on genes implicated in the biomineralization process to identify a total of 1899 SNPs in 157 genes. These provide good candidates for biomarkers with which to study patterns of selection in natural or experimental populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccessibility of metals in fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed harvested in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-08-01

    Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods collected by harvested by the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) from 21 First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, in 2008-2009. A significant and negative correlation was observed between Hg concentration and Hg bioaccessibility. Metal bioaccessibility tended to be high; median values ranging between 52% (Mn) and 83% (Cu). The notable exceptions were observed for As in wild game organs (7-19%) and rabbit meat (4%) as well as Hg in salmon eggs (10%). Results of Principal Components Analysis confirmed the unique pattern of bioaccessibility of As and Hg in traditional foods, suggesting that, unlike other metals, As and Hg bioaccessibility are not simply controlled by food digestibility under the operating conditions of the in vitro model. These data provide useful information for dietary contaminant risk assessment and intake assessments of essential trace elements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  9. Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 μg okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 μg OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 μg OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 μg OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 μg OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

  10. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation: Final report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie 60 Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  11. Depuration of shellfish by irradiation: Final technical report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L.E.; Mallett, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation: Final report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-11-01

    Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie /sup 60/Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a multiresidue method for the determination of endocrine disrupters in fish fillet using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Ferronato, Giovana; Ribeiro, Lucila C; Martins, Manoel L; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2013-11-15

    Endocrine Disrupter Compounds (EDCs) are responsible for alterations in the endocrine system functions. Aquatic organisms are able to accumulate EDCs residues, being the major source of contamination for top predators and human consumers. This study aimed to develop and validate a method for the determination of 40 EDCs in fish fillet using modified QuEChERS and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS). A factorial design was used to optimize the extraction procedure. Method validation presented recoveries from 70.1% to 120.0% with RSDfish fillet from different species and residues of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin were detected. The proposed method proved to be effective for the determination of EDCs in fish fillet at very low concentration levels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficiency of ascorbic acid and γ-rays to ameliorate the quality of ready-to-eat baked bolti fish fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; El-Kabani, H.E.; SalIam, M.H.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a reducing agent, inhibits oxidative reactions developed in cold-storage Bolti (Tilapia nilotica) fish. It is the most popular fish repasts in Egypt. To determine the influence of ascorbic acid on cooking (roasting) and irradiated fish fillets to extend their storage-time in refrigerators, 3 patches of fish fillets were prepared; control (0 kGy), ascorbic acid plus 2.5 kGy and ascorbic acid plus 4 kGy and were tested for bacteriological examination, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks of cold storage at 5±1 degree C. The bacteriological examinations were total aerobic plate counts, psychotropic bacterial counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, total mould and yeast counts and microbial pathogens counts (Salmonella and Vibrio species). The chemical analyses were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), inosine 5-monophosphate (IMP) concentration, hypoxanthine (HX) concentration, ph figure, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and total trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N). The sensory evaluation was (texture and odour factors) of the cold-storage Bolti fish fillets samples. The results revealed that aerobically packed fish fillets samples treated with ascorbic acid plus 4 kGy after cooking had satisfied bacteriological, chemical and organoleptical trails. Conclusion: using of baking, irradiation combined with natural antioxidant nd refrigeration could reduce the energy requirements for freezing and costs for the marketing of ready- to-eat fish repasts. Recommendation: combination effects of γ-irradiation plus ascorbic acid in processing fish fillets help to preserve its quality. The possible strategies for improving fish fillets quality and acceptability are discussed

  16. Rigor index, fillet yield and proximate composition of cultured striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus for its suitability in processing industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Noor-E Islami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigor-index in market-size striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, locally called Thai-Pangas was determined to assess fillet yield for production of value-added products. In whole fish, rigor started within 1 hr after death under both iced and room temperature conditions while rigor-index reached a maximum of 72.23% within 8 hr and 85.5% within 5 hr at room temperature and iced condition, respectively, which was fully relaxed after 22 hr under both storage conditions. Post-mortem muscle pH decreased to 6.8 after 2 hr, 6.2 after 8 hr and sharp increase to 6.9 after 9 hr. There was a positive correlation between rigor progress and pH shift in fish fillets. Hand filleting was done post-rigor and fillet yield experiment showed 50.4±2.1% fillet, 8.0±0.2% viscera, 8.0±1.3% skin and 32.0±3.2% carcass could be obtained from Thai-Pangas. Proximate composition analysis of four regions of Thai-Pangas viz., head region, middle region, tail region and viscera revealed moisture 78.36%, 81.14%, 81.45% and 57.33%; protein 15.83%, 15.97%, 16.14% and 17.20%; lipid 4.61%, 1.82%, 1.32% and 24.31% and ash 1.09%, 0.96%, 0.95% and 0.86%, respectively indicating suitability of Thai-Pangas for production of value-added products such as fish fillets.

  17. Depletion of eugenol residues from the skin-on fillet tissue of rainbow trout exposed to 14C-labeled eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. is lagging in access to an approved immediate-release sedative, i.e. a compound that can be safely and effectively used to sedate fish and has no withdrawal period. AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) is under investigation as an immediate-release sedative for freshwater finfish. Because of its investigational status, data are needed to characterize the depletion, distribution, and identity of AQUI-S® 20E residues in fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to uniformly ring labeled 14C-eugenol at a nominal concentration of 10 mg/L for 60 min in 18 °C water. Fish (n = 6) were sampled immediately after the exposure (0 min) then at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Eugenol concentrations and characterization of 14C residues in the fillet tissue were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and flow-through liquid scintillation counting techniques. Total 14C-residue burdens in fillet tissue were determined by tissue oxidation and static liquid scintillation counting techniques. Maximum eugenol and 14C-eugenol equivalent residue concentrations in the fillet tissue were measured immediately after the exposure (44.5 and 38.8 μg/g, respectively). Eugenol was the primary 14C-residue (> 90% of all 14C-residues) in extracts from fillet tissue taken from fish sampled immediately after the exposure (0 min) and from fish sampled at 30 and 60 min after the exposure. The depletion of 14C-eugenol residues from the fillet tissue was rapid (t1/2 = 26.25 min) after transferring the exposed fish to fresh flowing water.

  18. Depletion of isoeugenol residues from the fillet tissue of AQUI-S™ exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need in U.S. public aquaculture and fishery management for an approved sedative that allows for the immediate release of fish after sedation. AQUI-STM is a fish anesthetic/sedative approved for use in several countries and until recently was being developed in the U.S. as a sedative for immediate release of fish after sedation. The U.S. National Toxicology Program reported that isoeugenol (the active ingredient in AQUI-STM) exposed male mice showed clear evidence of carcinogenicity, therefore efforts within the U.S. Department of Interior to develop AQUI-STM as a sedative that allows for immediate release ceased. Despite the ruling, AQUI-STM still has the potential to be approved as an anesthetic with a short withdrawal time. Among the data required to gain approval for use in the U.S. are data describing the composition and depletion of all AQUI-STM residues from fish fillet tissue. A total residue depletion study for AQUI-STM was conducted by exposing market-sized rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (mean weight, 502.7 ± 54 g; s.d.) to 8.9 mg/L of 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol for 60 min in 17 °C water. The 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol was mixed with a surfactant resulting in a mixture that mimicked AQUI-STM. Groups of fish (n = 6) were sampled immediately after the exposure (0-h sample group) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h thereafter. Total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the fillet tissue were determined by oxidizing triplicate subsamples of homogenized skin-on fillet tissue from each fish to 14CO2 and enumerating the radioactivity by static liquid scintillation counting. Isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue were determined by extracting homogenized fillet tissue with solvents and determining the isoeugenol concentrations in the extracts with high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The mean total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4-h sample groups were 55.4, 32.0, 19.8, 11

  19. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  20. Simultaneous determination of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol in fish fillet using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changliang; Liu, Qi; Li, Liudong; Chen, Jiewen; Wang, Xunuo; Huang, Ke

    2016-09-15

    Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) operated in electron ionization mode (EI) has been shown to have advantages in the trace analysis of chemical compounds. Employing the instrument, a method has been built to simultaneously determine eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol, which have been widely used as fish anesthetic, in the fish fillet. Procedure for the sample preparation was achieved by using hexane extraction followed by phenyl solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, which was free of such steps as rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing by taking the volatility of eugenol and its isomers into consideration. The method was validated by conducting recovery studies on fortified fish fillet samples at four concentrations. The linearity in the range of 5-500μg·L(-1) was forced through the origin giving a coefficient of determination (r(2)) greater than 0.9982. Limits of detection (LODs) for eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol were 0.4, 1.2' and 0.2μg·kg(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.2, 4' and 0.7μg·kg(-1) for eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol, respectively. The recoveries for eugenol and its isomers ranged from 76.4 to 99.9% with relative standard deviations (RSD) in a range from 2.18 to 15.5%. This method is quick, simple and suitable for determining the residues of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol simultaneously in batch samples of fish fillet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  2. First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John P; Lind, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, T.; Ezaki, T.; Moriguchi, J.; Fukui, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Ukai, H.; Sakurai, H.; Aoshima, K.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), α 1 -microglobulin (α 1 -MG), β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ≥ 4 μg/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 μg/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 μg/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in α 1 -MG and NAG (β 2 -MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake

  4. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

    2006-06-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  5. Yield and composition of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10843 Yield and composition of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Eulles Quixaba Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fillet yield and quantity of waste generated after processing are important for planning and evaluating the growth performance of species and systems of aquaculture production in Brazil. The pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is among the species with desirable characteristics for intensive fish with high market value. The objective was to evaluate the performance of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes: 7.0 to 9.0 kg (group I, 11.0 to 13.0 kg (group II and 14.0 to 17.0 kg (group III. The fillet yield presented no significant difference between groups. The composition showed significant differences (p The fillet yield and quantity of waste generated after processing are important for planning and evaluating the growth performance of species and systems of aquaculture production in Brazil. The pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is among the species with desirable characteristics for intensive fish with high market value. The objective was to evaluate the performance of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes: 7.0 to 9.0 kg (group I, 11.0 to 13.0 kg (group II and 14.0 to 17.0 kg (group III. The fillet yield presented no significant difference between groups. The composition showed significant differences (p < 0.05 for moisture (77.96 to 75.04% and ash (2.21 to 2.46%, while values of lipid and protein were similar between classes evaluated. In assessing the fat percentage per serving (loin, belly and tail there was higher fat deposition in the ventral part and in group III. Thus, it can be lessen the pirarucu with weight ranging from 7.0 to 9.0 kg, using shorter production cycles and obtaining better quality fillets by having a lower muscle percentage of lipids.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the quality and shelf life of refrigerated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Sohrab; Tahergorabi, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Rabbani, Mohammad; Tahergorabi, Zoya; Feás, Xesús; Aflaki, Fereidoon

    2009-07-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy) on the shelf life of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets that were treated with sodium acetate and vacuum packaged and subsequently stored under refrigeration was studied by measuring microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic changes. Radiation affected populations of bacteria, namely, H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae (P biochemical indicators, thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated trout were higher than for nonirradiated fish (P biochemical indices of O. mykiss for up to 4 weeks at refrigerator temperature without adverse effects on quality and acceptability.

  7. Abundance and distribution of microplastics within surface sediments of a key shellfish growing region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmiruk, T N; Kazmiruk, V D; Bendell, L I

    2018-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microplastics within 5 sediment size classes (>5000 μm, 1000-5000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 250-0.63 μm and Microplastics were found at all sampling locations indicating widespread contamination of this region with these particles. Three types of microplastics were recovered: microbeads, which occurred in the greatest number (up to 25000/kg dry sediment) and microfibers and microfragments, which were much less in number compared with microbeads and occurred in similar amounts (100-300/kg dry sediment). Microbeads were recovered primarily in the microplastics were spatially dependent with principal component analysis (PCA) indicating that 84 percent of the variation in abundance and distribution was due to the presence of high numbers of microbeads at three locations within the study region. At these sites, microbeads expressed as a percent component of the sediment by weight was similar to key geochemical components that govern trace metal behavior and availability to benthic organisms. Microbeads have been shown to accumulate metals from the aquatic environment, hence in addition to the traditional geochemical components such as silt and organic matter, microplastics also need to be considered as a sediment component that can influence trace metal geochemistry. Our findings have shown that BC's premier oyster growing region is highly contaminated with microplastics, notably microbeads. It would be prudent to assess the degree to which oysters from this region are ingesting microplastics. If so, it would have direct implications for Canada's oyster farming industry with respect to the health of the oyster and the quality of product that is being farmed and sets an example for other shellfish growing regions of the world.

  8. Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

  9. Tracing the origin of paralytic shellfish toxins in scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in the northern Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Gao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Some dinoflagellate species within the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium are well-known producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which led to many poisoning incidents around the world. In the northern Yellow Sea, an important mariculture zone for scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, PST have been frequently detected from scallops. However, there is little knowledge concerning PST-producing microalgae in this region so far. In cruises carried out in 2011 and 2012, scallop and phytoplankton samples were collected from the northern Yellow Sea. PST were detected from scallops by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Toxin content and profile were remarkably different among the four tissues, i.e. viscera, adductor muscle, mantle and gonad, suggesting apparent toxin transfer and transformation in scallops. Viscera always had the highest content of PST dominated by low-potency N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, which closely resembled the toxin profiles of net-concentrated phytoplankton samples in spring. Based on the morphological features, cells of Alexandrium spp. in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were picked out and a partial sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) was amplified using a single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cells of both toxic A. tamarense species complex and non-toxic A. affine were identified from the phytoplankton samples based on the partial LSU rDNA sequence information. According to these findings, it is implied that A. tamarense species complex is the major toxic species related to PST contamination in scallops of the northern Yellow Sea. The presence of both toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium spp. in this region requires for a species-specific method to monitor the distribution and dynamics of A. tamarense species complex.

  10. Matrix effect on paralytic shellfish toxins quantification and toxicity estimation in mussels exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M J; Vale, C; Mota, A M; Rodrigues, S M; Costa, P R; Simões Gonçalves, M L S

    2010-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins were quantified in whole tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to blooms of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum in Portuguese coastal waters. A validated liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, involving pre-chromatographic oxidation was used to quantify carbamoyl, N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins. In order to test for any matrix effect in the quantification of those toxins, concentrations obtained from solvent and matrix matched calibration curves were compared. A suppression of the fluorescence signal was observed in mussel extract or fraction in comparison to solvent for the compounds dcGTX2 + 3, GTX2 + 3 and GTX1 + 4, while an enhancement was found for C1 + 2, dcSTX, STX, B1, dcNEO and NEO. These results showed that a matrix effect varies among compounds. The difference of concentrations between solvent and matrix matched calibration curves for C1 + 2 (median = 421 ng g⁻¹) exceeded largely the values for the other quantified compounds (0.09-58 ng g⁻¹). Those differences were converted into toxicity differences, using Oshima toxicity equivalence factors. The compounds C1 + 2 and dcNEO were the major contributors to the differences of total toxicity in the mussel samples. The differences of total toxicity were calculated in ten mussel samples collected during a 10-week blooming period in Portuguese coastal lagoon. Values varied between 53 and 218 µg STX equivalents kg⁻¹. The positive differences mean that the estimated toxicity using solvent calibration curves exceed the values taking into account the matrix. For the toxicity interval 200-800 µg STX equivalents kg⁻¹ an increase was found between 44 and 28%.

  11. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning.

  12. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  13. Antiulcer activity of methanol-chloroform extract of Channa striatus fillet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Ahmad Khusairi; Abd Rahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2018-01-01

    Channa striatus (Haruan) is Malaysian freshwater fish that is traditionally used to treat ailments related to wound and also ulcers. The aimed of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of anti-ulcer activity of chloroform: methanol extract of C. striatus fillet (CMCS) in rats. The antiulcer profile of CMCS, given orally in the doses of 50, 250 and 500mg/kg, was assessed using the ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models. The mechanisms of antiulcer of CMCS were determined as follows; i) the antisecretory activity of CMCS was measured using the pyloric ligation rat model, and; ii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl compounds in the modulation of CMCS antiulcer activity were determined by pre-treating the rats with L -NAME or NEM, respectively, followed by the pre-treatment of rats with CMCS before subjecting the animals to the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. From the results obtained, CMCS exerted significant (P<0.05) antiulcer activity in both models of gastric ulcer wherein the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the stomach supported the antiulcer claim. With regard to its antisecretory effect, CMCS did not change the volume and pH, but reduce the total acidity only at the lower doses of the gastric juice. Moreover, CMCS demonstrated antiulcer activity was reversed by NEM, but not affected by L-NAME. In conclusion, CMCS shows antiulcer activity that is modulated via its cytoprotective, but not antisecretory effect, and in the presence of sulfhysryl compounds, but not NO.

  14. Combined osmotic dehydration and drying process of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mayara Galvão; da Silva Pena, Rosinelson

    2017-09-01

    The osmotic dehydration (OD) and complementary drying of pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ) fillets were studied. Pieces of the dorsal portion of pirarucu (60 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) underwent OD in a binary solution (NaCl-water) with the application of vacuum pulse following a central rotatable composite design. The effect of the following process variables was assessed: temperature (20-40 °C), osmotic solution concentration (15-25% NaCl), and vacuum pulse pressure (7-101 kPa) on water loss (WL), solid gain (SG), and water activity (a w ). OD kinetics was obtained and the Peleg model was fitted to WL and SG data. The osmotically dehydrated pirarucu was dried (40-70 °C) in a fixed-bed dryer and mathematical models were fitted to the drying data. The optimal operational condition for the OD process was 35 °C, solution with 25% NaCl, and atmospheric pressure, which yielded WL of 14.87 ± 1.46%, SG of 8.56 ± 0.45%, and a w of 0.87 ± 0.02. The Peleg model efficiently predicted the WL and SG kinetics. The increase in the water loss in drying was more evident at low temperatures (40-50 °C) with effective diffusivity ranging from 10.85 × 10 -9 to 12.30 × 10 -9 m 2 /s. The Midilli and Page models efficiently predicted the drying kinetics.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Han

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1 and 10,000 MPN g(-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures.

  16. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were significantly lower in claims. Concentrations of Vibrio cholerae rose by approximately 1 log in oysters stored as shellstock after 7 days at 2 degrees C, and Lac+ vibrios increased 2 logs at 8 degrees C. Total counts of bacteria, fungi, coliforms, fecal streptococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and clostridia were significantly higher in shucked oysters than in those stored as shellstock. Fecal coliforms were statistically the same, but V. cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and the Lac+ vibrios were higher in oysters stored as shellstock. The concentrations of all microbial groups were higher in fully processed oysters than in shucked meats, with the exception of the vibrios, which showed no significant difference among the treatments. The results showed that although traditional methods of storing shellfish resulted in an overall increase in the microbial load, vibrio levels increased only in oysters stored as shellstock. Although fecal coliform and total bacterial counts did not correlate with those for vibrios in fresh oysters, strong correlations were observed in oysters stored for 7 days, suggesting that these indicators may be useful in monitoring oyster quality when meats are stored for a limited time as shellstock.

  17. Differential Mobility Spectrometry for Improved Selectivity in Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel G.

    2017-08-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans. PST quantitation by LC-MS is challenging because of their high polarity, lability as gas-phase ions, and large number of potentially interfering analogues. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) has the potential to improve the performance of LC-MS methods for PSTs in terms of selectivity and limits of detection. This work describes a comprehensive investigation of the separation of 16 regulated PSTs by DMS and the development of highly selective LC-DMS-MS methods for PST quantitation. The effects of all DMS parameters on the separation of PSTs from one another were first investigated in detail. The labile nature of 11α-gonyautoxin epimers gave unique insight into fragmentation of labile analytes before, during, and after the DMS analyzer. Two sets of DMS parameters were identified that either optimized the resolution of PSTs from one another or transmitted them at a limited number of compensation voltage (CV) values corresponding to structural subclasses. These were used to develop multidimensional LC-DMS-MS/MS methods using existing HILIC-MS/MS parameters. In both cases, improved selectivity was observed when using DMS, and the quantitative capabilities of a rapid UPLC-DMS-MS/MS method were evaluated. Limits of detection of the developed method were similar to those without DMS, and differences were highly analyte-dependant. Analysis of shellfish matrix reference materials showed good agreement with established methods. The developed methods will be useful in cases where specific matrix interferences are encountered in the LC-MS/MS analysis of PSTs in complex biological samples.

  18. Development of a toxicity model for paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel: uptake and release of toxins in Green Bay mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbada, Rhett Simon DC.; Ranada, Ma. Llorina O.; De Leon, Aileen L.; Bulos, Adelina M.; Sta, Maria; Efren, J.; De Vera, Azucena; Balagtas, Angelina; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the expressed need to study shellfish toxicity and elucidate the kinetics of saxitoxin in green mussels Perna viridis), uptake/depuration rates of saxitoxin were studied in Juag Lagoon, Sorsogon and Sorsogon Bay. Both areas experience recurring blooms of Pyrodinium bahamanse var compressum (PbC) making them excellent study sites. Two sampling stations were selected, to which, mussels were introduced. Algal cell density and mussel toxicity were measured by receptor binding assay (RBA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from May to December 2007. During this period, two bloom events occurred, wherein, a decrease in cell density by two orders of magnitude (30,000 to 600 cells·1 +1 ) caused an order of magnitude decrease in toxicity (600 to 30 μg STX eq./100 g shellfish meat). A time lag between peaks of cell density and the corresponding toxicity was revealed. Vegetative cells were present throughout the sampling period, and a uniform horizontal and vertical distribution of cells was observed between the stations. Cell densities were significantly correlated with both RBA and HPLC estimates of STX content in mussels (Pearson r values of 0.7486 and 0.4325 for RBA and HPLC, respectively). In Sorsogon Bay, six sampling stations were also chosen, from which, water and mussels were being collected. Preliminary data showed that the cellular toxin content was primarily STX, making up to 90-100% of total toxin quantified. The average toxicity was estimated at 52.81fmol/cell. The effect of physiological factors to overall shellfish toxicity, though not directly characterized, may be deduced from these studies. (author)

  19. Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment.

  20. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  1. Matrix effect and correction by standard addition in quantitative liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Tsukada, Katsuo

    2002-01-11

    An evaluation of the feasibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospheric pressure ionization was made for quantitation of four diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-6 and yessotoxin in scallops. When LC-MS was applied to the analysis of scallop extracts, large signal suppressions were observed due to coeluting substances from the column. To compensate for these matrix signal suppressions, the standard addition method was applied. First, the sample was analyzed and then the sample involving the addition of calibration standards is analyzed. Although this method requires two LC-MS runs per analysis, effective correction of quantitative errors was found.

  2. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Belforti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0, 25% (TM25 and 50% (TM50 as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50 reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.

  3. The numerical high cycle fatigue damage model of fillet weld joint under weld-induced residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a development of nonlinear continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for multiaxial high cycle fatigue is proposed in which the cyclic plasticity constitutive model has been incorporated in the finite element (FE) framework. T-joint FE simulation of fillet welding is implemented to characterize sequentially coupled three-dimensional (3-D) of thermo-mechanical FE formulation and simulate the welding residual stresses. The high cycle fatigue damage model is then taken account into the fillet weld joints under the various cyclic fatigue load types to calculate the fatigue life considering the residual stresses. The fatigue crack initiation and the propagation in the present model estimated for the total fatigue is compared with the experimental results. The FE results illustrated that the proposed high cycle fatigue damage model in this study could become a powerful tool to effectively predict the fatigue life of the welds. Parametric studies in this work are also demonstrated that the welding residual stresses cannot be ignored in the computation of the fatigue life of welded structures.

  4. Suitability of hyperspectral imaging for rapid evaluation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yu-Nan

    2015-03-15

    The suitability of hyperspectral imaging technique (400-1000 nm) was investigated to determine the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value for monitoring lipid oxidation in fish fillets during cold storage at 4°C for 0, 2, 5, and 8 days. The PLSR calibration model was established with full spectral region between the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images and the reference TBA values and showed good performance for predicting TBA value with determination coefficients (R(2)P) of 0.8325 and root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1172 mg MDA/kg flesh. Two simplified PLSR and MLR models were built and compared using the selected ten most important wavelengths. The optimised MLR model yielded satisfactory results with R(2)P of 0.8395 and RMSEP of 0.1147 mg MDA/kg flesh, which was used to visualise the TBA values distribution in fish fillets. The whole results confirmed that using hyperspectral imaging technique as a rapid and non-destructive tool is suitable for the determination of TBA values for monitoring lipid oxidation and evaluation of fish freshness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide exposure on intensively cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: Physiological responses and fillet attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, M.L.; Kenney, P.B.; Mazik, P.M.; Kiser, R.; Hankins, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (261.6 ?? 24.7 g initial weight, mean ?? SEM) at 13.1 ?? 0.2 C were exposed for 94 d to one of three CO2 treatments: control (22.1 ?? 2.8 mg/L), medium (34.5 ?? 3.8 mg/L), or high (48.7 ?? 4.4 mg/L). Trout were checked daily for survival, and fish were sampled at 0, 28, 56, and 84 d for physiological responses, growth, and fillet quality assessments. Trout were also challenged to a 15-min crowding stress at 93 d to assess their ability to initiate a stress response during hypercapnia. Chronically exposed trout showed nearly 100% survival through 84 d exposure (1 of 1,500 fish died). Growth and physiological results showed that increasing elevated CO2 concentrations result in corresponding decreased growth rates and CO2-specific physiological parameters: The medium and high CO2 treatments had significantly slower growth and subsequently smaller fish by 84 d. Exposed trout also showed significantly (P smoked fillet weights. Chronic CO2 exposure did not result in notable changes in ultimate muscle pH. Exposure to 15-min crowding stress at 93 d resulted in significant changes in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride for all treatment groups. CO2-specific changes were detected in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, and plasma chloride responses following the 15-min crowding stress. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2005.

  7. Komposisi Asam Lemak, Angka Peroksida, dan Angka TBA Fillet Ikan Kakap (Lutjanus sp pada Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Husain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has a high nutritional value and is a major food source in many countries. Fish lipid has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5n-3 and docosahexsanoic acid (DHA; 22: 6n-3. The objective of this research was to determine fatty acids composition of snapper (Lutjanus sp fillet and its damage during the storage process. The results showed that total of the saturated fatty acids (SFA increased from 4.35% to 25.55%, 28.06%, 32.73%, and 61.75% during storage at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, respectively. Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA were 23.72%, 23.69%, 14.4%, 22.66%, and 29.4% at storage temperature of 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Total PUFA decreased from 25.06% to 15.98%, 14.99%, 10.32%, and 8.84% at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Peroxide value, as primary peroxide of snapper fillet, increased about 10.60 times with an increased in storage temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C. Value of TBA increased 6.60 times with an increased in temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C during 45 days. ABSTRAK Ikan memiliki nilai gizi tinggi dan merupakan sumber makanan utama di banyak negara. Lipid ikan memiliki kandungan tinggi asam tak jenuh ganda (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA, terutama asam eikosapentanoat (EPA; 20:5n-3 dan asam docosahexsanoat (DHA; 22:6n-3. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi asam lemak fillet ikan kakap (Lutjanus sp dan kerusakan akibat proses penyimpanan. Hasil analisis asam lemak jenuh (Saturated Fatty Acid, SFA menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak jenuh meningkat dari 4,35% menjadi 25,55%, 28,06%, 32,73%, dan 61,75% selama penyimpanan pada 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Total asam lemak tak jenuh (Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid, MUFA adalah 23,72%, 23,69, 14,4%, 22,66%, dan 29,4% pada penyimpanan 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Sedangkan total PUFA turun dari 25,05% menjadi 15,98%, 14,99%, 10,32%, dan

  8. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in Chilled Cod (Gadus morhua) fillets by gas chromatography and detection of quality indicators by an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Jonsdottir, R.; Lauzon, H.L.; Luten, J.B.; Kristbergsson, K.

    2005-01-01

    Volatile compounds in cod fillets packed in Styrofoam boxes were analyzed during chilled storage (0.5 C) by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry to screen potential quality indicators present in concentrations high enough for detection by an electronic nose. Photobacterium

  9. Fillet quality and processing attributes of postsmolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fed a fishmeal-free diet and a fishmeal-based diet in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies have evaluated the adequacy of alternate ingredient diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, mainly with focus on fish performance and health; however, comprehensive analysis of fillet quality is lacking, particularly for salmon fed these diets in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS)....

  10. Effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of tropical red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fillets stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Chopin, Christine; Cornet, Josiane; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2018-02-02

    The effect of vacuum (VP - 4°C) and CO 2 /N 2 -atmosphere (MAP - 4°C) packaging on the quality of red drum fillets compared with whole gutted iced fish was investigated. A metagenomic approach, bacterial enumeration and isolation, biochemical and sensory analyses were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of whole fish was observed at day 15 whereas VP and MAP fillets appeared unacceptable only after 29days. At these dates, total mesophilic counts reached 10 7 -10 8 CFU g -1 . According to Illumina MiSeq sequencing, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus and Kocuria were the main genera of the fresh red drum fillets. At the sensory rejection time, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly Carnobacterium sp., dominated the microbiota of both types of packaging. The pH value of fresh samples was between 5.96 and 6.37 and did not vary greatly in all trials. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) concentrations were low and not represent reliable indicators of the spoilage, contrary to some biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine). Chilled packed fillets of red drum have an extended shelf-life compared to whole gutted iced fish. Overall, few differences in sensory and microbial quality were observed between the VP and MAP samples. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) provided data on the microbiota of a tropical fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  12. Application of VNIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of pH, color, and drip loss of chicken breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-destructive and rapid prediction of quality attributes of chicken breast fillets using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) was carried out in this work. All hyperspectral images were acquired for bone (dorsal) side of chicken breast. A forward principal component...

  13. Measuring the Degree of Monopsony Power in the EU Fish Importing Industry: Implications for Ugandan Fresh and Chilled Fish Fillet Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Although France, Belgium and the Netherlands import a significant percentage of chilled fish fillet from Uganda, results suggest no significant degree of monopsony power is exercised by these countries. If Ugandan firms export to a few countries the competitive price should still prevail if there are many importing firms.

  14. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  15. Quality of raw and smoked fillets from clinically healthy Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following an outbreak of pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taksdal, T.; Wiik‐Nielsen, J.; Birkeland, S.

    2012-01-01

    ., are of poor quality. We therefore examined harvest‐ready, clinically healthy Atlantic salmon from a population of fish previously affected by PD. Histopathological changes in skeletal muscle tissues ranged from minor to severe. Fillet quality measurements showed that fish with severe skeletal muscle changes...... may indicate susceptibility to stress‐related heart failure....

  16. Moderate exercise of rainbow trout induces only minor differences in fatty acid profile, texture, white muscle fibres and proximate chemical composition of fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Heinrich, Maike Timm; Hyldig, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    when the lipid content in the fillet increased (R2≥0.85, Pb1·10−6). Fillet texture measured instrumentally as shear force (g) after 72 h of ice storage did not differ between the two experimental groups, and neither did the content of lipid, protein or dry matter in the fillet. Muscle fibre sizes have...... a possible role in textural characteristics and were determined by histological analyses of white, glycolytic muscle tissue. These data showed that although differences in average fibre diameters were small (excF: 75.04 (s.d.=48.96)μm; ctrlF: 74.50 (46.21)μm) the general fibre size distribution differed...... significantly among the two groups (Pb0.01). Moreover, moderate exercise induced small but significant changes in fibre circularity (excF: circ.=0.724; ctrlF:=0.720, Pb0.05) but neither muscle fibre diameter nor circularity was significantly related to fillet texture. Altogether, the results suggest...

  17. Concentrations of 210Po in fish and shellfish from southern region of Japan and evaluation of 210Po intake from seafood for Japanese people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Nakao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po in fish and shellfish, mostly collected from southern region of Japan were analyzed. Values ranged from 0.2 to 229 Bq/kg fresh weight and higher concentrations were observed in samples analyzed with viscera. Intake of 210 Po through fish and shellfish was evaluated at different Japanese cities based on statistical consumption data. Phytoplankton, Heterosigma akashiwo was collected during a harmful algal bloom and 210 Po was analyzed. The phytoplankton occupied only 4.4% of 210 Po in seawater and a large fraction of 210 Po was observed in the particulate form. (orig.)

  18. [Modeling the occurrence of shellfish poisoning outbreaks caused by Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) through electromagnetic signal triggering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Pulo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in bivalves attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms at the NW Portuguese coast was previously associated with periods of low solar activity (measured by the radio flux [R]), or low geomagnetic A(a) index. It was also observed that reduction of R preceded the occurrence of toxin accumulation, while A(a) index increase could be related to its absence during periods of low activity. For modeling toxin accumulation, the monthly decrease in R was studied along the decade 2003-2012. A match that helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 was obtained by plotting the formula: ΔR = (R(n-1) - R(n))/(R(n) - 65)2, where 65 represented the lowest radio activity known to date. The complex denominator was required to take into account the sunspot cycle. A 1-2 month lag was observed between maximal relative decline and maximal PSTs accumulation. PSTs in bivalves from the Portuguese south coast were related with natural electromagnetic cycles for the first time, and were not statistically associated with low R. A statistically significant association with low A(a) index also was not achieved, due to the low number of occurrences, although the 25-75 percentile was restricted to low Aa indexes in a similar way to that found for the NW coast. PSTs accumulation outside solar minima could be triggered by a steep decline in the A(a) index (ΔA), but no lag was observed in this case. While ΔR amplitude helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 at the NW coast, the amplitude of ΔA was not related to the severity of the accumulation. Other kind of local electromagnetic signaling was investigated resorting to the occurrence of seismologic phenomena, because these events can trigger electric activities. No statistical association was found between seism number or magnitude and PSTs at the south coast, located near the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates, and marked by moderate

  19. Distribution and sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shellfish of the Egyptian Red Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Nemr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes were analyzed in shellfish collected from 13 different sites along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. All samples were analyzed for n-alkanes (C8–C40 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA list of PAHs. n-Alkanes in shellfish samples from 13 locations were found to be in the range of 71.0–701.1 ng/g with a mean value of 242.2 ± 192.1 ng/g dry wt. Different indices were calculated for the n-alkanes to assess their sources. These were carbon preference index (CPI, average chain length (ACL, terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR, natural n-alkane ratio (NAR and proxy ratio (Paq. Most of the collected samples of n-alkanes were discovered to be from natural sources. Aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs from 13 sites varied between 1.3 and 160.9 ng/g with an average of 47.9 ± 45.5 ng/g dry wt. Benzo(apyrine (BaP, a cancer risk assessment, was calculated for the PAHs and resulted in ranges between 0.08 and 4.47 with an average of 1.25 ng/g dry wt.

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in internal organs and tissues of Korean molluscan shellfish and potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-09-01

    Molluscan shellfish (gastropods and bivalves) were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury by direct Hg analyzer and for other metals, such as cadmium, lead, chromium, silver, nickel, copper and zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs and whole tissues were determined and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. Heavy metals were accumulated significantly higher (P hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in all internal-organ samples were above the regulatory limit of Korea and the mean level in whole tissue samples of the selected gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell, exceeded the limit (except in a few cases). The sum of the estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb and Hg for each part of all tested species accounted for 1.59-16.94, 0.02-0.36, and 0.07-0.16% respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The hazard index for each part of gastropods and bivalves was below 1.0, however, the maximum HI for internal organs of all analysed species was quite high (0.71). These results suggest that consumption of flesh after removing the internal organs of some molluscan shellfish (all gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell) is a suitable way for reducing Cd exposure.

  1. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-02

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  4. Near-Real-Time Surveillance of Illnesses Related to Shellfish Consumption in British Columbia: Analysis of Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Victoria; McIntyre, Lorraine; Kent, Debra; Leong, Dennis; Henderson, Sarah B

    2018-02-23

    Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) is one of five such services in Canada, and it is the only one nested within a public health agency. This study aimed to demonstrate how DPIC data are used for routine public health surveillance in near-real-time using the case study of its alerting system for illness related to consumption of shellfish (ASIRCS). Every hour, a connection is opened between the WBM software Visual Dotlab Enterprise, which holds the DPIC database, and the R statistical computing environment. This platform is used to extract, clean, and merge all necessary raw data tables into a single data file. ASIRCS automatically and retrospectively scans a 24-hour window within the data file for new cases related to illnesses from shellfish consumption. Detected cases are queried using a list of attributes: the caller location, exposure type, reasons for the exposure, and a list of keywords searched in the clinical notes. The alert generates a report that is tailored to the needs of food safety specialists, who then assess and respond to detected cases. The ASIRCS system alerted on 79 cases between January 2015 and December 2016, and retrospective analysis found 11 cases that were missed. All cases were reviewed by food safety specialists, and 58% (46/79) were referred to designated regional health authority contacts for follow-up. Of the 42% (33/79) cases that were not referred to health authorities, some were

  5. CRISTISPIRA IN NORTH AMERICAN SHELLFISH. A NOTE ON A SPIRILLUM FOUND IN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1921-08-31

    Ten varieties of North American shellfish were examined for the occurrence of Cristispira in their styles. A cristispira was found in various numbers in Ostrea virginiana, Venus mercenaria, and Modiola modiolus, but none in Ensis americana, Mya arenaria, Mactra solidissima, Pecten irradians, Mytilus edulis, Fulgur canaliculatus, or Nassa obsoleta. Of 298 oysters, only 128 showed the crystalline styles, in which cristispiras were present in 99. Active cristispiras were found in 59 styles only and degenerated forms in the remaining 40. In 110 clams (Venus mercenaria) 70 styles were found, and only 8 of these contained cristispiras; 5 yielded active and the other 3 degenerated cristispiras. In 97 modiolas there were 73 styles, only 4 of which contained cristispiras. The physical properties of the crystalline styles of these shellfish varied considerably. The styles of the oysters were moderately soft, and when exposed to the air or mixed with sea water they underwent liquefaction, forming a clear, viscid material. The styles from clams and modiolas were opaque and were more firm, not easily crushed even in a mortar. The styles of the scallops were the most solid of all the styles examined. It happened that the softer the styles, the more frequent was the occurrence of the cristispira; in fact, no cristispira was detected in styles other than those of oysters, clams, and modiolas, of which oysters had the softest styles and the largest percentage of cristispira invasion. The following observations were made regarding the structure of the cristispira found in oysters. The body is a long, flexible cylinder, with blunt extremities, towards which the diameter gradually diminishes. In motion the body rapidly stretches and contracts, forming in the contracted state several serpentine undulations. A membranous appendage (Gross' crista) winds about the body throughout its entire length. The inner margin is in connection with the body, the outer margin is free and is distinctly

  6. Estimating the contribution of N-sulfocarbamoyl paralytic shellfish toxin analogs GTX6 and C3+4 to the toxicity of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) over a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Rodrigues, Susana Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Gymnodinium catenatum, a dinoflagellate species with a global distribution, is known to produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The profile of toxins of G. catenatum is commonly dominated by sulfocarbamoyl analogs including the C3+4 and GTX6, which to date has no commercial certified reference materials necessary for their quantification via chemical methods, such as liquid chromatography. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of C3+4 and GTX6 and their contribution to shellfish toxicity. C3+4 and GTX6 were indirectly quantified via pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after hydrolysis conversion into their carbamate analogs. Analyses were carried out in mussel samples collected over a bloom of G. catenatum (>63×10 3 cellsl -1 ) in Aveiro lagoon, NW Portuguese coast. Concentration levels of sulfocarbamoyl toxin analogs were two orders of magnitude higher than decarbamoyl toxins, which were in turn one order of magnitude higher than carbamoyl toxins. Among the sulfocarbamoyl toxins, C1+2 were clearly the dominant compounds, followed by C3+4 and GTX6. The least abundant sulfocarbamoyl toxin was GTX5. The most important compounds in terms of contribution for sample toxicity were C1+2, which justified 26% of the PSP toxicity. The lesser abundant dcSTX constitutes the second most important compound with similar % of toxicity to C1+2, C3+4 and GTX6 were responsible for approximately 11% and 13%, respectively. The median of the sum of C3+4 and GTX6 was 27%. These levels reached a maximum of 60% as was determined for the sample collected closest to the G. catenatum bloom. This study highlights the importance of these low potency PSP toxin analogs to shellfish toxicity. Hydrolysis conversion of C3+4 and GTX6 is recommended for determination of PSP toxicity when LC detection methods are used for PSP testing in samples exposed to G. catenatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  8. Effect of inoculum size, bacterial species, type of surfaces and contact time to the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated to non-inoculated beef fillets via food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkana, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Grounta, A; Koutsoumanis, K; Nychas, G-J E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated beef fillets to non-inoculated ones, through food processing surfaces. Three different levels of inoculation of beef fillets surface were prepared: a high one of approximately 10 7  CFU/cm 2 , a medium one of 10 5  CFU/cm 2 and a low one of 10 3  CFU/cm 2 , using mixed-strains of Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fillets were then placed on 3 different types of surfaces (stainless steel-SS, polyethylene-PE and wood-WD), for 1 or 15 min. Subsequently, these fillets were removed from the cutting boards and six sequential non-inoculated fillets were placed on the same surfaces for the same period of time. All non-inoculated fillets were contaminated with a progressive reduction trend of each pathogen's population level from the inoculated fillets to the sixth non-inoculated ones that got in contact with the surfaces, and regardless the initial inoculum, a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g between inoculated and 1st non-inoculated fillet was observed. S. Typhimurium was transferred at lower mean population (2.39 log CFU/g) to contaminated fillets than E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g), followed by L. monocytogenes (3.12 log CFU/g; P < 0.05). Wooden surfaces (2.77 log CFU/g) enhanced the transfer of bacteria to subsequent fillets compared to other materials (2.66 log CFU/g for SS and PE; P < 0.05). Cross-contamination between meat and surfaces is a multifactorial process strongly depended on the species, initial contamination level, kind of surface, contact time and the number of subsequent fillet, according to analysis of variance. Thus, quantifying the cross-contamination risk associated with various steps of meat processing and food establishments or households can provide a scientific basis for risk management of such products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Clean and safe supply of fish and shellfish to clear the HACCP regulation by use of clean and cold deep ocean water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Takahashi, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazunori

    2005-07-01

    For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water (DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for salmon, cod, and sea urchin in Town ‘Rausu’ in Hokkaido, Japan. DOW below 2.9’C of an amount of nearly 5 000m3 is planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land. DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of 2005.

  10. Effect of Weld Bead Shape on the Fatigue Behavior of GMAW Lap Fillet Joint in GA 590 MPa Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of weld bead shape on the fatigue strength of lap fillet joints using the gas metal arc welding (GMAW process was investigated. The base material used in the experiment was 590 MPa grade galvanealed steel sheet with 2.3 mm and 2.6 mm thickness. In order to make the four types of weld beads with different shapes by factors such as length, angle, and area, the welding process, wire feeding speed, and joint shape were changed. The stress-number of cycles to failure (S–N curve and fatigue strength were obtained from the fatigue test for four types of weld bead, and the cause of the fatigue strength difference was clarified through the analysis of the geometrical factors, such as length, angle, and area of the weld bead. In addition, the relationship between weld bead shape and fatigue strength was discussed.

  11. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarieke E.I. de Jong

    2012-01-01

    The surface temperature reached 70∘C within 30 sec and 85∘C within one minute. Extremely high decimal reduction times of 1.90, 1.97, and 2.20 min were obtained for C. jejuni, E. coli, and S. typhimurium, respectively. Chicken meat and refrigerated storage before cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function of cooking time. The data revealed that cooking time may be far more critical than previously assumed.

  12. Previous bacterial infection affects textural quality parameters of heat-treated fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Hyldig, Grethe; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Sensory quality of fish meat is influenced by many parameters prior to slaughter. In the present study, it was examined if previous infections or damages in the muscle tissue influence product quality parameters in fish. Fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in seawater....... This article was the first to describe a correlation between previous infections in fish and changes in sensory-quality parameters. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. This work contributes with knowledge about sensory-quality parameters of fish meat after recovery from infections and physical-tissue damage. Because...... the results demonstrate an influence on the texture from previous disease, the practical potentials of the results are valuable for the aquaculture industry. In order to minimize the effects of previous diseases on the sensory quality regarding the texture, these fishes should be processed as cold...

  13. Electron beam irradiation, oxygen, and temperature effects on nucleotide degradation in stored aquaculture hybrid striped bass fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahadian, C.; Brannan, R.G.; Heath, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Skinless fillets from commercially-grown aquaculture hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) were electron beam-irradiated in the presence of air or vacuum-packaged and stored at 4C and -20C for 14 days. A mean low dose level of 2.0 or 3.0 kGy (+/- 0.5 kGy) and high dose level of 20 kGy (+/- 4 kGy) were used for irradiated samples. Hypoxanthine (Hx) concentrations, Ki-values ([(INO + Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100), and H-values ([(Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100) indicated that irradiation did not influence the rate of nucleotide degradation compared with nonirradiated controls at either refrigerated or frozen temperatures. Vacuum packaging or freezing of stored samples resulted in lower H-values and Hx contents compared with nonirradiated controls regardless of irradiation treatment

  14. Physico-chemical traits of raw and cooked fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from different strains and farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.

  15. Using a Combination of Spectral and Textural Data to Measure Water-Holding Capacity in Fresh Chicken Breast Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to explore the potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging (400–1000 nm to classify fresh chicken breast fillets into different water-holding capacity (WHC groups. Initially, the extracted spectra and image textural features, as well as the mixed data of the two, were used to develop partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA classification models. Smoothing, a first derivative process, and principle component analysis (PCA were carried out sequentially on the mean spectra of all samples to deal with baseline offsets and identify outlier data. Six samples located outside the confidence ellipses of 95% confidence level in the score plot were defined as outliers. A PLS-DA model based on the outlier-free spectra provided a correct classification rate (CCR value of 78% in the prediction set. Then, seven optimal wavelengths selected using a successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to develop a simplified PLS-DA model that obtained a slightly reduced CCR with a value of 73%. Moreover, the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was implemented on the first principle component image (with 98.13% of variance of the hyperspectral image to extract textural features (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity. The CCR of the model developed using textural variables was less optimistic with a value of 59%. Compared to results of models based on spectral or textural data individually, the performance of the model based on the mixed data of optimal spectral and textural features was the best with an improved CCR of 86%. The results showed that the spectral and textural data of hyperspectral images together can be integrated in order to measure and classify the WHC of fresh chicken breast fillets.

  16. Limiting Size of Fish Fillets at the Center of the Plate Improves the Sustainability of Aquaculture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Cross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available North American dining customers like to have a singular large piece of protein in the center of the plate. When fish is the protein of choice, the portion size from many species is limited by the overall size of the fish. Therefore, for these species, the means to achieve a singular larger portion of “center of the plate” protein is to grow a larger animal. However, fish become less efficient in converting feed to protein as they age. A second option would be to provide two smaller fillets originating from younger, more efficient fish. Here, the sustainability ramifications of these two protein provisioning strategies (single large or two small fillets are considered for three species of fish produced in aquaculture. Growth data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus produced in ponds, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in raceways, and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria in marine net pens, were modeled to assess the total biomass and overall food conversion ratio for the production of small, medium or large fish. The production of small fish added an additional 50% or more biomass per year for trout, catfish, and sablefish compared to the production of large fish. Feed conversion ratios were also improved by nearly 10% for the smaller compared to larger fish of each species. Thus, even though all of these species tend to be considered aquaculture species of low environmental impact (and hence “green” or sustainable options, the product form requested by retailers and served by chefs can further increase the sustainability of these species.

  17. Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  19. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with the paralytic shellfish poisoning dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David H; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Negri, Andrew P; Blackburn, Susan I; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2004-03-01

    Gymnodinium catenatum is one of several dinoflagellates that produce a suite of neurotoxins called the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning in temperate and tropical waters. Previous research suggested that the bacteria associated with the surface of the sexual resting stages (cyst) were important to the production of PST by G. catenatum. This study sought to characterise the cultivable bacterial diversity of seven different strains of G. catenatum that produce both high and abnormally low amounts of PST, with the long-term aim of understanding the role the bacterial flora has in bloom development and toxicity of this alga. Sixty-one bacterial isolates were cultured and phylogenetically identified as belonging to the Proteobacteria (70%), Bacteroidetes (26%) or Actinobacteria (3%). The Alphaproteobacteria were the most numerous both in terms of the number of isolates cultured (49%) and were also the most abundant type of bacteria in each G. catenatum culture. Two phenotypic (functional) traits inferred from the phylogenetic data were shown to be a common feature of the bacteria present in each G. catenatum culture: firstly, Alphaproteobacteria capable of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, and secondly, Gammaproteobacteria capable of hydrocarbon utilisation and oligotrophic growth. In relation to reports of autonomous production of PST by dinoflagellate-associated bacteria, PST production by bacterial isolates was investigated, but none were shown to produce any PST-like toxins. Overall, this study has identified a number of emergent trends in the bacterial community of G. catenatum which are mirrored in the bacterial flora of other dinoflagellates, and that are likely to be of especial relevance to the population dynamics of natural and harmful algal blooms.

  20. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Aranda, Juan; Cortez Diaz, Mirella

    2003-01-01

    Serious problems of environmental contamination due to the activity of the man exist at the present time. Where the greater impact is the produced one by heavy metals that go to the sea. Where the shellfish can collect some of them, the highly toxic ones, since these are bioaccumulation of these metals. Therefore one becomes necessary to count with the reliable analytical procedures to determine these elements. The purpose of this work is to present the determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish, by spectroscopy of atomic absorption with graphite furnace. For each determined element, solutions of nickel and phosphate like matrix modifiers were used respectively The validation was made using a Reference Certified Material, Oyster ' Tissue 156 (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The sample previously was digested in triplicate by two consecutive days, with nitric acid in a pressure digestion system DAB 11. For each element it was evaluated: limit of detection and quantification, sensitivity, repeatability, linear, slope rank and uncertainty. In addition, the obtained results were compared with the certified values of the certified material of reference using like statistical tools the tests of Student and Fisher. In both tests the calculated values were smaller to the shown ones in table, for degrees of freedom with 95% of confidence. Thus it was verified that it does not exist significant differences between the precision and the average values of the results obtained with respect to the values of the certified material. In addition, the obtained parameters are appropriate for the determination of these trace elements in this type of environmental sample (author)

  1. Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil E; Baden, Susanne P

    2018-02-01

    The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae. PMID:28974018

  3. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima, and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58% and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%. Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  4. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-09-30

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima ( P. lima ), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%-100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima . The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9-34.0 and 15.2-27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70-79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  5. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximize anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167–404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g−1, respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all −1.

  6. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  7. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  8. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  9. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J R; Porcher, S T; Smerud, J R; Gaikowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximise anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167-404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g(-1), respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all < 39 µg g(-1).

  10. Computer vision-based evaluation of pre- and postrigor changes in size and shape of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage: effects of perimortem handling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, E; Erikson, U; Digre, H; Skavhaug, A; Mathiassen, J R

    2008-03-01

    The present study describes the possibilities for using computer vision-based methods for the detection and monitoring of transient 2D and 3D changes in the geometry of a given product. The rigor contractions of unstressed and stressed fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were used as a model system. Gradual changes in fillet shape and size (area, length, width, and roundness) were recorded for 7 and 3 d, respectively. Also, changes in fillet area and height (cross-section profiles) were tracked using a laser beam and a 3D digital camera. Another goal was to compare rigor developments of the 2 species of farmed fish, and whether perimortem stress affected the appearance of the fillets. Some significant changes in fillet size and shape were found (length, width, area, roundness, height) between unstressed and stressed fish during the course of rigor mortis as well as after ice storage (postrigor). However, the observed irreversible stress-related changes were small and would hardly mean anything for postrigor fish processors or consumers. The cod were less stressed (as defined by muscle biochemistry) than the salmon after the 2 species had been subjected to similar stress bouts. Consequently, the difference between the rigor courses of unstressed and stressed fish was more extreme in the case of salmon. However, the maximal whole fish rigor strength was judged to be about the same for both species. Moreover, the reductions in fillet area and length, as well as the increases in width, were basically of similar magnitude for both species. In fact, the increases in fillet roundness and cross-section height were larger for the cod. We conclude that the computer vision method can be used effectively for automated monitoring of changes in 2D and 3D shape and size of fish fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage. In addition, it can be used for grading of fillets according to uniformity in size and shape, as well as measurement of

  11. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  12. Examples of grid generation with implicitly specified surfaces using GridPro (TM)/az3000. 1: Filleted multi-tube configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zheming; Eiseman, Peter R.

    1995-01-01

    With examples, we illustrate how implicitly specified surfaces can be used for grid generation with GridPro/az3000. The particular examples address two questions: (1) How do you model intersecting tubes with fillets? and (2) How do you generate grids inside the intersected tubes? The implication is much more general. With the results in a forthcoming paper which develops an easy-to-follow procedure for implicit surface modeling, we provide a powerful means for rapid prototyping in grid generation.

  13. Effects of Gelatin-Based Edible Films Enriched with Laurel Essential Oil on the Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Baygar; Taçnur Baygar; Hatice Hasanhocaoglu; Cansu Metin; Yunus Alparslan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gelatin films enriched with laurel leaf essential oil on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during refrigerated storage at (4±1) °C were examined over a period of 26 days. Fish fillets were wrapped with 8 % gelatin films containing 0, 0.1 and 1 % (by volume per mass) of laurel essential oil and vacuum packaged. Sensory (raw and cooked fish), microbiological (total viable counts, psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria) and ...

  14. Diets containing salmon fillet delay development of high blood pressure and hyperfusion damage in kidneys in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mwakimonga, Angela; Leh, Sabine; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic renal diseases, affecting more than 1 billion people. Fish intake is inversely correlated with the prevalence of hypertension in several, but not all, studies, and intake of fish oil and fish proteins has shown promising potential to delay development of high blood pressure in rats. The effects of baked and raw salmon fillet intake on blood pressure and renal function were investigated in obese Zucker fa/fa rats, which spontaneously develop hypertension with proteinuria and renal failure. Rats were fed diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet in an amount corresponding to 25% of total protein from salmon and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for 4 weeks. Results show lower blood pressure and lower urine concentrations of albumin and cystatin C (relative to creatinine) in salmon diet groups when compared to control group. Morphological examinations revealed less prominent hyperfusion damage in podocytes from rats fed diets containing baked or raw salmon when compared to control rats. In conclusion, diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet delayed the development of hypertension and protected against podocyte damage in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an SPME-GC-MS method for the specific quantification of dimethylamine and trimethylamine: use of a new ratio for the freshness monitoring of cod fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Duthen, Simon; Grard, Thierry; Krzewinski, Frédéric; N'Guessan, Assi; Brisabois, Anne; Duflos, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Fish is a highly perishable food, so it is important to be able to estimate its freshness to ensure optimum quality for consumers. The present study describes the development of an SPME-GC-MS technique capable of quantifying both trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA), components of what has been defined as partial volatile basic nitrogen (PVB-N). This method was used, together with other reference methods, to monitor the storage of cod fillets (Gadus morhua) conserved under melting ice. Careful optimisation enabled definition of the best parameters for extracting and separating targeted amines and an internal standard. The study of cod spoilage by sensory analysis and TVB-N assay led to the conclusion that the shelf-life of cod fillet was between 6 and 7 days. Throughout the study, TMA and DMA were specifically quantified by SPME-GC-MS; the first was found to be highly correlated with the values returned by steam distillation assays. Neither TMA-N nor DMA-N were able to successfully characterise the decrease in early freshness, unlike dimethylamine/trimethylamine ratio (DTR), whose evolution is closely related to the results of sensory analysis until the stage where fillets need to be rejected. DTR was proposed as a reliable indicator for the early decrease of freshness until fish rejection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Semi Refined Kappa Carrageenan-based Composite Edible Film and Its Application on Minimally Processed Chicken Breast Fillet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Maimuni, B. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as the concentration of PA increased (from 5% to 15% w/w). Composite SRKC-based edible film incorporating 15% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 5% and 10% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 15% w/w PA was used as a wrapping material for film application on minimally processed chicken breast fillet. The application results showed that the incorporation of PA in film caused an effect (p 0.05) change the color of minimally processed chicken breast fillet.

  17. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  18. Effect of rearing system on body traits and fillet quality of meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Asso 1801 chilled for a short time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate qualitative traits of meagre (Argyrosomus regius from two different rearing systems (land-based tank filled with geothermal water vs offshore sea cage and after short-term storage at chilling temperature (1, 2, or 3 days. Fish originated from the same batch were fed the same diet. Morpho-biometric traits, L*, a*, and b* colour parameters, texture, free water, proximate composition, total lipids, fatty acids, iron, and selenium contents were analyzed in the fillets. Most parameters were affected by rearing system. Compared to tank-reared fish, caged fish were shorter, poorer in visceral fat, and had higher incidence in cavity content and liver, lower incidence in gonads and head. Caged fish also had softer fillets in the epaxial site, which showed a higher tendency towards greenish colour. Caged fish also showed higher lipid content but lower Fe and Se content. Tank-reared fish fillets were more abundant in PUFAn-3, mainly due to DHA (18.54 vs 12.95%; P<0.001 and consequently showed the best healthiness indexes. Minimal changes, mostly involving colour and texture, were detected during the first three days of refrigerated storage. During storage, no significant modification of the parameters investigated could be ascribed to the rearing system. 

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish fillets and water collected from pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Holem, Ryan; Hohenstein, Gary; Lange, Cleston; Ellefson, Mark; Reagen, William; Wolf, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in surface water and fish fillet samples taken from Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River, a 33-mile stretch inclusive of the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota (USA) metropolitan area. Approximately 100 each of bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were sampled within the study area. Surface water samples were also collected from each of the 10 sampling reaches established for the study. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was observed with the greatest frequency in fish fillets and ranged from 3.0 to 760 ng/g wet weight. Mean (geometric) PFOS concentrations in bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were 20, 28, 29, and 58 ng/g wet weight, respectively. When compared with fish data collected in 2009, a significant reduction (p fish PFOS concentrations are consistent with ongoing efforts to effectively control sources of PFASs to the Mississippi River. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3138-3147. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Effect of storage temperature and osmotic pre-treatment with alternative solutes on the shelf-life of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofania N. Tsironi

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic pre-treatment led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes and organoleptic deterioration. The pre-treatment with the alternative solutes led to depression of the freezing point (−1.8, −2.6, −3.2 and −3.5 °C for the untreated samples and the osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc, respectively. TVB-N values were higher in untreated samples, followed by osmotically treated fillets, mainly at higher storage temperatures (i.e. 10 and 15 °C. Based on the mathematical models for sensory evaluation scoring, the shelf-life was 12, 19, 22 and 22 days at 0 °C for untreated and osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc fish slices, respectively, while the respective values at −3 °C were 21, 35, 38 and 38 days. The alternative solutes had no significant effect on the quality and shelf-life of pre-treated fish fillet during storage at refrigerated conditions.