Sample records for shell nucleus 205au

  1. Along the N=126 closed shell: study of $^{205}$Au through its $\\pi h_{11/2}^{-1}$ isomeric decay


    Excited states have been identified in only three of the N=126 closed shell nuclei 'below' $^{208}$Pb, $^{207}$Tl, $^{206}$Hg and very recently $^{204}$Pt. We aim to extend our knowledge of the neutron-rich N=126 nuclei by observing the internal decay of the $\\pi h^{-1}_{11/2}$ excited state in $^{205}$Au, which is expected to be isomeric. In addition, the decay of the analogous states in the N=122 and N=124 $^{201,203}$Au will be studied. The lifetimes of the expected isomeric states are crucial for the success of the experiment, and they are estimated to be in the range of 0.3-20 s. These are long enough to enable the extraction from the source, but shorter than the $\\beta$-decay half-lives. Proton single-particle energies and transition rates will be extracted, providing information about the robustness of the N=126 shell-closure. Three days of beam-time is requested.

  2. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei around the N = 126 closed shell; the yrast structure of {sup 205}Au{sub 126} up to spin-parity I{sup {pi}} = (19/2{sup +})

    Podolyak, Zs.; Steer, S.J.; Pietri, S.; Regan, P.H.; Brandau, C.; Catford, W.N.; Cullen, I.J.; Gelletly, W.; Jones, G.A.; Liu, Z.; Walker, P.M. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Gorska, M.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Grawe, H.; Becker, F.; Geissel, H.; Kelic, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Montes, F.; Prokopowicz, W.; Saito, T.; Schaffner, H.; Tashenov, S.; Werner-Malento, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Rudolph, D.; Hoischen, R. [Lund University, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Garnsworthy, A.B. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Yale University, WNSL, New Haven, CT (United States); Maier, K.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); University of the West of Scotland, Dept. of Physics, Paisley (United Kingdom); Bednarczyk, P.; Grebosz, J. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Caceres, L. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Doornenbal, P. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet zu Koeln, IKP, Koeln (Germany); Heinz, A. [Yale University, WNSL, New Haven, CT (United States); Kurtukian-Nieto, T. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Campostela (Spain); Benzoni, G.; Wieland, O. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Pfuetzner, M. [Warsaw University, IEP, Warsaw (Poland); Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Balabanski, D.L. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE, Sofia (Bulgaria); Brown, B.A. [Univ. of Surrey, Dept. of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Michigan State Univ., NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bruce, A.M.; Lalkovski, S. [Univ. of Brighton, School of Environment and Technology, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dombradi, Zs. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Estevez, M.E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain)] [and others


    Heavy neutron-rich nuclei have been populated through the relativistic fragmentation of a {sup 208}{sub 82} Pb beam at E/A = 1 GeV on a 2.5 g/cm{sup 2} thick Be target. The synthesised nuclei were selected and identified in-flight using the fragment separator at GSI. Approximately 300 ns after production, the selected nuclei were implanted in an {proportional_to}8 mm thick perspex stopper, positioned at the centre of the RISING {gamma} -ray detector spectrometer array. A previously unreported isomer with a half-life T{sub 1/2} = 163(5) ns has been observed in the N=126 closed-shell nucleus {sup 205}{sub 79} Au. Through {gamma}-ray singles and {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence analysis a level scheme was established. The comparison with a shell model calculation tentatively identifies the spin-parity of the excited states, including the isomer itself, which is found to be I{sup {pi}} = (19/2{sup +}). (orig.)

  3. Nucleus accumbens shell moderates preference bias during voluntary choice behavior.

    Jang, Hyeran; Jung, Kanghoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang Ki; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung


    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell lies anatomically at a critical intersection within the brain's reward system circuitry, however, its role in voluntary choice behavior remains unclear. Rats with electrolytic lesions in the NAc shell were tested in a novel foraging paradigm. Over a continuous two-week period they freely chose among four nutritionally identical but differently flavored food pellets by pressing corresponding levers. We examined the lesion's effects on three behavioral dynamics components: motivation (when to eat), preference bias (what to choose) and persistence (how long to repeat the same choice). The lesion led to a marked increase in the preference bias: i.e., increased selection of the most-preferred choice option, and decreased selection of the others. We found no effects on any other behavioral measures, suggesting no effect on motivation or choice persistence. The results implicate the NAc shell in moderating the instrumental valuation process by inhibiting excessive bias toward preferred choice options. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Off-shell sensitivity, repulsive correlations and the pion-nucleus optical potential

    Keister, B D [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics


    Repulsive nucleon-nucleon correlations tend to reduce the dependence of pion-nucleus elastic scattering upon the off-shell pion-nucleon dynamics. However, optical potential calculations can in practice be quite sensitive to the particular choice of off-shell model parameters. It is argued that this sensitivity results from the nature of the optical potential as a one-body operator which introduces extra off-shell dependence not found in physical many-body process itself. Thus, one must be very careful in any attempt to extract correlation or off-shell information, or to predict pion-nucleus phase shifts, by means of an optical potential theory. Results of model calculations are presented for purposes of illustration.

  5. The alpha-particle and shell models of the nucleus

    Perring, J.K.; Skyrme, T.H.R.


    It is shown that it is possible to write down α-particle wave functions for the ground states of 8 Be, 12 C and 16 O, which become, when antisymmetrized, identical with shell-model wave functions. The α-particle functions are used to obtain potentials which can then be used to derive wave functions and energies of excited states. Most of the low-lying states of 16 O are obtained in this way, qualitative agreement with experiment being found. The shell structure of the 0 + level at 6·06 MeV is analyzed, and is found to consist largely of single-particle excitations. The lifetime for pair-production is calculated, and found to be comparable with the experimental value. The validity of the method is discussed, and comparison made with shell-model calculations. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  6. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats.

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana


    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Pion-nucleus double charge exchange and the nuclear shell model

    Auerbach, N.; Gibbs, W.R.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Kaufmann, W.B.


    The pion-nucleus double charge exchange reaction is studied with special emphasis on nuclear structure. The reaction mechanism and nuclear structure aspects of the process are separated using both the plane-wave and distorted-wave impulse approximations. Predictions are made employing both the seniority model and a full shell model (with a single active orbit). Transitions to the double analog state and to the ground state of the residual nucleus are computed. The seniority model yields particularly simple relations among double charge exchange cross sections for nuclei within the same shell. Limitations of the seniority model and of the plane-wave impulse approximation are discussed as well as extensions to the generalized seniority scheme. Applications of the foregoing ideas to single charge exchange are also presented

  8. Magnetic dipole moment of the doubly closed-shell plus one proton nucleus $^{49}$Sc

    Gaulard, C V; Walters, W; Nishimura, K; Muto, S; Bingham, C R

    It is proposed to measure the magnetic moment of $^{49}$Sc by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei (NMR-ON) method using the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation facility. $^{49}$Sc is the neutron rich, doubly closed-shell, nucleus $^{48}$Ca plus one proton. Results will be used to deduce the effective g-factors in the $^{48}$Ca region with reference to nuclear structure and meson exchange current effects.

  9. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G


    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subc...

  10. On the absence of an α-nucleus structure in a two-centre shell model

    Gupta, R.K.; Sharma, M.K.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.


    The two-centre shell model, used within the Strutinsky macro-microscopic method, is a valid prescription for calculating adiabatic or diabatic potential energy surfaces. It is shown, however, that this model does not contain the appropriate α-nucleus structure effects, very much required for collisions between light nuclei. A possible way to incorporate such effects is suggested. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  11. Distinctive Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediated by Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martin F; Alvarez, Veronica A


    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA-dependent behaviors such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A disynaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this disynaptic mechanism of DA transmission are not well understood in the NAc shell. In this study, in vitro fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the modulation of DA transmission evoked by CINs firing in the shell of mice and compared with other striatal regions. We found that DA signals in the shell displayed significant degree of summation in response to train stimulation of CINs, contrary to core and dorsal striatum. The summation was amplified by a D2-like receptor antagonist and experiments with mice with targeted deletion of D2 receptors to DANs or CINs revealed that D2 receptors in CINs mediate a fast inhibition observed within 100 ms of the first pulse, whereas D2 autoreceptors in DAN terminals are engaged in a slower inhibition that peaks at ∼500 ms. ACh also contributes to the use-dependent inhibition of DA release through muscarinic receptors only in the shell, where higher activity of acetylcholinesterase minimizes nAChR desensitization and promotes summation. These findings show that DA signals are modulated differentially by endogenous DA and ACh in the shell, which may underlie the unique features of shell DA signals in vivo SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study reports that dopamine (DA) release evoked by activation of cholinergic interneurons displays a high degree of summation in the shell and shows unique modulation by endogenous DA and acetylcholine. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors, which is a prevailing mechanism for use-dependent inhibition in the nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, is

  12. Interactions between Brainstem Noradrenergic Neurons and the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Williams, Cedric L.


    The nucleus accumbens shell (NAC) receives axons containing dopamine-[beta]-hydroxylase that originate from brainstem neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Recent findings show that memory enhancement produced by stimulating NTS neurons after learning may involve interactions with the NAC. However, it is unclear whether these…

  13. Assessing contributions of nucleus accumbens shell subregions to reward-seeking behavior.

    Reed, Michael D; Hildebrand, David G C; Santangelo, Gabrielle; Moffa, Anthony; Pira, Ashley S; Rycyna, Lisa; Radic, Mia; Price, Katherine; Archbold, Jonathan; McConnell, Kristi; Girard, Lauren; Morin, Kristen; Tang, Anna; Febo, Marcelo; Stellar, James R


    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a key role in brain reward processes including drug seeking and reinstatement. Several anatomical, behavioral, and neurochemical studies discriminate between the limbic-associated shell and the motor-associated core regions. Less studied is the fact that the shell can be further subdivided into a dorsomedial shell (NAcDMS) and an intermediate zone (NAcINT) based on differential expression of transient c-Fos and long-acting immediate-early gene ΔFosB upon cocaine sensitization. These disparate expression patterns suggest that NAc shell subregions may play distinct roles in reward-seeking behavior. In this study, we examined potential differences in the contributions of the NAcDMS and the NAcINT to reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior after extinction. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine, extinguished, and subjected to a reinstatement test session consisting of an intracranial microinfusion of either amphetamine or vehicle targeted to the NAcDMS or the NAcINT. Small amphetamine microinfusions targeted to the NAcDMS resulted in statistically significant reinstatement of lever pressing, whereas no significant difference was observed for microinfusions targeted to the NAcINT. No significant difference was found for vehicle microinfusions in either case. These results suggest heterogeneity in the behavioral relevance of NAc shell subregions, a possibility that can be tested in specific neuronal populations in the future with recently developed techniques including optogenetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G


    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subcutaneous fluoxetine treatments increase escape motivation during the swim test while simultaneously lowering extracellular ACh in the NAc shell. Experiment 1: Fluoxetine (1.0 mM) infused unilaterally in the NAc shell for 40 min reduced extracellular ACh while simultaneously increasing swimming time. Experiment 2: Fluoxetine (0.2, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc shell on day 3 dose-dependently decreased immobility and increased the total escape attempts (swimming and climbing) compared with Ringer given on day 2. Experiment 3: Fluoxetine (0.5 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc for 40 min did not affect activities in an open field. Experiment 4: Chronic systemic fluoxetine treatment decreased immobility scores and increased total escape attempt scores compared with control saline treatment. In all, 14 days after the initial swim test, basal extracellular ACh in the shell was still elevated in the saline-treated group, but not in the fluoxetine-treated group. In summary, these data suggest that one of the potential mechanisms by which fluoxetine alleviates behavioral depression in the forced swim test may be to suppress cholinergic activities in the NAc shell. PMID:21525864

  15. Safe taste memory consolidation is disrupted by a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Pedroza-Llinás, R; Ramírez-Lugo, L; Guzmán-Ramos, K; Zavala-Vega, S; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F


    Consolidation is the process by which a new memory is stabilized over time, and is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. A useful model for studying memory formation is gustatory memory, a type of memory in which a novel taste may become either safe by not being followed by negative consequences (attenuation of neophobia, AN), or aversive by being followed by post-digestive malaise (conditioned taste aversion, CTA). Here we evaluated the effects of the administration of a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell for either safe or aversive taste memory trace consolidation. To test the effects on CTA and AN of protein synthesis inhibition, anisomycin (100microg/microl) was bilaterally infused into the NAc shell of Wistar rats' brains. We found that post-trial protein synthesis blockade impaired the long-term safe taste memory. However, protein synthesis inhibition failed to disrupt the long-term memory of CTA. In addition, we infused anisomycin in the NAc shell after the pre-exposure to saccharin in a latent inhibition of aversive taste. We found that the protein synthesis inhibition impaired the consolidation of safe taste memory, allowing the aversive taste memory to form and consolidate. Our results suggest that protein synthesis is required in the NAc shell for consolidation of safe but not aversive taste memories, supporting the notion that consolidation of taste memory is processed in several brain regions in parallel, and implying that inhibitory interactions between both taste memory traces do occur.

  16. Projected Shell Model Description of Positive Parity Band of 130Pr Nucleus

    Singh, Suram; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Dhanvir; Sharma, Chetan; Bharti, Arun; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.


    Theoretical investigation of positive parity yrast band of odd-odd 130Pr nucleus is performed by applying the projected shell model. The present study is undertaken to investigate and verify the very recently observed side band in 130Pr theoretically in terms of quasi-particle (qp) configuration. From the analysis of band diagram, the yrast as well as side band are found to arise from two-qp configuration πh 11/2 ⊗ νh 11/2. The present calculations are viewed to have qualitatively reproduced the known experimental data for yrast states, transition energies, and B( M1) / B( E2) ratios of this nucleus. The recently observed positive parity side band is also reproduced by the present calculations. The energy states of the side band are predicted up to spin 25+, which is far above the known experimental spin of 18+ and this could serve as a motivational factor for future experiments. In addition, the reduced transition probability B( E2) for interband transitions has also been calculated for the first time in projected shell model, which would serve as an encouragement for other research groups in the future.

  17. Nucleus accumbens core and shell are necessary for reinforcer devaluation effects on Pavlovian conditioned responding

    Teghpal eSingh


    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NA has been hypothesized to be part of a circuit in which cue-evoked information about expected outcomes is mobilized to guide behavior. Here we tested this hypothesis using a Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation task, previously applied to assess outcome-guided behavior after damage to regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that send projections to NA. Rats with sham lesions or neurotoxic lesions of either the core or shell subdivision of NA were trained to associate a 10 sec CS+ with delivery of three food pellets. After training, half of the rats in each lesion group received food paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received food and illness unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Both sham and lesioned rats conditioned to the CS+ and formed a conditioned taste aversion. However only sham rats reduced their conditioned responding as a result of reinforcer devaluation; devalued rats with lesions of either core or shell showed levels of responding that were similar to lesioned, non-devalued rats. This impairment was not due to the loss of motivational salience conferred to the CS+ in lesioned rats as both groups responded similarly for the cue in conditioned reinforcement testing. These data suggest that NA core and shell are part of a circuit necessary for the use of cue-evoked information about expected outcomes to guide behavior.

  18. Shell and isotopic effects in neutron interaction with nuclei. [Optical model and nucleus asymmetry correlations

    Pasechnik, M V


    Major results of investigations into the shell structure of deformed nuclei with the number of neutrons of approximately 100, as well as new isotopic effects in the inelastic scattering of fast neutrons with nuclei are reported. The experiments conducted at the WWR-M research reactor have shown a substantial dependence of the nuclear excited energy-level density on the mass number and the number of neutrons. The fact resulted in a conclusion that the deformed nuclei possess filled shells, that was an incentive to revise the whole nuclear shell concept. In particular it was established that the property of magicity rests not only on the sphericity of nuclei but it may be also observed in strongly deformed nuclei. The isotope-spin dependence of the nuclear potential was studied at the AG-5 pulse electrostatic generator. The parameters of the potential were determined by comparing the experimental data on inelastic scattering and polarization of fast neutrons by nuclei from /sup 48/Ti to /sup 209/Bi with the calculations in terms of the optical model. Simple correlations were established between the optical potential and the nucleus asymmetry parameter ..cap alpha..=N-Z/A in wide ranges of mass numbers and neutron energy.

  19. Neuropeptide Y infusion into the shell region of the rat nucleus accumbens increases extracellular levels of dopamine

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Wegener, Gregers; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen


    Increases in extracellular dopamine in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are centrally involved in mediating reinforcement of addictive drugs. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors are present in the nucleus accumbens and have been implicated in addiction mechanisms. This study further...... explored the potential role of NPY in addiction mechanisms using microdialysis to measure extracellular dopamine in vivo after infusion of NPY directly into the accumbal shell region of adult rats. NPY was found to dose-dependently increase extracellular dopamine levels, indicating that NPY could play...... an important role in drug reinforcement by modulating accumbal dopamine levels...

  20. Shell model study of high spin states in the N=50 nucleus 93Tc

    Ghugre, S.S.; Patel, S.B.; Bhowmik, R.K.


    High spin states in the N=50 nucleus 93 Tc were reinvestigated by using the reaction 64 Zn ( 35 Cl, 4p 2n) at a beam energy of 140 MeV. This was done particularly with a view to observe any γ rays upto 2.7 MeV which may have been missed in our earlier study where the experimental conditions were set to observe γ rays upto 2 MeV. We found four new γ rays of energy: 2484, 2164, 2130 and 69 keV. We have placed these γ rays in the level scheme and it now gets extended to 49/2 - . Though there is no substantial change in the level scheme, placing the γ rays in the level scheme has resulted into two important conclusions: (1) We have performed shell model calculations for 93 Tc nucleus within a model space which encompasses an enlarged proton configuration and allows for the excitation of the neutron across the N=50 core. The excitation of a single neutron across the N=50 core satisfactorily explains the new level scheme. (2) The energy of the 17/2 - isomeric state is now unambiguously placed at 2185 keV. (orig.)

  1. The Role of Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Learning about Neutral versus Excitatory Stimuli during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Bradfield, Laura A.; McNally, Gavan P.


    We studied the role of nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Rats were trained to fear conditioned stimulus A (CSA) in Stage I, which was then presented in compound with a neutral stimulus and paired with shock in Stage II. AcbSh lesions had no effect on fear-learning to CSA in Stage I, but selectively prevented learning…

  2. Effects of nucleus accumbens core and shell lesions on autoshaped lever-pressing.

    Chang, Stephen E; Holland, Peter C


    Certain Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with food unconditioned stimuli (USs) come to elicit approach and even consumption-like behaviors in rats (sign-tracking). We investigated the effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core (ACbC) or shell (ACbS) on the acquisition of sign-tracking in a discriminative autoshaping procedure in which presentation of one lever CS was followed by delivery of sucrose, and another was not. Although we previously found that bilateral lesions of the whole ACb disrupted the initial acquisition of sign-tracking, neither ACbC or ACbS lesions affected the rate or percentage of trials in which rats pressed the CS+. In addition, detailed video analysis showed no effect of either lesion on the topography of the sign-tracking conditioned response (CR). These and other results from lesion studies of autoshaping contrast with those from previous sign-tracking experiments that used purely visual cues (Parkinson et al., 2000a,b), suggesting that the neural circuitry involved in assigning incentive value depends upon the nature of the CS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-lying dipole strength of the open-shell nucleus 94Mo

    Romig, C.; Beller, J.; Glorius, J.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zilges, A.; Zweidinger, M.


    The low-lying dipole strength of the open-shell nucleus 94Mo was studied via the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique up to 8.7 MeV excitation energy at the bremsstrahlung facility at the Superconducting Darmstadt Electron Linear Accelerator (S-DALINAC), and with Compton backscattered photons at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) facility. In total, 83 excited states were identified. Exploiting polarized quasi-monoenergetic photons at HIγS, parity quantum numbers were assigned to 41 states excited by dipole transitions. The electric dipole-strength distribution was determined up to 8.7 MeV and compared to microscopic calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. Calculations and experimental data are in good agreement for the fragmentation, as well as for the integrated strength. The average decay pattern of the excited states was investigated exploiting the HIγS measurements at five energy settings. Mean branching ratios to the ground state and first excited 21+ state were extracted from the measurements with quasi-monoenergetic photons and compared to γ-cascade simulations within the statistical model. The experimentally deduced mean branching ratios exhibit a resonance-like maximum at 6.4 MeV which cannot be reproduced within the statistical model. This indicates a nonstatistical structure in the energy range between 5.5 and 7.5 MeV.

  4. MCH and apomorphine in combination enhance action potential firing of nucleus accumbens shell neurons in vitro

    F Woodward Hopf


    Full Text Available The MCH and dopamine receptor systems have been shown to modulate a number of behaviors related to reward processing, addiction, and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. In addition, MCH and dopamine receptors can interact in a positive manner, for example in the expression of cocaine self-administration. A recent report (Chung et al., 2011a showed that the DA1/DA2 dopamine receptor activator apomorphine suppresses pre-pulse inhibition, a preclinical model for some aspects of schizophrenia. Importantly, MCH can enhance the effects of lower doses of apomorphine, suggesting that co-modulation of dopamine and MCH receptors might alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia with a lower dose of dopamine receptor modulator and thus fewer potential side effects. Here, we investigated whether MCH and apomorphine could enhance action potential firing in vitro in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell, a region which has previously been shown to mediate some behavioral effects of MCH. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that MCH, which has no effect on firing on its own, was able to increase NAshell firing when combined with a subthreshold dose of apomorphine. Further, this MCH/apomorphine increase in firing was prevented by an antagonist of either a DA1 or a DA2 receptor, suggesting that apomorphine acts through both receptor types to enhance NAshell firing. The MCH/apomorphine-mediated firing increase was also prevented by an MCH receptor antagonist or a PKA inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that MCH can interact with lower doses of apomorphine to enhance NAshell firing, and thus that MCH and apomorphine might interact in vivo within the NAshell to suppress pre-pulse inhibition.

  5. Encoding of Sucrose's Palatability in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Its Modulation by Exteroceptive Auditory Cues

    Miguel Villavicencio


    Full Text Available Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh, a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability. The goals are to determine whether NAcSh neuronal responses would track sucrose's palatability (as measured by the increase in hedonically positive oromotor responses lick rate, sucrose concentration, and how it processes auditory information. Using brief-access tests, we found that sucrose's palatability was enhanced by exteroceptive auditory cues that signal the start and the end of a reward epoch. With only the start cue the rejection of water was accelerated, and the sucrose/water ratio was enhanced, indicating greater palatability. However, the start cue also fragmented licking patterns and decreased caloric intake. In the presence of both start and stop cues, the animals fed continuously and increased their caloric intake. Analysis of the licking microstructure confirmed that auditory cues (either signaling the start alone or start/stop enhanced sucrose's oromotor-palatability responses. Recordings of extracellular single-unit activity identified several distinct populations of NAcSh responses that tracked either the sucrose palatability responses or the sucrose concentrations by increasing or decreasing their activity. Another neural population fired synchronously with licking and exhibited an enhancement in their coherence with increasing sucrose concentrations. The population of NAcSh's Palatability-related and Lick-Inactive neurons were the most important for decoding sucrose's palatability. Only the Lick

  6. Rapid induction of dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens shell induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    Singer, Bryan F; Bryan, Myranda A; Popov, Pavlo; Robinson, Terry E; Aragona, Brandon J


    Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later. Both injections quickly elevated DA levels in the NAc shell, but the second cocaine infusion produced a greater effect than the first, indicating sensitization. This suggests that a single injection of cocaine induces sensitization-related plasticity very rapidly within the mesolimbic DA system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Descending projections from the nucleus accumbens shell excite activity of taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hamster.

    Li, Cheng-Shu; Lu, Da-Peng; Cho, Young K


    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the first and second relays in the rodent central taste pathway. A series of electrophysiological experiments revealed that spontaneous and taste-evoked activities of brain stem gustatory neurons are altered by descending input from multiple forebrain nuclei in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is a key neural substrate of reward circuitry, but it has not been verified as a classical gustatory nucleus. A recent in vivo electrophysiological study demonstrated that the NAcSh modulates the spontaneous and gustatory activities of hamster pontine taste neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether activation of the NAcSh modulates gustatory responses of the NST neurons. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from medullary neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters. After taste response was confirmed by delivery of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride to the anterior tongue, the NAcSh was stimulated bilaterally with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral NAcSh induced firings from 54 and 37 of 90 medullary taste neurons, respectively. Thirty cells were affected bilaterally. No inhibitory responses or antidromic invasion was observed after NAcSh activation. In the subset of taste cells tested, high-frequency electrical stimulation of the NAcSh during taste delivery enhanced taste-evoked neuronal firing. These results demonstrate that two-thirds of the medullary gustatory neurons are under excitatory descending influence from the NAcSh, which is a strong indication of communication between the gustatory pathway and the mesolimbic reward pathway. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Differential Dopamine Release Dynamics in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell Reveal Complementary Signals for Error Prediction and Incentive Motivation.

    Saddoris, Michael P; Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M


    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is phasically released during appetitive behaviors, though there is substantive disagreement about the specific purpose of these DA signals. For example, prediction error (PE) models suggest a role of learning, while incentive salience (IS) models argue that the DA signal imbues stimuli with value and thereby stimulates motivated behavior. However, within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) patterns of DA release can strikingly differ between subregions, and as such, it is possible that these patterns differentially contribute to aspects of PE and IS. To assess this, we measured DA release in subregions of the NAc during a behavioral task that spatiotemporally separated sequential goal-directed stimuli. Electrochemical methods were used to measure subsecond NAc dopamine release in the core and shell during a well learned instrumental chain schedule in which rats were trained to press one lever (seeking; SL) to gain access to a second lever (taking; TL) linked with food delivery, and again during extinction. In the core, phasic DA release was greatest following initial SL presentation, but minimal for the subsequent TL and reward events. In contrast, phasic shell DA showed robust release at all task events. Signaling decreased between the beginning and end of sessions in the shell, but not core. During extinction, peak DA release in the core showed a graded decrease for the SL and pauses in release during omitted expected rewards, whereas shell DA release decreased predominantly during the TL. These release dynamics suggest parallel DA signals capable of supporting distinct theories of appetitive behavior. Dopamine signaling in the brain is important for a variety of cognitive functions, such as learning and motivation. Typically, it is assumed that a single dopamine signal is sufficient to support these cognitive functions, though competing theories disagree on how dopamine contributes to reward-based behaviors. Here, we have found that real

  9. Direct effect of nicotine on mesolimbic dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens shell

    Kleijn, J.; Folgering, J. H. A.; van der Hart, M. C. G.; Rollema, H.; Cremers, T. I. F. H.; Westerink, B. H. C.


    Nicotine stimulates dopamine (DA) cell firing via a local action at somatodendritic sites in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increasing DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Additionally, nicotine may also modulate DA release via a direct effect in the NAcc. This study examined the

  10. Changes in Dopamine Transmission in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Core during Ethanol and Sucrose Self-Administration

    Valentina Bassareo


    Full Text Available Ethanol, like other substances of abuse, preferentially increases dopamine (DA transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc following passive administration. It remains unclear, however, whether ethanol also increases NAc DA transmission following operant oral self-administration (SA. The NAc is made-up of a ventro-medial compartment, the shell and a dorso-lateral one, the core, where DA transmission responds differentially following exposure to drugs of abuse. Previous studies from our laboratory investigated changes in dialysate DA in the NAc shell and core of rats responding for sucrose pellets and for drugs of abuse. As a follow up to these studies, we recently investigated the changes in NAc shell and core DA transmission associated to oral SA of a 10% ethanol solution. For the purpose of comparison with literature studies utilizing sucrose + ethanol solutions, we also investigated the changes in dialysate DA associated to SA of 20% sucrose and 10% ethanol + 20% sucrose solutions. Rats were trained to acquire oral SA of the solutions under a Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1 schedule of nose-poking. After training, rats were monitored by microdialysis on three consecutive days under response contingent (active, reward omission (extinction trial and response non-contingent (passive presentation of ethanol, sucrose or ethanol + sucrose solutions. Active and passive ethanol administration produced a similar increase in dialysate DA in the two NAc subdivisions, while under extinction trial DA increased preferentially in the shell compared to the core. Conversely, under sucrose SA and extinction DA increased exclusively in the shell. These observations provide unequivocal evidence that oral SA of 10% ethanol increases dialysate DA in the NAc, and also suggest that stimuli conditioned to ethanol exposure contribute to the increase of dialysate DA observed in the NAc following ethanol SA. Comparison between the pattern of DA changes detected in the NAc

  11. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R


    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50ng/side) or d-amphetamine (10mug/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of both cocaine and sucrose seeking in rats.

    Guercio, Leonardo A; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher


    Stimuli previously associated with drug taking can become triggers that can elicit craving and lead to relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we examined the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the nucleus accumbens shell on cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.254 mg, i.v.) for 2 h daily for 21 days, with each infusion of cocaine being paired with a cue light. After 21 days of self-administration, cocaine-taking behavior was extinguished by replacing cocaine with saline in the absence of the cue light. Next, during the reinstatement phase, DBS was administered bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens shell through bipolar stainless steel electrodes immediately prior to re-exposure to cues previously associated with cocaine reinforcement. DBS continued throughout the 2 h reinstatement session. Parallel studies examined the influence of accumbens shell DBS on reinstatement induced by cues previously associated with sucrose reinforcement. Results indicated that DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell significantly attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and sucrose seeking. Together, these results indicate that DBS of the accumbens shell disrupts cue-induced reinstatement associated with both a drug and a natural reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core, but not shell, increases during signaled food reward and decreases during delayed extinction.

    Biesdorf, C; Wang, A-L; Topic, B; Petri, D; Milani, H; Huston, J P; de Souza Silva, M A


    Microdialysis studies in rat have generally shown that appetitive stimuli release dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core. Here we examined the release of DA in the NAc during delivery of reward (food) and during extinction of food reward in the freely moving animal by use of in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. Fifty-two male Wistar rats were trained to receive food reward associated with appearance of cue-lights in a Skinner-box during in vivo microdialysis. Different behavioral protocols were used to assess the effects of extinction on DA and its metabolites. Results Exp. 1: (a) During a 20-min period of cued reward delivery, DA increased significantly in the NAc core, but not shell subregion; (b) for the next 60min period half of the rats underwent immediate extinction (with the CS light presented during non-reward) and the other half did not undergo extinction to the cue lights (CS was not presented during non-reward). DA remained significantly increased in both groups, providing no evidence for a decrease in DA during extinction in either NAc core or shell regions. (c) In half of the animals of the group that was not subjected to extinction, the cue lights were turned on for 30min, thus, initiating extinction to cue CS at a 1h delay from the period of reward. In this group DA in the NAc core, but not shell, significantly decreased. Behavioral analysis showed that while grooming is an indicator of extinction-induced behavior, glances toward the cue-lights (sign tracking) are an index of resistance to extinction. Results Exp. 2: (a) As in Exp. 1, during a 30-min period of cued reward delivery, DA levels again increased significantly in the NAc core but not in the NAc shell. (b) When extinction (the absence of reward with the cue lights presented) was administered 24h after the last reward session, DA again significantly decreased in the NAc core, but not in the NAc shell. (a) These results confirm the importance of DA release in the NAc for

  14. New excited states in sd-shell nucleus {sup 33}P

    Fu, B.; Reiter, P.; Arnswald, K.; Hess, H.; Hirsch, R.; Lewandowski, L.; Schneiders, D.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Steinbach, T.; Vogt, A.; Wendt, A.; Wolf, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)


    Isospin-symmetry breaking in nuclear physics is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD-calculations successfully reproduce MED for T=1,3/2,2 sd-shell nuclei. Refined tests of theory are given by lifetime measurements in order to deduce transition-strength values. In order to study the mirror pair {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P, the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV was measured at the Cologne tandem accelerator and the HORUS spectrometer employing the Doppler-Shift-Attenuation-Method (DSAM). First results yielded new γ-ray transitions in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV. Spins and parities of the new levels were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. Together with values from the proton-rich T{sub z} = - 3/2 partner, the levels are compared to shell model calculations, describing excitation energies of sd -shell mirror pairs. The understanding of isospin symmetry and isospin-symmetry breaking is a fundamental question in nuclear physics. Isospin-symmetry breaking is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD{sup m}{sub 1,2,3}-calculations successfully reproduced MED for the mirror nuclei {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P. Both {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S were produced at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator employing the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV and spectroscopically investigated using 14 HPGe detectors. Several new energy states (in {sup 33}P) and γ-ray transitions (in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S) were detected. Spins and parities of the new levels in {sup 33}P were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV.

  15. Contributions of the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Mediating the Enhancement in Memory Following Noradrenergic Activation of Either the Amygdala or Hippocampus

    Erin C. Kerfoot


    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens shell is a site of converging inputs during memory processing for emotional events. The accumbens receives input from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS regarding changes in peripheral autonomic functioning following emotional arousal. The shell also receives input from the amygdala and hippocampus regarding affective and contextual attributes of new learning experiences. The successful encoding of affect or context is facilitated by activating noradrenergic systems in either the amygdala or hippocampus. Recent findings indicate that memory enhancement produced by activating NTS neurons, is attenuated by suppressing accumbens functioning after learning. This finding illustrates the significance of the shell in integrating information from the periphery to modulate memory for arousing events. However, it is not known if the accumbens shell plays an equally important role in consolidating information that is initially processed in the amygdala and hippocampus. The present study determined if the convergence of inputs from these limbic regions within the nucleus accumbens contributes to successful encoding of emotional events into memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral cannula implants 2 mm above the accumbens shell and a second bilateral implant 2 mm above either the amygdala or hippocampus. The subjects were trained for 6 days to drink from a water spout. On day 7, a 0.35 mA footshock was initiated as the rat approached the spout and was terminated once the rat escaped into a white compartment. Subjects were then given intra-amygdala or hippocampal infusions of PBS or a dose of norepinephrine (0.2 μg previously shown to enhance memory. Later, all subjects were given intra-accumbens infusion of muscimol to functionally inactivate the shell. Muscimol inactivation of the accumbens shell was delayed to allow sufficient time for norepinephrine to activate intracellular cascades that lead to long-term synaptic

  16. Contributions of the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Mediating the Enhancement in Memory Following Noradrenergic Activation of Either the Amygdala or Hippocampus.

    Kerfoot, Erin C; Williams, Cedric L


    The nucleus accumbens shell is a site of converging inputs during memory processing for emotional events. The accumbens receives input from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) regarding changes in peripheral autonomic functioning following emotional arousal. The shell also receives input from the amygdala and hippocampus regarding affective and contextual attributes of new learning experiences. The successful encoding of affect or context is facilitated by activating noradrenergic systems in either the amygdala or hippocampus. Recent findings indicate that memory enhancement produced by activating NTS neurons, is attenuated by suppressing accumbens functioning after learning. This finding illustrates the significance of the shell in integrating information from the periphery to modulate memory for arousing events. However, it is not known if the accumbens shell plays an equally important role in consolidating information that is initially processed in the amygdala and hippocampus. The present study determined if the convergence of inputs from these limbic regions within the nucleus accumbens contributes to successful encoding of emotional events into memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral cannula implants 2 mm above the accumbens shell and a second bilateral implant 2 mm above either the amygdala or hippocampus. The subjects were trained for 6 days to drink from a water spout. On day 7, a 0.35 mA footshock was initiated as the rat approached the spout and was terminated once the rat escaped into a white compartment. Subjects were then given intra-amygdala or hippocampal infusions of PBS or a dose of norepinephrine (0.2 μg) previously shown to enhance memory. Later, all subjects were given intra-accumbens infusion of muscimol to functionally inactivate the shell. Muscimol inactivation of the accumbens shell was delayed to allow sufficient time for norepinephrine to activate intracellular cascades that lead to long-term synaptic modifications

  17. Deep brain stimulation reveals a dissociation of consummatory and motivated behaviour in the medial and lateral nucleus accumbens shell of the rat.

    van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Schrama, Regina; van Seters, Sebastiaan P; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Westenberg, Herman G M


    Following the successful application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and promising results in clinical trials for obsessive compulsive disorder and major depression, DBS is currently being tested in small patient-populations with eating disorders and addiction. However, in spite of its potential use in a broad spectrum of disorders, the mechanisms of action of DBS remain largely unclear and optimal neural targets for stimulation in several disorders have yet to be established. Thus, there is a great need to examine site-specific effects of DBS on a behavioural level and to understand how DBS may modulate pathological behaviour. In view of the possible application of DBS in the treatment of disorders characterized by impaired processing of reward and motivation, like addiction and eating disorders, we examined the effect of DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) on food-directed behavior. Rats were implanted with bilateral stimulation electrodes in one of three anatomically and functionally distinct sub-areas of the NAcc: the core, lateral shell (lShell) and medial shell (mShell). Subsequently, we studied the effects of DBS on food consumption, and the motivational and appetitive properties of food. The data revealed a functional dissociation between the lShell and mShell. DBS of the lShell reduced motivation to respond for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, mShell DBS, however, profoundly and selectively increased the intake of chow. DBS of the NAcc core did not alter any form of food-directed behavior studied. DBS of neither structure affected sucrose preference. These data indicate that the intake of chow and the motivation to work for palatable food can independently be modulated by DBS of subregions of the NAcc shell. As such, these findings provide important leads for the possible future application of DBS as a treatment for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

  18. Deep brain stimulation reveals a dissociation of consummatory and motivated behaviour in the medial and lateral nucleus accumbens shell of the rat.

    Geoffrey van der Plasse

    Full Text Available Following the successful application of deep brain stimulation (DBS in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and promising results in clinical trials for obsessive compulsive disorder and major depression, DBS is currently being tested in small patient-populations with eating disorders and addiction. However, in spite of its potential use in a broad spectrum of disorders, the mechanisms of action of DBS remain largely unclear and optimal neural targets for stimulation in several disorders have yet to be established. Thus, there is a great need to examine site-specific effects of DBS on a behavioural level and to understand how DBS may modulate pathological behaviour. In view of the possible application of DBS in the treatment of disorders characterized by impaired processing of reward and motivation, like addiction and eating disorders, we examined the effect of DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc on food-directed behavior. Rats were implanted with bilateral stimulation electrodes in one of three anatomically and functionally distinct sub-areas of the NAcc: the core, lateral shell (lShell and medial shell (mShell. Subsequently, we studied the effects of DBS on food consumption, and the motivational and appetitive properties of food. The data revealed a functional dissociation between the lShell and mShell. DBS of the lShell reduced motivation to respond for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, mShell DBS, however, profoundly and selectively increased the intake of chow. DBS of the NAcc core did not alter any form of food-directed behavior studied. DBS of neither structure affected sucrose preference. These data indicate that the intake of chow and the motivation to work for palatable food can independently be modulated by DBS of subregions of the NAcc shell. As such, these findings provide important leads for the possible future application of DBS as a treatment for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

  19. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Is a Regulator of Alcohol Consumption and Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Regina A. Mangieri


    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase recently implicated in biochemical, physiological, and behavioral responses to ethanol. Thus, manipulation of ALK signaling may represent a novel approach to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD. Ethanol induces adaptations in glutamatergic synapses onto nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and putative targets for treating AUD may be validated for further development by assessing how their manipulation modulates accumbal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we report that Alk knockout (AlkKO mice consumed greater doses of ethanol, relative to wild-type (AlkWT mice, in an operant self-administration model. Using ex vivo electrophysiology to examine excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity at NAcSh MSNs that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1MSNs, we found that the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs in NAcSh D1MSNs was elevated in AlkKO mice and in the presence of an ALK inhibitor, TAE684. Furthermore, when ALK was absent or inhibited, glutamatergic synaptic plasticity – long-term depression of evoked EPSCs – in D1MSNs was attenuated. Thus, loss of ALK activity in mice is associated with elevated ethanol consumption and enhanced excitatory transmission in NAcSh D1MSNs. These findings add to the mounting evidence of a relationship between excitatory synaptic transmission onto NAcSh D1MSNs and ethanol consumption, point toward ALK as one important molecular mediator of this interaction, and further validate ALK as a target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of AUD.

  20. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira


    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  1. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    Kelly Lei


    Full Text Available Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and anterior insular cortex (aINS in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh, but not the aINS, play a

  2. Behavioral Flexibility Is Increased by Optogenetic Inhibition of Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell during Specific Time Segments

    Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.


    Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus-reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity…

  3. Lesions of the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens medial shell delay the generation of preference for sucrose, but not of sexual pheromones.

    Martínez-Hernández, José; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando


    Male sexual pheromones are rewarding stimuli for female mice, able to induce conditioned place preference. To test whether processing these natural reinforcing stimuli depends on the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens, as for other natural rewards, we compare the effects of specific lesions of the dopaminergic innervation of the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens on two different appetitive behaviours, 'pheromone seeking' and sucrose preferential intake. Female mice, with no previous experience with either adult male chemical stimuli or with sucrose, received injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (or vehicle) in the medial shell of the accumbens. Then, we analyzed their preference for male soiled-bedding and their preferential intake of a sucrose solution, with particular emphasis on the dynamics of acquisition of both natural rewards. The results indicate that both lesioned and sham animals showed similar preference for male sexual pheromones, which was constant along the test (linear dynamics). In contrast, lesioned animals differed from sham operated mice in the dynamics of sucrose consumption in their first test of sucrose preference. Sham animals showed an initial sucrose preference followed by preference for water, which can be interpreted as sucrose neophobia. Lesioned animals showed no preference at the beginning of the test, and a delayed sucrose preference appeared followed by a delayed neophobia. The next day, during a second sucrose-preference test, both groups displayed comparable and sustained preferential sucrose intake. Therefore, dopamine in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens has a different role on the reward of sexual pheromones and sucrose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Paul M Klenowski


    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  5. Regular-chaos transition of the energy spectrum and electromagnetic transition intensities in 44V nucleus using the framework of the nuclear shell model

    Hamoudi, A.K.; Abdul Majeed Al-Rahmani, A.


    The spectral fluctuations and the statistics of electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in 44 V nucleus are studied by the framework of the interacting shell model, using the FPD6 as a realistic effective interaction in the isospin formalism for 4 particles move in the fp-model space with a 40 Ca core. To look for a regular-chaos transition in 44 V nucleus, we perform shell model calculations using various interaction strengths β to the off-diagonal matrix elements of the FPD6. The nearest-neighbors level spacing distribution P(s) and the distribution of electromagnetic transition intensities [such as, B(M1) and B(E2) transitions] are found to have a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.3 and an intermediate situation at 0 3 statistic we have found a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.4 and an intermediate situation at 0<β<0.4. It is also found that the statistics of the squares of M1 and E2 moments, which are consistent with a Porter-Thomas distribution, have no dependence on the interaction strength β.

  6. Opposing effects of 5,7-DHT lesions to the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens on the processing of irrelevant stimuli.

    Nelson, Andrew J D; Thur, Karen E; Marsden, Charles A; Cassaday, Helen J


    There is good evidence that forebrain serotonergic systems modulate cognitive flexibility. Latent inhibition (LI) is a cross-species phenomenon which manifests as poor conditioning to a stimulus that has previously been experienced without consequence and is widely considered an index of the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. While much research has focused on dopaminergic mechanisms underlying LI, there is also considerable evidence of serotonergic modulation. However, the neuroanatomical locus of these effects remains poorly understood. Previous work has identified the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as a key component of the neural circuit underpinning LI and furthermore, this work has shown that the core and shell subregions of the NAc contribute differentially to the expression of LI. To examine the role of the serotonergic input to NAc in LI, we tested animals with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesions to the core and shell subregions on LI assessed under experimental conditions that produce LI in shams and subsequently with weak stimulus pre-exposure designed to prevent the emergence of LI in shams. We found that serotonergic deafferentation of the core disrupted LI whereas 5,7-DHT lesions to the shell produced the opposite effect and potentiated LI.

  7. Glucocorticoids interact with the noradrenergic arousal system in the nucleus accumbens shell to enhance memory consolidation of both appetitive and aversive taste learning.

    Wichmann, Romy; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno


    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences but have little effect on memory of low-arousing experiences. Although both positive and negative emotionally arousing events tend to be well remembered, studies investigating the neural mechanism underlying glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement focused primarily on negatively motivated training experiences. In the present study we show an involvement of glucocorticoids within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in enhancing memory consolidation of both an appetitive and aversive form of taste learning. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (1 or 3ng) administered bilaterally into the NAc shell, but not core, of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after an appetitive saccharin drinking experience dose-dependently enhanced 24-h retention of the safe taste, resulting in a facilitated attenuation of neophobia. Similarly, GR agonist infusions given into the NAc shell immediately after pairing of the saccharin taste with a malaise-inducing agent enhanced memory of this negative experience, resulting in an intensified conditioned aversion. Importantly, a suppression of noradrenergic activity within the NAc shell with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol blocked the facilitating effect of a concurrently administered GR agonist on memory consolidation in both the appetitive and aversive learning task. Thus, these findings indicate that GR activation interacts with the noradrenergic arousal system within the NAc to enhance memory consolidation of emotionally arousing training experiences regardless of valence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal.

    Mei-Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that modafinil promotes wakefulness via dopamine receptor D(1 and D(2 receptors; however, the locus where dopamine acts has not been identified. We proposed that the nucleus accumbens (NAc that receives the ventral tegmental area dopamine inputs play an important role not only in reward and addiction but also in sleep-wake cycle and in mediating modafinil-induced arousal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we further explored the role of NAc in sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis by ablating the NAc core and shell, respectively, and examined arousal response following modafinil administration. We found that discrete NAc core and shell lesions produced 26.5% and 17.4% increase in total wakefulness per day, respectively, with sleep fragmentation and a reduced sleep rebound after a 6-hr sleep deprivation compared to control. Finally, NAc core but not shell lesions eliminated arousal effects of modafinil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the NAc regulates sleep-wake behavior and mediates arousal effects of the midbrain dopamine system and stimulant modafinil.

  9. Effects of amphetamine on dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens shell region depend on cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation

    Kleijn, J.; Wiskerke, J.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Westerink, B.H.C.; Pattij, T.


    The psychostimulant drug amphetamine is often prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The behavioral effects of the psychostimulant drug amphetamine depend on its ability to increase monoamine neurotransmission in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and medial

  10. The possible interaction of dopamine system in nucleus accumbens shell and glutamate system of prelimbic region on locomotor activity in rat

    Hatam Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Nucleus accumbens (NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems are involved in regulating of locomotor activity behaviors. This study has investigated the interaction of NAc shell dopaminergic system and prelimbic glutamatergic systems in regulating locomotor activity and related parameters. Methods: The aim of this study was the effect the drugs injection interaction in the brain of male Wistar rats on locomotor activity and related parameters, in the order of this purpose, open field apparatus that automatically recorded locomotor activity was employed. Unilateral intra-cerebral injection of drugs was done. Results: Unilateral intra-prelimbic injection of D-AP7 (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid= NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl did not alter locomotor activity behaviors. However, infusion of NMDA (0.9μg/μl in this region increased locomotor activity (P<0.01, whereas decreased rearing (P<0.01 and grooming (P<0.01 which was blocked by D-AP7 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Moreover, unilateral infusion of SCH23390 (dopamine D1 receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl into the left NAc shell did not alter locomotor activity. However, injection of SKF38393 (dopamine D1 receptor agonist; 4μg/μl into the left NAc shell increased locomotor activity (P<0.05 which was blocked by SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Furthermore, the subthreshold dose infusion of SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl into the left NAc shell reduced the effect of intra- prelimbic NMDA on locomotor activity (P<0.01. In addition, intra-NAc shell administration of the subthreshold dose of SKF38393 (1μg/μl potentiated the middle dose (P<0.05, whereas decreased the higher dose of intra-left prelimbic NMDA response (P<0.05 on locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results suggested a modulatory effect of the NAc shell dopaminergic system on increased locomotor activity by activating glutamate system in prelimbic.

  11. Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens similarly amplify cue-triggered 'wanting' for reward: entire core and medial shell mapped as substrates for PIT enhancement.

    Peciña, Susana; Berridge, Kent C


    Pavlovian cues [conditioned stimulus (CS+)] often trigger intense motivation to pursue and consume related reward [unconditioned stimulus (UCS)]. But cues do not always trigger the same intensity of motivation. Encountering a reward cue can be more tempting on some occasions than on others. What makes the same cue trigger more intense motivation to pursue reward on a particular encounter? The answer may be the level of incentive salience ('wanting') that is dynamically generated by mesocorticolimbic brain systems, influenced especially by dopamine and opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at that moment. We tested the ability of dopamine stimulation (by amphetamine microinjection) vs. mu opioid stimulation [by d-Ala, nMe-Phe, Glyol-enkephalin (DAMGO) microinjection] of either the core or shell of the NAc to amplify cue-triggered levels of motivation to pursue sucrose reward, measured with a Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) procedure, a relatively pure assay of incentive salience. Cue-triggered 'wanting' in PIT was enhanced by amphetamine or DAMGO microinjections equally, and also equally at nearly all sites throughout the entire core and medial shell (except for a small far-rostral strip of shell). NAc dopamine/opioid stimulations specifically enhanced CS+ ability to trigger phasic peaks of 'wanting' to obtain UCS, without altering baseline efforts when CS+ was absent. We conclude that dopamine/opioid stimulation throughout nearly the entire NAc can causally amplify the reactivity of mesocorticolimbic circuits, and so magnify incentive salience or phasic UCS 'wanting' peaks triggered by a CS+. Mesolimbic amplification of incentive salience may explain why a particular cue encounter can become irresistibly tempting, even when previous encounters were successfully resisted before. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Observation of high-spin states in the N=84 nucleus 152Er and comparison with shell-model calculations

    Kuhnert, A.; Alber, D.; Grawe, H.; Kluge, H.; Maier, K.H.; Reviol, W.; Sun, X.; Beck, E.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Huebel, H.; Bacelar, J.C.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.


    High-spin states in 152 Er have been populated through the 116 Sn( 40 Ar,4n) 152 Er reaction. Prompt and delayed γ-γ-γ-t and γ-e-t coincidences have been measured. Levels and transitions are assigned up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV and spin and parities up to 28 + at 9.7 MeV. A new isomer [t 1/2 =11(1) ns] has been observed at 13.4 MeV. The results are discussed in comparison with neighboring nuclei and with shell-model calculations


    Maria Antonietta eDe Luca


    Full Text Available 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG is the most potent endogenous ligand of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors and is synthesized on demand from 2-arachidonate-containing phosphoinositides by the action of diacyglycerol lipase in response to increased intracellular calcium. Several studies indicate that the endocannabinoid (eCB system is involved in the mechanism of reward and that diverse drugs of abuse increase brain eCB levels. In addition, eCB are self-administered (SA by squirrel monkeys, and anandamide increases nucleus accumbens (NAc shell dopamine (DA in rats. To date, there is no evidence on the reinforcing effects of 2-AG and its effects on DA transmission in rodents. In order to fill this gap, we studied intravenous 2-AG SA and monitored the effect of 2-AG on extracellular DA in the NAc shell and core via microdialysis in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were implanted with jugular catheters and trained to self-administer 2-AG (25g/kg/inf iv in single daily 1h sessions for 5 weeks under initial Fixed Ratio (FR 1 schedule. The ratio was subsequently increased to FR2. Active nose-poking increased from the 6th SA session (acquisition phase but no significant increase of nose-pokes was observed after FR2. When 2-AG was substituted for vehicle (25th SA session, extinction phase, rate responding, as well as number of injections, slowly decreased. When vehicle was replaced with 2-AG, SA behavior immediately recovered (reacquisition phase. The reinforcing effects of 2-AG in SA behavior were fully blocked by the CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg ip, 30 min before SA session. In the microdialysis studies, we observed that 2-AG (0.1-1.0 mg/kg iv preferentially stimulates NAc shell as compared to the NAc core. NAc shell DA increased by about 25% over basal value at the highest doses tested (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg iv. The results obtained suggest that the eCB system, via 2-AG, plays an important role in reward.

  14. D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens-shell, but not the core, are involved in mediating ethanol-seeking behavior of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Hauser, S R; Deehan, G A; Dhaher, R; Knight, C P; Wilden, J A; McBride, W J; Rodd, Z A


    Clinical and preclinical research suggest that activation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in mediating the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse, as well as promoting drug-seeking behavior. Inhibition of DA D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) can reduce ethanol (EtOH)-seeking behavior of non-selective rats triggered by environmental context. However, to date, there has been no research on the effects of D1 receptor agents on EtOH- seeking behavior of high alcohol-preferring (P) rats following prolonged abstinence. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of microinjecting the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the D1 agonist A-77636 into the Acb shell or Acb core on spontaneous recovery of EtOH-seeking behavior. After 10 weeks of concurrent access to EtOH and water, P rats underwent seven extinction sessions (EtOH and water withheld), followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant sessions. In the 2nd week of the home cage phase, rats were bilaterally implanted with guide cannula aimed at the Acb shell or Acb core; rats were allowed 7d ays to recover before EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery (PSR) model. Administration of SCH23390 (1μg/side) into the Acb shell inhibited responding on the EtOH lever, whereas administration of A-77636 (0.125μg/side) increased responding on the EtOH lever. Microinfusion of D1 receptor agents into the Acb core did not alter responding on the EtOH lever. Responses on the water lever were not altered by any of the treatments. The results suggest that activation of D1 receptors within the Acb shell, but not Acb core, are involved in mediating PSR of EtOH-seeking behavior of P rats. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the rotational nuclei 167168Hf and 170171W and the shell-model nucleus 26Mg

    Arciszewski, H.F.R.


    Two gamma-gamma coincidence experiments on neighbouring nuclei that exhibit the backbending phenomenon are described. The first experiment performed with the cyclotron of the KVI at Groningen is an investigation of 167 Hf and 168 Hf, whereas in the second experiment, performed at the cyclotron facility of Louvain University, high spin states are studied and compared with predictions of the cranked shell model. A new method for the correction of the large background of Compton-scattered events is described. Apart from this, an investigation of the single particle (d,p) transfer reaction at 26 Mg has been performed with the van de Graaff tandem accelerator at 14 MeV. Specroscopic factors are presented for many levels up to an excitation energy of 8 MeV. Several new spin assignments could be made. (Auth.)

  16. A Relationship between Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Enhanced Lateral Hypothalamic Orexin Neuronal Activation in Long-Term Fructose Bingeing Behavior

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.


    Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM) display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R) numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day) exposure to the IAM, rats given 8–12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx) neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF), a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day) access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p.) equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  17. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  18. Effects of muscimol, amphetamine, and DAMGO injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on food-reinforced lever pressing by undeprived rats.

    Stratford, Thomas R; Wirtshafter, David


    Previous studies have shown that large increases in food intake in nondeprived animals can be induced by injections of both the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), while injections of the catecholamine agonist amphetamine have little effect. In the current study we examined whether injections of these drugs are able to increase food-reinforced lever pressing in nondeprived rats. Twelve subjects were trained to lever press on a continuous reinforcement schedule while food deprived and were then tested after being placed back on ad libitum feeding. Under these conditions, responding was markedly increased by injections of either muscimol or DAMGO, although the onset of the effects of the latter drug was delayed by 30-40 min. In contrast, amphetamine injections failed to increase reinforced lever pressing, although they did enhance responding on a non-reinforced lever, presumably reflecting alterations in behavioral activation. These results demonstrate that stimulation of GABA(A) and μ-opioid receptors within the AcbSh is able to promote not only food intake, but also food-directed operant behavior. In contrast, stimulation of AcbSh dopamine receptors may enhance behavioral arousal, but does not appear to specifically potentiate behaviors directed toward food procurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GABA(A) and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially influence performance of a water-reinforced progressive ratio task.

    Covelo, Ignacio R; Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R


    Several authors have shown that injections of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol into the medial shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) result in large increases in food, but not water, intake. In previous studies we demonstrated that intra-AcbSh injections of either muscimol or of the indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine increase response output on a food-reinforced progressive ratio schedule. In the current experiment we extended these observations by examining the effects of muscimol and amphetamine injections on the performance of a water-reinforced progressive ratio task in mildly deprived animals. We found that muscimol did not affect the number of responses made in the water-reinforced task, even though a marked increase in responding was observed after amphetamine. Muscimol did, however, significantly increase food intake in the same animals. The results suggest that the enhancing effects of intra-AcbSh muscimol differ from those of amphetamine in that they are selective for food-reinforced behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens shell reverses CRFR2-evoked passive stress-coping after partner loss in monogamous male prairie voles.

    Bosch, Oliver J; Dabrowska, Joanna; Modi, Meera E; Johnson, Zachary V; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Barrett, Catherine E; Ahern, Todd H; Guo, JiDong; Grinevich, Valery; Rainnie, Donald G; Neumann, Inga D; Young, Larry J


    Loss of a partner can have severe effects on mental health. Here we explore the neural mechanisms underlying increased passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, following the loss of the female partner in the monogamous male prairie vole. We demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) in the nucleus accumbens shell mediates social loss-induced passive coping. Further, we show that partner loss compromises the oxytocin system through multiple mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence for an interaction of the CRFR2 and oxytocin systems in mediating the emotional consequences of partner loss. Our results suggest that chronic activation of CRFR2 and suppression of striatal oxytocin signaling following partner loss result in an aversive emotional state that may share underlying mechanisms with bereavement. We propose that the suppression of oxytocin signaling is likely adaptive during short separations to encourage reunion with the partner and may have evolved to maintain long-term partnerships. Additionally, therapeutic strategies targeting these systems should be considered for treatment of social loss-mediated depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens shell reverses CRFR2-evoked passive stress-coping after partner loss in monogamous male prairie voles

    Bosch, Oliver J.; Dabrowska, Joanna; Modi, Meera E.; Johnson, Zachary V.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Barrett, Catherine E.; Ahern, Todd H.; Guo, JiDong; Grinevich, Valery; Rainnie, Donald G.; Neumann, Inga D.; Young, Larry J.


    Loss of a partner can have severe effects on mental health. Here we explore the neural mechanisms underlying increased passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, following the loss of the female partner in the monogamous male prairie vole. We demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) in the nucleus accumbens shell mediates social loss-induced passive coping. Further, we show that partner loss compromises the oxytocin system through multiple mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence for an interaction of the CRFR2 and oxytocin systems in mediating the emotional consequences of partner loss. Our results suggest that chronic activation of CRFR2 and suppression of striatal oxytocin signaling following partner loss result in an aversive emotional state that may share underlying mechanisms with bereavement. We propose that the suppression of oxytocin signaling is likely adaptive during short separations to encourage reunion with the partner and may have evolved to maintain long-term partnerships. Additionally, therapeutic strategies targeting these systems should be considered for treatment of social loss-mediated depression. PMID:26615473

  2. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A


    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  3. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats.

    Lopes, Ana Paula Fraga; Ganzer, Laís; Borges, Aline Caon; Kochenborger, Larissa; Januário, Ana Cláudia; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida


    In an attempt to establish a relationship between food intake and fear/anxiety-related behaviours, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral injections of GABAA (Muscimol, MUS, doses 25 and 50ng/side) and GABAB (Baclofen, BAC, doses 32 and 64ng/side) receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the level of fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in 24h food-deprived rats. The antagonists of GABAA (Bicuculline, BIC, doses 75 and 150ng/side) and GABAB (Saclofen, SAC, doses 1.5 and 3μg/side) were also tested. The results indicated that the total number of risk assessment behaviour decreased after the injection of both doses of GABAA agonist (MUS) into the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats exposed to elevated plus maze. Similar results were obtained after treatment with both doses of GABAB (BAC) agonist in the AcbSh. These data indicated that the activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors within the AcbSh caused anxiolysis in 24h food-deprived rats. In addition, feeding behaviour (food intake, feeding latency and feeding duration) remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA agonists. In contrast, both food intake and feeding duration decreased after injections of both doses of BIC (GABAA antagonist), while the feeding latency remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA antagonists in the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats. The treatment with SAC (GABAB antagonist) did not affect feeding behaviour. Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ipsilateral feeding-specific circuits between the nucleus accumbens shell and the lateral hypothalamus: regulation by glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes.

    Urstadt, Kevin R; Kally, Peter; Zaidi, Sana F; Stanley, B Glenn


    The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the control of food intake. Activation of GABA(A) receptors or blockade of AMPA and kainate receptors within the AcbSh induces feeding, as does blockade of GABA(A) receptors or activation of NMDA receptors in the LH. Further, evidence suggests that feeding induced via the AcbSh can be suppressed by LH inhibition. However, it is unclear if this suppression is specific to feeding. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with 3 intracranial guide cannulas, one unilaterally into the AcbSh and two bilaterally into the LH, were used to explore this issue. DNQX (1.25 μg) or muscimol (100 ng) infused into the AcbSh unilaterally elicited feeding, and this elicited intake was suppressed by bilateral LH injection of d-AP5 (2 μg) or muscimol (25 ng). The effectiveness of d-AP5 or muscimol infusion into either the LH site ipsilateral or contralateral to the AcbSh injection was compared. Ipsilateral LH injection of d-AP5 or muscimol was significantly more effective than contralateral injection in suppressing food intake initiated by AcbSh injection of DNQX or muscimol. These results add to the prior evidence that inhibition of the LH through pharmacological modulation of NMDA or GABA(A) receptors specifically suppresses feeding initiated by AcbSh inhibition, and that these two regions communicate via an ipsilateral circuit to specifically regulate feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

    Charlene eDiepenbroek


    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta alters anxiety-, depression-, and addiction-related behaviors and neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens shell

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Zhang, Yafang; Scala, Federico; Page, Sean A.; McCue, David L.; Li, Dingge; Hommel, Jonathan D.; Laezza, Fernanda; Green, Thomas A.


    Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and addiction are often comorbid brain pathologies thought to share common mechanistic biology. As part of the cortico-limbic circuit, the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a fundamental role in integrating information in the circuit, such that modulation of NAcSh circuitry alters anxiety, depression, and addiction-related behaviors. Intracellular kinase cascades in the NAcSh have proven important mediators of behavior. To investigate glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta signaling in the NAcSh in vivo we knocked down GSK3beta expression with a novel adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2) and assessed changes in anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration in GSK3beta knockdown rats. GSK3beta knockdown reduced anxiety-like behavior while increasing depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration. Correlative electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices were used to assess the effect of AAV-shGSK3beta on spontaneous firing and intrinsic excitability of tonically active interneurons (TANs), cells required for input and output signal integration in the NAcSh and for processing reward-related behaviors. Loose-patch recordings showed that TANs transduced by AAV-shGSK3beta exhibited reduction in tonic firing and increased spike half width. When assessed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings these changes were mirrored by reduction in action potential firing and accompanied by decreased hyperpolarization-induced depolarizing sag potentials, increased action potential current threshold, and decreased maximum rise time. These results suggest that silencing of GSK3beta in the NAcSh increases depression- and addiction-related behavior, possibly by decreasing intrinsic excitability of TANs. However, this study does not rule out contributions from other neuronal sub-types. PMID:28126496

  7. Reduced ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring (P) rats following pharmacological silencing and deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Wilden, Jessica A; Qing, Kurt Y; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Rodd, Zachary A


    There is increasing interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of addiction. Initial testing must be conducted in animals, and the alcohol-preferring (P) rat meets the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. This study is composed of 2 experiments designed to examine the effects of 1) pharmacological inactivation and 2) DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the consumption of alcohol by P rats. In the first experiment, the effects of reversible inactivation of the AcbSh were investigated by administering intracranial injections of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists. Bilateral microinjections of drug were administered to the AcbSh in P rats (8-10 rats/group), after which the animals were placed in operant chambers containing 2 levers--one used to administer water and the other to administer 15% EtOH--to examine the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. In the second experiment, a DBS electrode was placed in each P rat's left AcbSh. The animals then received 100 or 200 μA (3-4 rats/group) of DBS to examine the effect on daily consumption of oral EtOH in a free-access paradigm. In the first experiment, pharmacological silencing of the AcbSh with GABA agonists did not decrease the acquisition of EtOH drinking behavior but did reduce EtOH consumption by 55% in chronically drinking rats. Similarly, in the second experiment, 200 μA of DBS consistently reduced EtOH intake by 47% in chronically drinking rats. The amount of EtOH consumption returned to baseline levels following termination of therapy in both experiments. Pharmacological silencing and DBS of the AcbSh reduced EtOH intake after chronic EtOH use had been established in rodents. The AcbSh is a neuroanatomical substrate for the reinforcing effects of alcohol and may be a target for surgical intervention in cases of alcoholism.

  8. Gene transcripts selectively down-regulated in the shell of the nucleus accumbens long after heroin self-administration are up-regulated in the core independent of response contingency.

    Jacobs, Edwin H; de Vries, Taco J; Smit, August B; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M


    Long-term drug-induced alterations in neurotransmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core may underlie relapse to drug-seeking behavior and drug-taking upon re-exposure to drugs and drug-associated stimuli (cues) during abstinence. Using an open screening strategy, we recently identified 25 gene transcripts, encoding for proteins involved in neuronal functioning and structure that are down-regulated in rat NAc shell after contingent (active), but not after non-contingent (passive), heroin administration. Studying the expression of the same transcripts in the NAc core by means of quantitative PCR, we now demonstrate that most of these transcripts are up-regulated in that NAc subregion long (3 weeks) after heroin self-administration in rats. A similar up-regulation in gene expression was also apparent in the NAc core of animals with a history of non-contingent heroin administration (yoked controls). These data indicate that heroin self-administration differentially regulates genes in the NAc core as compared with the shell. Moreover, whereas cognitive processes involved in active drug self-administration (e.g., instrumental learning) seems to direct gene expression in the NAc shell, neuroplasticity in the NAc core may be due to the pharmacological effects of heroin (including Pavlovian conditioning), as expressed in rats upon contingent as well as non-contingent administration of heroin.

  9. Beta Decay Study of the T{sub z}=−2{sup 56}Zn Nucleus and the Determination of the Half-Lives of a Few fp-shell Nuclei

    Rubio, B., E-mail: [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Orrigo, S.E.A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Kucuk, L. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Montaner-Pizá, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); RCNP, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujita, H. [RCNP, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Blank, B. [CENBG, Université Bordeaux 1, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Gelletly, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Adachi, T. [RCNP, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Agramunt, J.; Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ascher, P. [CENBG, Université Bordeaux 1, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Bilgier, B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cáceres, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Cakirli, R.B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Ganioğlu, E. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gerbaux, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grevy, S. [CENBG, Université Bordeaux 1, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); and others


    This paper concerns the experimental study of the β decay properties of few proton-rich fp-shell nuclei. The nuclei were produced at GANIL in fragmentation reactions, separated with the LISE spectrometer and stopped in an implantation detector surrounded by Ge detectors. The β-delayed gammas, β-delayed protons and the exotic β-delayed gamma-proton emission have been studied. Preliminary results are presented. The decay of the T{sub z}=−2 nucleus {sup 56}Zn has been studied in detail. Information from the β-delayed protons and β-delayed gammas has been used to deduce the decay scheme. The exotic beta-delayed gamma-proton decay has been observed for the first time in the fp-shell. The interpretation of the data was made possible thanks to the detailed knowledge of the mirror Charge Exchange (CE) process and the gamma de-excitation of the states in {sup 56}Co, the mirror nucleus of {sup 56}Cu.

  10. Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine.

    Parkinson, J A; Olmstead, M C; Burns, L H; Robbins, T W; Everitt, B J


    Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.

  11. Nucleus--nucleus potential

    Jaqaman, H.R.


    The nucleus--nucleus interaction is studied within the framework of the generator coordinate method that permits an easy incorporation of the full effects of antisymmetrization. It is found that the interaction, as far as the elastic scattering problem is concerned, can be described by a simple effective potential that is equivalent to the original many-body (and hence non-local) problem. The potential is obtained by dividing the wavefunction into a long-range part and a short-range part and requiring the former to satisfy a Schroedinger equation. This enables avoiding dealing with the troublesome short-range part of the wavefunction and provides a direct link with the optical model so that the potential obtained here is equivalent to the real part of the optical potential (the imaginary part is not investigated). The effective potential is found to consist of three parts: an interaction term between the nucleons belonging to different nuclei, a kinetic energy term due to the change in the intrinsic kinetic energy of the system as a result of the antisymmetrization, and finally an l-dependent part. The kinetic energy term is found to be very repulsive and effectively gives a hard core, and is calculated for the α--α and 16 O-- 16 O cases. The full potential is calculated for the α--α case for the S, D, and G partial waves and then used to calculate the corresponding phase shifts that are then compared with experimental results and other microscopic calculations. Finally, some recent results and analyses of fusion and deep inelastic reactions are reviewed that seem to indicate the presence of a hard core in the nucleus--nucleus potential. Such a hard core is present in the potential obtained in the sudden approximation

  12. Atomic inner shell ionization: a new method of nuclear interaction lifetimes in the range 10-16-10-18 second. Lifetime measurement of the compound nucleus in the reaction 106Cd+p (Ep=10 and 12 MeV)

    Chemin, J.-F.


    A new method to measure the lifetime of the compound nucleus formed in the reaction 106 Cd+p at Ep=10 and 12 MeV is described. The nuclear lifetime is compared to the known lifetime of an atomic inner shell vacancy created in the entrance channel of the nuclear reaction. If the ionization probability in he way-in of the nuclear reaction is kown the compound nucleus lifetime is deduced by a simple relation from the number of compound X-rays measured in coincidence with one of the reaction products. A large number of ionization probability values measured in very small impact parameter collisions induced by H + , He + , D + on Al, Cu, S, Ti, Si, Ag, Cd are reported. The data are interpreted in terms of the corrected SCA theory of ionization. New effects such as angular dependence and trajectory effect (hair-pin-curve effect) are shown experimentally. The influence of a nuclear delay time on the ionization probability value is considered; the effect on a nuclear reaction of the energy losses by the projectile during the ionization process is analysed in detail. The yield curve of the resonant nuclear reaction 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si is taken as an example. A detailed analysis of the compound nucleus 107 In lifetimes is given. Attention has been paid to competitive processes leading to X ray emission of same energy as the compound X rays. Extensions of the method to measure compound nucleus lifetimes in collision induced by heavy ions and to separate the shape elastic and compound elastic mechanisms are presented [fr

  13. Observation and empirical shell-model study of new yrast excited states in the nucleus sup 1 sup 4 sup 2 Ce

    Liu Zhong; Guo Ying Xiang; Zhou Xiao Hong; Lei Xiang Guo; LiuMinLiang; Luo Wan Ju; He Jian Jun; Zheng Yong; Pan Qiang Yan; Gan Zai Guo; Luo Yi Xiao; Hayakawa, T; Oshima, M; Toh, Y; Shizima, T; Hatsukawa, Y; Osa, A; Ishii, T; Sugawara, M


    Excited states of sup 1 sup 4 sup 2 Ce, populated in deep inelastic reactions of sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles bombarding sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La target, have been studied to medium spins using in-beam gamma spectroscopy techniques. Three new levels have been identified at 2625, 2995 and 3834 keV, and assigned as 8 sup + , 9 sup ( sup - sup ) and 11 sup ( sup - sup ) , respectively, based on the analysis of the properties of gamma transitions. These new yrast states follow well the level systematics of N 84 isotones. Their structures have been discussed with the help of empirical shell-model calculations

  14. Investigation of the two-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd nucleus 166Ta using a particle-number conserving cranked shell model

    Zhang, ZhenHua


    The high-spin rotational properties of two-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 166Ta are analyzed using the cranked shell model with pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency hω are reproduced very well by the particle-number conserving calculations, which provides a reliable support to the configuration assignments in previous works for these bands. The backbendings in these two-quasiparticle bands are analyzed by the calculated occupation probabilities and the contributions of each orbital to the total angular momentum alignments. The moments of inertia and alignments for the Gallagher-Moszkowski partners of these observed two-quasiparticle rotational bands are also predicted.

  15. Effects of L-cysteine on reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior and on reinstatement-elicited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the rat nucleus accumbens shell.

    Peana, Alessandra T; Giugliano, Valentina; Rosas, Michela; Sabariego, Marta; Acquas, Elio


    Alcoholism is a neuroadaptive disorder, and the understanding of the mechanisms of the high rates of relapse, which characterize it, represents one of the most demanding challenges in alcoholism and addiction research. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is an intracellular kinase, critical for neuroplasticity in the adult brain that is suggested to play a fundamental role in the molecular mechanisms underlying drug addiction and relapse. We previously observed that a nonessential amino acid, L-cysteine, significantly decreases oral ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior, and EtOH self-administration break point. Here, we tested whether L-cysteine can affect the ability of EtOH priming to induce reinstatement of EtOH-seeking behavior. In addition, we determined the ability of EtOH priming to induce ERK phosphorylation as well as the ability of L-cysteine to affect reinstatement-elicited ERK activation. To these purposes, Wistar rats were trained to nose-poke for a 10% v/v EtOH solution. After stable drug-taking behavior was obtained, nose-poking for EtOH was extinguished, and reinstatement of drug seeking, as well as reinstatement-elicited pERK, was determined after an oral, noncontingent, priming of EtOH (0.08 g/kg). Rats were pretreated with either saline or L-cysteine (80 to 120 mg/kg) 30 minutes before testing for reinstatement. The findings of this study confirm that the noncontingent delivery of a nonpharmacologically active dose of EtOH to rats, whose previous self-administration behavior had been extinguished, results in significant reinstatement into EtOH-seeking behavior. In addition, the results indicate that reinstatement selectively activates ERK phosphorylation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and that pretreatment with L-cysteine reduces either reinstatement of EtOH seeking and reinstatement-elicited pERK in the AcbSh. Altogether, these results indicate that L-cysteine could be an effective

  16. Shell Venster

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.


    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  17. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization to transient over-expression of α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Xiong, Lixia; Meng, Qing; Sun, Xi; Lu, Xiangtong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Qinghua; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen


    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. This study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. The nucleus

    Marano, S.


    In 1911 E.Rutherford discovered the nucleus. Since then the nucleus has been investigated with more and more powerful tools but it remains the main field of study of nuclear physics. As it is impossible to take into account the interaction of all the nucleons, a theory based on the hypothesis that each nucleon undergoes an average interaction force has been set up. 2 representations have emerged: the Skyrme force and the Gogny force. Both representations match experimental results but are unable to describe fission yields or the multi-fragmentation of very hot nuclei. The mean-field theory can predict the shape of the nuclei according to its energy level. An experimental program involving the Vivitron accelerator and the Euroball detector is due to begin to validate it. By bombarding targets with exotic nuclei nuclear physicists detect new structures and test their collision models. About ten years ago nuclear halos were observed with lithium 11 nuclei. In this nucleus 2 neutrons move in a space larger than the nucleus itself. This discovery has triggered the elaboration of new theories based on nuclear clusters. At very high temperatures the mean-field theory predicts that nuclear matter acts as a fluid. Following the nuclei temperature different ways of decay appear: first evaporation then multi-fragmentation and vaporization. This ultimate stage occurs around 100 milliard celsius degree temperature when the nuclei decays in a multitude of light particles. Isomeric states are studied and could be seen as a way of storing energy. In a very pedagogical way this article gives information to understand the challenges that face nuclear physics today and highlights the contributions of Cea in this field. (A.C.)

  19. The different effects of high-frequency stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell and core on food consumption are possibly associated with different neural responses in the lateral hypothalamic area.

    Wei, N; Wang, Y; Wang, X; He, Z; Zhang, M; Zhang, X; Pan, Y; Zhang, J; Qin, Z; Zhang, K


    Obesity may result from dysfunction of the reward system, especially in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). Based on this hypothesis, many researchers have tested the effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the Acb shell (Acb-Sh) and/or core (Acb-Co) on ingestive behaviors, but few studies have explored the possible mechanisms involved in the differences between the Acb-Sh and Acb-Co. The present study tested effects of HFS of the Acb-Sh and Acb-Co on high-fat food (HFF) consumption in rats after 24h of food deprivation. Microdialysis and electrophysiological experiments were carried out in awake rats to explore potential mechanisms. The results showed that the Acb-Sh decreased HFF consumption after food deprivation both during and post-HFS. However, HFS of the Acb-Co did not induce similar changes in food consumption. HFS of the Acb-Sh (Sh-HFS) induced an increase in GABA level in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) during both phases, whereas HFS of the Acb-Co (Co-HFS) did not exhibit similar effects. The electrophysiological experiment showed that nearly all the LHA neurons were inhibited by Sh-HFS, and the mean firing rate decreased significantly both during and post-HFS. In contrast, the mean firing rate of the LHA neurons did not exhibit clear changes during Co-HFS, although some individual neurons appeared to exhibit responses to Co-HFS. Considering all the data, we postulated that Sh-HFS, rather than Co-HFS, might inhibit palatable food consumption after food deprivation by decreasing the reward value of that food, which suggested that it might also disturb the process of developing obesity. The mechanisms involved in the different effects of Sh-HFS and Co-HFS on food consumption may be associated with different neural responses in the LHA. The Acb-Sh has abundant GABAergic projections to the LHA, whereas the Acb-Co has few or no GABAergic innervations to the LHA. Thus, neural activity in the LHA exhibits different responses to Sh-HFS and Co-HFS. Copyright

  20. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    DeVries, R.M.; Peng, J.C.


    We compare sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems (obtained from existing direct measurements and derived from elastic scattering data) with nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleus data. The energy dependence of sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems is found to be quite rapid; there appears to be no evidence for an energy independent, geometric sigma/sub R/. Simple parameter free microscopic calculations are able to quantitatively reproduce the data and thus, emphasize the dominance of nucleon-nucleon interactions in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

  1. Determination of shell energies. Nuclear deformations and fission barriers

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Takahiro; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.


    We have been studying a method of determining nuclear shell energies and incorporating them into a mass formula. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies. We adopt three assumptions, from which the shell energy of a deformed nucleus is deduced to be a weighted sum of spherical shell energies of its neighboring nuclei. This shell energy should be called intrinsic shell energy since the average deformation energy also acts as an effective shell energy. The ground-state shell energy of a deformed nucleus and its equilibrium shape can be obtained by minimizing the sum of these two energies with respect to variation of deformation parameters. In addition, we investigate the existence of fission isomers for heavy nuclei with use of the obtained shell energies. (author)

  2. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J


    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  3. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Kanjanachatree, K.; Piyathamrongrut, K.; Inthoncharoen, J.


    Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selec...

  4. Statistics and the shell model

    Weidenmueller, H.A.


    Starting with N. Bohr's paper on compound-nucleus reactions, we confront regular dynamical features and chaotic motion in nuclei. The shell-model and, more generally, mean-field theories describe average nuclear properties which are thus identified as regular features. The fluctuations about the average show chaotic behaviour of the same type as found in classical chaotic systems upon quantisation. These features are therefore generic and quite independent of the specific dynamics of the nucleus. A novel method to calculate fluctuations is discussed, and the results of this method are described. (orig.)

  5. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    Nemirovskii, P E


    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  6. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Specht, H.J.


    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  7. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Bhalla, K.B.


    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  8. Onuf's nucleus X

    Schrøder, H D


    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  9. Hot rotating fp shell Fe isotopes near proton drip line

    Aggarwal, Mamta


    F p shell 44-58 Fe nuclei have been investigated in highly excited state using the statistical theory of hot rotating nucleus. Effects of thermal and rotational excitation at drip line nuclei are studied

  10. Shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies

    Ploszajczak, M.


    Properties of the shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies are discussed. Moreover, stability of the high spin compound nucleus with respect to the fission and the emission of light particles is investigated. (author)

  11. Effective nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from the generator coordinate method

    Friedrich, H; Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics


    The equivalence of the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the resonating group method (RGM) and the formal equivalence of the RGM and the orthogonality condition model (OCM) lead to a relation connecting the effective nucleus-nucleus potentials of the OCM with matrix elements of the GCM. This relation may be used to derive effective nucleus-nucleus potentials directly from GCM matrix elements without explicit reference to the potentials of the RGM. In a first application local and l-independent effective potentials are derived from diagonal GCM matrix elements which represent the energy surfaces of a two-centre shell model. Using these potentials the OCM can reproduce the results of a full RGM calculation very well for the elastic scattering of two ..cap alpha..-particles and fairly well for elastic /sup 16/O-/sup 16/O scattering.

  12. Pion production in nucleus--nucleus collisions

    Schroeder, L.S.


    Current work on pion production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. The majority of existing data are of the inclusive variety in which a single final state pion is detected. Experimental data are compared and their possible contributions to obtaining new information on nuclear structure is discussed. Various models which attempt to explain the observed single-inclusive-pion spectra either on the basis of a nucleon-nucleus interaction in which Fermi motion is included or on some type of cooperative model are examined. Other areas of interest involving pion production include tests of charge symmetry and pion multiplicities. (9 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  13. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.


    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  14. Nucleus-nucleus potential with repulsive core and elastic scattering. Part 1. Nucleus-nucleus interaction potential

    Davidovs'ka, O.Yi.; Denisov, V.Yu.; Nesterov, V.O.


    Various approaches for nucleus-nucleus interaction potential evaluation are discussed in details. It is shown that the antisymmetrization of nucleons belonging to different nuclei and the Pauli principle give the essential contribution into the nucleus-nucleus potential at distances, when nuclei are strongly overlapping, and lead to appearance of the repulsive core of nucleus nucleus interaction at small distances between nuclei.

  15. Shell supports

    Almegaard, Henrik


    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  16. Antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS

    Kadija, K.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.


    A model for antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon, based on the wounded nucleon model is developed. The predictions are compared to published nucleon-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus data. The results suggest the presence of similar antiproton production processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions near midrapidity. (orig.)

  17. K+-nucleus interaction

    Gibbs, W.R.


    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  18. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the 26 Mg nucleus

    Magnetic electron scattering (3) form factors with core polarization effects, ... to 3+ states of the 26Mg nucleus have been studied using shell model calculations. ... The wave functions of the radial single-particle matrix elements have been ...

  19. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Kanjanachatree, K.


    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  20. Microscopic model of nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Harvey, B.G.


    The collision of two nuclei is treated as a collection of collisions between the nucleons of the projectile and those of the target nucleus. The primary projectile fragments contain only those nucleons that did not undergo a collision. The inclusive and coincidence cross sections result from the decay of the excited primary fragments. 15 refs., 5 figs

  1. Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.

    Nakayama, Tomoya; Miyajima, Satoshi; Nishino, Hirotaka; Narita, Junya; Abe, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki


    Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. η production in proton-nucleus reactions

    Cassing, W.; Batko, G.; Vetter, T.; Wolf, G.


    The production of η-mesons in proton-nucleus reactions is analysed with respect to primary nucleon-nucleon (NN→NN η ) and secondary pion-nucleon (πN→ηN) production processes on the basis of Hartree-Fock groundstate momentum distributions and free on-shell production processes. The folding model adopted compares well for meson production with more involved simulations based on VUU transport equations. Similar to K + production in proton-nucleus reactions the η-mesons are primarily produced by the πN→ηN channel. However, η-mesons are absorbed in nuclei via excitation of the N * (1535) resonance which leads to strong distortions of the primordial spectra. On the other hand, the experimental mass dependence of the differential cross sections might yield information about the in-medium properties of this resonance. (orig.)

  3. Deconfinement of quarks and gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Gorenstein, M.I.


    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals the anomalies. They were predicted as the signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by NA49 collaboration in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 AGeV.

  4. Diffractive ''semioptical'' model for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Musulmanbekov, Zh.Zh.


    Diffraction Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered in approximation when the initial nucleus interacts as a whole with nucleons of the target nucleus. Such an approach, being intermediate between precise Glauber theory and its optical limit, essentially simplifies numerical calculations and gives a good agreement with experiments as well. (author)

  5. Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Santanu Pal


    This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)

  6. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.


    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  7. Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Nagamiya, Sh.


    Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies of 1-2 GeV/nucleon are investigated. The problems of measurement of the mean free path lambda of protons inside the nucleus and the interaction radius of nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered. The value of lambda has been determined in two-proton coincidence experiment in proton-nucleus interaction at 800 MeV. The observed value of lambda is slightly longer than the expected from free nucleon-nucleon collisions. Some preliminary results on proton emission beyond free nucleon-nucleon kinemaics are given

  8. Some experimental results of the investigation of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Azimov, S.A.; Gulamov, K.G.; Chernov, G.M.


    Recent experimental data on the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus inelastic interactions are analyzed. A particular attention is paid to the description of the leading hadron spectra and of the spectra of nucleon recoils in hadron-nucleus interactions. Some of the results of the experimental studies of correlations between secondary particles are discussed. This discussion demonstrates that an analysis of the multiparticle phenomena is very promising regarding the discrimination between the different models for the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. It is pointed out that the actual mechanism of the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a rather complex one and can be described comprehensively by none of the existing models

  9. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.


    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic Resonances in the Electroexcitation of the 26Mg Nucleus

    Goncharova, N.G.; Pronkina, N.D.


    On the basis of spectroscopic information about direct pickup reactions, the multipole magnetic resonances M2, M4, and M6 of the 26 Mg nucleus are calculated within the particle-core coupling version of the multiparticle shell model. The excitation-energy distribution of the form factors for the multipole magnetic 1(ℎ/2π)ω resonances is obtained for momentum transfers to a nucleus up to 2 fm -1 . A comparison of the results of the calculations for the M6 form factors with corresponding experimental data confirms that the adopted model approximations are realistic

  11. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    Gibbs, W.R.


    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  12. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity

    Basar, K.; Sesia, T.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Visser-vandewalle, V.; Temel, Y.


    The multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that different impulsivity aspects, mediated by different neural processes, influence behavior at different levels. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key component of the neural processes regulating impulsivity. In this review, we discuss the findings

  13. Quasi-elastic shadowing in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    Dymarz, R; Malecki, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gluski, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)


    The complete evaluation of the Glauber multiple-scattering series for nucleus-nucleus collisions is a very difficult task and that is why various approximate formulae were proposed. In this work some of these approximations are discussed.

  14. Mechanisms of High Energy Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Processes

    Strugalski, Z.


    Mechanisms of high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collision processes are depicted qualitatively, as prompted experimentally. In hadron-nucleus collisions the interaction of the incident hadron in intranuclear matter is localized in small cylindrical volume, with the radius as large as the strong interaction range is, centered on the hadron course in the nucleus. The nucleon emission is induced by the hadron in its passing through the nucleus; particles are produced via intermediate objects produced in 2 → 2 endoergic reactions of the hadron and its successors with downstream nucleons. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the outcome of the reaction appears as the composition of statistically independent hadron-nucleus collision outcomes at various impact parameters. Observable effects supporting such mechanisms are discussed. 51 refs

  15. Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn

    Van de Walle, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Mayet, P.; Raabe, R.; Sawicka, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Duppen, P. van; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Habs, D.; Lutter, R.; Behrens, T.; Gernhauser, R.; Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.


    Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80 Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2 + states. For the first time, an excited state in 80 Zn was observed and the 2 1 + state in 78 Zn was established. The measured B(E2,2 1 + →0 1 + ) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni

  16. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions


    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  17. Coulomb effects in the deuteron-nucleus interaction

    Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.


    The authors develop a consistent theory for calculation of the potential of the deuteron interaction with the Coulomb field of a nucleus. They study the properties of this potential at large distances and give its explicit form at the deuteron-breakup threshold. In the limit of low energies they derive the potential, which includes intermediate off-energy-shell states, and explain the physical nature of its constants. The accuracy of the transition to the polarization interaction is estimated

  18. The shell structure effects in neutron cross section calculation by a ...

    The role of the shell structure properties of the nucleus in the calculation of neutron-induced reaction cross-section data based on nuclear reaction theory has been investigated. In this investigation, measured, evaluated and calculated (n.p) reaction cross-section data on la spherical nucleus (i.e. 112Sn) and a deformed ...

  19. Interacting gluon model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the central rapidity region

    Fowler, G.N.; Navarra, F.S.; Plumer, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A.; Weiner, R.M.


    The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated

  20. Role of shell structure in the 2νββ nuclear matrix elements

    Nakada, H.


    Significance of the nuclear shell structure in the ββ nuclear matrix elements is pointed out. The 2νββ processes are mainly mediated by the low-lying 1 + states. The shell structure also gives rise to concentration or fragmentation of the 2νββ components over intermediate states, depending on nuclide. These roles of the shell structure are numerically confirmed by realistic shell model calculations. Some shell structure effects are suggested for 0νββ matrix elements; dominance of low-lying intermediate states and nucleus-dependence of their spin-parities. (orig.)

  1. Nucleus-nucleus collision as superposition of nucleon-nucleus collisions

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.


    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus. (orig.)

  2. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.


    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  3. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Orlova, G I; Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Chenawi, K El; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Roeper, M; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Soderstrem, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S; Vrlakova, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C


    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  4. The spin-dependent neutralino-nucleus form factor for 127I

    Ressell, M.T.


    We present the results of detailed shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic form factor for the nucleus 127 I. the calculations were performed in extremely large model spaces which adequately describe the configuration mixing in this nucleus. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of the magnetic moment are found. Other nuclear observables are also compared to experiment. The dependence of the form factor upon the model space and effective interaction is discussed

  5. Muonic atom-light nucleus interaction

    Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.; Efetov, A.V.


    The effective potential of the interaction between light nucleus and two-particle atom at distances greater than its Bohr radius is obtained in the analytic form on the basis of a correct account of three Coulomb particle problem. Features of the interaction between p, t, 4 He, 7 Be nuclei and mesonic atoms μp, μt, μ 4 He and μ 7 Be, that arising from the differences in masses and charges of interacting particles, are studied. The corresponding potentials in the pre-threshold energy range are given. The coefficients of the symptotic formula for the effective are calculated in adiabatic approximation and with regard for the main off-shell corrections. 16 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Opposite roles for neuropeptide S in the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in learned helplessness rats.

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Ishima, Tamaki; Oda, Yasunori; Okamura, Naoe; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji


    The role of neuropeptide S (NPS) in depression remains unclear. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of NPS infusions into the shell or core regions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusions of NPS (10 pmol/side) into the NAc shell, but not the NAc core and BNST, exerted antidepressant-like effects in the LH paradigm. Implying that behavioral deficits could be improved in the conditioned avoidance test. Coinfusion of SHA68 (an NPS receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/side) with NPS into the NAc shell blocked these effects. In contrast, NPS receptor antagonism by SHA68 in the BNST induced antidepressant-like effects. Infusions of NPS into the NAc shell or SHA68 into the BNST did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. These results suggest that excitatory and inhibitory actions by the NPS system are integral to the depression in LH animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.


    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  8. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.


    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  9. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions



    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  10. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Norbury, John W.


    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  11. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Wong, C.Y.; Blankenbecler, R.


    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures

  12. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L.W.


    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies

  13. Clustering of 1p-shell nuclei in the framework of the shell model

    Kwasniewicz, E.


    The two- and three-fragment clustering of the 1p-shell nuclei has been studied in the framework of the shell model. The absolute probabilities of the required types of clustering in a given nucleus have been obtained by projecting its realistic shell-model wavefunction onto the suitable subspace of the orthonormal, completely antisymmetric two- or three-cluster states. With the aid of these data the selectivity in population of final states produced in multinucleon transfer reactions has been discussed. This problem has also been considered in the approach where the exchange of nucleons between clusters has been neglected. This has enabled to demonstrate the role of the complete antisymmetrization in predicting the intensities of states populated in multinucleon transfer reactions. The compact theory of the multinucleon one- and two-cluster spectroscopic amplitudes has been formulated. The examples of studying the nuclear structure and reactions with the aid of these spectroscopic amplitudes have been presented. (author)

  14. Model for nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-proton multiplicity distributions

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.


    A model relating hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions is proposed and some interesting consequences are derived. The values of the parameters are the same for all the processes and are given by the QCD hypothesis of ''universal'' hadronic multiplicities which are found to be asymptotically independent of target and beam in hadronic and current induced reactions in particle physics. (author)

  15. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    Cascella, Marco


    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  16. Semiclassical calculations of the imaginary part of the nucleon-nucleus optical potential

    Hasse, R.W.; Schuck, P.


    We calculate for finite nuclei the imaginary part of the nucleus-nucleon optical potential on and off shell by using the local Fermi gas approximation and a finite range two-body exchange force. Results are compared with those obtained by infinite nuclear matter calculations as well as using the local density or Glauber approximation

  17. Shell model for warm rotating nuclei

    Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Dossing, T. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others


    Utilizing a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface and volume delta two-body forces, the authors discuss the onset of rotational damping in normal- and super-deformed nuclei. Calculation for a typical normal deformed nucleus {sup 168}Yb indicates that the rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and about 30 rotational bands of various length exists at a given rotational frequency, in overall agreement with experimental findings. It is predicted that the onset of rotational damping changes significantly in different superdeformed nuclei due to the variety of the shell gaps and single-particle orbits associated with the superdeformed mean-field.

  18. New directions at UNISOR and the importance of reinforcing spherical and deformed shell gaps

    Hamilton, J.H.


    An on-line nuclear orientation facility under construction for UNISOR is described. The strong competition between shell gaps at spherical, prolate and oblate deformation is shown to give rise to various structures from spherical double closed shell, to coexisting near-spherical and deformed shapes to deformed double closed shell nuclei in the region of A = 70-104. The importance of the reinforcing of the shape driving forces when the nucleus has shell gaps for the protons and neutrons at the same deformation on nuclear shapes and the switching of magic numbers is described

  19. Core excitations across the neutron shell gap in 207Tl

    E. Wilson


    Full Text Available The single closed-neutron-shell, one proton–hole nucleus 207Tl was populated in deep-inelastic collisions of a 208Pb beam with a 208Pb target. The yrast and near-yrast level scheme has been established up to high excitation energy, comprising an octupole phonon state and a large number of core excited states. Based on shell-model calculations, all observed single core excitations were established to arise from the breaking of the N=126 neutron core. While the shell-model calculations correctly predict the ordering of these states, their energies are compressed at high spins. It is concluded that this compression is an intrinsic feature of shell-model calculations using two-body matrix elements developed for the description of two-body states, and that multiple core excitations need to be considered in order to accurately calculate the energy spacings of the predominantly three-quasiparticle states.

  20. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Zagrebaev, V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.


    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Nucleus-nucleus interactions in the transition energy regime

    Volant, C.


    There are at least two ways for studying large interactions in nucleus-nucleus collisions. One way is to use the method of angular correlations between fission fragments. The aim of the experiments presented here was to make a survey on the role of the various experimental parameters. In that respect three targets have been studied and different projectiles and bombarding energies have been used. Results are presented and discussed

  2. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.


    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  3. Coal option. [Shell Co


    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  4. Shell-like structures

    Altenbach, Holm


    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  5. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    Sawafta, R.


    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  6. Magnetic moment of extremely proton-rich nucleus 23Al

    Nagatomo, T; Matsuta, K; Ozawa, A; Nakashima, Y; Matsumiya, R; Mihara, M; Yasuno, T; Chiba, A; Yamada, K; Momota; Ohtsubo, T; Ohta, M; Shinojima, D; Izumikawa, T; Tanaka, H; Yamaguchi, T; Nakajima, S; Maemura, H; Muranaka, K; Kumashiro, S; Fujiwara, H; Yoshida, K; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, K; Ogura, M; Minamisono, K; Fukuda, M; Minamisono, T; Nojiri, Y; Suzuki, T; Tanihata, I; Alonso, J R; Krebs, G F; Symons, T J M


    The g-factor of the extremely proton-rich nucleus 23 Al (T 1/2 = 0.47 s) has been measured by means of the β-NMR method for the first time. The g-factor were determined as |g| = 1.557(88) from the obtained NMR spectra. From the comparison between the experimental value and the shell model calculation, the spin parity of the ground state of 23 Al was determined as I π = 5/2 + . Thus, the magnetic moment of 23 Al was determined as vertical bar μvertical bar = 3.89(22)μ N

  7. Level density of radioactive doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni

    Santhosh Kumar, S.; Rengaiyan, R.; Victor Babu, A.; Preetha, P.


    In this work the single particle energies are obtained by diagonalising the Nilsson Hamiltonian in the cylindrical basis and are generated up to N =11 shells for the isotopes of Ni from A = 48-70, emphasizing the three magic nuclei viz, 48 Ni, 56 Ni and 68 Ni. The statistical quantities like excitation energy, level density parameter and nuclear level density which play the important roles in the nuclear structure and nuclear reactions can be calculated theoretically by means of the Statistical or Partition function method. Hence the statistical model approach is followed to probe the dynamical properties of the nucleus in the microscopic level

  8. Charged pion coherent production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at incident energies between 86 and 330 MeV/nucleon

    Fassnacht, P.


    We have studied pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at foward angles for about twenty projectile target combinations. The incident energies were below or around 300 MeV/nucleon which is the threshold of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ. The study of the inclusive spectra shows some new ideas: shell effects in pion production, collective resonances excitations. These spectra have been analyzed following different models: hard-scattering models which describe the interaction on the basis of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ, statistical model and the pionic cloud model which is a coherent description of the interaction. In the study of the exclusive reactions, we established some empiric rules concerning the cross-section variations. These exclusive spectra were then analyzed in the framework of two-models: the semi-phenomenological model and the pionic fusion [fr

  9. Coulomb ionization of inner shells by heavy charged particles

    Lapicki, G.


    The theory of inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, of atomic number small compared to the target atomic number, is developed through the extension of work by Brandt and his coworkers for K shells to L shells. In slow collisions relative to the characteristic times of the inner shell electrons, the quantum-mechanical predictions in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) can exceed experimental cross sections by orders of magnitude. The effects of the perturbation of the atom by and the Coulomb deflection of the particle during collisions are included in the theory. The perturbed atomic states amount to a binding of the inner-shell electrons to the moving particle in slow collisions, and to a polarization of the inner shells by the particle passing at large impact parameters during nonadiabatic collisions. These effects, not contained in the PWBA, are treated in the framework of the perturbed stationary state (PSS) theory for slow collisions and in terms of the harmonic oscillator model of Ashley, Brandt, and Ritchie for stopping powers in fast collisions. The effect of the Coulomb deflection of the particle in the field of the target nucleus on the cross sections is incorporated in the semiclassical approximation of Bang and Hansteen. Except for the lightest target atoms, the contribution of electron capture by the particles to inner-shell ionizations is shown to be negligible. The theory as developed earlier for the K shell, and here for L shells, agrees well with the vast body of experimental data on inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles

  10. Shell coal gasification process

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing


    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  11. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki


    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  12. Dynamical symmetries of the shell model

    Van Isacker, P.


    The applications of spectrum generating algebras and of dynamical symmetries in the nuclear shell model are many and varied. They stretch back to Wigner's early work on the supermultiplet model and encompass important landmarks in our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus such as Racah's SU(2) pairing model and Elliot's SU(3) rotational model. One of the aims of this contribution has been to show the historical importance of the idea of dynamical symmetry in nuclear physics. Another has been to indicate that, in spite of being old, this idea continues to inspire developments that are at the forefront of today's research in nuclear physics. It has been argued in this contribution that the main driving features of nuclear structure can be represented algebraically but at the same time the limitations of the symmetry approach must be recognised. It should be clear that such approach can only account for gross properties and that any detailed description requires more involved numerical calculations of which we have seen many fine examples during this symposium. In this way symmetry techniques can be used as an appropriate starting point for detailed calculations. A noteworthy example of this approach is the pseudo-SU(3) model which starting from its initial symmetry Ansatz has grown into an adequate and powerful description of the nucleus in terms of a truncated shell model. (author)

  13. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.


    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 μμ 2 in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A·B and centrality is observed

  14. Band termination in the N=Z nucleus 44Ti

    Ur, C.A.; Lenzi, S.M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.


    Nuclei in the vicinity of the middle of the 1f 7/2 shell show strong prolate deformation at low spins resulting in rotational-like band structures. With increasing angular momentum the structure of these nuclei evolves through triaxial and spherical shapes. Recently, band terminating states corresponding to fully aligned configurations of valence nucleons in the f 7/2 shell have been reported. Further increase of the angular momentum can be achieved by particle excitations on the higher shell. This will result in high energy γ-ray transitions as it was observed in 50 Cr. We have investigated the structure of 44 Ti up to the band termination. Excited states in 44 Ti have been populated via the 28 Si + 24 Mg at 110 MeV beam energy. The target consisted of ∼0.5 mg/cm 2 of 24 Mg deposited on a gold backing. Gamma-rays were detected with the GASP multidetector array composed by 40 HPGe Compton-suppressed detectors and the inner ball built of 80 BGO detectors. The preliminary level scheme of 44 Ti, as determined in our work, is presented. This nucleus has 2 valence protons and 2 valence neutrons filling the f 7/2 shell. The band terminating state corresponding to their total alignment is the 12 + state. Several γ-rays transitions above this state have been identified. Also, we have identified two negative parity bands strongly connected to the yrast positive parity structure. Such structures have also been observed in other two even-even N=Z nuclei in the f 7/2 shell, namely, 44 Cr and 52 Fe, but they were less populated. The structure of 44 Ti is also interesting from the point of view of the cross-conjugate symmetry. Comparing the level structure of 44 Ti and the one of its cross-conjugate nucleus at the other end of the shell, 52 Fe, it can be noticed that up to spin 10ℎ their structure is very similar, but in 44 Ti the band terminating state 12 + is not below the 10 + state as in the case of 52 Fe. This was related to a reminiscent degree of collectivity in the

  15. Molluscan shell colour.

    Williams, Suzanne T


    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. The momentum distribution inside nucleus

    Fujita, T.


    Discussions are made on several reactions which can determine the momentum distribution inside nucleus. The first reaction discussed is the high energy heavy ion collision. This reaction involves many nucleons which interact strongly. Therefore, one must be careful for any possible final state interactions. The expression for the single particle momentum distribution is given. And it can be said that the expression is consistent with the description of the energetic neutrons from muon capture by heavy nucleus. The best way to determine the momentum distribution would be the lepton-nucleus scattering since it does not involve the strong interaction in the initial channel. Another reaction discussed is the backward proton production, which is governed by quite complicated reaction processes. Therefore, the determination of the momentum distribution is only indirect. Noverthless, it is found that this reaction presents a very interesting and important information on the momentum distribution. (Aoki, K.)

  17. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Srinivasan Aravind


    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  18. Nuclear shell theory

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W


    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  19. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert


    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  20. Anti p-nucleus interaction

    Peng, J.C.


    Status and future prospects of antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments are presented. These scattering experiments were conducted at antiproton beam momentums of 300 and 600 MeV/c on target nuclei of 6 Li, 12 C, 16 O, 18 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, and 208 Pb. Antiproton-proton reactions investigated antiproton-nucleus bound or resonant states in antiproton reactions with d, 6 Li, 12 C, 63 Cu, and 209 Bi. Inelastic scattering experiments investigated the spin-isospin dependence of the NN interactions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Unified description of pf-shell nuclei by the Monte Carlo shell model calculations

    Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honma, Michio


    The attempts to solve shell model by new methods are briefed. The shell model calculation by quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization which was proposed by the authors is a more practical method, and it became to be known that it can solve the problem with sufficiently good accuracy. As to the treatment of angular momentum, in the method of the authors, deformed Slater determinant is used as the basis, therefore, for making angular momentum into the peculiar state, projected operator is used. The space determined dynamically is treated mainly stochastically, and the energy of the multibody by the basis formed as the result is evaluated and selectively adopted. The symmetry is discussed, and the method of decomposing shell model space into dynamically determined space and the product of spin and isospin spaces was devised. The calculation processes are shown with the example of {sup 50}Mn nuclei. The calculation of the level structure of {sup 48}Cr with known exact energy can be done with the accuracy of peculiar absolute energy value within 200 keV. {sup 56}Ni nuclei are the self-conjugate nuclei of Z=N=28. The results of the shell model calculation of {sup 56}Ni nucleus structure by using the interactions of nuclear models are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth


    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  3. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  4. Shells and Patterns

    Sutley, Jane


    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  5. The nucleus as a laboratory

    Blin-Stoyle, R.J.


    The nucleus is a complicated many-body structure whose properties when carefully studied can frequently give important information about the underlying elementary particle interactions. This article reviews progress in research of this kind over the last twenty-five years. (author)

  6. The pion-nucleus interaction

    Afnan, I.R.


    The latest developments in the construction of pion-nucleus optical potential are presented and a comparison with the latest data on π+ 12 C is made. The suggested mechanisms for the (p,π) reaction are discussed with a comparison of the theoretical results with experiment. (Author)

  7. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  8. Effects of virtual isobar admixtures on the low-energy spectrum of a complex nucleus - model calculations for 12C

    Grecksch, E.


    On the basis of a detailed analysis of the excitation spectrum of a complex nucleus in the framework of the conventional shell model theory, the paper extends this concept by adding nucleonic degrees of freedom (isobars) and by model investigations and a realistic assessment of their effects on the excited states of the low-energy spectrum. (AH) [de

  9. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions



    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors

  10. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    Tincknell, M.


    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs

  11. Atomic nucleus and elementary particles

    Zakrzewski, J.


    Negatively charged leptons and hadrons can be incorporated into atomic shells forming exotic atoms. Nucleon resonances and Λ hyperons can be considered as constituents of atomic nuclei. Information derived from studies of such exotic systems enriches our knowledge of both the interactions of elementary particles and of the structure of atomic nuclei. (author)

  12. Dynamic nucleus deformability and its effect on the structure of photoabsorption cross section and photodisintegration characteristics

    Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Shitikova, K.V.


    Considered is a microscopic theory of specific highly excited states of atomic nuclei-gigantic dipole resonances. Special attention is paid to the effect of complex states of different nature on the structure of the gigantic resonance and characteristics of photodisintegration. The pinning process by more complex states (both of collective and noncollective nature) brings about a condition, when a number of quasiparticles is added to the filled shell, so that the spheric nucleus form would become unstable (to the change of surface properties, ect.). In this case the closed shell is broken, that causes an increase of deformability of the nucleus composition in a highly excited state. The statistical group of 2p2h, 3p3h, et. states is of great value in explanation of characteristics of atomic nuclei photodisintegration, for it provides a statistical, irreversible process of preequilibrium decomposition

  13. X detection in heavy ion induced reactions. Application to the lifetime measurement of a compound nucleus

    Liatard, E.


    The ionization of inner electronic shells can be used to determine the lifetime of a compound nucleus formed in a nuclear reaction. The principle of the measure is based on the comparison between the unknown lifetime of the nuclear process and the known lifetime of a K-shell vacancy created during the collision. Besides testing this method, which we call the ''atomic-clok'' method with the compound nucleus 112 Te formed by the reaction 20 Ne (205 MeV) + 92 Mo, the work in this thesis basically consists of a description and a study of the problems presented by the use of X-ray spectroscopy in nuclear-decay-time measurements and Z-identification of heavy nuclear products [fr

  14. Kaonic nuclei and kaon-nucleus interactions

    Ikuta, K; Masutani, K


    Although kaonic atoms provide valuable information concerning the K sup - -nucleus interaction at low energies, they cannot fully determine the K sup - - nucleus optical potential. We demonstrate that K sup - nuclear bound states, if they exist, can be useful in investigating the K sup - -nucleus interaction, especially in the interior of the nucleus. In order to show this possibility, we calculate the double differential cross sections for (K sup - , P) using the Green function method. (author)

  15. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.


    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  16. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    I. Alikhanov


    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  17. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Bradbury, Robert J.


    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  18. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.


    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  19. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.


    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  20. Accumbens Shell AMPA Receptors Mediate Expression of Extinguished Reward Seeking through Interactions with Basolateral Amygdala

    Millan, E. Zayra; McNally, Gavan P.


    Extinction is the reduction in drug seeking when the contingency between drug seeking behavior and the delivery of drug reward is broken. Here, we investigated a role for the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). Rats were trained to respond for 4% (v/v) alcoholic beer in one context (Context A) followed by extinction in a second context (Context B).…

  1. Alphaspectroscopic amplitudes for nuclei in the lower half of the sd-shell

    Conze, M.


    Alpha-spectroscopic amplitudes and factors were calculated with the aid of the shell model for nuclei with mass numbers between A = 16 and A = 24. For transitions to levels belonging to the ground state band of the residual nucleus, the findings confirm the predictions based on the SU(3) model. (orig.) [de

  2. Lasers probe the atomic nucleus

    Eastham, D.


    The article is contained in a booklet on the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics Course, and concentrates on two techniques to illustrate how lasers probe the atomic nucleus. Both techniques employ resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for obtaining atomic transition energies. The first uses lasers to determine the change in the nuclear charge radius with isotope, the second concerns the use of lasers for ultrasensitive detection of isotopes and elements. The application of lasers in resonance ionization spectroscopy and proton decay is also described. (UK)

  3. What is a cometary nucleus

    Lyttleton, R.A.


    Descriptions of actual observed comets associate a range of ill-defined meanings with the term nucleus. In recent years use of the word has been even further extended (or contracted) to mean a postulated solid core constituting the permanent element of a comet and necessarily of size far below resolution and measurability. It is maintained by the postulants that this core, acted upon by solar radiation and the solar wind, is the fount and origin of practically the whole great variety of observed cometary physical phenomena. In order that this micro-nucleus shall 'explain' observed properties, it is endowed with a large number of entirely ad-hoc qualities specially devised to produce the very effects it is wished to explain, but the processes so proffered rely almost entirely on purely verbal asseverations that they will work in the way required. No source or mechanism of origin for the imaginary micro-nucleus, of which there would need to be myriads, is in sight, nor can the assumption explain the dynamical properties of long-period comets and their association with the galactic plane and the solar apex. The postulate is in any event ruled out by Occam's principle as having no basis in fact or theory and is not required to explain the observed properties of comets. The large number of additional special assumptions introduced mean that the structure as a whole does not constitute a proper scientific theory. (author)

  4. Differences in neurogenesis differentiate between core and shell regions of auditory nuclei in the turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis): evolutionary implications.

    Zeng, Shao-Ju; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Xin-Wen; Zuo, Ming-Xue


    There is a clear core-versus-shell distinction in cytoarchitecture, electrophysiological properties and neural connections in the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of amniotes. Determining whether the embryogenesis of auditory nuclei shows a similar organization is helpful for further understanding the constituent organization and evolution of auditory nuclei. Therefore in the present study, we injected [(3)H]-thymidine into turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) at various stages of development. Upon hatching, [(3)H]-thymidine labeling was examined in both the core and shell auditory regions in the midbrain, diencephalon and dorsal ventricular ridge. Met-enkephalin and substance P immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish the core and shell regions. In the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, the occurrence of heavily labeled neurons in the nucleus centralis of the torus semicircularis reached its peak at embryonic day 9, one day later than the surrounding shell. In the diencephalic auditory nucleus, the production of heavily labeled neurons in the central region of the reuniens (Re) was highest at embryonic day (E) 8, one day later than that in the shell region of reuniens. In the region of the dorsal ventricular ridge that received inputs from the central region of Re, the appearance of heavily labeled neurons also reached a peak one day later than that in the area receiving inputs from the shell region of reuniens. Thus, there is a core-versus-shell organization of neuronal generation in reptilian auditory areas. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus interaction

    Yamaguchi, S.


    The purpose of this paper is to understand intuitively the origin of the angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction on the basis of the totally- antisymmetrized many-body theory. With the aim of understanding the structure of the nucleus-nucleus interaction, we show first that the nucleus-nucleus interaction can be written by the use of the density-distribution function and the phase-space distribution function instead of using the many-body wave function itself. And we show that the structure change of the density-distribution function with the increase of the angular momentum causes the angular momentum dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction and that the incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction originates from the structure change of the phase-space distribution function

  6. Mechanical response and buckling of a polymer simulation model of the cell nucleus

    Banigan, Edward; Stephens, Andrew; Marko, John

    The cell nucleus must robustly resist extra- and intracellular forces to maintain genome architecture. Micromanipulation experiments measuring nuclear mechanical response reveal that the nucleus has two force response regimes: a linear short-extension response due to the chromatin interior and a stiffer long-extension response from lamin A, comprising the intermediate filament protein shell. To explain these results, we developed a quantitative simulation model with realistic parameters for chromatin and the lamina. Our model predicts that crosslinking between chromatin and the lamina is essential for responding to small strains and that changes to the interior topological organization can alter the mechanical response of the whole nucleus. Thus, chromatin polymer elasticity, not osmotic pressure, is the dominant regulator of this force response. Our model reveals a novel buckling transition for polymer shells: as force increases, the shell buckles transverse to the applied force. This transition, which arises from topological constrains in the lamina, can be mitigated by tuning the properties of the chromatin interior. Thus, we find that the genome is a resistive mechanical element that can be tuned by its organization and connectivity to the lamina.

  7. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.


    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Altsybeev Igor


    Full Text Available Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range. In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  9. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the sd shell: Coulomb excitation of Na26

    Siebeck, B; Blazhev, A; Reiter, P; Altenkirch, R; Bauer, C; Butler, P A; De Witte, H; Elseviers, J; Gaffney, L P; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kröll, T; Lutter, R; Pakarinen, J; Pietralla, N; Radeck, F; Scheck, M; Schneiders, D; Sotty, C; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F


    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal sd interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the sd shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus Na26 with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with Na26 (T1/2=1,07s) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections...

  10. The effects of nicotine injection in rat nucleus accumbens on anxiety

    Ghorbani Yekta B


    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports showed that nucleus accumbens involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of major depression, anxiety and addiction. It is not clear that how these mechanisms occur in the brain. In the present study, the influence of direct nicotine injection in the nucleus accumbens in rats’ anxiety-related behavior was investigated. Methods: Wistar rats were used in this study. Male Wistar rats bred in an animal house, in a temperature-controlled (22±2 ◦C room with a 12 hour light/darkcycle. Rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine, then placed in an stereotactic instrument for microinjection cannula implantation The stainless steel guide cannula was implanted bilaterally in the right and left dorsal the nucleus accumbens shell according to Paxinos and Watson atlas. After recovery, anxiety behavior and locomotor activity were tested. We used the elevated plus maze to test anxiety. This apparatus has widely been employed to test parameters of anxiety-related behaviors including the open armtime percentage (%OAT, open arm entries percentage (%OAE, locomotor activity and we record effect of drugs after injection directly in the nucleus accumbens on anxiety-related behavior.Results: Experiments showed that bilateral injections into the nucleus accumbens Nicotine, acetylcholine receptor agonist, dose 0.1 of the dose (0.05 and 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 microgram per rat caused a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms (%OAT, compared to the control group. We did not record any significant change locomotor activity and open arm entries percentage (%OAE in rats.Conclusion: Nicotinic receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell involved to anxiety-like behavior in male rats.

  11. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica (Brazil)


    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  12. Rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine are segregated within the nucleus accumbens.

    Sellings, Laurie H L; Baharnouri, Golriz; McQuade, Lindsey E; Clarke, Paul B S


    Forebrain dopamine plays a critical role in motivated behavior. According to the classic view, mesolimbic dopamine selectively guides behavior motivated by positive reinforcers. However, this has been challenged in favor of a wider role encompassing aversively motivated behavior. This controversy is particularly striking in the case of nicotine, with opposing claims that either the rewarding or the aversive effect of nicotine is critically dependent on mesolimbic dopamine transmission. In the present study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core vs. medial shell on intravenous nicotine conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion were examined in male adult rats. Dopaminergic denervation in accumbens medial shell was associated with decreased nicotine conditioned place preference. Conversely, denervation in accumbens core was associated with an increase in conditioned place preference. In addition, dopaminergic denervation of accumbens core but not medial shell abolished conditioned taste aversion for nicotine. We conclude that nucleus accumbens core and medial shell dopaminergic innervation exert segregated effects on rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine. More generally, our findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission may mediate or enable opposing motivational processes within functionally distinct domains of the accumbens.

  13. Sidewall coring shell

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N


    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  14. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: An experimental review

    Odyniec, G.


    In experiments with oxygen (60 and 200 GeV/N) and sulphur (200 GeV/N) ions at CERNSPS, large energy densities of the order of 2--3 GeV/fm 3 have been observed, which according to QCD calculations, satisfy necessary conditions for the formation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Under such conditions, colour would no longer be confined to hadronic dimensions, and quarks and gluons will propagate freely throughout an extended volume. Somehow lower energy densities, of the order of 0.7--1 GeV/fm 3 , were observed in AGS experiments with 15 GeV/N silicon beams and heavy targets. These energy densities might be adequate for investigations of the pre-equilibrium stage, during which the momentum space distribution has been degradated from its initial value but is not yet thermal. First experimental results, available now, show promise of seeing signs of a new phase of matter. In this review the current status of the selective experimental results on strange-particle production, which are relevant to equilibration and QGP formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions, is presented

  15. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion



    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  16. Stability of charged thin shells

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio


    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  17. Temporal structures in shell models

    Okkels, F.


    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  18. The quantum theory of statistical multistep nucleus reactions

    Zhivopistsev, F A


    The phenomenological models and quantum approaches to the description of the statistical multistep nuclear reactions are discussed. The basic advantages and deficiencies of various modifications of the quantum theory of the statistical multistep direct reactions: Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin formalism, the generalized model of the statistical multistep reactions (GMSMR) are considered in detail. The possibility of obtaining the consistent description of the experimental spectra for the reactions with nucleons is shown by the particular examples. Further improvement and development of the quantum formalism for the more complete and consecutive description of various mechanisms of the component particle formalism in the output channel, the correct of the unbound state densities of the intermediate and finite nuclei are needed for the analysis of the inclusive reactions with participation of the component particles, (and with an account of the contributions to the cross sections of the nucleus cluster and shell areas)...

  19. Quarkonia Photoproduction at Nucleus Colliders

    D'Enterria, David


    Exclusive photoproduction of heavy quarkonia in high-energy ultraperipheral ion-ion interactions (γ A →V A, where V = J/ψ, Y and the nucleus A remains intact) offers a useful means to constrain the small-x nuclear gluon density. We discuss preliminary results on J/ψ photoproduction in Au-Au collisions at RHIC [D. d'Enterria [PHENIX Collaboration], Proceeds. Quark Matter'05, (arXiv:nucl-ex/0601001)], as well as full simulation-reconstruction studies of photo-produced Y in Pb-Pb interactions at the LHC [D. d'Enterria (ed.) et al. [CMS Collaboration], J. Phys. G. 34 2307 (2007)

  20. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Iliescu, Bogdan; Felea, Daniel


    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  1. Proceedings of a symposium on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the nuclear shell model

    Lee, T.S.H.; Wiringa, R.B.


    This report contains papers on the following topics: excitation of 1p-1h stretched states with the (p,n) reaction as a test of shell-model calculations; on Z=64 shell closure and some high spin states of 149 Gd and 159 Ho; saturating interactions in 4 He with density dependence; are short-range correlations visible in very large-basis shell-model calculations?; recent and future applications of the shell model in the continuum; shell model truncation schemes for rotational nuclei; the particle-hole interaction and high-spin states near A-16; magnetic moment of doubly closed shell +1 nucleon nucleus 41 Sc(I π =7/2 - ); the new magic nucleus 96 Zr; comparing several boson mappings with the shell model; high spin band structures in 165 Lu; optical potential with two-nucleon correlations; generalized valley approximation applied to a schematic model of the monopole excitation; pair approximation in the nuclear shell model; and many-particle, many-hole deformed states

  2. Notochord to Nucleus Pulposus Transition.

    Lawson, Lisa; Harfe, Brian D


    A tissue that commonly deteriorates in older vertebrates is the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebrae. Age-related changes in the intervertebral discs are thought to cause most cases of back pain. Back pain affects more than half of people over the age of 65, and the treatment of back pain costs 50-100 billion dollars per year in the USA. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of three distinct regions: a thick outer ring of fibrous cartilage called the annulus fibrosus, a gel-like material that is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus called the nucleus pulposus, and superior and inferior cartilaginous end plates. The nucleus pulposus has been shown to be critical for disc health and function. Damage to this structure often leads to disc disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the embryonic notochord, a rod-like structure present in the midline of vertebrate embryos, gives rise to all cell types found in adult nuclei pulposi. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of the notochord into nuclei pulposi is unknown. In this review, we discuss potential molecular and physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the notochord to nuclei pulposi transition.

  3. Cluster model of the nucleus

    Horiuchi, H.; Ikeda, K.


    This article reviews the development of the cluster model study. The stress is put on two points; one is how the cluster structure has come to be regarded as a fundamental structure in light nuclei together with the shell-model structure, and the other is how at present the cluster model is extended to and connected with the studies of the various subjects many of which are in the neighbouring fields. The authors the present the main theme with detailed explanations of the fundamentals of the microscopic cluster model which have promoted the development of the cluster mode. Examples of the microscopic cluster model study of light nuclear structure are given

  4. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.


    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  5. Shells on elastic foundations

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.


    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  6. Slow phasic changes in nucleus accumbens dopamine release during fixed ratio acquisition: a microdialysis study.

    Segovia, K N; Correa, M; Salamone, J D


    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral output during reinforcement-seeking behavior. Several studies have investigated the characteristics of accumbens DA release during the performance of well-learned operant behaviors, but relatively few have focused on the initial acquisition of particular instrumental behaviors or operant schedules. The present experiments focused on the initial acquisition of operant performance on a reinforcement schedule by studying the transition from a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule to another operant schedule with a higher ratio requirement (i.e. fixed ratio 5 [FR5]). Microdialysis sessions were conducted in different groups of rats that were tested on either the FR1 schedule; the first, second, or third day of FR5 training; or after weeks of FR5 training. Consistent with previous studies, well-trained rats performing on the FR5 schedule after weeks of training showed significant increases in extracellular DA in both core and shell subregions of nucleus accumbens during the behavioral session. On the first day of FR5 training, there was a substantial increase in DA release in nucleus accumbens shell (i.e. approximately 300% of baseline). In contrast, accumbens core DA release was greatest on the second day of FR5 training. In parallel experiments, DA release in core and shell subregions did not significantly increase during free consumption of the same high carbohydrate food pellets that were used in the operant experiments, despite the very high levels of food intake in experienced rats. However, in rats exposed to the high-carbohydrate food for the first time, there was a tendency for extracellular DA to show a small increase. These results demonstrate that transient increases in accumbens DA release occur during the initial acquisition of ratio performance, and suggest that core and shell subregions show different temporal patterns during acquisition of instrumental behavior

  7. Double folding model of nucleus-nucleus potential: formulae, iteration method and computer code

    Luk'yanov, K.V.


    Method of construction of the nucleus-nucleus double folding potential is described. Iteration procedure for the corresponding integral equation is presented. Computer code and numerical results are presented

  8. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    Ngo, H.


    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction [fr

  9. Chronic suppression of μ-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens attenuates development of diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Lenard, N R; Zheng, H; Berthoud, H-R


    To test the hypothesis that micro-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens contributes to hedonic (over)eating and obesity. To investigate the effects of chronic micro-opioid antagonism in the nucleus accumbens core or shell on intake of a palatable diet, and the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Chronic blockade of micro-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens core or shell was achieved by means of repeated injections (every 4-5 days) of the irreversible receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (BFNA) over 3-5 weeks. The diet consisted of either a choice of high-fat chow, chocolate-flavored Ensure and regular chow (each nutritionally complete) or regular chow only. Intake of each food item, body weight and body fat mass were monitored throughout the study. The BFNA injections aimed at either the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens resulted in significantly attenuated intake of palatable diet, body weight gain and fat accretion, compared with vehicle control injections. The injection of BFNA in the core did not significantly change these parameters in chow-fed control rats. The injection of BFNA in the core and shell differentially affected intake of the two palatable food items: in the core, BFNA significantly reduced the intake of high-fat, but not of Ensure, whereas in the shell, it significantly reduced the intake of Ensure, but not of high-fat, compared with vehicle treatment. Endogenous micro-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and shell is necessary for palatable diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity to fully develop in rats. Sweet and non-sweet fatty foods may be differentially processed in subcomponents of the ventral striatum.

  10. Physical meaning of the yields from hadron-nucleon, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in experiments

    Strugalski, Z.


    A physical meaning of the outcomes from hadronic and nuclear collision processes at high energies is presented, as prompted experimentally. The fast and slow stages in hadron-nucleus collisions are distinguished. Hadrons are produced via intermediate objects observed in hadron-nucleus collisions. The intermediate objects may be treated as the groups of quarks or the quark bags. 37 refs

  11. Description of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy using dual parton model

    Polanski, A.; Shmakov, S.Yu.; Uzhinskij, V.V.


    It is shown that the dual parton model taking into account the processes of diffraction dissociation to the low mass states and finite energy corrections to the asymptotic Abramovski-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules allows satisfactory description of existing experimental data on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy. (orig.)

  12. Prefrontal cortex modulates desire and dread generated by nucleus accumbens glutamate disruption.

    Richard, Jocelyn M; Berridge, Kent C


    Corticolimbic circuits, including direct projections from prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens (NAc), permit top-down control of intense motivations generated by subcortical circuits. In rats, localized disruptions of glutamate signaling within medial shell of NAc generate desire or dread, anatomically organized along a rostrocaudal gradient analogous to a limbic keyboard. At rostral locations in shell, these disruptions generate appetitive eating, but at caudal locations the disruptions generate progressively fearful behaviors (distress vocalizations, escape attempts, and antipredator reactions). Here, we asked whether medial prefrontal cortex can modulate intense motivations generated by subcortical NAc disruptions. We used simultaneous microinjections in medial prefrontal cortex regions and in NAc shell to examine whether the desire or dread generated by NAc shell disruptions is modulated by activation/inhibition of three specific regions of prefrontal cortex: medial orbitofrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex (homologous to area 25 or subgenual anterior cingulate in the human), or prelimbic cortex (midventral anterior cingulate). We found that activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex biased intense bivalent motivation in an appetitive direction by amplifying generation of eating behavior by middle to caudal NAc disruptions, without altering fear. In contrast, activation of infralimbic prefrontal cortex powerfully and generally suppressed both appetitive eating and fearful behaviors generated by NAc shell disruptions. These results suggest that corticolimbic projections from discrete prefrontal regions can either bias motivational valence or generally suppress subcortically generated intense motivations of desire or fear. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Electro-Excitation Form Factors for Low-Lying States of 7Li Nucleus

    Dakhl, Z.A.; Salih, L.; Al-Qazaz, B.S.


    The transverse electron scattering form factors have been studied for low -lying excited states of 7 L i nucleus. These states are specified by JπT= (0.478MeV),(4.63MeV) and(6.68MeV). The transitions to these states are taking place by both isoscalar and isovector components. These form factors have been analyzed in the framework of the multi-nucleon configuration mixing of harmonic oscillator shell model with size parameter b r ms=1.74fm. The universal two-body of Cohen-Kurath is used to generate the 1p-shell wave functions. The core polarization effects are included in the calculations through effective g-factors and resolved many discrepancies with experiments. A higher configuration effect outside the 1p-shell model space, such as the 2p-shell, enhances the form factors for q-values and reproduces the data. The present results are compared with other theoretical models. PACS: 25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering - 25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states - 21.60.Cs Shell model - 27.20. +n 5≤ A ≥19

  14. Role of shell corrections in the phenomenon of cluster radioactivity

    Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Bir Bikram; Sharma, Manoj K.


    The detailed investigation has been carried out to explore the role of shell corrections in the decay of various radioactive parent nuclei in trans-lead region, specifically, which lead to doubly magic 208Pb daughter nucleus through emission of clusters such as 14C, 18,20O, 22,24,26Ne, 28,30 Mg and 34S i. The fragmentation potential comprises of binding energies (BE), Coulomb potential (Vc) and nuclear or proximity potential (VP) of the decaying fragments (or clusters). It is relevant to mention here that the contributions of VLDM (T=0) and δU (T=0) in the BE have been analysed within the Strutinsky renormanlization procedure. In the framework of quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), we have investigated the above mentioned cluster decays with and without inclusion of shell corrections in the fragmentation potential for spherical as well as non-compact oriented nuclei. We find that the experimentally observed clusters 14C, 18,20O, 22,24,26 Ne, 28,30 Mg and 34Si having doubly magic 208 Pb daughter nucleus are not strongly minimized, they do so only after the inclusion of shell corrections in the fragmentation potential. The nuclear structure information carried by the shell corrections have been explored via these calculations, within the collective clusterisation process of QMFT, in the study of ground state decay of radioactive nuclei. The role of different parts of fragmentation potentials such as VLDM, δU, Vc and Vp is dually analysed for better understanding of radioactive cluster decay.

  15. Autoionization of inner atomic shells during β decay

    Batkin, I.S.; Kopytin, I.V.; Smirnov, Y.G.; Churakova, T.A.


    A theory describing the autoionization of inner atomic shells in nuclear β decay has been developed. It is shown on the basis of diagram technique that in first order in Z -1 the matrix element of the process is represented in the form of the sum of two terms, one of which corresponds to ionization of an electron shell of an atom with sudden change of the charge of the nucleus, and the other to direct interaction of a β particle with the electrons of the atomic shell. Specific calculations are carried out in the nonrelativistic approximation with use of electron wave functions and a Green's function constructed with a Teitz screened Coulomb potential, the systematic inclusion of the contribution of the direct mechanism being carried out for the first time. For the case of β decay of the isotopes 35 S, 45 Ca, 63 Ni, 147 Pm, and 151 Sm we have calculated the shape of the spectrum of shakeup electrons and the integrated probability of autoionization of the K shell. It was found that the contribution of the direct mechanism in all cases considered is significant

  16. Do migrating cells need a nucleus?

    Hawkins, Rhoda J


    How the nucleus affects cell polarity and migration is unclear. In this issue, Graham et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. show that enucleated cells polarize and migrate in two but not three dimensions and propose that the nucleus is a necessary component of the molecular clutch regulating normal mechanical responses. © 2018 Hawkins.

  17. Anomalous transition strength in the proton-unbound nucleus {sup 109}{sub 53}I{sub 56}

    Procter, M.G., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Scholey, C.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Angus, L. [University of The West of Scotland, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Baeck, T.; Cederwall, B. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dewald, A.; Fransen, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937, Koeln (Germany); Grahn, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Greenlees, P.T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hackstein, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937, Koeln (Germany); Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liotta, R. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lumley, N.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    A lifetime measurement has been made for the first excited 11/2{sup +} state in the proton-unbound nucleus {sup 109}{sub 53}I{sub 56} using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method in conjunction with recoil-proton tagging. The experimental reduced transition probability is considerably smaller than the prediction of theoretical shell-model calculations using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental reduced transition strengths in this work most likely arises from the inability of the current shell-model calculations to accurately account for the behavior of the unbound nuclear states.

  18. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    Vella, Dominic


    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C


    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  20. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V


    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  1. Sexual behavior induction of c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity are sensitized by previous sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters.

    Bradley, K C; Meisel, R L


    Dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens can be activated by drugs, stress, or motivated behaviors, and repeated exposure to these stimuli can sensitize this dopamine response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether female sexual behavior activates nucleus accumbens neurons and whether past sexual experience cross-sensitizes neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens to amphetamine. Using immunocytochemical labeling, c-Fos expression in different subregions (shell vs core at the rostral, middle, and caudal levels) of the nucleus accumbens was examined in female hamsters that had varying amounts of sexual experience. Female hamsters, given either 6 weeks of sexual experience or remaining sexually naive, were tested for sexual behavior by exposure to adult male hamsters. Previous sexual experience increased c-Fos labeling in the rostral and caudal levels but not in the middle levels of the nucleus accumbens. Testing for sexual behavior increased labeling in the core, but not the shell, of the nucleus accumbens. To validate that female sexual behavior can sensitize neurons in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the locomotor responses of sexually experienced and sexually naive females to an amphetamine injection were then compared. Amphetamine increased general locomotor activity in all females. However, sexually experienced animals responded sooner to amphetamine than did sexually naive animals. These data indicate that female sexual behavior can activate neurons in the nucleus accumbens and that sexual experience can cross-sensitize neuronal responses to amphetamine. In addition, these results provide additional evidence for functional differences between the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens and across its anteroposterior axis.

  2. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.


    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  3. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.


    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  4. The direct manipulation shell

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.


    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  5. Plate shell structures of glass

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  6. Classical gluon production amplitude for nucleus-nucleus collisions:First saturation correction in the projectile

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.


    We calculate the classical single-gluon production amplitude in nucleus-nucleus collisions including the first saturation correction in one of the nuclei (the projectile) while keeping multiple-rescattering (saturation) corrections to all orders in the other nucleus (the target). In our approximation only two nucleons interact in the projectile nucleus: the single-gluon production amplitude we calculate is order-g"3 and is leading-order in the atomic number of the projectile, while resumming all order-one saturation corrections in the target nucleus. Our result is the first step towards obtaining an analytic expression for the first projectile saturation correction to the gluon production cross section in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  7. Shell-model calculations of beta-decay rates for s- and r-process nucleosyntheses

    Takahashi, K.; Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.


    Examples of large-basis shell-model calculations of Gamow-Teller β-decay properties of specific interest in the astrophysical s- and r- processes are presented. Numerical results are given for: (1) the GT-matrix elements for the excited state decays of the unstable s-process nucleus 99 Tc; and (2) the GT-strength function for the neutron-rich nucleus 130 Cd, which lies on the r-process path. The results are discussed in conjunction with the astrophysics problems. 23 refs., 3 figs

  8. Strangeness production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the dual parton model

    Moehring, H.; Ranft, J.; Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.


    Λ, bar Λ, and K S 0 production is studied in a Monte Carlo dual parton model for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with an SU(3) symmetric sea for chain formation (chain ends) but strangeness suppression in the chain fragmentation process. Additionally, (qq)-(bar q bar q) production from the sea was introduced into the chain formation process with the same probability as for the q→qq branching within the chain decay process. With these assumptions, multiplicity ratios and Feynman-x distributions for strange particles in h-h and multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions are reasonably well reproduced

  9. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Matla, P.


    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  10. Laser spectroscopy probes the nucleus

    Griffith, J.; Billowes, J.


    Extremely sensitive optical measurements are shedding new light on the shape and size of nuclei, and the properties of nuclear matter far from stability. Of the 7000 or so isotopes known to nuclear physicists, less than 270 are stable. In general isotopes become more and more unstable as we move away from the so-called valley of stability, and therefore become more difficult to study in experiments. The tests of the theory also become more demanding. Laser spectroscopy is one of the techniques that is helping to explore the properties of these isotopes and improve our understanding of the forces inside the nucleus. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive atoms now makes it possible to measure the nuclear charge radius of many elements, including many isotopes far from stability. The method can reveal fine details of the sizes, shapes and structures of nuclei. In addition, laser spectroscopy is making significant contributions to our understanding of the nuclear force in unstable nuclei with unusual, or extreme, proton-neutron ratios. In this article the authors discuss the latest advances in studying heavy nuclei. (author)

  11. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Mavridis, Ioannis N


    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  12. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    Heiles, C.


    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  13. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies



    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  14. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.


    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  15. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Robert Novella


    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  16. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio


    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  17. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Poves, P.


    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  18. Conventional shell model: some issues

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.


    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  19. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.


    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  20. Continuum shell-model with complicated configurations

    Barz, H.W.; Hoehn, J.


    The traditional shell model has been combined with the coupled channels method in order to describe resonance reactions. For that purpose the configuration space is divided into two subspaces (Feshbach projection method). Complicated shell-model configurations can be included into the subspace of discrete states which contains the single particle resonance states too. In the subspace of scattering states the equation of motion is solved by using the coupled channels method. Thereby the orthogonality between scattering states and discrete states is ensured. Resonance states are defined with outgoing waves in all channels. By means of simple model calculations the special role of the continuum is investigated. In this connection the energy dependence of the resonance parameters, the isospin mixture via the continuum, threshold effect, as well as the influence of the number of channels taken into account on the widths, positions and dipole strengths of the resonance are discussed. The model is mainly applied to the description of giant resonances excited by the scattering of nucleons and photo-nucleus processes (source term method) found in reactions on light nuclei. The giant resonance observed in the 15 N(p,n) reaction is explained by the inclusion of 2p-2h states. The same is true for the giant resonance in 13 C(J = 1/2, 3/2) as well as for the giant resonance built on the first 3 - state in 16 O. By means of a correlation analysis for the reduced widths amplitudes an access to the doorway conception is found. (author)

  1. The application of a phenomenological model to inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions for laboratory momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon of the incident nucleus

    Grishin, V.G.; Kladnitskaya, E.N.


    A phenomenological model for inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon is described. Particle interactions inside the interacting nuclei are described by phenomenological models of hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions. The Monte-Carlo model provides the kinematic variables for a set of events under study. The comparison of the model inclusive distri-- butions for different particles and nucleus-nucleus interactions agrees well with the experimental data

  2. Dynamic centering of liquid shells

    Tsamopoulos, J.A.; Brown, R.A.


    The moderate-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of an inviscid liquid shell surrounding an incompressible gas bubble are calculated by a multiple-time-scale expansion for initial deformations composed of two-lobed perturbations of the shell and a displacement of the bubble from the center of mass of the liquid. Two types of small-amplitude motion are identified and lead to very different nonlinear dynamic interactions, as described by the results valid up to second order in the amplitude of the initial deformation. In the ''bubble mode,'' the oscillations of the captive bubble and the liquid shell are exactly in phase and the bubble vibrates about its initial eccentric location. The bubble moves toward the center of the drop when the shell is perturbed into a ''sloshing mode'' of oscillation where both interfaces move out of phase. These results explain the centering of liquid shells observed in several experiments

  3. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Di luise, S; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Morgala, S J; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B


    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  4. Evidence of Coherent K+ Meson Production in Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Wang, Z.; Marshall, C. M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration


    Neutrino-induced charged-current coherent kaon production νμA →μ-K+A is a rare, inelastic electroweak process that brings a K+ on shell and leaves the target nucleus intact in its ground state. This process is significantly lower in rate than the neutrino-induced charged-current coherent pion production because of Cabibbo suppression and a kinematic suppression due to the larger kaon mass. We search for such events in the scintillator tracker of MINERvA by observing the final state K+, μ-, and no other detector activity, and by using the kinematics of the final state particles to reconstruct the small momentum transfer to the nucleus, which is a model-independent characteristic of coherent scattering. We find the first experimental evidence for the process at 3 σ significance.

  5. Coulomb excitation of the two proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg

    We propose to use Coulomb excitation of the single magic two-proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg. In a single-step excitation both the first 2$^{+}$ and the highly collective octupole 3$^{-}$ states will be populated. Thus, information on both quadrupole and octupole collectivity will be gained in this neutron-rich nucleus. Due to the high beam intensity, we will be able to observe multi-step Coulomb excitation as well, providing further test on theoretical calculations. The results will be used to improve the predictive power of the shell model for more exotic nuclei as we move to lighter N=126 nuclei. The experiment will use the new HIE-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL array, and will take advantage of the recently developed $^{206}$Hg beam from the molten lead target.

  6. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Sawafta, R.


    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  7. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina


    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  8. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle


    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  9. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine


    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nuclear physics: Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus

    Janssens, R.V.F.


    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope 24 O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability

  11. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.


    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  12. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    Dover, C.B.


    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  13. The correlation between the transverse polarization and transverse momentum of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ye Yunxiu; Zhou Xin; Ji Gang; Su Shufang; Zhu Guohuai


    The transverse polarization of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is determined. The effect from the interaction between spin moment and magnetic field is corrected. The near zero transverse polarization and non-correlation between transverse polarization and transverse momentum are obtained and compared to ones obtained from the nucleus-nucleus interactions at lower energies. This comparison shows that the production mechanism of lambdas in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is different from one in the nucleus-nucleus reactions at lower energies

  14. On the criterion for the optimum choice of a compound nucleus reaction for producing superheavy elements

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.


    The possible reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus reaction for the synthesis of the elements Z = 104, 106 and 108 are studied in terms of the potential energy surfaces, interaction barriers and the nuclear shapes calculated within the frame work of the Fragmentation theory based on two centre shell model. An estimate of the total reaction cross-section suggests that for larger fusion probabilities, the mass and charge asymmetries are the only essential criterion for the optimum choice of a cooler compound nuclear reaction. Larger the mass and charge asymmetries, larger is the fusion cross-section. (auth.)

  15. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.


    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  16. New aspects of the atomic nucleus

    Wilkinson, D.H.


    We are at last just beginning to identify convincing evidence for what we have long believed, namely that the nucleus is more than the sum of its neutron-proton parts taken pairwise because, for example, a cluster of three nucleons interacts differently from the sum of the interactions of its three pairs; there is an important collectivism in the life of a nucleus even before we ask what its nucleons are doing. (orig./WL)

  17. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.


    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs

  18. Numerical Simulation of the Kinetic Critical Nucleus

    Sanada, Masaaki; Nishioka, Kazumi; Okada, Masahumi; Maksimov, Igor, L.


    Our main interest is to see whether the number density indicates a peak at the kinetically stable critical nucleus due to its kinetical stability. We have numerically calculated the time evolution of the number densities of clusters in the case of water vapor nucleation. We employ the condition in which the difference between the size of the thermodynamic crtitical nucleus and that of the kinetic one is appreciable. The results show that the peak does not appear in the number densities of clu...

  19. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Wei Cui


    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  20. Electron-nuclear. gamma. transition spectrum of a nucleus in a multicharged atomic ion

    Ivanov, L N; Letokhov, V S


    The nuclear emission of absorption spectrum of an atom possesses a set of electron satelites which are due to an alternation of the state of the electron shell. It is shown that the mechanism of formation of the satellites might be different for neutral atoms and high-charge ions. In the first case (loose electron shell) a ''shaking'' of the shell resulting from the interaction between the nucleus and ..gamma.. quantum is predominant. In the second case (rigid electron shell) the mechanism involves a direct interaction between the ..gamma.. quantum and electrons. The second mechanism is important in the case of dipole nuclear transitions and dominates at ..gamma.. quantum energies

  1. Electron-nuclear γ transition spectrum of a nucleus in a multicharged atomic ion

    Ivanov, L.N.; Letokhov, V.S.


    The nuclear emission of absorption spectrum of an atom possesses a set of electron satelites which are due to an alternation of the state of the electron shell. It is shown that the mechanism of formation of the satellites might be different for neutral atoms and high-charge ions. In the first case (loose electron shell) a ''shaking'' of the shell resulting from the interaction between the nucleus and γ quantum is predominant. In the second case (rigid electron shell) the mechanism involves a direct interaction between the γ quantum and electrons. The second mechanism is important in the case of dipole nuclear transitions and dominates at γ quantum energies p 2λ (λ is the nuclear transition multipole order, μ p ∼ 1/2 π is the relative proton mass and z the core mass). In the spectrum of the plasma source the electron satellites corresponding to the γ quantum emission and absorption lines are not overlapped by the Doppler contour of the γ line

  2. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Leu, Ming-Taun


    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  3. Coulomb interaction in atomic and nuclear physics: Inner-Shell excitation, Coulomb dissociation of nuclei, and nuclear polarizability in electronic atoms

    Hoffmann, B.


    In three chapters different physical situations are described which have commonly the Coulomb interaction as driving force. The first two chapters study the Coulomb interactions in connection with the excitation of inner electron shells and the Coulomb excitation of nuclei in first order. In the third part on effect ofthe Coulomb interaction between electronic shell and nucleus is treated in second order (nuclear polarization), and its effect on the isotopic and isomeric shift is studied. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.


    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  5. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Werne, Thomas A.


    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  6. Nucleus with filled shells as an example of exactly solved genealogical problem

    Kurovskij, V.V.; Chuvil'skij, Yu.M.


    The explicit form of Clebsch-Jordan coefficients of scalar representation n expansion into the products of irreducible representations for a wide class of groups in the random reduction chain was obtained

  7. Functionally distinct dopamine signals in nucleus accumbens core and shell in the freely moving rat

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Lovic, Vedran


    Dynamic signaling of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons has been implicated in reward learning, drug abuse, and motivation. However, this system is complex because firing patterns of these neurons are heterogeneous; subpopulations receive distinct synaptic inputs, and project to anatomically...

  8. Production of neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of N = 126 shell closure in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Karpov Alexander


    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is widely discussed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly accessible (or inaccessible by other methods. Modeling of complicated dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions is done within a multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations. The model gives a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. In this paper, rather recent sets of experimental data for the 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb reactions are analyzed together with the production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 magic shell.

  9. Instant Windows PowerShell

    Menon, Vinith


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  10. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F


    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios



    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  12. Quark matter formation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions - predictions and observations

    Otterlund, I.


    In this talk I give a short summary of the recent discussion around predictions and possible observations of quark-gluon plasma and fireballs in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. In particular this talk is focused on heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV. (orig./HSI)

  13. Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.


    A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  14. High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Miller, Jeremy S.


    In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus-nucleus scattering, in high density QCD, in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron Calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity Ω(Y,b)=1 were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely (1-Ω→exp(-Const√(Y))) than the opacity that stems from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which is (1-Ω→exp(-ConstY 2 )). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach.

  15. Production of strange and multistrange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    Antinori, F.; Bakke, H.; Beusch, W.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr


    Roč. 661, - (1999), 130c-139c ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : production * nucleus-nucleus collisions * hadrons * strangeness * model predictions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.088, year: 1999

  16. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.


    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  17. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using ...

  18. The contribution of Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations to the understanding of the shell model

    Zamick, L.


    The authors present a detailed comparison of Skyrme Hartree-Fock and the shell model. The H-F calculations are sensitive to the parameters that are chosen. The H-F results justify the use of effective charges in restricted model space calculations by showing that the core contribution can be large. Further, the H-F results roughly justify the use of a constant E2 effective charge, but seem to yield nucleus dependent E4 effective charges. The H-F can yield results for E6 and higher multipoles, which would be zero in s-d model space calculations. On the other side of the coin in H-F the authors can easily consider only the lowest rotational band, whereas in the shell model one can calculate the energies and properties of many more states. In the comparison some apparent problems remain, in particular E4 transitions in the upper half of the s-d shell

  19. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar


    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  20. The nuclear response and the imaginary potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.


    The Fermi-gas model is used in this paper to study the nucleus-nucleus collision. The field produced by one of the nuclei is considered to act on nucleons in the other nucleus, which is treated as a Fermi gas of radius R. The imaginary part of the (non-local) nucleus-nucleus potential is then computed by evaluating the energy-conserving second-order term in which the intermediate states are particle-hole excitations produced in the Fermi gas. The equivalent local potential, obtained by using the Perey-Saxon method, is compared with phenomenological imaginary potentials. Later it is shown that, in the limit of small range of non-locality, the imaginary potential can be related to the nuclear response function. With this, one can write the nuclear friction coefficient that is used in phenomenological analyses of heavy-ion collisions in terms of the imaginary potential. (orig.)

  1. The effects of osmotic stress on the structure and function of the cell nucleus.

    Finan, John D; Guilak, Farshid


    Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of the normal function of cells that are exposed to osmotically active environments under physiologic or pathologic conditions. The ability of cells to alter gene expression and metabolic activity in response to changes in the osmotic environment provides an additional regulatory mechanism for a diverse array of tissues and organs in the human body. In addition to the activation of various osmotically- or volume-activated ion channels, osmotic stress may also act on the genome via a direct biophysical pathway. Changes in extracellular osmolality alter cell volume, and therefore, the concentration of intracellular macromolecules. In turn, intracellular macromolecule concentration is a key physical parameter affecting the spatial organization and pressurization of the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress shrinks the nucleus and causes it to assume a convoluted shape, whereas hypo-osmotic stress swells the nucleus to a size that is limited by stretch of the nuclear lamina and induces a smooth, round shape of the nucleus. These behaviors are consistent with a model of the nucleus as a charged core/shell structure pressurized by uneven partition of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. These osmotically-induced alterations in the internal structure and arrangement of chromatin, as well as potential changes in the nuclear membrane and pores are hypothesized to influence gene transcription and/or nucleocytoplasmic transport. A further understanding of the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms involved in these processes would have important ramifications for a range of fields including differentiation, migration, mechanotransduction, DNA repair, and tumorigenesis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    Niemi, Antti


    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  3. Creep buckling of shells

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.


    Because of the characteristics of LMFBR primary piping components (thin-walled, low pressure, high temperature), the designer must guard against creep buckling as a potential failure mode for certain critical regions, such as elbows, where structural flexibility and inelastic response may combine to concentrate deformation and cause instability. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, through its elevated temperature Code Case 1592 (Section III, Division 1) provides design rules for Class 1 components aimed at preventing creep buckling during the design life. A similar set of rules is being developed for Class 2 and 3 components at this time. One of the original concepts behind the creep buckling rules was that the variability in creep properties (especially due to the effects of prior heat treatment), the uncertainty about initial imperfections, and the lack of confirmed accuracy of design analysis meant that conservatism would be difficult to assure. As a result, a factor of ten on service life was required (i.e. analysis must show that, under service conditions that extrapolate the life of the component by ten times, creep buckling does not occur). Two obvious problems with this approach are that: first, the creep behavior must also be extrapolated (since most creep experiments are terminated at a small fraction of the design life, extrapolation of creep data is already an issue, irrespective of the creep buckling question); second the nonlinear creep analysis, which is very nearly prohibitively expensive for design life histograms, becomes even more costly. Analytical results for an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to axial loads at elevated temperatures are used to examine the supposed equivalence of two types of time-dependent buckling safety factors - a factor of ten on service life and a factor of 1.5 on loading

  4. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel


    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  5. The atomic nucleus as a target

    Strugalski, Z.; Pawlak, T.


    The purpose of this article is to characterize the atomic nucleus used as a target in hadron-nucleus collision experiments. The atomic nucleus can be treated as a lens-shaped ''slab'' of nuclear matter. Such ''slab'' should be characterized by the nuclear matter layer thickness at any impact parameter, by its average thickness, and by its maximal thickness. Parameters characterizing atomic nuclei as targets are given for the elements: 6 12 C, 7 14 N, 8 16 O, 9 19 F, 10 20 Ne, 13 27 Al, 14 28 Si, 16 32 S, 18 40 Ar, 24 52 Cr, 26 54 Fe, 27 59 Co, 29 64 Cu, 30 65 Zn, 32 73 Ge, 35 80 Br, 47 100 Ag, 53 127 I, 54 131 Xe, 73 181 Ta, 74 184 W, 79 197 Au, 82 207 Pb, 92 -- 238 U [ru

  6. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    Wallace, S.J.


    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  7. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.


    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  8. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott


    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  9. Foam shell project: Progress report

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.


    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  10. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M


    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Creep buckling of shell structures

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya


    The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)

  12. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert


    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  13. Experimental search for compression phenomena in fast nucleus--nucleus collisions

    Schopper, E.; Baumgardt, H.G.; Obst, E.


    The occurrence of compression phenomena and shock waves, connected with the increase of the density of the nuclear matter during the interpenetration of two fast nuclei, are discussed. Current experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed. Before considering the mechanism of the interpenetration of two fast nuclei it may be useful to look at more simple situations, i.e., proton-proton interactions, then to envelop them with nuclear matter, considering proton-nucleus interactions. Only very general features are described, which may give suggestions for the understanding of the nucleus-nucleus impact


    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.


    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  15. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.


    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  16. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Gangil, Sandip


    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.


    Collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two-center shell model in the Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occurs by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers, whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determines whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Coulomb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102 < or =Z < or =114

  18. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.


    The collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two centre shell model in Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occur by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determine whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus, can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Couloumb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102<=Z<=114. (author)

  19. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 {+-} 235% (mean {+-} SEM) of basal level vs. 520 {+-} 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 {+-} 83% of basal level vs. 969 {+-} 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine.

  20. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun


    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 ± 235% (mean ± SEM) of basal level vs. 520 ± 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 ± 83% of basal level vs. 969 ± 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine

  1. Future prospects in N-nucleus interactions

    Moss, J.M.


    A detailed examination of two research areas, polarization observables and antiproton-nucleus reactions, which should have near-term future impact on the understanding of the interaction of medium-energy nucleons in nuclei is made. More speculative future experiments employing cooled beams, double spectrometer systems, and large Q-value, low momentum-transfer reactions are also discussed. 25 references, 4 figures

  2. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.


    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  3. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.


    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  4. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    nodule accretion as approximately 2 mm/Ma and that of phillipsite growth as approximately 0.65 mm/Ka, the nucleus material appears to have been growing for approximately 4.5-5 Ma. Originally surfaced as a rock fragment from late Miocene volcanism...

  5. Correlations in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Wosiek, B.


    The correlations between the particles produced in interactions of hadrons with emulsion nuclei were investigated. The data are in qualitative agreement with the models which describe the interactions with nuclei as subsequent collisions of the fast part of excited hadronic matter inside the nucleus. (author)

  6. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav


    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell nucleus * chromatin * genome function Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  7. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...


    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  8. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  9. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    Moretto, L.G.


    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  10. Formation of proton-fragments in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    Bazarov, E.Kh.; Olimov, K.; Petrov, V.I.; Lutpullaev, S.L.


    Full text: The investigation of production of protons in hadron- and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a key problem allowing one to establish the singularities of dynamics of nuclear interactions. The formation of proton-fragments at high energies of colliding particles proceeds within both the interaction of hadrons with nuclei and in the process of decay of the nucleus or its de-excitation at peripheral interactions. At different stages of interaction of impinging particle with target nucleus, the different mechanisms of formation of proton-fragments: the direct knock-out of intranuclear nucleons in the process of high energy cascade of an initial hadron, intranuclear cascade of produced particles, decay of the excited multi-nucleon fragments and of the thermalized remnant nucleus, and the coalescence of nuclear fragments to the new clusters are realized with the certain probability, connected to the interaction parameters (the interaction energy, the parameter of collision, the intranuclear density, the configuration of Fermi momentum of nucleons and clusters of target nucleus et al.). In its turn, the mechanisms of formation of the final nuclear fragments are closely related to the type of excitation of an initial nucleus. The peripheral interactions proceed at small transfers of the momentum of an impinging particle and represent the wide class of reactions covering the processes from diffractive or coulomb collective excitations of the whole nucleus to the direct quasi-elastic knock-out of the separate nucleons. Non-peripheral interactions are caused by comparatively high local transfers of momentum to the intranuclear clusters allowing the development of intranuclear cascade and the asymmetric redistribution of energy of an impinging particle. The central collisions causing the full decay of nucleus on nucleons or few-nucleon fragments, are the limiting case of the maximal development of the intranuclear cascade. The interaction of the initial particles with

  11. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.


    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Cask for concrete shells transportation

    Labergri, F.


    Nowadays, nuclear plant radioactive waste are conditioned in situ into concrete shells. Most of them enter in the industrial waste category defined by the regulations of radioactive material transportation. However, the content of a few ones exceeds the limits set for low specific activity substances. Thus, these shells must be transported into type B packagings. To this end, Robatel has undertaken, for EDF (Electricite de France), the development of a container, named ROBATEL TM R68, for further licensing. The particularity of this packaging is that the lid must have a wide opening to allow the usual handling operations of the concrete shells. This leads to a non-conventional conception, and makes the package more vulnerable to drop test solicitations. In order to define a minimal drop test program on a reduced scale model, we use a simple method to find the most damageable drop angle. (author)

  13. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    Koonin, S.E.


    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs

  14. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome


    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  15. Static quadrupole moments of first 2+ states in the 2s1d shell: a review of experiment and theory

    Spear, R.H.


    Available experimental information on the static electric quadrupole moments Q 2 + of the 2 + first excited states of even-mass nuclei in the 2s-1d shell is tabulated and critically reviewed, and adopted values are presented. The results reveal a well defined pattern for the variation of Q 2 + through the shell. Predictions of Q 2 + made from various nuclear models are tabulated and compared with experiment. For each nucleus the quantity and quality of the existing data for Q 2 + , together with the current theoretical significance of the result, are used as criteria to determine whether new experimental work is desirable

  16. Hylleraas-like functions with the correct cusp conditions: K-shell electrons for the neutral atoms

    Rodriguez, K.V. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)], E-mail:; Gasaneo, G. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Mitnik, D.M.; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio and Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We present simple correlated wavefunctions for the two K-shell electrons of neutral atoms. A variational method was chosen to calculate the mean energy of the ground state, in which the electrons are subject to a local Hartree potential representing the presence of the outer shell electrons. The functions are constructed in terms of exponential and power series, where special care has been taken in order to fulfill the exact behavior at the electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence points (Kato cusp conditions). Global properties, such as the energies and virial coefficients, as well as local properties, such as spatial mean values, are also analyzed.

  17. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.


    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  18. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.


    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  19. Learning Shell scripting with Zsh

    Festari, Gaston


    A step-by-step tutorial that will teach you, through real-world examples, how to configure and use Zsh and its various features. If you are a system administrator, developer, or computer professional involved with UNIX who are looking to improve on their daily tasks involving the UNIX shell, ""Learning Shell Scripting with Zsh"" will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some familiarity with an UNIX command-line interface and feel comfortable with editors such as Emacs or vi.

  20. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.


    The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  1. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.


    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  2. Random matrix theory and analysis of nucleus-nucleus collision at high energies

    Shahaliev, E.I.; Inst. of Radiation Problems, Baku; ); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Suleymanov, M.K.; ); Teryaev, O.V.; )


    A novel method for analysis of experimental data obtained at relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed. The method, based on the ideas of Random Matrix Theory, is applied to detect systematic errors that occur at measurements of momentum distributions of emitted particles. The unfolded momentum distribution is well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices, when the uncertainty in the momentum distribution is maximal. The method is free from unwanted background contributions [ru

  3. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt


    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Strangeness and charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies near the thresholds

    Senger, P.


    The creation of strangeness and charm in nucleus-nucleus collisions at threshold beam energies is discussed as a probe for compressed baryonic matter. Experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies indicate that the properties of kaons and antikaons are modified in the dense nuclear medium. An experiment is proposed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest baryon densities. An important observable will be charm production close to threshold. (orig.)

  5. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the transition mechanism between molecular orbitals in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Imanishi, B.; Misono, S.; von Oertzen, W.; Voit, H.


    The molecular orbitals of the nucleon(s) in nucleus-nucleus collisions are dynamically defined as a linear combination of nucleon single-particle orbits (LCNO) in a rotating frame by using the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) theory. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the promotions of nucleon, - especially due to the Landau-Zener radial coupling are discussed with the method above mentioned. (author)

  6. Multi-quark effects in high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Besliu, C.; Caraciuc, I.; Jipa, A.; Olariu, A.; Topor-Pop, R.; Cotorobai, F.; Pantea, D.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.; Topor-Pop, V.


    Recent data obtained in two experiments performed in the framework of the Bucharest-Dubna collaboration are presented, i.e.: the observation of narrow dibaryonic resonances is neutron-proton interactions in 1mHBC at different momenta of incident neutrons in the range 1-5 GeV/c, and the cumulative production of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus interactions in SKM-200 streamer chamber at 4.5 GeV/c. (authors)

  7. ψ' and J/ψ suppression in high-energy nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin.


    The observed features of ψ' to J/ψ suppression in pA and nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained in terms of a two-component absorption model. For the hard component of the absorption due to the interaction of the produced c bar c systems with baryons at high relative energies, the absorption cross sections are insensitive to the radii of the c bar c systems, as described by the Additive Quark Model. For the soft component due to the low energy c bar c interactions with soft particles produced by other baryon-baryon collisions, the absorption cross sections are greater for ψ' than for J/ψ, because the breakup threshold for ψ' is much smaller than for ψ

  8. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei

    Palit, R.; Sheikh, J.A.; Sun, Y.; Jain, H.C.


    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the proton-rich odd-odd nuclei in the mass A∼70-80 region is performed using the projected shell model approach. The study includes Br, Rb, and Y isotopes with N=Z+2 and Z+4. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states. Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. A preliminary study of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus 74 Rb, using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is also presented

  9. Activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells, walnut shells and peanut shells for high CO2 adsorption

    Lewicka Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Research treats about producing activated carbons for CO2 capture from hazelnut shells (HN, walnut shells (WN and peanut shells (PN. Saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent in ratio 1:1. Samples were carbonized in the furnace in the range of temperatures 600°C–900°C. Properties of carbons were tested by N2 adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method and volumetric CO2 adsorption method. With the increase of carbonization temperature specific surface area of studied samples increased. The largest surface area was calculated for samples carbonized at 900°C and the highest values of CO2 adsorption had samples: PN900 at 0°C (5.5 mmol/g and WN900 at 25°C (4.34 mmol/g. All of the samples had a well-developed microporous structure.

  10. The Baryon Production and Baryon Number Transfer in Hadron-Hadron, Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Szymanski, P.


    This work concerns soft hadronic interactions which in the Standard Model carry most of the observable cross-section but are not amenable to quantitative predictions due to the very nature of the QCD (Theory of Strong Interactions). In the low momentum transfer region the evolving coupling constant caused perturbation theory to break down. In this situation better experimental understanding of the physics phenomena is needed. One aspect of the soft hadronic interactions will be discussed in this work: transfer of the baryon number from the initial to the final state of the interaction. The past experimental knowledge on this process is presented, reasons for its unsatisfactory status are discussed and condition necessary for improvement are outlined: that is experimental apparatus with superior performance over the full range of available interactions: hadron-hadron collision, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. A consistent model-independent picture of the baryon number transfer process emerging from the data on the full range of interactions is shown. It offers serious challenge to theory to provide quantitative and detailed explanation of the measurements. (author)

  11. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki


    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  12. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.


    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.


    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  14. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter


    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  15. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    Costa Junior, J.A.


    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  16. Shell energy scenarios to 2050


    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  17. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    Pomares, R.J.


    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  18. Evaluation of the Interaction between NMDA Receptors of Nucleus Accumbens and Muscarinic Receptors in Memory

    Saba Taheri


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Whereas studies have indicated the interaction between NMDA and cholinergic systems, this study was performed with the aim of determining the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in scopolamine-induced amnesia.Methods: In this study, at first rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride plus xylazine, and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulas were placed 2mm above nucleus accumbens shell. All animals were allowed to recover for one week, before beginning the behavioral testing. Then, animals were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task. The drugs were injected after successful training and before testing. The animals were tested 24h after training, and the step-through latency time was measured as the memory criterion in male Wistar rats. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used for analysis of the data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc injection of scopolamine or NMDA caused impairment in memory in rats. Although, co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with an ineffective dose of scopolamine had no significant effect on memory performance, effective doses of NMDA prevented the amnesic effect of scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance memory. On the other hand, intra-NAc injection of NMDA receptor antagonist, i.e., MK-801 caused no change in memory performance by itself, and its co-administration with an effective dose of scopolamine could not prevent the impairing effect of the latter drug. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the modulation of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

  19. Studies of dust shells around stars

    Bedijn, P.J.


    This thesis deals with some aspects of circumstellar dust shells. This dust shell, emitting infrared radiation, is described by way of its absorptive and emissive properties as well as by the transfer of radiation through the dust shell itself. Model calculations are compared to experimental results and agree reasonably well. The author also discusses the dynamics of the extended shells of gas and dust around newly formed stars

  20. A new version of DWPI (inelastic pion-nucleus scattering) to incorporate microscopic form factors and differing proton and neutron radii

    Funsten, H.O.


    This is a modification of the Eisenstein-Miller program for calculation of collective inelastic pion-nucleus differential cross sections using free π-N scattering amplitudes. This revision permits the additional use of microscopic (shell model) proton and neutron form factors. It also incorporates separate proton and neutron radii for the nuclear density rho(r) generating the distorted wave optical potential. (Auth.)

  1. Biocompatible core–shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer

    Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei [College of Material Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Sun, Zhiyao [Key Laboratory of Polymer Functional Materials, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Gao, Jianwei [College of Food and Biological Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Hao, Xiaoyuan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Pei, Shichun [College of Food and Biological Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wang, Cheng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Polymer Functional Materials, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Sun, Liguo [Key Laboratory of Polymer Functional Materials, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Deqing, E-mail: [College of Material Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China)


    Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core–shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core–shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core–shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core–shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. - Highlights: • PVA/CS core–shell fibers were prepared by coaxial electrospinning. • The core–shell fibers were completely biocompatible. • In vitro release experiments indicated that the drug release rate was controllable. • The free DOX showed higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. • DOX loaded fibers were potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer.

  2. Biocompatible core–shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer

    Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei; Sun, Zhiyao; Gao, Jianwei; Hao, Xiaoyuan; Pei, Shichun; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Liguo; Zhang, Deqing


    Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core–shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core–shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core–shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core–shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. - Highlights: • PVA/CS core–shell fibers were prepared by coaxial electrospinning. • The core–shell fibers were completely biocompatible. • In vitro release experiments indicated that the drug release rate was controllable. • The free DOX showed higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. • DOX loaded fibers were potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer

  3. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su


    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  4. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    Theisen, Ch.


    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  5. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.


    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  6. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  7. Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio


    In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed

  8. Shell film- and video catalogue 1996


    An overview is given of films and videos that are available through 'Shell Nederland Filmcentrale' (Shell Netherlands Film Center), subdivided into the subjects (1) About Shell; (2) Health, Safety and Environment; (3) Science and Technology; (4) The History of Car(racing); and (5) Historical Overview. 5 ills

  9. A finite element for plates and shells

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.


    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  10. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  11. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  12. Extensions to a nonlinear finite-element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    Cook, W.A.


    Extensions to shell analysis not usually associated with shell theory are described in this paper. These extensions involve thick shells, nonlinear materials, a linear normal stress approximation, and a changing shell thickness. A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze nuclear material shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, the basic assumptions used in its development were studied; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress

  13. Is atomic energy different from a nucleus?

    Lee, Sun Young


    This book describes of two faces of nuclear energy : the secret of a nuclear, the history of nuclear energy : the scientists with a nuclear, the nuclear energy generation : the third disapprobation, a nuclear weapon : Choice of fear, the Korean peninsula and a nuclear and nuclear energy and utilization in peace. It consists of 31 questions and the answers of the questions about nuclear energy and nucleus.

  14. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.


    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Momentum distribution in the nucleus. II

    Amado, R.D.; Woloshyn, R.M.


    We calculate the single particle momentum distribution n(q) for a one-dimensional model with delta forces. There is a domain of q for which n(q) has an exponential falloff; but, after allowance is made for the nonsaturation in the model, that domain does not grow significantly with particle number. The relation of this result to large momentum scattering from the nucleus and to the Hartree approximation is briefly discussed

  16. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)


    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  17. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.


    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  18. Coulomb excitation $^{74}$Zn-$^{80}$Zn (N=50): probing the validity of shell-model descriptions around $^{78}$Ni

    A study of the evolution of the nuclear structure along the zinc isotopic chain close to the doubly magic nucleus $^{78}$Ni is proposed to probe recent shell-model calculations in this area of the nuclear chart. Excitation energies and connecting B(E2) values will be measured through multiple Coulomb excitation experiment with laser ionized purified beams of $^{74-80}$Zn from HIE ISOLDE. The current proposal request 30 shifts.

  19. Study of fragmentation reactions of light nucleus

    Toneli, David Arruda; Carlson, Brett Vern


    Full text: The decay of the compound nucleus is traditionally calculated using a sequential emission model, such as the Weisskopf-Ewing or Hauser-Feshbach ones, in which the compound nucleus decays through a series of residual nuclei by emitting one particle at a time until there is no longer sufficient energy for further emission. In light compound nucleus, however, the excitation energy necessary to fully disintegrate the system is relatively easy to attain. In such cases, decay by simultaneous emission of two or more particles becomes important. A model which takes into account all these decay is the Fermi fragmentation model. Recently, the equivalence between the Fermi fragmentation model and statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the decay for highly excited fragments for reactions of heavy ions was demonstrated. Due the simplicity of the thermodynamic treatment used in the multifragmentation model, we have adapted it to the calculation of Fermi breakup of light nuclei. The ultimate goal of this study is to calculate the distribution of isotopes produced in proton-induced reactions on light nuclei of biological interest, such as C, O e Ca. Although most of these residual nuclei possess extremely short half-lives and thus represent little long-term danger, they tend to be deficient in neutrons and to decay by positron emission, which allows the monitoring of proton radiotherapy by PET (Positron Emission Tomography). (author)

  20. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.


    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  1. Proton-hole and core-excited states in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 131}In{sub 82}

    Taprogge, J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Jungclaus, A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Grawe, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Borzov, I.N. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Soederstroem, P.A.; Baba, H.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); National Physical Laboratory, NPL, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Simpson, G.S.; Drouet, F. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex (France); Sumikama, T. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Xu, Z.Y.; Niikura, M. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Browne, F. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); University of Brighton, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gernhaeuser, R.; Steiger, K.; Muecher, D. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Gey, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jung, H.S. [Chung-Ang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.D.; Kwon, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Schaffner, H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Li, Z. [Peking University, School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Sakurai, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Vajta, Zs. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); MTA Atomki, P.O. Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Wu, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Peking University, School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Benzoni, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Boenig, S.; Ilieva, S.; Kroell, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Chae, K.Y. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A. [Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon cedex (France); Gadea, A.; Montaner-Piza, A. [CSIC-Univ. of Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Itaco, N. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Caserta (Italy); Kondev, F.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Lane, G.J. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Canberra (Australia); Moschner, K.; Wendt, A. [University of Cologne, IKP, Cologne (Germany); Naqvi, F. [Yale University, Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT (United States); Orlandi, R. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en StralingsFysica, Heverlee (Belgium); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Patel, Z.; Podolyak, Zs. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom)


    The β decay of the N = 83 nucleus {sup 131}Cd has been studied at the RIBF facility at the RIKEN Nishina Center. The main purpose of the study was to identify the position of the 1p{sub 3/2} and 0f{sub 5/2} proton-hole states and the energies of core-excited configurations in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 131}In. From the radiation emitted following the β decay, a level scheme of {sup 131}In was established and the β feeding to each excited state determined. Similarities between the single-particle transitions observed in the β decays of the N = 83 isotones {sup 132}In and {sup 131}Cd are discussed. Finally the excitation energies of several core-excited configurations in {sup 131}In are compared to QRPA and shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  2. Excitations of one-valence-proton, one-valence-neutron nucleus {sup 210}Bi from cold-neutron capture

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Fornal, B.; Szpak, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Leoni, S.; Bottoni, S. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Simpson, G. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ur, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 02-681, Warszawa (Poland)


    The low-spin structure of one-proton, one-neutron {sup 210}Bi nucleus was investigated in cold-neutron capture reaction on {sup 209}Bi. The γ-coincidence measurements were performed with use of EXILL array consisted of 16 HPGe detectors. The experimental results were compared to shell-model calculations involving valence particles excitations. The {sup 210}Bi nucleus offers the potential to test the effective proton-neutron interactions because most of the states should arise from the proton-neutron excitations. Additionally, it was discovered that a few states should come from the couplings of valence particles to the 3{sup −} octupole vibration in {sup 208}Pb which provides also the possibility of testing the calculations involving the core excitations.

  3. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Giuseppe eGangarossa


    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  4. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan


    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  5. Nucleus as a canonical ensemble, 1

    Sato, Hiroshi.


    The nuclear thermodynamical quantities at low excitation energy are studied in terms of the temperature dependent antisymmetrized density matrices of many fermions in a harmonic oscillator well. The relationship between this treatment and the conventional shell model is studied. The nuclear level density is formulated and compared with the conventional formula. It is found that characteristic features of nuclear level densities observed experimentally are reproduced. Also the excitation energy dependence of the level density parameter a is found. (author)

  6. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    Sahoo, Sarmila


    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  7. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Kennedy, Kriss J.


    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  8. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    Vella, Dominic


    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. Double containment shell for nuclear power plants

    Sykora, D.


    A double containment shell is proposed for nuclear power plants, especially those equipped with pressurized water reactors. The shell offers increased environmental protection from primary circuit accidents. The inner shell is built of steel or concrete while the outer shell is always built of concrete. The space between the two shells is filled with water and is provided with several manholes and with stiffeners designed for compensation for load due to the water hydrostatic pressure. Water serves the airtight separation of the containment shell inside from the environment and the absorption of heat released in a primary circuit accident. In case the inner shell is made of concrete, it is provided with heat-removal tubes in-built in its walls ensuring rapid heat transfer from the inside of the containment to the water in the interwall space. (Z.M.)

  10. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G


    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  11. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N


    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  12. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)


    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Changes in Appetitive Associative Strength Modulates Nucleus Accumbens, But Not Orbitofrontal Cortex Neuronal Ensemble Excitability.

    Ziminski, Joseph J; Hessler, Sabine; Margetts-Smith, Gabriella; Sieburg, Meike C; Crombag, Hans S; Koya, Eisuke


    Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, then animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food-seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined "neuronal ensembles," have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. Although alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles. We examined the activation patterns of cue-activated orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell ensembles using wild-type and Fos-GFP mice, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in activated neurons, after appetitive conditioning with sucrose and extinction learning. We also investigated the neuronal excitability of recently activated, GFP+ neurons in these brain areas using whole-cell electrophysiology in brain slices. Exposure to a sucrose cue elicited activation of neurons in both the NAc shell and OFC. In the NAc shell, but not the OFC, these activated GFP+ neurons were more excitable than surrounding GFP- neurons. After extinction, the number of neurons activated in both areas was reduced and activated ensembles in neither area exhibited altered excitability. These data suggest that learning-induced alterations in the intrinsic excitability of neuronal ensembles is regulated dynamically across different brain areas. Furthermore, we show that changes in associative strength modulate the excitability profile of activated ensembles in the NAc shell. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sparsely distributed sets of neurons called "neuronal ensembles" encode learned associations about food and cues predictive of its availability. Widespread changes in neuronal excitability have been observed in limbic brain areas after associative learning, but little is known about the excitability changes that

  14. Atomic inner-shell physics

    Crasemann, B.


    This book discusses: relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects on atomic inner shells; relativistic calculation of atomic transition probabilities; many-body effects in energetic atomic transitions; Auger Electron spectrometry of core levels of atoms; experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory; mechanisms for energy shifts of atomic K-X rays; atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation; investigations of inner-shell states by the electron energy-loss technique at high resolution; coherence effects in electron emission by atoms; inelastic X-ray scattering including resonance phenomena; Rayleigh scattering: elastic photon scattering by bound electrons; electron-atom bremsstrahlung; X-ray and bremsstrahlung production in nuclear reactions; positron production in heavy-ion collisions, and X-ray processes in heavy-ion collisions

  15. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering


    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Shell trips over its reserves

    Jemain, A.


    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Læren fra Shell

    Ørding Olsen, Anders


    Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst......Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst...

  18. The shell coal gasification process

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)


    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  19. Nested shell superconducting magnet designs

    Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.; Titus, P.


    A new concept for manufacturing the toroidal field coil is described in this paper. Instead of structural plates, the magnet is wound in interlocking shells. The magnet configuration is described and the advantages explored. Structural analysis of the concept is performed using the ARIES tokamak reactor parameters. The effectiveness of a structural cap, placed above and below the toroidal field coils and used only to balance opposing torques generated in different places of the coil, is quantified

  20. Shell Models of Superfluid Turbulence

    Wacks, Daniel H; Barenghi, Carlo F


    Superfluid helium consists of two inter-penetrating fluids, a viscous normal fluid and an inviscid superfluid, coupled by a mutual friction. We develop a two-fluid shell model to study superfluid turbulence and investigate the energy spectra and the balance of fluxes between the two fluids in a steady state. At sufficiently low temperatures a 'bottle-neck' develops at high wavenumbers suggesting the need for a further dissipative effect, such as the Kelvin wave cascade.

  1. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.


    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  2. Plastic buckling of cylindrical shells

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.


    Cylindrical shells exhibit buckling under axial loads at stresses much less than the respective theoretical critical stresses. This is due primarily to the presence of geometrical imperfections even though such imperfections could be very small (e.g., comparable to thickness). Under internal pressure, the shell regains some of its buckling strength. For a relatively large radius-to-thickness ratio and low internal pressure, the effect can be reasonably estimated by an elastic analysis. However, for low radius-to-thickness ratios and greater pressures, the elastic-plastic collapse controls the failure load. in order to quantify the elastic-plastic buckling capacity of cylindrical shells, an analysis program was carried out by use of the computer code BOSOR5 developed by Bushnell of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The analysis was performed for various radius-to-thickness ratios and imperfection amplitudes. The purpose of the analytical program was to compute the buckling strength of underground cylindrical tanks, that are used for storage of nuclear wastes, for realistic geometric imperfections and internal pressure loads. This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic analyses and compares them with other available information for various pressure loads

  3. Buckling shells are also swimmers

    Quilliet, Catherine; Dyfcom Bubbleboost Team

    We present an experimental and numerical study on the displacement of shells undergoing deformations in a fluid. When submitted to cycles of pressure difference between outside and inside, a shell buckles and debuckles, showing a succession of shapes and a dynamics that are different during the two phases. Hence such objects are likely to swim, including at low Reynolds (microscopic scale). We studied the swimming of buckling/debuckling shells at macroscopic scale using different approaches (force quantization, shape recording, displacement along a frictionless rail, study of external flow using PIV), and showed that inertia plays a role in propulsion, even in situations where dimensionless numbers correspond also to microswimmers in water. Different fluid viscosities were explored, showing an optimum for the displacement. Interestingly, the most favorable cases lead to displacements in the same direction and sense during both motor stroke (buckling phase) and recovery stroke (de-buckling phase). This work opens the route for the synthesis with high throughput of abusively simple synthetic swimmers, possibly gathered into nanorobots, actuated by a scalar field such as the pressure in echographic devices. Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, European Research Council.

  4. Role of deformed shell effects on the mass asymmetry in nuclear fission of mercury isotopes

    Panebianco, Stefano; Sida, Jean-Luc; Goutte, Heloise; Lemaitre, Jean-Francois; Dubray, Noel; Hilaire, Stephane


    Until now, the mass asymmetry in the nuclear fission process has been understood in terms of the strong influence of the nuclear structure of the nascent fragments. Recently, a surprising asymmetric fission has been discovered in the light mercury region and has been interpreted as the result of the influence of the nuclear structure of the parent nucleus, totally discarding the influence of the fragments' structure. To assess the role of the fragment shell effects in the mass asymmetry in this particular region, a scission-point model, based on a full energy balance between the two nascent fragments, has been developed using one of the best theoretical descriptions of microscopic nuclear structure. As for actinides, this approach shows that the asymmetric splitting of the Hg-180 nucleus and the symmetric one of Hg-198 can be understood on the basis of only the microscopic nuclear structure of the fragments at scission. (authors)

  5. Persistence of the Z=28 Shell Gap Around ^{78}Ni: First Spectroscopy of ^{79}Cu.

    Olivier, L; Franchoo, S; Niikura, M; Vajta, Z; Sohler, D; Doornenbal, P; Obertelli, A; Tsunoda, Y; Otsuka, T; Authelet, G; Baba, H; Calvet, D; Château, F; Corsi, A; Delbart, A; Gheller, J-M; Gillibert, A; Isobe, T; Lapoux, V; Matsushita, M; Momiyama, S; Motobayashi, T; Otsu, H; Péron, C; Peyaud, A; Pollacco, E C; Roussé, J-Y; Sakurai, H; Santamaria, C; Sasano, M; Shiga, Y; Takeuchi, S; Taniuchi, R; Uesaka, T; Wang, H; Yoneda, K; Browne, F; Chung, L X; Dombradi, Z; Flavigny, F; Giacoppo, F; Gottardo, A; Hadyńska-Klęk, K; Korkulu, Z; Koyama, S; Kubota, Y; Lee, J; Lettmann, M; Louchart, C; Lozeva, R; Matsui, K; Miyazaki, T; Nishimura, S; Ogata, K; Ota, S; Patel, Z; Sahin, E; Shand, C; Söderström, P-A; Stefan, I; Steppenbeck, D; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, D; Werner, V; Wu, J; Xu, Z


    In-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of ^{79}Cu is performed at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of RIKEN. The nucleus of interest is produced through proton knockout from a ^{80}Zn beam at 270  MeV/nucleon. The level scheme up to 4.6 MeV is established for the first time and the results are compared to Monte Carlo shell-model calculations. We do not observe significant knockout feeding to the excited states below 2.2 MeV, which indicates that the Z=28 gap at N=50 remains large. The results show that the ^{79}Cu nucleus can be described in terms of a valence proton outside a ^{78}Ni core, implying the magic character of the latter.

  6. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.


    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions

  7. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Norbury, John W.


    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  8. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    Harris, J.W.


    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  9. Diabatic emission of neutrons: A probe for the energy dissipation mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Cassing, W.


    The precompound emission of neutrons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated within the framework of dissipative diabatic dynamics. For 92 Mo + 92 Mo at bombarding energies between 7.5 and 20 MeV/u the differential neutron multiplicities dMsub(n)/dEsub(n) are estimated from the decay of highly excited diabatic single-particle states. The energy spectra have an almost exponential high-energy tail with effective temperatures up to 10 MeV for 20 MeV/u bombarding energy. (orig.)

  10. Dynamics of hadronization in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Friman, B.L.


    One of the main problems in the search for quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is finding a reliable signature for deconfinement. Several signatures have been suggested, e.g., dileptons with a spectrum characteristic of the plasma, an increase in the number of strange particles and effects due to the hadronization of the plasma. In this talk I will describe some recent work on the effects of the hadronization transition in the central rapidity region within the hydrodynamic model of Bjorken, Kajantie and McLerran. (orig.)

  11. Model of homogeneous nucleus. Total and inelastic cross sections of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.


    It is shown that the nucleon-nuckleus scattering amplitude at high energy can be easily calculated by generalization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and satisfies a simple factorization relation. As distinct from the Glauber model, the suggested approach makes no use of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus and the hadron-nucleus scattering amplitude is not expressed in terms of hadron-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The energy dependence of total and inelastic cross sections is successfully described for a number of nuclei

  12. Percolation Model of Nuclear Multifragmentation in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions

    Abdel-Waged, Kh.


    A hybrid model based on Reggeon theory inspired model of nuclear distribution, which was successful in explaining the cascading of particles in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions, and percolation model is proposed. In the framework of this model the yield of the fragment in p + Ag, Au at 350 GeV and C + Ag, Au at 3.6 GeV/nucleon as well as the charge distribution of fragments in Kr, Xe and U interactions with emulsion at ∼ 1 GeV/nucleon is correctly described. 32 refs., 3 figs

  13. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    Liu, F.H.


    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  14. The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy

    Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel


    The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F

  15. Particle production in high energy nucleus--nucleus experiments at Berkeley

    Schroeder, L.S.


    A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fragmentation, heavy ion total cross-sections, γ-ray production, and charged particle multiplicities are presented. Also, recent experiments which may shed light on phenomena arising from the central collision of two energetic nuclei, including recent evidence for and against the observation of nuclear shock waves, are reviewed

  16. Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies

    Melkumov, G L; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lvai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland5, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Seyboth, P; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek11, A; Yoo, I K; Zimnyi, J; Wetzler, A


    The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable a...

  17. Nuclear structure and neutrino-nucleus interaction

    Krmpotic, Francisco


    Recent years have witnessed an intense experimental and theoretical activity oriented towards a better comprehension of neutrino nucleus interaction. While the main motivation for this task is the demand coming from oscillation experiments in their search for a precise determination of neutrino properties, the relevance of neutrino interaction with matter is more wide-ranging. It is imperative for astrophysics, hadronic and nuclear physics, and physics beyond the standard model. The experimental information on neutrino induced reactions is rapidly growing, and the corresponding theoretical description is a challenging proposition, since the energy scales of interest span a vast region, going from few MeV for solar neutrinos, to tens of MeV for the interpretation of experiments with the muon and pion decay at rest and the detection of neutrinos coming from the core collapse of supernova, and to hundreds of MeV or few GeV for the detection of atmospheric neutrinos, and for the neutrino oscillation program of the MiniBooNE experiment. The presence of neutrinos, being chargeless particles, can only be inferred by detecting the secondary particles created in colliding and interacting with the matter. Nuclei are often used as neutrino detectors, and in particular 12 C which is a component of many scintillator detectors. Thus, the interpretation of neutrino data heavily relies on detailed and quantitative knowledge of the features of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. The nuclear structure methods used in the evaluation of the neutrino-nucleus cross section are reviewed. Detailed comparison between the experimental and theoretical results establishes benchmarks needed for verification and/or parameter adjustment of the nuclear models. Having a reliable tool for such calculation is of great importance in a variety of applications, such as the description of the r-process nucleosynthesis. (author)

  18. Cocaine Exposure Reorganizes Cell-Type and Input-Specific Connectivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    MacAskill, Andrew F.; Cassel, John M.; Carter, Adam G.


    Exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in the NAc. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, optogenetics and pharmacogenetics to show how repeated cocaine alters connectivity in the mouse NAc medial shell. We first determine that cocaine selectively enhances amygdala innervation of D1-MSNs relative to D2-MSNs. We then show that amygdala activity is required for cocaine-induced changes to behavior and connectivity. Finally, we establish how heightened amygdala innervation can explain the structural and functional changes induced by cocaine. Our findings reveal how exposure to drugs of abuse fundamentally reorganizes cell-type and input-specific connectivity in the NAc. PMID:25108911

  19. Finite nucleus Dirac mean field theory and random phase approximation using finite B splines

    McNeil, J.A.; Furnstahl, R.J.; Rost, E.; Shepard, J.R.; Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309)


    We calculate the finite nucleus Dirac mean field spectrum in a Galerkin approach using finite basis splines. We review the method and present results for the relativistic σ-ω model for the closed-shell nuclei 16 O and 40 Ca. We study the convergence of the method as a function of the size of the basis and the closure properties of the spectrum using an energy-weighted dipole sum rule. We apply the method to the Dirac random-phase-approximation response and present results for the isoscalar 1/sup -/ and 3/sup -/ longitudinal form factors of 16 O and 40 Ca. We also use a B-spline spectral representation of the positive-energy projector to evaluate partial energy-weighted sum rules and compare with nonrelativistic sum rule results

  20. The resonating group method three cluster approach to the ground state 9 Li nucleus structure

    Filippov, G.F.; Pozdnyakov, Yu.A.; Terenetsky, K.O.; Verbitsky, V.P.


    The three-cluster approach for light atomic nuclei is formulated in frame of the algebraic version of resonating group method. Overlap integral and Hamiltonian matrix elements on generating functions are obtained for 9 Li nucleus. All permissible by Pauli principle 9 Li different cluster nucleon permutations were taken into account in the calculations. The results obtained can be easily generalised on any three-cluster system up to 12 C. Matrix elements obtained in the work were used in the variational calculations of the ground state energetic and geometric 9 Li characteristics. It is shown that 9 Li ground state is not adequate to the shell model limit and has pronounced three-cluster structure. (author). 16 refs., 4 tab., 2 figs

  1. Low-energy nuclear fission and our understanding of the nucleus

    Hall, H.L.; Hoffman, D.C.


    The interactions between experimental discoveries in low-energy nuclear fission and the theoretical understanding of the structure of the nucleus are reviewed. The history of this synergistic relationship begins with the discovery of fission, the development of the liquid-drop model and the experimental evidence for magic numbers, continues through the development of the shell model, the experimental discovery of shape isomerism, the double-humped fission barrier the spontaneous fission half-life disaster, the discovery of symmetric mass division in spontaneous fission and theoretical treatments based on different paths to scission. It concludes with a brief review of current experimental and theoretical understanding of low-energy fission and the prospects for future developments. (author) 150 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  2. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    Bogoliubov, D S


    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  3. The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus

    Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.


    The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs

  4. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    Fernandez, B.


    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  5. Spectroscopy of 215Ra: the shell model and enhanced E3 transitions

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricius, B.; Lane, G.J.; Poletti, A.R.; Baxter, A.M.


    Excited states in the N=127 nucleus 215 Ra have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following reactions of 13 C on 206 Pb targets. Levels were identified up to spins of ∝61/2 ℎ and excitation energies of ∝6 MeV. Enhanced octupole transitions are a feature of the level scheme. Lifetimes and magnetic moments were measured for several isomeric levels. The level scheme, transition rates and magnetic moments are compared with empirical shell model calculations and multiparticle octupole-coupled shell model calculations. In general, the experimental data are well described, but in comparison with its success in describing enhanced E3 transitions between related states in the radon isotopes, some limitations of the multiparticle octupole-coupling approach are revealed in 215 Ra. (orig.)

  6. Shell model estimate of electric dipole moments in medium and heavy nuclei

    Teruya E.


    Full Text Available It is evidence for an extension of the Standard Model in particle physics, if static electric dipole moments (EDMs are measured for any elementary particle. The nuclear EDM arises mainly from two sources: one comes from asymmetric charge distribution in a nucleus and the other is due to the nucleon intrinsic EDM. We estimate the nuclear EDMs from two sources for the 1/21+ states in Xe isotopes by a shell model approach using full orbitals between magic numbers 50 and 82.

  7. Interplay of spherical closed shells and N /Z asymmetry in quasifission dynamics

    Mohanto, G.; Hinde, D. J.; Banerjee, K.; Dasgupta, M.; Jeung, D. Y.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.; Wakhle, A.; Williams, E.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Luong, D. H.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Rafferty, D. C.


    Background: Quasifission (QF) has gained tremendous importance in heavy-ion nuclear physics research because of its strong influence on superheavy-element synthesis. Collisions involving closed-shell nuclei in the entrance channel are found to affect the QF reaction mechanism. Hence, it is important to improve the understanding of their effect on QF. Apart from that, some recent studies show that the difference in N /Z of reaction partners influences the reaction dynamics. Since heavier doubly magic nuclei have different N /Z than lighter doubly magic nuclei, it is important to understand the effect of N /Z mismatch as well as the effect of shell closures. Purpose: To investigate the effect of entrance-channel shell closures and N /Z asymmetry on QF. The reactions were chosen to decouple these effects from the contributions of other entrance-channel parameters. Method: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions were measured using the CUBE fission spectrometer, consisting of two large area position-sensitive multi-wire proportional counters (MWPCs), for five reactions, namely, 50Cr+208Pb , 52Cr+Pb,208206 , 54Cr+Pb,208204 . Result: Two components were observed in the measured fragment mass angle distribution, a fast mass-asymmetric quasifission and a slow mass-symmetric component having a less significant mass-angle correlation. The ratio of these components was found to depend on spherical closed shells in the entrance channel nuclei and the magnitude of the N /Z mismatch between the two reaction partners, as well as the beam energy. Conclusions: Entrance-channel spherical closed shells can enhance compound nucleus formation provided the N /Z asymmetry is small. Increase in the N /Z asymmetry is expected to destroy the effect of entrance-channel spherical closed shells, through nucleon transfer reactions.

  8. Microscopic studies of electric dipole resonances in 1p shell nuclei

    Kissener, H.R.; Rotter, I.; Goncharova, N.G.


    Recent data on total and partial photonuclear cross sections in the GDR region of the nuclei 6 Li to 16 O are compared with theoretical predictions, mostly from shell model and continuum shell model studies. The influence of the size of the configuration space, of the adopted residual interaction and of the continuous spectrum on the isovector E1 response is discussed to some detail. The observed trends of the localization, the shape and width, the isospin and the configurational structure of the GDR with increasing 1p shell occupation are related to the microscopic structure of the nuclear ground state. Particular attention is given to the partial (γ, N/sub i/) disintegration channels. Complex-particle emission and isospin mixing in the nuclear states are discussed for a few cases. An attempt is made to bring some systematics also in the evidence on excited-state giant resonances through the 1p shell region. The photonuclear GDR is compared with other giant multipole excitations, mostly for the example of the 14 C nucleus. (author)

  9. Distinction of neurochemistry between the cores and their shells of auditory nuclei in tetrapod species.

    Zeng, ShaoJu; Li, Jia; Zhang, XinWen; Zuo, MingXue


    The distribution of Met-enkephalin (ENK), substance P (SP) and serotonin (5-HT) differs between the core and shell regions of the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of the turtle [Belekhova et al., 2002]. These neurochemical distinctions are also found in other tetrapods (mammals, birds and amphibians). The distribution of ENK, SP and 5-HT was examined in the core and shell regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, and in the telencephalic auditory areas of Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata) and mice (Mus musculus), as well as in corresponding auditory areas in toads (Bufo bufo). ENK, SP and 5-HT immunoreactive fibers and perikarya were largely absent from the core regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, in comparison with the shell regions of mice and Bengalese finches. In the toad, however, this pattern was observed in the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, but not in the diencephalic auditory areas. ENK and SP immunoreactive perikarya were detected in the telencephalic auditory area of mice, whereas no ENK, SP or 5-HT immunolabeling was observed in the telencephalic auditory area (Field L) of Bengalese finches. These findings are discussed in terms of the evolution of the core-and-shell organization of auditory nuclei of tetrapods. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior

    Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe; Yi, Chun-Xia; van der Vliet, Jan; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Panula, Pertti; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; del Carmen Basualdo, María; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.


    Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time

  11. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.


    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  12. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Abstract. The question of possible existence of η-mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. An- swer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of η-nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of η-mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it.

  13. High energy cosmic ray events of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Burnett, T.H.; Dake, S.; Derricson, J.H.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W.V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Miyamura, O.; Oda, H.; Ogata, T.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Saito, T.; Strauss, S.; Tabuki, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Watts, J.W.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilkes, R.J.; Wolter, W.; Bosiek, B.


    Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) has been measuring ultrarelativistic comic ray nucleus and sampling the events in the energy regions both 10 to 100 GeV/A and above TeV/A by balloon emulsion chamber since 1979. In this report main results obtained up to now will be described. (orig./HSI)

  14. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    D'Enterria, D.G.


    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  15. Hadron-nucleus interactions with a small target-nucleus excitation

    Anzon, Z.V.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.; Shakhova, Ts.I.


    Hadron inelastic interactions in nuclear emulsion with a small target-nucleus excitation in the energy range 7.5-200 GeV have been studied. Possible reasons for the differences in production cross-section for events with even and odd number of S-particles are analysed

  16. Prestress mediates force propagation into the nucleus

    Hu Shaohua; Chen Jianxin; Butler, James P.; Wang Ning


    Several reports show that the nucleus is 10 times stiffer than the cytoplasm. Hence, it is not clear if intra-nuclear structures can be directly deformed by a load of physiologic magnitudes. If a physiologic load could not directly deform intra-nuclear structures, then signaling inside the nucleus would occur only via the mechanisms of diffusion or translocation. Using a synchronous detection approach, we quantified displacements of nucleolar structures in cultured airway smooth muscle cells in response to a localized physiologic load (∼0.4 μm surface deformation) via integrin receptors. The nucleolus exhibited significant displacements. Nucleolar structures also exhibited significant deformation, with the dominant strain being the bulk strain. Increasing the pre-existing tensile stress (prestress) in the cytoskeleton significantly increased the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus (defined as nucleolus displacement per surface deformation) whereas decreasing the prestress significantly lowered the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus. Abolishing the stress fibers/actin bundles by plating the cells on poly-L-lysine-coated dishes dramatically inhibited stress propagation to the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that the prestress in the cytoskeleton is crucial in mediating stress propagation to the nucleolus, with implications for direct mechanical regulation of nuclear activities and functions

  17. The decay of 61Cu nucleus

    Zheng Wanhui; Gu Jiahui; Zhu Jiabi; Wang Gongqing


    The decay of 61 Cu nucleus has been investigated with Ge(Li) and H p Ge detector, semiconductor electron spectrometer and Ge(Li)-NaI γ-γ coincidence spectrometer. 35 γrays from 12 excited levels have been found. The single and coincidence spectra show that 545 keV, 1019keV γ fays and 1019keV energy level are wrong which appear in the 61 Cu decay scheme carried in > (the 7th edition 1978). the halflife time of 61 Cu nucleus and the internal conversion coefficient for 67 keV γ-transition are found to be T 1/2 =207.7±1.6min and α=0.12±0.01 respectively and then a decay scheme is proposed. In this paper more attention ia paid to discussing the energy levels of 1014, 1019, and 1997 keV as well as some weak γ rays

  18. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    Sunmin Kim


    Full Text Available Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient.

  19. Vibration of liquid-filled thin shells

    Kalnins, A.


    This paper describes the analysis of free and forced vibration of a thin, axisymmetric shell, which contains some liquid. The axis of symmetry is vertical. Only such vibration is considered which can be produced by a horizontal movement of the base of shell. The objective of this paper is to examine the response of the coupled shell-liquid system for a frequency range lying between zero and the lowest natural sloshing frequency of the liquid. The mass of the liquid is modeled by a stationary and one or more sloshing masses. It is shown how the stationary mass can be incorporated in the vibration analysis of the shell and how to natural frequency of the coupled shell-liquid system can be obtained from a simple formula, if the lowest natural frequency of the shell, plus the stationary mass of the liquid, can be determined. A numerical example is given. (orig.)

  20. Ancient shell industry at Bet Dwarka island

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Patankar, V.

    for the manufacture of beads, bangles, etc. 12 . Shell species found at the sites include T. pyrum (cha nk), Chicoreus ramosus , Fasciolaria trapezium , Cypraea (cowries), Arabica arabica (cowries), Babylonia spirata , dentalium, mussel and Arca... muscles are attached. Average length of a shell can be up to 15 to 20 cm and width 10 ? 15 cm 8 . It provides a unique structure for the manufacture of several bangles from a single shell. The organ ism living inside is also edible...

  1. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.

    Schief, W K


    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.

  2. Similarity of multi-fragmentation of residual nucleus created in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies

    Abdel-Hafiez, A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Orlova, G.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Navotny, V.SH.; Uzhinskii, V.V.


    Experimental data on multi-fragmentation of residual krypton nuclei created in the interactions of the krypton nuclei with photoemulsion nuclei ut energy of 0.9 GeV per nucleon are presented in a comparison with the analogous data on fragmentation of gold residual nuclei at the energy of 10.7 GeV/nucleon. It is shown for the first time that there are two regimes of nuclear multifragmentation: the former is when less than one-half of nucleons of projectile nucleus are knocked out, the later is when more than one-half of nucleons are knocked out. Residual nuclei with closed masses created at different reactions are fragmenting practically simultaneously when more than one-half of nucleons of original nuclei are knocked out. The evidence of existence of a radial flow of the spectator fragment at the decay of residual krypton nuclei is found

  3. Local shell-to-shell energy transfer via nonlocal interactions in fluid ...

    However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer rate is found to be local and forward. .... interaction was strong, but the energy exchange occurred predominantly between ..... The wave-number range considered is in the inverse cascade regime.

  4. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    Karpeshin, F. F.


    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  5. The Nucleus 59Cu. Complex Structure, Shape Evolution, Exotic Decay Modes

    Andreoiu, Corina


    High-spin states in the mass A∼60 region were populated using the state-of-art γ-ray spectrometers Gammasphere, Euroball, and GASP in conjunction with dedicated ancillary detectors. In particular, the 59 Cu nucleus was studied in several experiments, and a very extensive level scheme was determined. It comprises more than 320 transitions connecting about 150 excited states. Relative to mass, it is the most extensive level scheme known to date. Next to the spherical states at low excitation energy eight regular sequences of high-energy γ-ray transitions have been observed. They form rotational bands with various degree of deformation, which are interpreted in the light of the shell model and the configuration-dependent Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. One of the experiments was dedicated to the study of prompt particle decays. It revealed five prompt proton decays connecting five deformed states in three of the rotational bands in 59 Cu with three spherical states in the daughter nucleus 58 Ni. It is the first observation of the fine structure of the newly discovered prompt proton decay mode. The proton decays compete with the γ decay-out from the second minimum of the nuclear potential into the low-spin spherical states in the first minimum of the potential. The discrete γ decay-out mechanism of the yrast superdeformed band is investigated in detail. The nucleus 59 Zn, the mirror partner of 59 Cu, was identified for the first time, and the mirror symmetry of the T=1/2 A=59 pair is discussed

  6. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of amygdala regulates the anxiolytic effect of agmatine in rats.

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Bharne, Ashish P; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M


    In the present study, modulation of anxiolytic action of agmatine by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is evaluated employing Vogel's conflict test (VCT) in rats. The intra-CeA administration of agmatine (0.6 and 1.2µmol/rat), NPY (10 and 20pmol/rat) or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (30 and 60pmol/rat) significantly increased the number of punished drinking licks following 15min of treatment. Combination treatment of subeffective dose of NPY (5pmol/rat) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (15pmol/rat) and agmatine (0.3µmol/rat) produced synergistic anxiolytic-like effect. However, intra-CeA administration of selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.25 and 0.5mmol/rat) produced anxiogenic effect. In separate set of experiment, pretreatment with BIBP3226 (0.12mmol/rat) reversed the anxiolytic effect of agmatine (0.6µmol/rat). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal injection of agmatine (40mg/kg) on NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) and CeA. While agmatine treatment significantly decreased the fibers density in BNSTl, increase was noticed in AcbSh. In addition, agmatine reduced NPY-immunoreactive cells in the AcbSh and CeA. Immunohistochemical data suggest the enhanced transmission of NPY from the AcbSh and CeA. Taken together, this study suggests that agmatine produced anxiolytic effect which might be regulated via modulation of NPYergic system particularly in the CeA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.


    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  8. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul


    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  9. An MRI Scan of the nucleus

    Hoffman, Calem


    In the pursuit of a global description of nuclei, extensive experimental studies on short-lived isotopes have provided a wealth of new empirical information. Such data has been used to test theoretical concepts and in the development of innovative ideas. More directly, a novel device at Argonne National Laboratory, the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer (HELIOS), was focused on providing detailed single-particle information on the malleability of the nuclear magic numbers. Once thought as immovable pillars in nuclear structure, the shell-gaps in nuclei defining magic numbers of nucleons are now well-known to evolve as proton-to-neutron ratios change. And, determination of the underlying components of the nuclear force driving the evolution is at the forefront of nuclear structure research. Additionally, the HELIOS device mentioned above also carries its own aura being that it is formed by a decommissioned MRI solenoid magnet. In this talk recent highlights and advancements in our description of nuclear shell evolution will be the focus along with a few sidestepping comments on the life-cycle and interplay between basic research and the applications of nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. Nuclear structure information from nucleon-nucleus scattering experiments at TRIUMF

    Haeusser, O.


    We discuss a variety of forward-angle measurements of cross sections for (n,p), (p,p') and (p,n) reactions which were carried out using the medium-resolution spectrometer (MRS) at TRIUMF. The ratio of L=0 isovector spinflip cross section and Gamow-Teller strength has been investigated at 200-450 MeV for several strong transitions of known B(GT) in p-shell nuclei. Isospin symmetry in N-nucleus reactions has been tested for Gamow-Teller transitions to isospin triads in A=6 and A=12 nuclei. The prospects of identifying orbital and meson exchange current contributions in M1 transitions from a state-by-state comparison of M1 and Gamow-Teller strength in sd shell nuclei are discussed. Finally we describe a test of the Gamow-Teller sum rule in 54 Fe where both S - and S + strength are substantial and have been extracted from a multipole decomposition of (p,n) and (n,p) angular distributions

  11. Medium energy nucleon-nucleus scattering theory by semi-classical distorted wave approximation

    Ogata, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    The semiclassical distorted wave model (SCDW) is one of the quantum mechanical models for nucleon inelastic and charge exchange scattering at intermediate energies. SCDW can reproduce the double differential inclusive cross sections for multi-step direct processes quite well in the angular and outgoing energy regions where the model is expected to work. But the model hitherto assumed on-the-energy-shell (on-shell) nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nucleus, neglecting the difference in the distorting potentials for the incoming and the outgoing particles and also the Q-value in the case of (p,n) reactions. There had also been a problem in the treatment of the exchange of colliding nucleons. Now we modify the model to overcome those problems and put SCDW on sounder theoretical foundations. The modification results in slight reduction (increase) of double differential cross sections at forward (backward) angles. We also examine the effect of the in-medium modification of N-N cross sections in SCDW and find it small. A remedy of the disagreement at very small and large angles in terms of the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix is also discussed. This improvement gives very promising results. (author)

  12. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail:; Luo, Qing, E-mail:; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail:; Song, Guanbin, E-mail:


    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  13. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin


    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of the Nucleus GOLD-195

    Fischer, Susan Marie

    The nucleus ^{195}Au has been studied via in-beam gamma -ray and electron spectroscopy with the reactions ^{196}Pt(p,2n)^ {195}Au at beam energies of 12 and 16 MeV, and the reaction ^{rm nat }Ir(alpha,2n) ^{195}Au at a beam energy of 26 MeV. All experiments were performed at the University of Notre Dame tandem accelerator facility and utilized elements of the University of Pittsburgh multi-detector gamma-array and ICEBall mini-orange electron spectrometer. Fifty-five new transitions and thirty-six new energy levels have been observed. The U(6/4) supersymmetric algebra has been proposed to provide a simultaneous description for the positive parity states of the pair of nuclei ^{194 }Pt and ^{195}Au. The observed energy spectra for these nuclei show satisfactory agreement with the U(6/4) predicted spectra. The collective properties including relative B(E2) values for the Pt and Au nuclei in this mass region are also consistent with theoretical predictions. However, the measured E2/M1 mixing ratios for transitions in ^{195} Au indicate that the single particle description for the odd-A nucleus is incomplete. The new data for ^{195}Au is further combined with the existing data for ^{194} Pt and ^{195}Pt within the context of the larger U_{ nu}(6/12) otimes U_{pi}(6/4) supersymmetry. A consistent fit to the energy eigenvalue equation is obtained and a modified prediction for the negative parity states in the odd-odd nucleus ^{196} Au is made. Thus, the proposal of an underlying supersymmetry for the quartet of nuclei ^ {194}Pt-^{195} Pt-^{195}Au- ^{196}Au also appears valid. New transitions and levels involved in the negative parity h_{11/2} decoupled band in ^{195}Au have also been observed. The band appears to be much more fragmented at high spins than the analogous structures in the lighter odd-A Au nuclei, but it is unclear what the source of this difference is. It is, however, proposed that a consistent description for both the positive and negative parity

  15. A design chart for long vacuum pipes and shells

    Krempetz, K.; Grimson, J.; Kelly, P.


    This paper presents a design chart to aid designers in the selection of a wall thickness for long cylindrical shells having atmospheric pressure outside the shell and a pressure less than atmospheric inside the shell. The chart indicates a conservative value for the minimum wall thickness for a given shell diameter and material when the shell is completely evacuated

  16. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae


    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  17. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)


    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  18. Dirac phenomenology and hyperon-nucleus interactions

    Mares, J; Jennings, B K [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Cooper, E D [Fraser Valley Univ. College, Chilliwack, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics


    We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of {Lambda}, {Sigma} and {identical_to} hypernuclei, as well as multi strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f{omega}y. Second, optical potentials for {Lambda} and {Sigma} scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleon Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupling has a large effect on the predictions for the analyzing power. Third, the Dirac approach is used in the calculations of the non-mesonic decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei. The large discrepancy between the decay rates and data suggests the need for additional meson exchanges. (authors). 62 refs.,7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  20. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    Takagi, Fujio


    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  1. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.


    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict

  2. An enlarged superfluid model of atomic nucleus

    Dumitrescu, O.; Horoi, M.


    The well known superfluid model (or quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM)) of atomic nucleus is enlarged by including an adequate four-nucleon effective interaction in addition to the pairing and long-range effective residual interactions. New experimental data can be explained without affecting those observables already described by the QPNM and in addition new features can be enumerated: 1) superfluidities of the neutron and proton systems may be generated by one another; 2) the phase structure is enriched by a new superfluid phase dominated by alpha-type correlations (ATC) and 3) superfluid isomers and their bands of elementary excitations are predicted. Unusual large two-nucleon and alpha transfer reactions cross sections as well as some unusual large alpha decay widths can be explained. (author). 46 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta, has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  4. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption calculation benchmarks

    Tellier, H.; Coste, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Van der Gucht, C.


    The calculation of the space and energy dependence of the heavy nucleus resonant absorption in a heterogeneous lattice is one of the hardest tasks in reactor physics. Because of the computer time and memory needed, it is impossible to represent finely the cross-section behavior in the resonance energy range for everyday computations. Consequently, reactor physicists use a simplified formalism, the self-shielding formalism. As no clean and detailed experimental results are available to validate the self-shielding calculations, Monte Carlo computations are used as a reference. These results, which were obtained with the TRIPOLI continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, constitute a set of numerical benchmarks than can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the techniques or formalisms that are included in any reactor physics codes. Examples of such evaluations, for the new assembly code APOLLO2 and the slowing-down code SECOL, are given for cases of 238 U and 232 Th fuel elements

  5. The nucleus accumbens and learning and memory.

    Setlow, B


    Recent research on the nucleus accumbens (NA) indicates that this brain region is involved in learning and memory processes in a way that is separable from its other well-known roles in behavior, such as motivation, reward, and locomotor activity. These findings have suggested that 1) the NA may be involved in declarative, or hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory, and not in several other non-declarative forms of learning and memory, and 2) the NA may be selectively involved in certain stages of learning and memory. These characteristics suggest that the NA may be part of a larger striatal system which subserves acquisition and consolidation, but is not a site of long-term storage, of different forms of learning and memory.

  6. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.


    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  7. Differential Contributions of Nucleus Accumbens Subregions to Cue-Guided Risk/Reward Decision Making and Implementation of Conditional Rules.

    Floresco, Stan B; Montes, David R; Tse, Maric M T; van Holstein, Mieke


    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within corticolimbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear. Here, we used a novel assay colloquially termed the "Blackjack" task that models these types of situations. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to choose between one lever that always delivered a one-pellet reward and another that delivered four pellets with different probabilities [either 50% (good-odds) or 12.5% (poor-odds)], which were signaled by one of two auditory cues. Under control conditions, rats selected the large/risky option more often on good-odds versus poor-odds trials. Inactivation of the NAc core caused indiscriminate choice patterns. In contrast, NAc shell inactivation increased risky choice, more prominently on poor-odds trials. Additional experiments revealed that both subregions contribute to auditory conditional discrimination. NAc core or shell inactivation reduced Pavlovian approach elicited by an auditory CS+, yet shell inactivation also increased responding during presentation of a CS-. These data highlight distinct contributions for NAc subregions in decision making and reward seeking guided by discriminative stimuli. The core is crucial for implementation of conditional rules, whereas the shell refines reward seeking by mitigating the allure of larger, unlikely rewards and reducing expression of inappropriate or non-rewarded actions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using external cues to guide decision making is crucial for adaptive behavior. Deficits in cue-guided behavior have been

  8. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K


    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  9. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others


    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  10. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Bisquer, E.


    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4π devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author)

  11. The calculation of nucleus-nucleus interaction cross sections at high energy in the Glauber approach

    Gal'perin, A.G.; Uzhinskij, V.V.


    Total, inelastic and elastic cross sections of nucleus-nucleus (AA)-interactions at high energy (HE) are calculated on the base of Glauber approach. The calculation scheme is realized as a set of routines. The statistical average method is used in calculations. Program runs in an interactive regime. User is prompted about charge and mass numbers of nuclei and NN-interaction characters at the energy he is interested in: total cross section, the slope parameter of differential cross section of elastic scattering and ratio of real part to imaginary part of elastic scattering amplitude at zero momentum transfer. These data can be extracted from proper compilations. Results of calculations are displayed and are written on user defined output file. The program runs on PC. 21 refs., 1 tab

  12. Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering in the High-Energy Approximation and the Optical Folding Potential

    Lukyanov, V K; Lukyanov, K V


    For the nucleus-nucleus scattering, the complex potential is obtained which corresponds to the eikonal phase of an optical limit of the Glauber-Sitenko high-energy approximation. The potential does not include free parameters, its real and imaginary parts depend on energy and are determined by the reported data on the nuclear density distributions and nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. Alternatively, for the real part, the folding potential can be utilized which includes the effective NN-forces and the exchange term, as well. As a result, the microscopic optical potential is constructed where contributions of the calculated real and imaginary parts are formed by fitting the two respective factors. An efficient of the approach is confirmed by agreements of calculations with the experimental data on elastic scattering cross-sections.

  13. Transport theory applied to hadron and light fragment production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Schuermann, B.; Malfliet, R.; Mies, S.; Zwermann, W.


    Foundations of the transport theory for studying K + , K - , π - and light fragment production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies are given. Inclusive production of protons, K + and π - in the Ne+NaF reaction at 400 MeV and 21 GeV/nucleon is consdered, their differential cross sections are caculated. Differential cross sections of K - and π - production in Si+Si → K + +X and Ne+NaF → π - +X reactions at the energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon, their energy dependence are estimated. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data is graphically presented. The model of the transport theory is shown to successfully reproduce inclusive spectra of different particles (p, d, π, K + , K - ) in a wide energy range of incident particles (from 400 MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon). This approach can be generalized for lower energies by generating a mean nuclear potentiasl field

  14. On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.


    Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined

  15. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Andronic, Anton


    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  16. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W


    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  17. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Feldmeier, H.; Spangenberger, H.


    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients are calculated microscopically and analytical expressions are given which can be used in any trajectory calculation. An important feature of the model is that the Einstein relation between dissipation and fluctuation turns out to be only a limiting case of a more general expression which included nonthermal fluctuations. By treating the two nuclei as intrinsically equilibrated but not in thermal equilibrium with respect to each other several important aspects of the dissipative behaviour, seen in heavy ion collisions with final energies above the Coloumb barrier, can be understood. (orig.)

  18. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Vestfall, D. Gary


    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  19. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Andronic, Anton


    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  20. Calculations of nucleus-nucleus microscopic optical potentials at intermediate energies

    Hanna, K.M.; Kuhtina, I.N.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Slowinski, B.


    Three types of microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potentials are constructed using three patterns for their real and imaginary parts. Two of these patterns are the real V H and imaginary W H parts of the potential which reproduces the high-energy amplitude of scattering in the microscopic Glauber-Sitenko theory. Another template VDF is calculated within the standard double-folding model with the exchange term included. For either of the three tested potentials, the contribution of real and imaginary patterns is adjusted by introducing two fitted factors. Correspondingly, using numerical code ECIS, the elastic differential cross-sections were fitted to the experimental data on scattering of the 16,17 O heavy-ions at about hundred Mev/nucleon on various target-nuclei. The relativization effect is also included. The tables of the obtained factors which renormalize the strengths of the real and (or) imaginary parts of the calculated microscopic potentials are given

  1. Method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment

    Krasnov, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.


    On the basis of the HIJING generator simulation of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy scale, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions is proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC. The basic idea is to use the time coincidence of signals with resolution better than 1 ns from the two very forward calorimeter arms covering the acceptance 3<|η|<5. The method efficiency is investigated by variation of energy thresholds in the calorimeters for different colliding ion species, namely, PbPb, NbNb, CaCa, OO, pPb, pCa, pp. It is shown that a stable efficiency of event selection (∼98%) is provided in an energy threshold range up to 100 GeV for nuclear collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon in the centre of mass system. In the pp collision case the relevant efficiency drops from 93% down to 80%

  2. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping


    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  3. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.


    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. Evolution of shell gaps with neutron richness

    Basu, Moumita Ray; Ray, I.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.


    In the present work, an attempt has been made to coordinate the recent data available over the periodic table, specially near the shell gaps and studied the evolution of the shell gaps as function of neutron numbers and/or other related quantities

  5. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    Andersson, Jonas


    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  6. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    Ross, C.K.


    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  7. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)


    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  8. Strength Calculation of Locally Loaded Orthotropic Shells

    Yu. I. Vinogradov


    Full Text Available The article studies laminated orthotropic cylindrical, conic, spherical, and toroidal shells, which are often locally loaded in the aircraft designs over small areas of their surfaces.The aim of this work is to determine stress concentration in shells versus structure of orthotropic composite material, shell form and parameters, forms of loading areas, which borders do not coincide with lines of main curvatures of shells. For this purpose, an analytical computing algorithm to estimate strength of shells in terms of stress is developed. It enables us to have solution results of the boundary value problem with a controlled error. To solve differential equations an analytical method is used. An algorithm of the boundary value problem solution is multiplicative.The main results of researches are graphs of stress concentration in the orthotropic shells versus their parameters and areas of loading lineated by circles and ellipses.Among the other works aimed at determination of stress concentration in shells, the place of this one is defined by the analytical solution of applied problems for strength estimation in terms of shell stresses of classical forms.The developed effective analytical algorithm to solve the boundary value problem and received results are useful in research and development.

  9. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K


    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Andrej Košmrlj


    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  11. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM


    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  12. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.


    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  13. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.


    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  14. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  15. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A


    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Fernandez, Francisco M.


    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  17. On studies of the hadron-nucleus collision processes

    Strugalski, Z.


    A new way of hadron-nucleus collision process investigations in experiments is described. It is based on the properties of the hadron passage through layers of the intranuclear matter. The picture of the hadron-nucleus collision mechanism, as prompted experimentally, is presented. 37 refs.; 1 tab

  18. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G


    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  19. Nucleus-size pinning for determination of nucleation free-energy barriers and nucleus geometry

    Sharma, Abhishek K.; Escobedo, Fernando A.


    Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus. The proposed technique is first validated by estimating the critical nucleation conditions for the disorder-to-order transition in hard spheres and then applied to simulate and characterize the highly non-trivial (prolate) morphology of the critical crystal nucleus in hard gyrobifastigia. A generalization of CNT is used to account for nucleus asphericity and predict nucleation free-energy barriers for gyrobifastigia. These predictions of nuclei shape and barriers are validated by independent umbrella sampling calculations.

  20. Transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ban-Hao, S.; Wong, C.


    In order to discern coherent or collective processes from incoherent processes in nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies, we study the transverse-momentum distribution of the produced particles with an incoherent-multiple-collision model. In this model, the projectile nucleon makes successive inelastic collisions with nucleons in the target nucleus, the probability of such collisions being given by the thickness function and the nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section. It is assumed that each baryon-baryon collision produces particles and degrades momenta just as a baryon-baryon collision in free space, and that there are no secondary collisions between the produced particles and the nucleons. We found that the average transverse momentum and the charged-multiplicity data at Fermilab and CERN ISR energies can be well explained by such a model. However, the average transverse momentum for some events observed by the Japanese-American cooperative emulsion experiment (JACEE) associated with large energy density in the central rapidity region differ markedly from the model results. Such a deviation indicates the presence of coherent or collective effects for these collisions and may indicate the possibility of a formation of quark-gluon plasma

  1. Shell structure of the A = 6 ground states from three-body dynamics

    Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.


    Three-body (αNN) models of the 6 He and 6 Li ground states are used to investigate their shell structure. Three models for each nucleus are considered: simple, full (nn), and full (np) for 6 He, and simple, full (0%), and full (4%) for 6 Li. The full models in both cases are obtained by including the S/sub 1/2/, P/sub 1/2/, and P/sub 3/2/ partial waves of the αN interaction, whereas the simple model truncates to only the strongly resonant P/sub 3/2/ wave. The 6 He full models distinguish between use of the nn or np parameters for the 1 S 0 NN interaction, while the 6 Li full models have either a pure 3 S 1 NN interaction (0%) or a 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 interaction that leads to a 4% d-wave component in the deuteron (4%). These models are used to calculate the probabilities of the orbital components of the wave functions, the configuration-space single-particle orbital densities, and the configuration-space two-particle wave function amplitudes in j-j coupling with the nucleon coordinates referred to the alpha particle as the ''core'' or ''center of force.'' The results are then compared with those from phenomenological and realistic-interaction shell models. Major findings of the comparison are the following: None of the shell models considered have a distribution of orbital probabilities across shells like that predicted by three-body models; the orbital rms radii from three-body models indicate an ordering of the orbits within shells, i.e., p/sub 1/2/ outside p/sub 3/2/, unlike oscillator shell models with a single oscillator parameter where the p-shell orbitals have the same shape; and, as expected, three-body orbital densities decay at large radial distances as exponentials rather than the too compact Gaussian falling off of oscillator shell models

  2. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D.


    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  3. Structural shell analysis understanding and application

    Blaauwendraad, Johan


    The mathematical description of the properties of a shell is much more elaborate than those of beam and plate structures. Therefore many engineers and architects are unacquainted with aspects of shell behaviour and design, and are not familiar with sufficiently reliable shell theories for the different shell types as derived in the middle of the 20th century. Rather than contributing to theory development, this university textbook focuses on architectural and civil engineering schools. Of course, practising professionals will profit from it as well. The book deals with thin elastic shells, in particular with cylindrical, conical and spherical types, and with elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids. The focus is on roofs, chimneys, pressure vessels and storage tanks. Special attention is paid to edge bending disturbance zones, which is indispensable knowledge in FE meshing. A substantial part of the book results from research efforts in the mid 20th century at Delft University of Technology. As such, it is a valua...

  4. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.


    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  5. Optical properties of core-shell and multi-shell nanorods

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Shehata, Nader


    We report a first-principles time dependent density functional theory study of the optical response modulations in bimetallic core-shell (Na@Al and Al@Na) and multi-shell (Al@Na@Al@Na and Na@Al@Na@Al: concentric shells of Al and Na alternate) nanorods. All of the core-shell and multi-shell configurations display highly enhanced absorption intensity with respect to the pure Al and Na nanorods, showing sensitivity to both composition and chemical ordering. Remarkably large spectral intensity enhancements were found in a couple of core-shell configurations, indicative that optical response averaging based on the individual components can not be considered as true as always in the case of bimetallic core-shell nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would be useful in promising applications depending on Aluminum-based plasmonic materials such as solar cells and sensors.

  6. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.


    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  7. Faraday Wave Turbulence on a Spherical Liquid Shell

    Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene H.


    Millimeter-radius liquid shells are acoustically levitated in an ultrasonic field. Capillary waves are observed on the shells. At low energies (minimal acoustic amplitude, thick shell) a resonance is observed between the symmetric and antisymmetric thin film oscillation modes. At high energies (high acoustic pressure, thin shell) the shell becomes fully covered with high-amplitude waves. Temporal spectra of scattered light from the shell in this regime exhibit a power-law decay indicative of turbulence.

  8. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in

  9. Stability of accelerated metal shells

    Tahsiri, H.


    A systematic treatment has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated liner. It is applicable to one-dimensional models either compressible or incompressible. With this model several points have been clarified. For an incompressible liner model, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability will have about five e-folding periods and the usual growth rate is independent of the current distribution or current rise time. Adequate stability will therefore depend on the magnitude of the initial perturbations or the precision of the initial liner and the thickness over which the shell is accelerated. However, for a compressible model, theory predicts that the current rise time is important and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is suppressed if the current rise time is less than the shock transit time

  10. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.


    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist

  11. Gamow-Teller strength functions from N-nucleus scattering experiments at 200-400 MeV

    Haeusser, O.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver; Vetterli, M.C.


    Recent measurements of (n,p), (p vector, p vector') and (p,n) reactions at TRIUMF have made possible a detailed examination of the spin-isospin structure of nuclear excitations up to 50 MeV. Cross sections for 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn and spin-flip cross sections for 54 Fe (p vector, p vector') near 300 MeV have been used to estimate the nuclear response for different multipoles L, spin transfers (ΔS = 0,1), and isospins of the residual nucleus (T f = 1,2). Qualitative features of the spin-flip probabilities in (p vector, p vector') are in good agreement with recent surface-RPA calculations. Between 200 and 400 MeV the ΔL=0 spin-flip isovector component is well described by the central part V στ of the Franey-Love interaction. The Gamow-Teller strength S + in 54 Fe, which is of significance in models of pre-collapse supernovae, is found to be smaller by a factor of two than the best available shell model calculations. In (sd)-shell nuclei ( 24,26 Mg, 28 Si) about (70±15)% of the Gamow-Teller strength predicted by untruncated shell-model calculations is found at low excitation. (orig.)

  12. On the possible detection of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and nucleus-nucleus Coulomb forces

    Silveira, R. da


    Possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction are discussed. It is shown that, although very small, these effects could be measured using low energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei, e.g. for the system 208 Pb + 208 Pb (E L = 5 MeV). (author)

  13. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho


    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. K -shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain

    Lahav, Nir; Ksherim, Baruch; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Cohen, Reuven


    In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a

  15. Evolution of a protein folding nucleus.

    Xia, Xue; Longo, Liam M; Sutherland, Mason A; Blaber, Michael


    The folding nucleus (FN) is a cryptic element within protein primary structure that enables an efficient folding pathway and is the postulated heritable element in the evolution of protein architecture; however, almost nothing is known regarding how the FN structurally changes as complex protein architecture evolves from simpler peptide motifs. We report characterization of the FN of a designed purely symmetric β-trefoil protein by ϕ-value analysis. We compare the structure and folding properties of key foldable intermediates along the evolutionary trajectory of the β-trefoil. The results show structural acquisition of the FN during gene fusion events, incorporating novel turn structure created by gene fusion. Furthermore, the FN is adjusted by circular permutation in response to destabilizing functional mutation. FN plasticity by way of circular permutation is made possible by the intrinsic C3 cyclic symmetry of the β-trefoil architecture, identifying a possible selective advantage that helps explain the prevalence of cyclic structural symmetry in the proteome. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  16. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.


    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi


    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  18. Backward emission in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Stelte, N.; Weiner, R.


    Backward emission of hadrons in reactions of the type: P + T → a + anything, where the projectile P is a hadron, T a nuclear target and a a hadron or a light nucleus has been the subject of experimental investigation in the last decade in an energy range E starting in the hundred MeV region and extending up to 400 GeV projectile energy. The main interest in these reactions lies in the fact that they provide information about collective behavior of nucleons in nuclei (cumulative effect, i.e., the presence of secondary particles in a region of momentum space which cannot be populated by nucleon-nucleon interactions) although some authors have recently patronized this effect. In particular the consequences of nuclear limiting fragementation together with the cumulative effect can be used to obtain important information on transport properties and the equation of state of nuclear matter. Limiting fragmentation is a phenomenon discovered in the GeV region and applied to the reaction implies that in the high E limit two separate rapidity regions exist, one for the projectile and another for the target so that in each of the regions the inclusive cross section dsigma/dEd Ω becomes independent of the incoming energy. Here E and Ω refer to the kinetic energy and solid angle of the emitted particle

  19. Heavy nucleus resonance absorption in heterogeneous lattices

    Coste, M.; Tellier, H.; Brienne-Raepsaet, C.; Van Der Gucht, C.


    To compute easily the neutron reaction rates in the resonance energy range, the reactor physicists use the self-shielding formalism and the effective cross-section concept. Usually, for these calculations, and equivalence process is used, in such a way that the absorption rate is correctly computed for the whole fuel pin. This procedure does not allow to preserve the spatial absorption rate distribution inside the pin. It is an important handicap if we want to reproduce the plutonium distribution in a spent fuel. To avoid this inconvenience, new improvements of the self-shielding formalism have been recently introduced in the new assembly calculation code of the French Atomic Energy Commission, APOLLO 2. With this improved formalism, it is now possible to represent the spatial and energetic dependence of the heavy nucleus absorption inside the fuel pin and to use a fine energy dependent equivalence process. As it does not exist clean experimental results for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption, the authors used reference calculations to qualify the self-shielding formalism. For the strongly self-shielded nuclei of interest in reactor physics, U238, Pu240 and Th232, the agreement between the self-shielding calculation and the reference ones is fairly good for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption rate

  20. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian


    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.