WorldWideScience

Sample records for sheep improvement program

  1. Profitability of a dairy sheep genetic improvement program using artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Gelasakis, A I; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Banos, G

    2010-10-01

    This simulation study investigated the farm-level economic benefits of a genetic improvement scheme using artificial insemination (AI) with fresh ram semen in dairy sheep of the Chios breed in Greece. Data were collected from 67 farms associated with the Chios Sheep Breeders' Cooperative 'Macedonia', describing the percentage of ewes that would be artificially inseminated in the flock, pregnancy rate, annual ram costs that could be saved using AI rather than natural mating, expected improvement in milk production, annual costs of semen and feed, milk price and number of years of AI usage. The study considered 77 760 possible scenarios in a 3 × 4 × 4 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 15 factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the effect of each factor on farm profitability. All factors considered were statistically significant (P profitability and farmers should become aware that using AI is a long-term investment. Semen price, pregnancy rate and improvement in milk production also had substantial effects. The price of milk and feed had a considerably lower effect on profitability, as did the annual cost of maintaining rams that would be replaced by AI. A positive annual and cumulative return was achieved in the model within the first 6 years. The cost of semen was estimated at 8€ to 10€ per dose for the first 5 years. Where the annual improvement in milk production was 1% of annual phenotypic mean (e.g. 3.0 kg) profitability of the scheme was improved greatly.

  2. Improvement of sheep skin quality after treatment with diazinon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cockle, otherwise known as ekek locally, has been economically the most important skin defect among the tanneries in Ethiopia for the last three decades. The disease has been experimented on since 1996 when FAO sponsored the trials on sheep and goat skin improvement trial (TCP/ETH/4558&6712) and found that ...

  3. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of

  4. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  5. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  6. Fetal programming by co-twin rivalry in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Fetal rivalry for space and nutrients compromises intrauterine environment and fetal growth, this leading to further consequences during adult life (i.e., fetal programming). Focusing on sheep, relevant fetal programming effects have been revealed on body composition and growth although little is known about their potential impact on the reproductive performance of adult ewes. This research focused on the analysis of fetal programming-related effects on 41,475 litter size (LS) records from 7,177 purebred Ripollesa ewes. Fetal programming sources of variation accounted for the linear and quadratic effect of absolute birth BW (ABBW), relative birth BW (RBBW) of twin-born ewes (i.e., both magnitude and direction of the birth BW difference between the ewe and its co-twin), and sex of twin ewe's littermate (SLM). More specifically, data were analyzed under a threshold mixed model and the statistical relevance of models accounting for different combinations of ABBW, RBBW, and SLM effects was compared by Bayes factors (BF; i.e., the ratio between the posterior probability of 2 competing models). The model accounting for RBBW and discarding both ABBW and SLM effects was clearly preferred; its posterior probability was 35.2 to 362.3 times higher than from remaining models and provided very strong (31.6 100) supporting the relevance of RBBW and the negligibility of both ABBW and SLM. Single-born ewes were included as reference group and they reached a predicted LS of 1.189 lambs per lambing. Twin-born ewes being >600 g lighter than their co-twins suffered from an impaired reproductive ability with 1.162 lambs per lambing (95% credible interval [95CI], 1.147 to 1.179), and this estimate increased until ewes were 151 to 300 g lighter than their co-twins (1.226 lambs per lambing; 95CI, 1.208 to 1.244). Remaining categories (i.e., ewes being heavier or equal than their co-twins) did not provide significant differences and showed an enhanced reproductive ability of approximately

  7. A genome resource to address mechanisms of developmental programming: determination of the fetal sheep heart transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura A; Glenn, Jeremy P; Spradling, Kimberly D; Nijland, Mark J; Garcia, Roy; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-06-15

    The pregnant sheep has provided seminal insights into reproduction related to animal and human development (ovarian function, fertility, implantation, fetal growth, parturition and lactation). Fetal sheep physiology has been extensively studied since 1950, contributing significantly to the basis for our understanding of many aspects of fetal development and behaviour that remain in use in clinical practice today. Understanding mechanisms requires the combination of systems approaches uniquely available in fetal sheep with the power of genomic studies. Absence of the full range of sheep genomic resources has limited the full realization of the power of this model, impeding progress in emerging areas of pregnancy biology such as developmental programming. We have examined the expressed fetal sheep heart transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technologies. In so doing we identified 36,737 novel transcripts and describe genes, gene variants and pathways relevant to fundamental developmental mechanisms. Genes with the highest expression levels and with novel exons in the fetal heart transcriptome are known to play central roles in muscle development. We show that high-throughput sequencing methods can generate extensive transcriptome information in the absence of an assembled and annotated genome for that species. The gene sequence data obtained provide a unique genomic resource for sheep specific genetic technology development and, combined with the polymorphism data, augment annotation and assembly of the sheep genome. In addition, identification and pathway analysis of novel fetal sheep heart transcriptome splice variants is a first step towards revealing mechanisms of genetic variation and gene environment interactions during fetal heart development.

  8. Selection to improve spring fertility in a crossbred sheep population

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shorepy, Salih Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Reproductive and productive performance of a composite sheep population, containing 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet and 25% Finnsheep breeding and under selection for ability to lamb in the fall, was evaluated. Traits considered were spring fertility, faIl litter size, live weights at birth, weaning, and at about 90 and 120 d of age, and scrotal circumference at weaning and at about 90 and 120 d of age. Fertility was defined as 1 or 0 depending upon whether a ewe lambed or failed t...

  9. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  10. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  11. Improving the utilization of beech sawdust by sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, I.; Boda, K.; Jalc, D.; Lenart, J.; Kmet, V.; Havassy, I.; Kosta, K.

    1991-01-01

    Defibration following treatment with 1% H 2 SO 4 as an impregnation agent increased the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of beech sawdust to 59.5%. Digestibilities of barley straw, wheat straw, maize stover and bagasse were also increased through defibration without prior chemical treatment. Increased DM degradability was also reflected in better digestibility of fibre components and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The inclusion of treated beech sawdust in the diet at levels of up to 20% had no negative effect on lamb performance. Studies with 15 N labelled urea did not show clear positive effect on nitrogen utilization when sheep were fed the treated beech sawdust. Immobilized cellulase and the addition of branched-chain VFA significantly increased the in vitro degradation of treated beech sawdust. Methanol extract of treated beech sawdust had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococus bovis and Lactobacillus plantarum and reduced in vitro fermentation of rumen fluid. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  12. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson J Butler

    at least 30 individuals to reliably detect both Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae at the population-level. Availability of PCR diagnostic tests to wildlife management agencies would improve the ability to reliably detect Pasteurellaceae in bighorn sheep populations.

  13. Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance. This chapter summarizes the ontogeny of insulin resistance, the tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, and the various factors that are involved in the programming and maintenance of the insulin resistance in adult female sheep that were developmentally exposed to fetal male levels of testosterone during the sexual-differentiation window.

  14. Containment performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  15. Maintenance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbonne, D.R.; Plunkett, T.F.; Simpson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    During fuel cycle 1 at River Bend station, considerable effort was expended to reduce corrective maintenance work orders (MWOs) to <1,000. This was done by complementing the plant staff with costly contract personnel. Coming out of the first refueling outage, most contract personnel were released. The change in MWO backlog started a steady rise. It became readily apparent that to avoid costly contract staff time, a maintenance improvement program (MIP) was necessary. The MIP Was primarily directed at two areas: crew efficiency improvements and improved preplanned MWO packages. The overall effect of the MIP was to achieve significant productivity improvements with reduced operation and maintenance cost by providing frequent accountability to all levels of maintenance supervision. The MIP also produced a feeling of pride among the maintenance department employees that had not really existed before. This was the best benefit of all

  16. Technical note: Improving modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Pazzola, Michele; Ferragina, Alessandro; Cecchinato, Alessio; Dettori, Maria L; Vacca, Giuseppe M

    2018-04-18

    The importance of milk coagulation properties for milk processing, cheese yield, and quality is widely recognized. The use of traditional coagulation traits presents several limitations for testing bovine milk and even more for sheep milk, due to its rapid coagulation and curd firming, and early syneresis of coagulum. The aim of this technical note is to test and improve model fitting for assessing coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk. Using milk samples from 87 Sarda ewes, we performed in duplicate lactodynamographic testing. On each of the 174 analyzed milk aliquots, using 180 observations from each aliquot (one every 15 s for 45 min after rennet addition), we compared 4 different curd firming models as a function of time (CF t , mm) using a nonlinear procedure. The most accurate and informative results were observed using a modified 4-parameter model, structured as follows: [Formula: see text] , where t is time, RCT eq (min) is the gelation time, CF P (mm) is the potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time, k CF (%/min) is the curd firming rate constant, and k SR (%/min) is the curd syneresis rate constant. To avoid nonconvergence and computational problems due to interrelations among the equation parameters, CF P was preliminarily defined as a function of maximum observed curd firmness (CF max , mm) recorded during the analysis. For this model, all the modeling equations of individual sheep milk aliquots were converging, with a negligible standard error of the estimates (coefficient of determination >0.99 for all individual sample equations). Repeatability of the modeled parameters was acceptable, also in the presence of curd syneresis during the lactodynamographic analysis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brunswick improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of the twin 790-MW Mark-4 boiling water reactors located at the Brunswick steam electric plant has historically been well below average. The plant experienced low availability, low capacity factors, high US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) violations, excessive radioactive waste generation, excessive licensee event reports (LERs), an unacceptable industrial safety record, poor SALP ratings, and numerous other deficiencies leading to unacceptable performance. In June 1982 it was determined that certain periodic tests (PT) had never been performed. While one unit was down for a refueling/modification outage, Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) elected to bring the other unit off line and perform an extensive self-examination. As a result, a number of needed improvements covering a wide range of plant activities were identified. CP and L elected to consolidate all the elements of the improvement into a single, plant-wide program. The consolidated program, called the Brunswick Improvement Program (BIP), was established. Major objectives of the BIP and measurable results are presented

  18. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    .05) with dietary propionate. Our studies indicate that propionate inclusion in feed, but not continuous infusion in to the rumen, improves N utilization in growing sheep. The propionate effect is likely mediated by providing additional precursors for gluconeogenesis.

  20. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptotic factors in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Ortega, Hugo H; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developmental expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), BCL2, BAX, activated CASP3, and FAS/FASLG were determined at Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo, and 21 mo of age by immunocytochemisty. Prenatal T treatment induced changes in expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers in a follicle-, age-, and steroid-specific manner. Changes in BAX were evident only during fetal life and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 only postnatally. Prenatal T and not DHT increased PCNA and decreased BCL2 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 10 and 21 mo but decreased CASP3 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 22 wk (prepubertal) and 10 and 21 mo. Both treatments decreased BAX immunostaining in granulosa cells of Fetal Day 90 primordial/primary follicles. Neither treatment affected FAS expression at any developmental time point in any follicular compartment. Effects on BAX appear to be programmed by androgenic actions and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 by estrogenic actions of T. Overall, the findings demonstrate that fetal exposure to excess T disrupts the ovarian proliferation/apoptosis balance, thus providing a basis for the follicular disruptions evidenced in these females.

  1. An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

  2. Evaluation of Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos with Gansu Alpine Finewool Sheep to Improve Wool Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos (ASMs with Gansu Alpine Finewool (GAF sheep and an evaluation of the potential benefits of this genetic cross has not been previously conducted. 13 ASMs were crossbred with GAF sheep over a five year period with backcrossing designed to assess heterosis. Data from 11,178 lambs sired by 189 rams were used in the study. Genotype, birth year, birth type, dam age, sex and/or management group, and record age were fitted as fixed effects and within-genotype sire fitted as a random effect. Crossbreeds of 1/2 ASM expressed the most desirable effects for improving average fiber diameter (AFD, clean fleece weight (CFW, yield, coefficient of variation of AFD (CVAFD, yearling staple length (YSL to AFD ratio (YSL/AFD, and CFW to metabolic yearling bodyweight (YWT0.75 ratio (CFW/YWT0.75 but showed the least post-weaning average daily gain (powADG and YWT. Genotype of backcrossing with 1/4 ASM obtained moderate improvements in AFD, CFW, CVAFD, and YSL/AFD but the highest YSL, WWT, and prwADG. Except for yield (-1.42% and CFW/YWT0.75 (-1%, heterosis estimates were generally low and positive, and ranged from 0.1% for CVAFD to 4% for powADG, which indicates the potential to improve relevant traits through exploiting heterosis to a varying extent. The ASMs sampled in this study were found to be superior to GAFs for AFD, CFW, yield, and CVAFD by 19.82%, 11.68%, 14.47%, and 6.99%, respectively, but inferior for YSL, PowADG, and YWT by 4.36%, 50.97%, and 16.93%, respectively. ASMs also appeared to be more efficient than GAFs in clean wool production (25.34% and staple length growth (16.17%. The results of our study strongly suggest that an infusion of ASM genes via crossbreeding is an effective and appropriate approach to improve wool microns and wool production from GAF sheep, and we make recommendations to tackle the undesirable traits of YWT and YSL from ASM introduction.

  3. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  4. Is Children's Programming Improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rosemary Lee

    1979-01-01

    Susan Futterman, a former teacher and early childhood specialist for Action for Children's Television, comments on changing formats for children's programs, as well as on the role of educators in using television as a learning vehicle. (Editor/KC)

  5. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  6. Crossbreeding locally adapted hair sheep to improve productivity and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of lambs from crossing of local with specialized sheep breeds for meat production may lead to higher meat deposition and a smaller fat amount in the carcass, with a more adequate nutritional profile for human consumption. This study investigated the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of lambs from the Morada Nova and Santa Inês locally adapted hair breeds and crosses between Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês slaughtered at approximately 35 kg. Morada Nova lambs showed lower (p < 0.05 performance compared to the other genetic groups resulting in a higher age at slaughter (p < 0.05. Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês and Dorper × Morada Nova lambs showed better characteristics for meat production with better (p < 0.05 conformation as well as leg and carcass compacteness index. Dorper × Santa Inês have a fatty acid profile that is more suitable for human consumption than Dorper × Morada Nova lambs do (p < 0.05; however, both had lower (p < 0.05 intramuscular lipid content (as measured by ether extract levels from Longíssimus lumborum compared with purebred lambs. Therefore, when the objective is to obtain lean meat, with improved nutritional profile to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the use of breeds and crosses that reduce animal slaughter age, such as the ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês crossbred, is an interesting alternative.

  7. Triiodothyronine improves the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells in severely undernourished weanling mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filteau, S.M.; Perry, K.J.; Woodward, B.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which weanling mice were fed a nutritionally complete diet either ad libitum or in restricted quantities such that they lost about 30% of their initial weight over a 14-day period. In Experiments 1 and 2, half the animals from each group received dietary triiodothyronine (T 3 ) supplements. In Experiment 3, food-intake-restricted mice were fed graded levels of potassium iodide. Malnutrition reduced the number of nucleated cells per spleen, the number of splenic IgG plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10 6 cells, and the serum antibody titers against sheep red blood cells as determined by radioimmunoassay. T 3 supplements increased antibody titers, the number of nucleated cells per spleen, and both IgM and IgG PFC per 10 6 spleen cells in malnourished mice, but had no effect on well-nourished mice. The beneficial effect of T 3 was not a result of improved protein, energy, or iodine status in the malnourished mice

  8. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  9. Program improvement and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hink, M.; Imke, U.; Pfrang, W.; Porscha, B.; Struwe, D.; Zimmerer, W.; Allan, P.

    1995-01-01

    An account is given about further improvements of the SAS4A-Ref. 94.R0 version of the HCDA code. They concern in particular the DEFORM fuel rod deformation module. For a validation of the new code version, various CABRI experiments have been calculated, especially tests with high burnup fuel rods. Progress was shown to be achieved, but the precise timing and location of the observed fuel failures is still hard to calculate. The work was performed in close cooperation with partners in France, Britain, and Japan. An important application concerns the CAPRA project of a reactor for actinide burning. Its behavior under ULOF conditions was analyzed using the improved SAS4A Ref. 94 R0 code. The core design turned out to tend toward a long-term coolable configuration even more so than the EFR core design would do in an ULOF. (orig.)

  10. The potential for improving welfare standards and productivity in United Kingdom sheep flocks using veterinary flock health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Wilson, D J

    2007-05-01

    Data from industry sources detailing variable costs in 2003 revealed that the average farmer keeping 1000 lowland ewes in the United Kingdom spent 3500 UK pounds annually on veterinary fees and medicines. Despite such expenditure, psoroptic mange and cutaneous myiasis are common in the UK, resistance to one or more anthelmintic group is not only common but increasing in frequency and distribution, and abortion outbreaks caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are frequently reported by veterinary laboratories. Welfare concerns also arise from farmers' intransigence towards tail docking and castration in lambs (mutilations), reported market forces necessitating long distance road transportation to slaughter plants, and an unwillingness to employ veterinary surgeons for obstetrical problems. The spread of sheep scab in the UK over the past decade illustrates the failure of flock owners to effect rudimentary biosecurity and disease control measures. A first step towards improving the health and welfare of sheep would be the immediate implementation of basic good husbandry practices, including ectoparasiticide treatment for sheep scab eradication, prophylaxis for cutaneous myiasis in selected lambs, and appropriate vaccination strategies for clostridial diseases and certain abortion agents. There would also be money from within current farm expenditure to provide veterinary attention for obstetrical problems affecting up to 2% of ewes per annum. Planned use of ecto- and endoparasiticides is urgently needed to maintain the efficacy of these unique drugs.

  11. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  12. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Developmental Programming: Prenatal Testosterone Excess and Insulin Signaling Disruptions in Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome often manifest insulin resistance. Using a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotype, we explored the contribution of androgen and insulin in programming and maintaining disruptions in insulin signaling in metabolic tissues. Phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, GSK3beta, mTOR, and p70S6K was examined in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of control and prenatal testosterone (T)-, prenatal T plus androgen antagonist (flutamide)-, and prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer (rosiglitazone)-treated fetuses as well as 2-yr-old females. Insulin-stimulated phospho (p)-AKT was evaluated in control and prenatal T-, prenatal T plus postnatal flutamide-, and prenatal T plus postnatal rosiglitazone-treated females at 3 yr of age. GLUT4 expression was evaluated in the muscle at all time points. Prenatal T treatment increased mTOR, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3beta levels in the fetal liver with both androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer preventing the mTOR increase. Both interventions had partial effect in preventing the increase in p-GSK3beta. In the fetal muscle, prenatal T excess decreased p-GSK3beta and GLUT4. The decrease in muscle p-GSK3beta was partially prevented by insulin sensitizer cotreatment. Both interventions partially prevented the decrease in GLUT4. Prenatal T treatment had no effect on basal expression of any of the markers in 2-yr-old females. At 3 yr of age, prenatal T treatment prevented the insulin-stimulated increase in p-AKT in liver and muscle, but not in adipose tissue, and neither postnatal intervention restored p-AKT response to insulin stimulation. Our findings provide evidence that prenatal T excess changes insulin sensitivity in a tissue- and development-specific manner and that both androgens and insulin may be involved in the programming of these metabolic disruptions. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  15. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  16. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals

  17. Bioceramic inlays do not improve mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium stems in the proximal sheep femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Pauli; Koort, Jyri; Itälä, Ari; Ylänen, Heimo; Dalstra, Michel; Hupa, Mikko; Kommonen, Bertel; Aro, Hannu T

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine, if bioactive glass (BG) surface inlays improve osseointegration of titanium implants in the proximal femur of adult sheep. In simulation of uncemented primary stems (nine animals), only the proximal part of the implants was grit-blasted and three surface slots of the grit-blasted region were filled with sintered BG microspheres. Primary stems were implanted using press-fit technique. In revision stem simulation (eight animals), grit-blasting was extended over the whole implant and seven perforating holes of the stem were filled by sintered BG granules. Revision stems were implanted with a mixture of autogenous bone graft and BG granules. Comparison with solid partially or fully grit-blasted control stems implanted in the contralateral femurs was performed in the primary and revision stem experiments at 12 and 25 weeks, respectively. Implant incorporation was evaluated by torsional failure testing and histomorphometry. Only one-third of the primary stems anchored mechanically to bone. The revision stems incorporated better and the BG inlays of the revision stems showed ingrowth of new bone. However, there were no significant differences in the torsional failure loads between the stems with BG inlays and the control stems. In conclusion, surface BG inlays gave no measurable advantage in mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium implants. Overall, the proximal sheep femur, characterized by minimal amount of cancellous bone and the presence of adipocytic bone marrow, seemed to present compromised bone healing conditions. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sheep Model for Uterine Transplantation: The Best Option Before Starting a Human Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Andraus

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study reports the first four cases of a uterine transplant procedure conducted in sheep in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of uterine transplantation in sheep. METHOD: The study was conducted at Laboratory of Medical Investigation 37 (LIM 37 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. Four healthy mature ewes weighing 40-60 kg were used as both the donor and recipient for a transplant within the same animal (auto-transplant. Institutional guidelines for the care of experimental animals were followed. RESULTS: The first two cases of auto-transplant were performed to standardize the technique. After complete uterine mobilization and isolation of the blood supply, the unilateral vascular pedicle was sectioned and anastomosed on the external iliac vessels. After standardization, the protocol was implemented. Procurement surgery was performed without complications or bleeding. After isolation of uterine arteries and veins as well as full mobilization of the uterus, ligation of the distal portion of the internal iliac vessels was performed with subsequent division and end-to-side anastomosis of the external iliac vessels. After vaginal anastomosis, the final case presented with arterial thrombosis in the left uterine artery. The left uterine artery anastomosis was re-opened and flushed with saline solution to remove the clot from the artery lumen. Anastomosis was repeated with restoration of blood flow for a few minutes before another uterine artery thrombosis appeared on the same side. All four animals were alive after the surgical procedure and were euthanized after the experimental period. CONCLUSION: We describe the success of four uterine auto-transplants in sheep models.

  19. Probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii improve the vaccine immune response to Bovine herpesvirus type 5 in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Talita Bandeira; de Moraes, Carina Martins; Sturbelle, Régis Tuchtenhagen; Dummer, Luana Alves; Fischer, Geferson; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2018-04-01

    There have been significant efforts toward the development of more efficient vaccines for animal health. A strategy that may be used to improve vaccine efficacy is the use of probiotics. Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an example of an important animal pathogen for which vaccines have provided only limited protection. In this study, we examined the use of the probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii as a potential immune modulator to improve vaccine efficiency. Thirty, 5-month-old lambs were randomly grouped in three lots of 10 each and vaccinated at days 0, 21 and 42 of the experiment. They grazed on the same pasture and were fed ad libitum twice a day with commercial sheep feed supplemented with either B. toyonensis (1×10 6 CFU/g of feed) or S. boulardii (1×10 7 CFU/g of feed), or non-supplemented feed. The probiotic supplementation was suspended day 28; thereafter, the next 35days, they were fed with the same commercial feed as control group. Animals supplemented with probiotics showed a significant (p>0.001) increased seroconversions against BoHV-5, and higher neutralizing antibodies titres (p>0.05) to BoHV-5 than non-supplemented animals. At 63days of experiment, splenocytes from the supplemented sheep had higher mRNA transcription levels of cytokines IL-10 and IL-17A. These results suggest that these probiotics could provide a promising means of improving vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Programs to improve plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmus, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    Looking toward the 1990's, we see a period in which our industry will face the challenge of improving the performance of the nuclear plants which are built and operating. The skills and technology are at hand to make good plant performance a reality and we believe the time has come to use them to achieve that end. As reserve margins decline, utilities and their regulators will increasingly seek to tap the unexploited capacity tied up in plants operating below their optimum availability. This paper describes a number of the programs, plant improvements and operations improvements which can yield a significant increase in nuclear plant availability and capacity factor now and into the 1990's. (author)

  1. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  2. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and cons...

  3. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Ovarian Cell Proliferation and Apoptotic Factors in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Salvetti, Natalia R.; Ortega, Hugo H.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developme...

  4. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  5. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  6. Developmental programming: exposure to testosterone excess disrupts steroidal and metabolic environment in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Salloum, B; Veiga-Lopez, A; Abbott, D H; Burant, C F; Padmanabhan, V

    2015-06-01

    Gestational exposure to excess T leads to intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and adult metabolic/reproductive disorders in female sheep. We hypothesized that as early mediators of such disruptions, gestational T disrupts steroidal and metabolic homeostasis in both the mother and fetus by both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Maternal blood samples were measured weekly for levels of insulin, glucose, and progesterone from four groups of animals: control; gestational T (twice weekly im injections of 100 mg of T propionate from d 30 to d 90 of gestation); T plus an androgen antagonist, flutamide (15 mg/kg·d oral; T-Flutamide); and T plus the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (0.11 mg/kg·d oral; T-Rosi) (n = 10-12/group). On day 90 of gestation, maternal and umbilical cord samples were collected after a 48-hour fast from a subset (n = 6/group) for the measurement of steroids, free fatty acids, amino acids, and acylcarnitines. Gestational T decreased maternal progesterone levels by 36.5% (P fetal estradiol were not prevented by either cotreatment. Gestational T disrupted associations of steroids with metabolites and progesterone with acylcarnitines, which was prevented either by androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment. These findings suggest a future combination of these treatments might be required to prevent alteration in maternal/fetal steroidal and metabolic milieu(s).

  7. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  8. Parentage verification and identity test of Ghezel sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... The Ghezel sheep is a fat tail high weight Iranian breed which is raised in the North-west of Iran. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for this indigenous breed, accurate estimates of the population genetic parameters is per-required and all pedigrees and relationships ...

  9. Developmental programming: prenatal steroid excess disrupts key members of intraovarian steroidogenic pathway in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Salvetti, Natalia R; Matiller, Valentina; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases circulating estradiol levels as well as follicular recruitment and persistence culminating in multifollicular ovary similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested whether prenatal T excess, by androgenic or estrogenic action, disrupts the steroid biosynthetic machinery in sheep in a cell-, follicle stage-, age-, and treatment-specific manner consistent with the ovarian disruptions and increased estradiol release. Impact of T/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments from days 30-90 of gestation on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 17α-hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase (CYP17A1), and cytochrome P-450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined on fetal day 90, 140 and 10 months (postpubertal), and 21 months (adult, no DHT group) of age by immunohistochemistry. All 4 markers changed in a cell-, follicle stage-, and age-specific manner. Both treatments increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in preantral follicles of postpubertal and adult females. Effects of prenatal T and DHT on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase differed in a follicle- and age-specific manner. CYP17A1 was reduced in the theca interna of antral follicles by T, but not DHT, in 10- and 21-month-old females. CYP19A1 was reduced by both T and DHT at all ages barring an increase on fetal day 140. Reduced granulosa CYP19A1 and thecal CYP17A1 in adults likely disrupt the intrafollicular androgen/estrogen balance contributing to follicular persistence. The reduced thecal CYP17A1 expression suggests that the hyperandrogenic ovarian phenotype may originate from increased enzyme activity or alternatively via a different isoform of CYP17. The reduced CYP19A1 in antral follicles of adults indicates that the increased circulating estradiol release likely arises from the increased number of persisting follicles.

  10. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol amplifies ovarian follicular defects induced by fetal exposure to excess testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Wurst, A K; Steckler, T L; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-04-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ≥8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event.

  11. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFIN, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements

  12. Conducting a SWOT Analysis for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a teacher education program, or any program, can be the driving force for implementing change. A SWOT analysis is used to assist faculty in initiating meaningful change in a program and to use the data for program improvement. This tool is useful in any undergraduate or degree…

  13. Improved influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine induces robust B and T-cell responses and protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybayeva, Aigerim; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Sansyzbay, Abylai; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety. The Flu-BA vaccine formulation had two additional proteins Omp19 and SOD, and administered thrice with 20% Montanide Gel01 adjuvant, simultaneously by both subcutaneous and conjunctival routes at 21 days intervals in pregnant sheep and goats. At 42 days post-vaccination (DPV) we detected antigen-specific IgG antibodies predominantly of IgG2a isotype but also IgG1, and also detected a strong lymphocyte recall response with IFN-γ production. Importantly, our candidate vaccine prevented abortion in 66.7% and 77.8% of pregnant sheep and goats, respectively. Furthermore, complete protection (absence of live B. melitensis 16M) was observed in 55.6% and 66.7% of challenged sheep and goats, and 72.7% and 90.0% of their fetuses (lambs/yeanlings), respectively. The severity of B. melitensis 16M infection in vaccinated sheep and goats and their fetuses (index of infection and rates of Brucella colonization in tissues) was significantly lower than in control groups. None of the protection parameters after vaccination with Flu-BA vaccine were statistically inferior to protection seen with the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine (protection against abortion and vaccination efficacy, alpha = 0.18–0.34, infection index, P = 0.37–0.77, Brucella colonization, P = 0.16 to P > 0.99). In conclusion, our improved Flu-BA vaccine formulation and delivery method were found safe and effective in protecting pregnant sheep and goats against adverse

  14. ACED Allegheny Home Improvement Loan Program (AHILP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny Home Improvement Loan Program (AHILP) is the most affordable way for eligible Allegheny County residents to rehabilitate and improve their homes....

  15. FETAL METABOLIC PROGRAMMING OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN A COPENHAGEN SHEEP MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Khanal, Prabhat; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft

    for diabetes development. Twin-pregnant ewes where fed a Normal, a Low or a High diet during the last 6 weeks of gestation and the twin lambs where fed either a Conventional or a High fat, High carbohydrate (HCHF) diet during the first 6 months of life. Feeding challenge tests were performed on all lambs...... have shown unexpected involvement of the small intestine in diabetes pathophysiology as it in most cases result in a complete resolution of the diabetes before weight loss. Therefore we hypothesize that the small intestine is a subject of metabolic programming and that this programming can predispose...

  16. Fetal programming alters reactive oxygen species production in sheep cardiac mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergen, Nicholas H; Koppenhafer, Stacia L; Spitz, Douglas R; Volk, Kenneth A; Patel, Sonali S; Roghair, Robert D; Lamb, Fred S; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment is recognized as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Although oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for the fetal programming phenotype, the role of mitochondrial O(2)(*-) (superoxide radical) production has not been explored. To determine whether mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production is altered by in utero programming, pregnant ewes were given a 48-h dexamethasone (dexamethasone-exposed, 0.28 mg.kg(-1) of body weight.day(-1)) or saline (control) infusion at 27-28 days gestation (term=145 days). Intact left ventricular mitochondria and freeze-thaw mitochondrial membranes were studied from offspring at 4-months of age. AmplexRed was used to measure H(2)O(2) production. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and catalase were measured. Compared with controls, a significant increase in Complex I H(2)O(2) production was found in intact mitochondria from dexamethasone-exposed animals. The treatment differences in Complex I-driven H(2)O(2) production were not seen in mitochondrial membranes. Consistent changes in H(2)O(2) production from Complex III in programmed animals were not found. Despite the increase in H(2)O(2) production in intact mitochondria from programmed animals, dexamethasone exposure significantly increased mitochondrial catalase activity, whereas Mn-SOD and GPx activities were unchanged. The results of the present study point to an increase in the rate of release of H(2)O(2) from programmed mitochondria despite an increase in catalase activity. Greater mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release into the cell may play a role in the development of adult disease following exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment.

  17. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  18. Ontogeny and nutritional programming of the hepatic growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-prolactin axis in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Melanie A; Budge, Helen; Walker, David; Stephenson, Terence; Symonds, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    The liver is an important metabolic and endocrine organ in the fetus, but the extent to which its hormone receptor sensitivity is developmentally regulated in early life is not fully established. Therefore, we examined developmental changes in mRNA abundance for the GH receptor (GHR) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) plus IGF-I and -II and their receptors. Fetal and postnatal sheep were sampled at either 80 or 140 d gestation, 1 or 30 d, or 6 months of age. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction between early gestation to midgestation (i.e. 28-80 d gestation, the time of early liver growth) on gene expression was also examined in the fetus and juvenile offspring. Gene expression for the GHR, PRLR, and IGF-I receptor increased through gestation peaking at birth, whereas IGF-I was maximal near to term. In contrast, IGF-II mRNA decreased between midgestation and late gestation to increase after birth, whereas IGF-II receptor remained unchanged. A substantial decline in mRNA abundance for GHR, PRLR, and IGF-I receptor then occurred up to 6 months. Maternal nutrient restriction reduced GHR and IGF-II receptor mRNA abundance in the fetus, but caused a precocious increase in the PRLR. Gene expression for IGF-I and -II were increased in juvenile offspring born to nutrient-restricted mothers. In conclusion, there are marked differences in the ontogeny and nutritional programming of specific hormones and their receptors involved in hepatic growth and development in the fetus. These could contribute to changes in liver function during adult life.

  19. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Steroidal Machinery and Cell Differentiation Markers in Visceral Adipocytes of Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Lu, Chunxia; Martin, Jacob D; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Dumesic, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated female sheep manifest reduced adipocyte size and peripheral insulin resistance. The small adipocyte phenotype may reflect defects in adipogenesis and its steroidal machinery. To test whether prenatal T treatment from gestational days 30 to 90 alters the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) steroidal machinery and reduces adipocyte differentiation, we examined expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and adipocyte differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal ages 10 and 21 months. Because gestational T treatment increases fetal T and maternal insulin, the contributions of these were assessed by androgen receptor antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment, either separately (at fetal day 90 and 21 months of age time points) or together (10 months of age). The effects on adipogenesis were assessed in the VAT-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) from pre- and postpubertal time points to evaluate the effects of pubertal steroidal changes on adipogenesis. Our results show that VAT manifests potentially a predominant estrogenic intracrine milieu (increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α) and reduced differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal 21 months of age. These changes appear to involve both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Preliminary findings suggest that prenatal T treatment reduces adipogenesis, decreases expression of differentiation, and increases expression of commitment markers at both pre- and postpubertal time points. Together, these findings suggest that (1) increased commitment of AT-MSCs to adipocyte lineage and decreased differentiation to adipocytes may underlie the small adipocyte phenotype of prenatal T-treated females and (2) excess T-induced changes in steroidal machinery in the VAT likely participate in the programming/maintenance of this defect.

  20. Adult-onset obesity reveals prenatal programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male sheep nutrient restricted during late gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rhodes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n = 6 or energy restricted (0.7M diet during early (1-65 days; LEE, n = 6 or late (65-128 days; LEL, n = 7 gestation (term approximately 147 days. Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6-7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were 'lean' (1.5 years. Obesity revealed generalised metabolic 'inflexibility' and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulin(AUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] ng.ml(-1.120 mins during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] ng.ml(-1 and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16] ng.ml(-1; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively. Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and 'reveals' programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young

  1. Comparison of external udder measurements of the sheep breeds Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovický

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L. of nine genotypes (355 ewes created of the basis of Improved Valachian (IV, Tsigai (T, and Lacaune (LC breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL, udder width (UW, rear udder depth (RUD, cistern depth (CDE, teat length (TL, and teat angle (TA. Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P < 0.001, many of them also by the effect of parity and lactation stage. The exactly detected UL, UW and RUD during the lactation and with the age of ewes expand gradually (P < 0.001. Teat length was greater in older ewes (expanding, with the parity. Indicator TA during lactation worsened. Crosses with 25 to 75% share of genetic dairy breeds (in particular with LC, to a lesser extent 'East Friesian' -EF were in most cases larger than the udder cisterns of purebred ewes T and IV. Purebred LC had the largest udders, with the largest cisterns. In conclusion, crosses with specialized dairy breeds have more suitable udders for machine milking than purebred default breeds (T, IV, LC and are suitable for machine milking.

  2. Use of reduced doses of eCG applied by different routes in the TAI program in Santa Ines sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Dias Antunes-Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to improve the cost-benefit ratio of the application of artificial insemination in fixed time (TAI by the transcervical route in sheep, to test the dosage reduction and the use of the vulvar submucosa (VSM route as an alternative for the application of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the efficiency of the synchronization protocol and fertility to artificial insemination (AI and to measure the level of cortisol in ewes as a result the application of this biotechnique. Blood samples were collected before AI, immediately after AI and seven days after AI. Six groups of twenty animals were used, and each group received doses of 200, 300 and 400 IU of eCG by the intramuscular route (IM and VSM. Estrus was detected, and 48 hours later, the inseminations were performed by the transcervical route. Among the 120 treated ewes, 87.5% came in estrus. The percentage of the intrauterine deposition of semen was 88.3%. The pregnancy rate ranged from 20 to 70% between treatments, with an average of 46.66%. The VSM route was viable for the application of eCG in doses of 300 and 400 IU. The reduction in the eCG dose to 200 IU by the IM route reduces costs while maintaining the efficiency of estrus synchronization protocols and TAI with frozen semen in Santa Ines ewes. The average levels of cortisol were significant, at 1.15, 2.86 and 0.52 ?g/dL according to the three collections, being higher after the animal was off the easel at the end of AI. The procedures for performing the transcervical AI technique indicate that stress in the animals produces satisfactory fertility results and a low cost in multiparous ewes of the Santa Ines breed.

  3. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  5. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  6. Interchange. Program Improvement Products Identified through Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This catalog lists exemplary field-based program improvement products identified by the Dissemination and Utilization Products and Services Program (D&U) at the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. It is designed to increase awareness of these products among vocational educators and to provide information about them that…

  7. Fostering Quality Improvement in EHDI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Tamala S.; Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the quality improvement area, a total of 218 items were listed by 47 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified in each…

  8. Developmental Programming: Impact of Gestational Steroid and Metabolic Milieus on Mediators of Insulin Sensitivity in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Andriessen, Victoria; Mesquitta, Makeda; Zeng, Lixia; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep. Because T excess leads to maternal hyperinsulinemia, fetal hyperandrogenism, and functional hyperandrogenism and IR in their female offspring, prenatal and postnatal interventions with antiandrogen, flutamide, and the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone were used to parse out the contribution of androgenic and metabolic pathways in programming and maintaining these defects. Results showed that (1) peripheral IR in prenatal T-treated female sheep is related to increases in triglycerides and 3-nitrotyrosine, which appear to override the increase in high-molecular-weight adiponectin; (2) liver IR is a function of the increase in oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and lipotoxicity; (3) muscle IR is related to lipotoxicity; and (4) the insulin-sensitive status of visceral adipose tissue appears to be a function of the increase in antioxidants that likely overrides the increase in proinflammatory cytokines, macrophages, and oxidative stress. Prenatal and postnatal intervention with either antiandrogen or insulin sensitizer had partial effects in preventing or ameliorating the prenatal T-induced changes in mediators of insulin sensitivity, suggesting that both pathways are critical for the programming and maintenance of the prenatal T-induced changes and point to potential involvement of estrogenic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  10. Status of the PSR improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Hoehn, M.V.; Ryder, R.D.; York, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A program of improvements to increase intensity and improve reliability of the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) has been under way for several years. Reduction of stored beam loss rates by a factor of 4.6 since 1987 through exploitation of H 0 injection has allowed the average intensity to increase by a factor of two to 75μA. Reliability of the PSR and associated beam delivery systems has been improved by extensive rework of numerous subsystems. Radiation protection has been improved by additional shielding of Line D and extensive use of relatively fail-safe radiation detectors incorporated into an improved radiation security system

  11. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  12. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  13. Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.

  14. Improving regulatory oversight of maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Safe nuclear power plant operation requires that risks due to failure or unavailability of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) be minimized. Implementation of an effective maintenance program is a key means for achieving this goal. In its regulatory framework, the important relationship between maintenance and safety is acknowledged by the CNSC. A high level maintenance program requirement is included in the Class I Facilities Regulations. In addition, the operating licence contains a condition based on the principle that the design function and performance of SSCs needs to remain consistent with the plant's design and analysis documents. Nuclear power plant licensees have the primary responsibility for safe operation of their facilities and consequently for implementation of a successful maintenance program. The oversight role of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is to ensure that the licensee carries out that responsibility. The challenge for the CNSC is how to do this consistently and efficiently. Three opportunities for improvement to regulatory maintenance oversight are being pursued. These are related to the regulatory framework, compliance verification inspection activities and monitoring of self-reporting. The regulatory framework has been improved by clarifying expectations through the issuance of S-210 'Maintenance Programs for Nuclear Power Plants'. Inspection activities have been improved by introducing new maintenance inspections into the baseline program. Monitoring is being improved by making better use of self-reported and industry produced maintenance related performance indicators. As with any type of program change, the challenge is to ensure the consistent and optimal application of regulatory activities and resources. This paper is a summary of the CNSC's approach to improving its maintenance oversight strategy. (author)

  15. Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability of Hermite Definite Control System. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... Knowledge of systems operation subjected to heat diffusion constraints is required of systems analysts. In an instance that ...

  16. Digital Competition Game to Improve Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a digital game with an educational purpose in the subject of computer programming, which enables students to reinforce and improve their abilities on the concepts of sequencing, defined iteration and nesting. For its design, a problem solving approach was followed and a score comparing mechanism was implemented…

  17. Strategic Planning to Improve EHDI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Karl R.; Blaiser, Kristina M.

    2011-01-01

    Because newborn hearing screening has become the standard of care in the United States, every state has established an early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) program responsible for establishing, maintaining, and improving the system of services needed to serve children with hearing loss and their families. While significant developments…

  18. C-E productivity improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Ching, B.; Van Haltern, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the C-E Productivity Improvement Program (CEPIP), which is a computer algorithm for heat rate monitoring and diagnostics for a nuclear power plant. CEPIP uses the pattern recognition technique to identify cause(s) of heat rate degradation. The benefits of such an automated program to the plant performance engineer include early identification of the degrading component(s), provision of necessary economic information (cost of energy loss) to the performance engineer so that he can decide when to repair the degrading components, and identification of operator actions resulting in heat rate degradation (such as closing the valve on the live steam extraction line for the second stage of reheat). In summary, CEPIP improves the overall plant performance by increasing the capacity factor. CEPIP was developed to meet the growing needs of the utilities for an automated performance program. The diagnostic capability has been verified by plant data

  19. Programming the offspring through altered uteroplacental hemodynamics: how maternal environment impacts uterine and umbilical blood flow in cattle, sheep and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Lemley, Caleb O

    2011-01-01

    As placental growth and vascularity precedes exponential fetal growth, not only is proper establishment of the placenta important, but also a continual plasticity of placental function throughout gestation. Inadequate maternal environment, such as nutritional plane, has been documented to alter fetal organogenesis and growth, thus leading to improper postnatal growth and performance in many livestock species. The timing and duration of maternal nutritional restriction appears to influence the capillary vascularity, angiogenic profile and vascular function of the placenta in cattle and sheep. In environments where fetal growth and/or fetal organogenesis are compromised, potential therapeutics may augment placental nutrient transport capacity and improve offspring performance. Supplementation of specific nutrients, including protein, as well as hormone supplements, such as indolamines, during times of nutrient restriction may assist placental function. Current use of Doppler ultrasonography has allowed for repeated measurements of uterine and umbilical blood flow including assessment of uteroplacental hemodynamics in cattle, sheep and swine. Moreover, these variables can be monitored in conjugation with placental capacity and fetal growth at specific time points of gestation. Elucidating the consequences of inadequate maternal intake on the continual plasticity of placental function will allow us to determine the proper timing and duration for intervention.

  20. Making quality improvement programs more effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Yoku

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years, and as recent as 2011, all external evaluations of the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Program have found its impact to be small or difficult to discern. The QIO program costs about $200 million on average to administer each year to improve quality of healthcare for people of 65 years or older. The program was created to address questionable quality of care. QIOs review how care is provided based on performance measures. The paper aims to discuss these issues. In 2012, the author supported the production of quarterly reports and reviewed internal monitoring and evaluation protocols of the program. The task also required reviewing all previous program evaluations. The task involved many conversations about the complexities of the program, why impact is difficult to discern and possible ways for eventual improvement. Process flow charts were created to simulate the data life cycle and discrete event models were created based on the sequence of data collection and reporting to identify gaps in data flow. The internal evaluation uncovered data gaps within the program. The need for a system of specification rules for data conceptualization, collection, distribution, discovery, analysis and repurposing is clear. There were data inconsistencies and difficulty of integrating data from one instance of measurement to the next. The lack of good and reliable data makes it difficult to discern true impact. The prescription is for a formal data policy or data governance structure to integrate and document all aspects of the data life cycle. The specification rules for governance are exemplified by the Data Documentation Initiative and the requirements published by the Data Governance Institute. The elements are all in place for a solid foundation of the data governance structure. These recommendations will increase the value of program data. The model specifies which agency units must be included in the governance authority and the data team. The

  1. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  2. Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B.; Chan, Frandics P.; Newman, Beverley; Fleischmann, Dominik [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Molvin, Lior Z. [Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA (United States); Wang, Jia [Stanford University, Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve. (orig.)

  3. Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, David B.; Chan, Frandics P.; Newman, Beverley; Fleischmann, Dominik; Molvin, Lior Z.; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve. (orig.)

  4. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  5. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad O. Aldosari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement “feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming.” Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  6. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Fahad O

    2018-01-01

    Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement "feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming." Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  7. Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.

  8. l-Ergothioneine improves the developmental potential of in vitro sheep embryos without influencing OCTN1-mediated cross-membrane transcript expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Dhali, A; Javvaji, P K

    2018-04-02

    SummaryThe objective of the study was to investigate the effect of l-ergothioneine (l-erg) (5 mM or 10 mM) supplementation in maturation medium on the developmental potential and OCTN1-dependant l-erg-mediated (10 mM) change in mRNA abundance of apoptotic (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) and antioxidant (GPx, SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) genes in sheep oocytes and developmental stages of embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with l-erg (10 mM) reduced their embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH in matured oocytes that in turn improved developmental potential, resulting in significantly (P l-erg without change in maturation rate. l-Erg (10 mM) treatment did not influence the mRNA abundance of the majority of apoptotic and antioxidant genes studied in the matured oocytes and developmental stages of embryo. A gene expression study found that the SLC22A4 gene that encodes OCTN1, an integral membrane protein and specific transporter of l-erg was not expressed in oocytes and developmental stages of embryos. Therefore it was concluded from the study that although there was improvement in the developmental potential of sheep embryos by l-erg supplementation in maturation medium, there was no change in the expression of the majority of the genes studied due to the absence of the SLC22A4 gene in oocytes and embryos that encode OCTN1, which is responsible for transportation of l-erg across the membrane to alter gene expression.

  9. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  10. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  11. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  12. 45 CFR 1355.35 - Program improvement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program improvement plans. 1355.35 Section 1355.35... plans. (a) Mandatory program improvement plan. (1) States found not to be operating in substantial conformity shall develop a program improvement plan. The program improvement plan must: (i) Be developed...

  13. Validation of an improved anaplasma antibody cELISA kit for detection of anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Dubois, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    An accurate and simple-to-perform new version of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit that became commercially available in 2015 for testing of cattle for antibody to Anaplasma marginale was validated for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep. True positives and negatives were identifie...

  14. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  15. AIF programs supporting industry self-improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, R.A.; Bivens, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) report ''Nuclear Power in America's Future'' identifies those actions that must be taken by both government and industry if the nuclear power option is to be preserved. This includes initiatives that: 1) reduce construction costs and lead times; 2) establish a national energy policy that reflects the role of electricity and the nuclear power component; 3) provide better financial arrangements; 4) reform licensing and regulation; 5) enhance the light water reactor design; 6) inform the public on the benefits and contributions of nuclear power; and 7) complete the fuel cycle. In attempting to solve nuclear power's problems, the AIF has programs that support and push these needed actions. Much of the initiative must be taken by industry to enhance the nuclear power option. This paper discusses some AIF initiatives and programs that support industry self-improvement

  16. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair: Histological and Molecular Study in the Sheep Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.

  17. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone however explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat and pig traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  18. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  19. An improved instrument setpoint control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, J.S. Jr.; George, R.T.; Kincaid, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Instrument setpoints have a definite and often significant impact on plant safety, reliability, and availability. Although typically overshadowed by plant design, modification, and physical change activities, instrument setpoints can alter plant status and system operating characteristics just as significantly. Recognizing the need for a formal program that provides configuration control of instrument setpoints, provides a readily accessible and clearly documented basis for instrument setpoints, and integrates and coordinates operations, engineering, and maintenance activities that influence the basis for instrument setpoints, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) is developing an Improved Instrument Setpoint Control Program (IISCP) that incorporates current industry guidance and practices and state-of-the-art information systems technology. The IISCP was designed around PECo's then existing business processes for setpoint control, determination, and maintenance. A task force representing the various constituencies from both plants and the engineering and services organizations were formed to identify objectives and design features for the IISCP. Utilizing industry standards and guidance, regulatory documents, the experiences and good practices obtained from other utilities, and PECo's nuclear group strategies, objectives, and goals, specific objectives were identified to enhance the business processes

  20. 40 CFR 63.175 - Quality improvement program for valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality improvement program for valves... alternative quality improvement programs specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. The decision to... § 63.168 and § 63.175. (1) If the owner or operator elects to continue the quality improvement program...

  1. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  2. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  3. Sheep do not have a major role in bovine herpesvirus 1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Vellema, P.; Schukken, Y.H.; Barkema, H.W.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Wentink, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    With regard to BHV1 eradication programs in cattle it is important to know whether sheep can he a reservoir of BHV1. We therefore performed an experiment that consisted of three phases. In phase 1, 10 sheep were inoculated with high doses of BHV1 and kept in close contact with 5 sheep and 5 calves.

  4. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  5. 76 FR 34541 - Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220 et al. Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program..., 220, 225, and 226 RIN 0584-AC24 Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program... management and integrity in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), at 67 FR 43447 (June 27, 2002) and...

  6. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  7. Evolution and outcomes of a quality improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Johan; Herrlin, Bo; Wittlöv, Karin; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcomes and evolution over a five-year period of a Swedish university hospital quality improvement program in light of enduring uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of such programs in healthcare and how best to evaluate it. The paper takes the form of a case study, using data collected as part of the program, including quality indicators from clinical improvement projects and participants' program evaluations. Overall, 58 percent of the program's projects (39/67) demonstrated success. A greater proportion of projects led by female doctors demonstrated success (91 percent, n=11) than projects led by male doctors (51 percent, n=55). Facilitators at the hospital continuously adapted the improvement methods to the local context. A lack of dedicated time for improvement efforts was the participants' biggest difficulty. The dominant benefits included an increased ability to see the "bigger picture" and the improvements achieved for patients and employees. Quality measurement, which is important for conducting and evaluating improvement efforts, was weak with limited reliability. Nevertheless, the present study adds evidence about the effectiveness of healthcare improvement programs. Gender differences in improvement team leadership merit further study. Improvement program evaluation should assess the extent to which improvement methods are locally adapted and applied. This case study reports the outcomes of all improvement projects undertaken in one healthcare organization over a five-year period and provides in-depth insight into an improvement program's changeable nature.

  8. Attitudes and Motivations of Vocational Teachers Regarding Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenan, James P.; Wu, Mingchang; Mustapha, Ramlee B.; Ncube, Lisa B.

    1998-01-01

    Secondary vocational teachers in Indiana (n=186) indicated they were motivated to improve programs by concern for students, professional growth, and desire to keep current. They believed that program improvement enhances professional development, but lacked time to plan for improvement and were skeptical about administrators' ability to reduce…

  9. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects in Growth Traits of Sangsari Sheep Using Gibbs Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role in livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Knowledge of genetic variation and co-variation among traits is required for both the design of effective sheep breeding programs and the accurate prediction of genetic progress from these programs. Body weight and growth traits are one of the economically important traits in sheep production, especially in Iran where lamb sale is the main source of income for sheep breeders while other products are in secondary importance. Although mutton is the most important source of protein in Iran, meat production from the sheep does not cover the increasing consumer demand. On the other hand, increase in sheep number to increase meat production has been limited by low quality and quantity of forage range. Therefore, enhancing meat production should be achieved by selecting the animals that have maximum genetic merit as next generation parents. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for maximization response to selection for economically important traits, accurate estimates of the genetic parameters and the genetic relationships between the traits are necessary. Studies of various sheep breeds have shown that both direct and maternal genetic influences are of importance for lamb growth. When growth traits are included in the breeding goal, both direct and maternal genetic effects should be taken into account in order to achieve optimum genetic progress. The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components and heritability, for growth traits, by fitting six animal models in the Sangsari sheep using Gibbs sampling. Material and Method Sangsari is a fat-tailed and relatively small sized breed of sheep

  10. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Airports, Airport Planning and Programming, Routing Symbol APP-501, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 619... Programming, Routing Symbol APP-501, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 619, Washington, DC 20591; between 9 a... recognition of the interest of all segments of the airport community in the AIP. The agency will consider all...

  11. Examining quality improvement programs: the case of Minnesota hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John R; Belohlav, James A; Cook, Lori S; Hays, Julie M

    2008-10-01

    To determine if there is a hierarchy of improvement program adoption by hospitals and outline that hierarchy. Primary data were collected in the spring of 2007 via e-survey from 210 individuals representing 109 Minnesota hospitals. Secondary data from 2006 were assembled from the Leapfrog database. As part of a larger survey, respondents were given a list of improvement programs and asked to identify those programs that are used in their hospital. DATA COLLECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Rasch Model Analysis was used to assess whether a unidimensional construct exists that defines a hospital's ability to implement performance improvement programs. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of the Rasch ability scores with Leapfrog Safe Practices Scores to validate the research findings. Principal Findings. The results of the study show that hospitals have widely varying abilities in implementing improvement programs. In addition, improvement programs present differing levels of difficulty for hospitals trying to implement them. Our findings also indicate that the ability to adopt improvement programs is important to the overall performance of hospitals. There is a hierarchy of improvement programs in the health care context. A hospital's ability to successfully adopt improvement programs is a function of its existing capabilities. As a hospital's capability increases, the ability to successfully implement higher level programs also increases.

  12. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    research , including a Business Cell; 87 Research Development, 88 Research Oversight, 89 and Research Compliance offices;90 and the Center...needed for DHP medical research , such as the Army’s Clinical and Translational Research Program Office, 38 the Navy’s Research Methods Training Program... research stated, “key infrastructure for a learning health system will encompass three core elements: data networks, methods , and workforce.” 221

  13. Airport Improvement Program (AIP) : reauthorization issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the PFC, within the broader context of airport capital development finance.5 After a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report descr...

  14. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T

    2011-03-01

    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic Improvements to TSA Spot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    supporting me in this program, and specifically, Assistant Administrators Robin Kane, John Sanders, and Chris McLaughlin for their sponsorship. I hope...analysis. Edited by Michael Borenstein, Larry V. Hedges, Julian P. T. Higgins , and Hannah R. Rothstein, 377–387. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2009

  16. 40 CFR 63.1035 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., piston, horizontal or vertical centrifugal, gear, bellows); pump manufacturer; seal type and manufacturer... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality improvement program for pumps... improvement program for pumps. (a) Criteria. If, on a 6-month rolling average, at least the greater of either...

  17. 40 CFR 63.176 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... type (e.g., piston, horizontal or vertical centrifugal, gear, bellows); pump manufacturer; seal type... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality improvement program for pumps... improvement program for pumps. (a) In Phase III, if, on a 6-month rolling average, the greater of either 10...

  18. 75 FR 22576 - Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.120A] Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program... the fiscal year (FY) 2009 grant slate for the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program. SUMMARY: The Secretary intends to use the grant slate developed in FY 2009 for the Minority Science and...

  19. DEVELOPING VENDOR IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM IN MALAYSIA AUTOMOTIVE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUKRIAH ABDULLAH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement Program seek to do evaluation well, request to become sufficiently versed in evaluation or to integrate on improvement perspective in all phase of performance, from needs assessment to implementation and evaluation itself. The purpose of this program in the automotive company is to assist vendor as global manufacturer in preparation towards ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA 2015. This development vendor improvement program emphasize on the downtime reduction to below 200 minutes per month with the ultimate end of improving not only program or solutions but also the organizations and customer. A practical approach either planned or unplanned by the automotive company require policies and procedures that address the same consideration on the downtime identification. 20 top bottom rank vendor were determined based on the downtime performance, followed by classification into different group based on severity. To execute the vendor improvement program three among 20 top bottom rank vendors were selected due to willingness to participate and ease of data access in the program. Selected vendors have high ranking in terms of downtime. The case study method involved an interview and plant observation. The used of secondary data from the automotive company, and previous researcher are also utilised. This improvement program assists the automobile manufacturer to improve its supplier’s performance. The vendor improvement program is implemented through a whole supplier operation assessment.

  20. Process Evaluation and Continuous Improvement in Community Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer V. Trachtenberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of using process evaluation to provide improvement plans in order to promote community youth programs is described. The core elements of this method include the following: (1 collection and analysis of baseline data, (2 feedback provided to programs describing their strengths and limitations, (3 programs provided with assistance in preparing improvement plans in regard to their baseline data, and (4 follow-up evaluation assessed program changes based on their improvement plans and baseline data. A case study of an inner-city neighborhood youth center is used to demonstrate this method.

  1. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  2. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  3. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  4. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, F. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Maces Bay, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  5. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  6. 5 Ways to Improve Tutoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    Tutoring has become a familiar tool that schools use to reinforce classroom teaching and improve student achievement. That's especially been the case because of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its provisions for supplemental education. Educators faced with developing or supporting tutoring services for students should consider five practical…

  7. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  8. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  9. Improved remote HEPA filtration development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E. III.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of the prototype development and hot cell mock-up testing program undertaken to adapt a commercial remote HEPA filter housing for use in the Process Facility Modification Project (PFMP). This program was initiated in response to the project design criteria and documentation that required the air from the hot cell environment to be exhausted through three stages of HEPA filtration. Due to the anticipated quantity of radioactive contamination captured by the first stage of filters, it was determined that the first stage would need to be located in a remotely operated and maintained shielded cell adjoining the primary hot cell areas. Commercially available remote filtration equipment was evaluated and candidate unit was identified, which could be developed into a suitable filter housing. A candidate unit was obtained from Flanders Filters, Inc. and a series of hot cell mock-up tests were identified in the 305 facility at the Hanford site. The results of these tests, and further interaction with the vendor, led to a prototype remote filter housing which satisfied most PFMP criteria and proved to be significantly superior to existing commercial units for remote operation/maintenance

  10. Program improvement and applications; Programmpflege und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hink, M.; Imke, U.; Pfrang, W.; Porscha, B.; Struwe, D.; Zimmerer, W.; Allan, P.

    1995-08-01

    An account is given about further improvements of the SAS4A-Ref. 94.R0 version of the HCDA code. They concern in particular the DEFORM fuel rod deformation module. For a validation of the new code version, various CABRI experiments have been calculated, especially tests with high burnup fuel rods. Progress was shown to be achieved, but the precise timing and location of the observed fuel failures is still hard to calculate. The work was performed in close cooperation with partners in France, Britain, and Japan. An important application concerns the CAPRA project of a reactor for actinide burning. Its behavior under ULOF conditions was analyzed using the improved SAS4A Ref. 94 R0 code. The core design turned out to tend toward a long-term coolable configuration even more so than the EFR core design would do in an ULOF. (orig.)

  11. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  12. Continuous quality improvement program for hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Christiansen, Tanya; Smith, Christopher; Squire Howden, Jane; Werle, Jason; Faris, Peter; Frank, Cy

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality of care and maximizing efficiency are priorities in hip and knee replacement, where surgical demand and costs increase as the population ages. The authors describe the integrated structure and processes from the Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Program for Hip and Knee Replacement Surgical Care and summarize lessons learned from implementation. The Triple Aim framework and 6 dimensions of quality care are overarching constructs of the CQI program. A validated, evidence-based clinical pathway that measures quality across the continuum of care was adopted. Working collaboratively, multidisciplinary experts embedded the CQI program into everyday practices in clinics across Alberta. Currently, 83% of surgeons participate in the CQI program, representing 95% of the total volume of hip and knee surgeries. Biannual reports provide feedback to improve care processes, infrastructure planning, and patient outcomes. CQI programs evaluating health care services inform choices to optimize care and improve efficiencies through continuous knowledge translation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  14. Construction Improvement for the Korean Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Construction of the nine Nuclear plants requires an enormous financial investment. The decision to build a nuclear unit is based on both economic and resource requirements. Korea has few natural resources to use for power generation so the use of diversified fuel sources is a part of the planning process. Nuclear has historically had economic advantages over the fossil fueled plant, however, this advantage has been reduced. This is mainly due to increasing decommissioning and waste disposal costs plus the financial outlays associated with gaining public acceptance of new nuclear units. One of the principal means to recover the economic advantage of a nuclear plant is to shorten the time needed for construction. Every extra day of construction costs large sums of money in interest and escalation expenses alone. The challenge is to shorten the construction period to the minimum feasible time and thereby reduce the financing costs. The methods that have to be employed to achieve this goal require the total commitment from the management of all entities involved in the program. Through the application of advanced management and construction techniques a new era in the construction of nuclear plants in Korea will occur. This will include changes to the methods used for managing, planning, licensing, designing and constructing the new plants. The ability to meet the aggressive plan for the construction of new nuclear power plants in Korea rests in the hands of the managers of all the parties involved. These men set all the rules by which the new plants will be constructed. It is their responsibility to tackle the current problems and develop the solutions to enable the plan to be realized. The changes suggested within this paper are major, but the potential benefits will allow the Korean Nuclear Industry to advance into the twenty first Century as a leader. The number of fully trained specialists needed to make this happen will not appear overnight. They will have to be

  15. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Keywords: Ethnoveterinary medicine, Ethnoveterinary knowledge, Nigeria, Oyo State, Sheep. Received 14-10-2012 ... can be used to provide economical solutions to improve productivity of ... Other factors included road traffic accidents, theft.

  16. Developing an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Quality Improvement Leadership Training Program for Clinicians: The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandhya K; Carballo, Victoria; Cummings, Brian M; Millham, Frederick; Jacobson, Joseph O

    Although there has been tremendous progress in quality improvement (QI) education for students and trainees in recent years, much less has been published regarding the training of active clinicians in QI. The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program (CPIP) is a 6-day experiential program. Interdisciplinary teams complete a QI project framed by didactic sessions, interactive exercises, case-based problem sessions, and a final presentation. A total of 239 teams composed of 516 individuals have graduated CPIP. On completion, participant satisfaction scores average 4.52 (scale 1-5) and self-reported understanding of QI concepts improved. At 6 months after graduation, 66% of survey respondents reported sustained QI activity. Three opportunities to improve the program have been identified: (1) increasing faculty participation through online and tiered course offerings, (2) integrating the faculty-focused program with the trainee curriculum, and (3) developing a postgraduate curriculum to address the challenges of sustained improvement.

  17. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  18. Crash Data Improvement Program : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    This report provides a summary of the Crash Data Improvement Program (CDIP) peer : exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Office of Safety : on August 4, 2011. The peer exchange was hosted in conjunction with the annual :...

  19. Louisiana Airport System Plan Five-Year Capital Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Louisiana Airport System Plan (LASP) Five-Year-Capital Improvement Program (CIP) is a development plan for all commercial service, reliever, and general aviation airports in Louisiana. It is a detailed listing of potential projects based on the a...

  20. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  1. Characteristics of Volunteer Coaches in a Clinical Process Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katharine E; Barysauskas, Constance M; Carballo, Victoria; Kalibatas, Orinta; Rao, Sandhya K; Jacobson, Joseph O; Cummings, Brian M

    The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program provides quality improvement training for clinicians and administrators, utilizing graduates as volunteer peer coaches for mentorship. We sought to understand the factors associated with volunteer coach participation and gain insight into how to improve and sustain this program. Review of coach characteristics from course database and survey of frequent coaches. Out of 516 Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program graduates from March 2010 to June 2015, 117 (23%) individuals volunteered as coaches. Sixty-one (52%) individuals coached once, 31 (27%) coached twice, and 25 (21%) coached 3 or more times. There were statistically significant associations between coaching and occupation (P = .005), Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program course taken (P = .001), and course location (P = .007). Administrators were more likely to coach than physicians (odds ratio: 1.75, P = .04). Reasons for volunteering as a coach included further development of skills, desire to stay involved with program, and enjoying mentoring. Reasons for repeated coaching included maintaining quality improvement skills, expanding skills to a wider variety of projects, and networking. A peer graduate volunteer coach model is a viable strategy for interprofessional quality improvement mentorship. Strategies that support repeat coaching and engage clinicians should be promoted to ensure an experienced and diversified group of coaches.

  2. Implications of Continuous Quality Improvement for Program Evaluation and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melvin M.; Pines, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are likely to have for evaluation. CQI, often known as total quality management, offers a structured approach to the analysis of an organization's processes and improvement that should provide advantages to evaluators once they have gained experience with the approach.…

  3. Planning, Conducting, and Documenting Data Analysis for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby; Taylor, Cornelia; Derrington, Taletha; Lucas, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 document was developed to help technical assistance (TA) providers and state staff define and limit the scope of data analysis for program improvement efforts, including the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP); develop a plan for data analysis; document alternative hypotheses and additional analyses as they are generated; and…

  4. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  5. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  6. Closing the Loop on a Continuous Program Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Vickie; Booth, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The WebBSIT, a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, is a fully online degree offered through a consortium of five University System of Georgia institutions. This paper begins by summarizing the change management system developed for continuous program improvement. Analysis of data should drive improvement, closing the loop. The balance…

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis and sheep herding in Peru: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Veronika; Westgard, Christopher M; Bayer, Angela M; García, Patricia J

    2017-07-06

    The parasitic disease, cystic echinococcosis (CE), is prevalent in low-income, livestock-raising communities and 2000 new people will be diagnosed this year in South America alone. The disease usually passes from livestock to dogs to humans, making it a zoonotic disease and part of the One Health Initiative. Control of CE has been infamously difficult; no endemic areas of South America have succeeded in maintaining sustainable eradication of the parasite. For the current study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of rural sheep farmers and other community leaders regarding their sheep herding practices and perspectives about a control program for CE. We also hope to identify potential barriers and opportunities that could occur in a control program. The authors conducted Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) surveys and semi-structured interviews in rural communities in the highlands of Peru. The KAP surveys were administered to 51 local shepherds, and the semi-structured interviews were administered to 40 individuals, including shepherds, community leaders, and health care providers. We found that the shepherds already deworm their sheep at a median of 2 times per year (N = 49, range 2-4) and have a mean willingness-to-pay of U.S. $ 0.60 for dog dewormer medication (N = 20, range = 0.00- $2.00 USD). We were not able to learn the deworming agent or agents that were being used, for neither sheep nor dogs. Additionally, 90% of shepherds slaughter their own sheep (N = 49). We also learned that the main barriers to an effective control program include: lack of education about the cause and control options for CE, accessibility to the distant communities and sparse grazing pastures, and a lack of economic incentive. Findings suggest it may be feasible to develop an effective CE control program which can be used to create an improved protocol to control CE in the region.

  8. PENINGKATAN USAHA TERNAK DOMBA MELALUI DIVERSIFIKASI TANAMAN PANGAN: EKONOMI PENDAPATAN PETANI (IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE SHEEP THROUGH CROPS DIVERSIFICATION: ECONOMIC INCOME FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusdiana dan L. Praharani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPeningkatan usaha ternak domba dan tanaman pangan dapat dilakukan pada semua agroekosistem wilayah lahan kering dataran tinggi maupun dataran rendah, baik di lahan sawah, lahan tegalan, lahan perkebunan, bahkan lahan di sekitar hutan. Diversifikasi usaha ternak dan tanaman pangan di Indonedia berpariasi,populasi ternak domba 2013 sekitar 12.7 juta ekor dan produksi ubi kayu 2013 sekitar 21 juta ton. Mengingat basarrnya peran petani terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi, perlu dilakukan upaya peningkatan produktivitas,agar lebih produktif dan efisien. Tujuan tulisan untuk mengetahui peningkatan usaha pemeliharaan ternak domba melalui diversifikasi tanaman pangan dalam analisis ekonomi pendapatan, dengan melakukan diversifikasi usaha dapat mengurangi risiko dan tetap memberikan potensi tingkat keuntungan terhadap petani. Diversifikasi ternak dan tatanam, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemeliharaan skala  5 ekor domba jantan dapat dicapai pada nilai penjualan BEP Produksi sekitar 4,17 ekor dan BEP harga jual sekitar Rp.1.043.625/ekor, keuntungan bersih sekitar  Rp.1.121.875/ periode, dengan nilai B/C sekitar 1,19, usaha tanaman ubi kayu varietas mentega dan arsin dengan luas sekitar 2 ha, keuntungan ubi kayu varietas mentega sekitar Rp.8.414.085/ha/tahun, keuntungan ubi kayu varietas Arsin sekitar Rp.6.921.705/ha/tahun,nilai B/C ratio, sekitar 2,7 dan 2,6 tidak berbeda nyata hasil yang diperoleh petani. Usaha secara diversifikasi ternyata semakin penting untuk diusahakan oleh petani, karena sumber penghasilan yang dapat di degarakan sebagai roda ekonomi petani di pedesaan perhitungan biaya dan investasi, ternyata usaha ternk domba dan ubi kayu sebagai produk utama secara teknis sangat layak, ekonomis dan secara ekonomi finansial cukup baik, artinya usaha dengan melakukan diversifikasisangat  layak untuk dilanjutkan.ABSTRACTIncrease of sheep and crops can be performed in all dryland agroecosystem plateau region and lowlands, both in the paddy field, dry

  9. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  10. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  11. Gap Analysis Approach for Construction Safety Program Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanet Aksorn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve construction site safety, emphasis has been placed on the implementation of safety programs. In order to successfully gain from safety programs, factors that affect their improvement need to be studied. Sixteen critical success factors of safety programs were identified from safety literature, and these were validated by safety experts. This study was undertaken by surveying 70 respondents from medium- and large-scale construction projects. It explored the importance and the actual status of critical success factors (CSFs. Gap analysis was used to examine the differences between the importance of these CSFs and their actual status. This study found that the most critical problems characterized by the largest gaps were management support, appropriate supervision, sufficient resource allocation, teamwork, and effective enforcement. Raising these priority factors to satisfactory levels would lead to successful safety programs, thereby minimizing accidents.

  12. Motivation for Evaluation: A roadmap for Improving Program Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Bohon, W.; Bravo, T. K.; Dorr, P. M.; Hubenthal, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Sumy, D. F.; Welti, R.; Davis, H. B.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past year, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program has undertaken a new effort to increase the rigor with which it evaluates its programs and products. More specifically we sought to make evaluation an integral part of our EPO staff's work, enable staff to demonstrate why we do the activities we do, enhance the impact or our products and programs, and empower staff to be able to make evidence-based claims. The challenges we faced included a modest budget, finding an applicable approach to both new and legacy programs ranging from formal and informal education to public outreach, and implementing the process without overwhelming staff. The Collaborative Impact Analysis Method (IAM; Davis and Scalice, 2015) was selected as it allowed us to combine the EPO staff's knowledge of programs, audiences and content with the expertise of an outside evaluation expert, through consultations and a qualitative rubric assessing the initial state of each product/program's evaluation. Staff then developed action plans to make incremental improvements to the evaluation of programs over time. We have found that this approach promotes the development of staff knowledge and skills regarding evaluation, provides a common language among staff, increases enthusiasm to collect and share data, encourages discussions of evaluative approaches when planning new activities, and improves each program's ability to capture the intended and unintended effects on the behaviors, attitudes, skills, interests, and/or knowledge of users/participants. We will share the initial IAM Scores for products and programs in the EPO portfolio, along with examples of the action plans for several key products and programs, and the impact that implementing those actions plans has had on our evaluations. Davis, H. & Scalice, D. (2015). Evaluate the Impact of your Education and Outreach Program Using the Quantitative Collaborative Impact Analysis

  13. Inpo programs for improvement of nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward Moore, C.

    1989-01-01

    The talk shows how key INPO programs help foster improved nuclear power operations. The talk focuses on the results being seen from six key efforts: evaluations, training and accreditation, assistance, events analysis and information exchange, human performance and maintenance. The talk stresses that all INPO programs are geared toward enhanced performance and that progress in key performance areas since 1980 shows that INPO and U.S. industry efforts are achieving desired results

  14. Report: EPA Improved Its National Security Information Program, but Some Improvements Still Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0196, June 2, 2016. The EPA will continue to improve its national security information program by completing information classification guides that can be used uniformly and consistently throughout the agency.

  15. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  16. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  17. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  18. The program of continuous improvements in factory in Juzbado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, M.

    2015-01-01

    This articles describes the historical development of the continuous improvement program at Juzbado Factory, since its beginning to nowadays. The evolution throughout the ideas of Total Quality, ISO, EFQM, Six Sigma, and so on, leading to the present situation in which all these tools and methodologies live together is shown. all this has led to a philosophy and business culture focused on safety, quality and continuous improvement. (Author)

  19. Campus Partnerships Improve Impact Documentation of Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships with other campus college units can provide ways of improving Extension's impact documentation. Nutrition programs have relied upon knowledge gained and people's self report of behavior change. Partnering with the College of Nursing, student nurses provided blood screenings during the pre and 6 month follow-up of a pilot heart risk…

  20. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  1. Meeting the Pepsi Challenge: Preparing Evaluation Programs for Scholastic Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mona S.

    This document provides guidelines for preparing evaluation programs for scholastic improvement. The philosophy underlying assessment and accountability is discussed, with specific reference to the positive and negative aspects of assessment. The design of a curriculum evaluation model is presented, including goal identification, data gathering,…

  2. Improving Retention and Enrollment Forecasting in Part-Time Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joel; Bray, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model that can be used to analyze student enrollment data and can give insights for improving retention of part-time students and refining institutional budgeting and planning efforts. Adult higher-education programs are often challenged in that part-time students take courses less reliably than full-time students. For…

  3. A 30-Minute Physical Education Program Improves Students' Executive Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesch, Sabine; Walk, Laura; Spitzer, Manfred; Kammer, Thomas; Lainburg, Alyona; Heim, Rudiger; Hille, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is not only beneficial to physical health but also to cognitive functions. In particular, executive functions that are closely related to learning achievement can be improved by acute and recurring physical activity. We examined the effects of a single 30-min physical education program in contrast to a 5-min movement break on…

  4. Using "Kaizen" to Improve Graduate Business School Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the applicability of "kaizen" in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: "Kaizen" process was used for ten courses contained in a part-time executive MS degree program in management. Findings: "Kaizen" was found to be an effective process for improving graduate business school courses and the value proposition for…

  5. Improving Reading Comprehension Skills through the SCRATCH Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatga, Erdal; Ersoy, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15- week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level…

  6. Continuous improvement program in ENUSA: personnel participation and six sigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Navarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of its activities ENUSA has been a company committed with the quality of its products and services. To talk about quality is something inherent in ENUSA's daily work ENUSA's position in the market depends on its capacity to satisfy customers expectations with the best products and services, as a result of an efficient management of its processes. The word quality in its broadest sense, means that any activity can be improved. ENUSA has implemented a continuous improvement program as part of its company change project. That program consists of six basic steps: 1.- Managers commitment. 2.- Organization for continuous improvement. 3.- Quality goals. 4.- Training and informing. 5.- Personnel participation. 6.- Methodology. ENUSA has introduced these six steps during 1997-98 period. It is important to point out the commitment degree at all the company levels, focusing the organization to the continuous improvement in a multifunctional way, following the business processes: - Board of Directors - Quality Steering Committee - Quality Improvement Groups (GMC) - Quality Operative Groups (GOC) - Suggestions Mailboxes The following GMC's have been set up and are operative. - Manufacturing GMC - Supplies GMC - Installation GMC - Design GMC - Quality System GM - Projects GMC - Administrative GMC These GMC's have established thirty-six Quality Operative Groups which carry out the improvement projects. The methodology chosen by ENUSA is known as ''SIX SIGMA''. Six sigma programs have proved their huge power in big companies as MOTOROLA and, recently, GE being recognized in all the quality fields. It is, by itself, a change program in which a quality improvement methods is structured with an excellent view of processes, products and services. (Author)

  7. An Improvement for Fuzzy Stochastic Goal Programming Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Cheng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the solution process for linear programming problems under a fuzzy and random environment to transform fuzzy stochastic goal programming problems into standard linear programming problems. A previous paper that revised the solution process with the lower-side attainment index motivated our work. In this paper, we worked on a revision for both-side attainment index to amend its definition and theorems. Two previous examples were used to examine and demonstrate our improvement over previous results. Our findings not only improve the previous paper with both-side attainment index, but also provide a theoretical extension from lower-side attainment index to the both-side attainment index.

  8. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F 2α , just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  9. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  11. Improving utility conservation programs: outcomes, interventions, and evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condelli, L; Archer, D; Aronson, E; Curbow, B; McLeod, B; Pettigrew, T F; White, L T; Yates, S

    1984-06-01

    Four major California utility companies have active energy conservation programs mandated by the State's Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). These companies evaluate their programs and send reports of the evaluations to the CPUC. A review of 213 of these reports revealed a marketing research approach toward promoting conservation. Advertising and informational campaigns characterize most programs, and attitudes and self-reported behavior were the major outcome measures. This approach is shown to be ineffective. Suggestions for improvement include: (1) the use of actual energy consumption as the primary outcome measure in evaluating conservation programs; (2) the abandonment of conventional advertising, and the use of it only for the promotion of ''hard'' interventions; (3) increased use of social diffusion methods to disseminate information; (4) the design of more effective educational material by incorporating cognitive social psychological principles; and (5) the utilization of ''hard'' interventions that have a direct, verifiable link to conservation.

  12. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants' ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed.

  13. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  14. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  15. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  16. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  17. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  18. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  19. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  20. Improved patency and reduced intimal hyperplasia in PTFE grafts with luminal immobilized heparin compared with standard PTFE grafts at six months in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G; Laxdal, E; Ellensen, V; Jonung, T; Mattsson, E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts with luminal coating of immobilized heparin to that of standard PTFE grafts at six months. Twenty-eight common carotid arteries in fourteen sheep were bypassed with heparin-coated PTFE grafts (6 mm diameter, 6 cm length) on one side and standard PTFE grafts on the other. The grafts were explanted after six months. The thickness of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in open grafts was measured with histomorphometrical methods. Two of 14 heparinized PTFE grafts and nine of 14 grafts in the control PTFE-group were occluded at explantation (P=0.006). Six-month patency rates for heparinized PTFE grafts and for standard PTFE grafts were 86% and 36%, respectively. Mean graft anastomotic IH thickness in open grafts were 0.074 mm for heparinized PTFE grafts and 0.259 mm for PTFE-grafts (P=0.006). PTFE grafts with luminal coating containing immobilized heparin had significantly better patency and recruited less intimal hyperplasia than standard PTFE grafts at six months.

  1. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Takechi, Sayuri; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31-64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81) of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease.

  2. Improving Urban Minority Girls' Health Via Community Summer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Burdette, Kimberly A; Ward, Amanda K; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2017-12-01

    Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests and repeated-measure analyses of variance with significance at the p time of over 2 h/day and dairy consumption when engaged in structured summer programming. All improvements were independent of weight status and age, and African-American participants evidenced greater changes in physical activity during programming. The study concludes that structured, community-based summertime programming may be associated with fewer obesogenic behaviors in low-income urban youth and may be a powerful tool to address disparities in weight gain and obesity among high-risk samples.

  3. Image Quality Improvement after Implementation of a CT Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Sung; Jung, Seung Eun; Choi, Byung Gil; Shin, Yu Ri; Hwang, Seong Su; Ku, Young Mi; Lim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Jae Mun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate any improvement in the quality of abdominal CTs after the utilization of the nationally based accreditation program. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. We retrospectively analyzed 1,011 outside abdominal CTs, from 2003 to 2007. We evaluated images using a fill-up sheet form of the national accreditation program, and subjectively by grading for the overall CT image quality. CT scans were divided into two categories according to time periods; before and after the implementation of the accreditation program. We compared CT scans between two periods according to parameters pertaining to the evaluation of images. We determined whether there was a correlation between the results of a subjective assessment of the image quality and the evaluation scores of the clinical image. The following parameters were significantly different after the implementation of the accreditation program: identifying data, display parameters, scan length, spatial and contrast resolution, window width and level, optimal contrast enhancement, slice thickness, and total score. The remaining parameters were not significantly different between scans obtained from the two different periods: scan parameters, film quality, and artifacts. After performing the CT accreditation program, the quality of the outside abdominal CTs show marked improvement, especially for the parameters related to the scanning protocol

  4. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  5. Improving Indicators in a Brazilian Hospital Through Quality-Improvement Programs Based on STS Database Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gabriel Melo de Barros e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To report the initial changes after quality-improvement programs based on STS-database in a Brazilian hospital. METHODS: Since 2011 a Brazilian hospital has joined STS-Database and in 2012 multifaceted actions based on STS reports were implemented aiming reductions in the time of mechanical ventilation and in the intensive care stay and also improvements in evidence-based perioperative therapies among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. RESULTS: All the 947 patients submitted to coronary artery bypass graft surgeries from July 2011 to June 2014 were analyzed and there was an improvement in all the three target endpoints after the implementation of the quality-improvement program but the reduction in time on mechanical ventilation was not statistically significant after adjusting for prognostic characteristics. CONCLUSION: The initial experience with STS registry in a Brazilian hospital was associated with improvement in most of targeted quality-indicators.

  6. Parametric Study for MOV Performance Improvement Using PPM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungho; Seon, Juhyoung; Han, Bongsub [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power plants mainly use Air Operated Valve(hereinafter referred to as AOV) and Motor Operator Valve(hereinafter referred to as MOV) for protecting system, blocking and controlling flow. Field test(static, dynamic test) results and performance prediction program are used to evaluate if MOV currently installed on nuclear power plants has the operational performance. The improvement of operating performance for Flexible Gate valve was confirmed on changing input variables of performance program(PPM). here are several methods through reviewing design basis, changes operating procedures and maintenance work of stem(or packing, etc.) to improve operating performance of MOV generally installed in the nuclear power plants. This study verified the changes of the MOV operating performance through the improvement of stem and hydraulic parts(seat, guide etc.). Especially, MOV operating performance was much greater improved when the Disk Seat Angle was decreasing. Generally, improvement work to minimize friction of seat, disk and guide is limited and dynamic diagnostic testing has to be performed with change in valve factor for improvement of hydraulic parts.

  7. Streamlined library programming how to improve services and cut costs

    CERN Document Server

    Porter-Reynolds, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    In their roles as community centers, public libraries offer many innovative and appealing programs; but under current budget cuts, library resources are stretched thin. With slashed budgets and limited staff hours, what can libraries do to best serve their publics? This how-to guide provides strategies for streamlining library programming in public libraries while simultaneously maintaining-or even improving-quality delivery. The wide variety of principles and techniques described can be applied on a selective basis to libraries of all sizes. Based upon the author's own extensive experience as

  8. Teacher training program for medical students: improvements needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diggele C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Christie van Diggele,1 Annette Burgess,2 Craig Mellis21The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Sydney Medical School – Central, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaIntroduction: Skills in peer teaching, assessment, and feedback are increasingly documented internationally as required graduate attributes in medicine. Yet these skills are rarely taught in medical schools. We sought to design and deliver a short but effective teacher training (TT program for medical students that could be easily integrated into the professional development curriculum. This study sought to evaluate such a pilot program, based on student perception.Methods: The study took place at a major metropolitan teaching hospital, where 38 medical students were invited to attend a voluntary, newly designed four-module TT program. In total, 23/38 (61% of invited students attended. Mixed methods were used for evaluation. Questionnaires were completed by 21/23 (91% of students, and 6/23 (26% of students participated in a focus group.Results: Students reported that as a result of the program they felt more confident to facilitate small group teaching activities and to provide feedback to peers using the suggested frameworks. Students would like the program to contain more in-depth educational theory and to allow a more time for small group learning activities. They would also like to see opportunities for participation across all clinical schools.Conclusion: The TT program was successful in increasing student awareness of educational theory and practice, thereby improving their confidence in teaching and assessing their peers and making them feel better prepared for their careers as medical practitioners. Key improvements to the program are needed in terms of more in-depth theory and more time spent on small group learning. This might be achieved by complementing the course with e-learning.Keywords: teacher training, medical students, peer teaching, peer

  9. Quality Improvement in Otolaryngology Residency: Survey of Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N

    2016-02-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment Review focuses on the responsibility of the sponsoring institution for quality and patient safety. Very little information is known regarding the status of quality improvement (QI) education during otolaryngology training. The purpose of this survey is to evaluate the extent of resident and faculty participation in QI and identify opportunities for both resident curriculum and faculty development. Cross-sectional survey A 15-item survey was distributed to all 106 otolaryngology program directors. The survey was developed after an informal review of the literature regarding education in QI and patient safety. Questions were directed at the format and content of the QI curriculum, as well as barriers to implementation. There was a 39% response rate. Ninety percent of responding program directors considered education in QI important or very important to a resident's future success. Only 23% of responding programs contained an educational curriculum in QI, and only 33% monitored residents' individual outcome measures. Barriers to implementation of a QI program included inadequate number of faculty with expertise in QI (75%) and competing resident educational demands (90%). Every program director considered morbidity and mortality conferences as an integral component in QI education. Program directors recognize the importance of QI in otolaryngology practice. Unfortunately, this survey identifies a distinct lack of resources in support of these educational goals. The results highlight the need to generate a comprehensive and stepwise approach to QI for faculty development and resident instruction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  11. Atrial electrogram interpretation improves after an innovative education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Julie L; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To avoid adverse patient outcomes from inappropriate treatment, it is recommended that an atrial electrogram (AEG) be recorded whenever atrial arrhythmias develop in patients after cardiac surgery. However, AEGs are not commonly performed because nurses lack knowledge about differentiating atrial rhythms on AEGs. To investigate whether completing a novel online evidence-based education program on interpreting AEGs would improve critical care nurses' AEG interpretation. Specialized critical care nurses were taught about obtaining and interpreting atrial rhythms on AEGs using a 42-minute online mini-movie. AEG interpretation was assessed pre and two and eight weeks post-intervention. AEG interpretation increased two weeks post intervention and was retained at eight weeks. Some participants used this newly acquired knowledge to interpret arrhythmias that were not taught during the education program. Accurate interpretation of AEGs is an easy skill for specialized critical care nurses to learn via an online education program.

  12. Student Feedback of Career Development Workshops for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, J. E.; Pressley, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    A number of techniques are employed each year to evaluate the effectiveness of and to identify opportunities for improvement in the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (LAR) REU program at Washington State University. For example, information gathered from pre-/post-surveys and pre-/post-interviews provides information regarding students' perceptions and levels of experience with the scientific process, career and academic goals, and motivation for joining the REU program. Poster session rubrics assess students' abilities to summarize their experiences in a professional setting. Alumni surveys gauge former participants' perceptions of the REU experience. One seemingly simple and highly useful, but often less documented, component of the evaluation process for program improvement is the use of workshop feedback forms. Weekly workshops are designed to provide students with enhanced knowledge and skills in the area of atmospheric chemistry as well as research design skills, academic and career guidance, and presentation skills. According to previous years' evaluation reports, workshops are largely beneficial to students for learning new skills. Yet, students suggest a number of recommendations that may benefit any REU program, such as: providing slides beforehand to provide a framework for the upcoming workshop, having instructors speak in more student-friendly language, covering higher-level topics, and including more hands-on, instructor-guided practice during the workshops. Thus, workshop feedback forms provide meaningful feedback to increase learning outcomes and enhance the REU student experience. This presentation will offer ideas gathered from over five years of workshop feedback forms that, while somewhat specific to workshops offered for the LAR REU, can offer faculty and PIs insight into the student experience, enhancing their ability to improve programming and achieve greater learning outcomes.

  13. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....

  14. An improvement of the child acute respiratory infection treatment program

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Simovan'yan; E. E. Badalyants; L. P. Sizyakina; A. A. Lebedenko; V. B. Denisenko; M. A. Kim

    2013-01-01

    High morbidity rate, frequent development of severe complication forms, unfavorable remote effects for children’s health, insufficient efficacy of the used acute respiratory infection therapy schemes necessitate a treatment program improvement for this group of diseases. A complex clinical-laboratory examination of 72 3-6-year-old children with acute nasopharyngites and bronchites was conducted. Dependence of the disease’s clinical form and course peculiarities from the premorbid setting stat...

  15. Joint program for the improvement of bimetallic weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, M.; Rattoni, B.; Coquillay; Samman; Billet; Bodson; Olivera

    1985-02-01

    The aim of this program is to improve the in-service monitoring of austenitic and bimetallic welds in PWR Main Coolant Systems. This paper presents the work performed on the bimetallic weld connecting the safe end to the reactor vessel nozzle: suitability of ultrasonic testing for determining the size and location of defects, automation and calibration, gamma-ray examination in three different planes

  16. Process improvement program evolves into compliance program at an integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyk, R C; Hylton, P G

    1998-09-01

    An integrated delivery system discovered questionable practices when it undertook a process-improvement initiative for its revenue-to-cash cycle. These discoveries served as a wake-up call to the organization that it needed to develop a comprehensive corporate compliance program. The organization engaged legal counsel to help it establish such a program. A corporate compliance officer was hired, and a compliance committee was set up. They worked with counsel to develop the structure and substance of the program and establish a corporate code of conduct that became a part of the organization's policies and procedures. Teams were formed in various areas of the organization to review compliance-related activities and suggest improvements. Clinical and nonclinical staff attended mandatory educational sessions about the program. By approaching compliance systematically, the organization has put itself in an excellent position to avoid fraudulent and abusive activities- and the government scrutiny they invite.

  17. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  18. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  19. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Kirsten; Wood, Charlotte; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62-102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4) or TP (20 mg; n = 7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (Pfetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (Pfetal TP (Pfetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS.

  20. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  1. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  2. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  3. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  4. Criteria for the Evaluation of Quality Improvement Programs and the Use of Quality Improvement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a set of criteria to be used by psychologists in evaluating quality improvement programs (QIPs) that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities. These criteria also address the privacy and confidentiality issues evoked by the intended use of patient…

  5. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kokoro Sano,1 Motoko Kawashima,1 Sayuri Takechi,2 Masaru Mimura,2 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. Materials and methods: We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31–64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results: The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81 of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. Conclusion: In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye, exercise, office workers, cognitive behavioral therapy

  6. Home visit program improves technique survival in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesca; Adıbelli, Z; Mason, G; Nayak, A; Ariyanon, W; Rettore, E; Crepaldi, Carlo; Rodighiero, Mariapia; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a home therapy, and technique survival is related to the adherence to PD prescription at home. The presence of a home visit program could improve PD outcomes. We evaluated its effects on clinical outcome during 1 year of follow-up. This was a case-control study. The case group included all 96 patients who performed PD in our center on January 1, 2013, and who attended a home visit program; the control group included all 92 patients who performed PD on January 1, 2008. The home visit program consisted of several additional visits to reinforce patients' confidence in PD management in their own environment. Outcomes were defined as technique failure, peritonitis episode, and hospitalization. Clinical and dialysis features were evaluated for each patient. The case group was significantly older (p = 0.048), with a lower grade of autonomy (p = 0.033), but a better hemoglobin level (p = 0.02) than the control group. During the observational period, we had 11 episodes of technique failure. We found a significant reduction in the rate of technique failure in the case group (p = 0.004). Furthermore, survival analysis showed a significant extension of PD treatment in the patients supported by the home visit program (52 vs. 48.8 weeks, p = 0.018). We did not find any difference between the two groups in terms of peritonitis and hospitalization rate; however, trends toward a reduction of Gram-positive peritonitis rates as well as prevalence and duration of hospitalization related to PD problems were identified in the case group. The retrospective nature of the analysis was a limitation of this study. The home visit program improves the survival of PD patients and could reduce the rate of Gram-positive peritonitis and hospitalization. Video Journal Club "Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco" at http://www.karger.com/?doi=365168.

  7. Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study using a tested questionnaire was carried out across Algeria between January and June 2014. Our investigation demonstrated that of the 150 flocks visited, 21 were positive for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) with an overall flock prevalence of 14% (95% CI 11.08-16.92%) suggesting that SPGP is endemic in Algeria. Our results showed also that the disease appears only in sheep and no case affecting goats has been reported. For the risk factor analysis, univariate analysis of variables followed by a multiple logistic regression identified steppe region (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 0.87-2.57; P = 0.037), large flocks (OR = 2. 19, 95% CI 1.02-3.36; P = 0.027), and transhumance (OR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.59-5.34; P = 0.021) as risk factors in the spread of the disease. Furthermore, our study revealed that the use of vaccination as preventive measures in the selected flocks decreased the odds for SPGP positivity by 5.78 (95% CI 2.22-9.34; P < 0.001) times compared to non vaccinated flocks. In conclusion, our findings documented an evidence of a widespread distribution and endemic establishment of the SPGP in Algerian sheep population despite the annual vaccination program. Consequently, the vaccination must cover all the Algerian sheep population to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with outbreak episodes.

  8. Applying national survey results for strategic planning and program improvement: the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Susan; Piccinino, Linda; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-02-01

    Since the 1970s, the federal government has spearheaded major national education programs to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. These prevention and disease management programs communicate critical information to the public, those affected by the disease, and health care providers. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the leading federal program on diabetes sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), uses primary and secondary quantitative data and qualitative audience research to guide program planning and evaluation. Since 2006, the NDEP has filled the gaps in existing quantitative data sources by conducting its own population-based survey, the NDEP National Diabetes Survey (NNDS). The NNDS is conducted every 2–3 years and tracks changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice indicators in key target audiences. This article describes how the NDEP has used the NNDS as a key component of its evaluation framework and how it applies the survey results for strategic planning and program improvement. The NDEP's use of the NNDS illustrates how a program evaluation framework that includes periodic population-based surveys can serve as an evaluation model for similar national health education programs.

  9. Work engagement in employees at professional improvement programs in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizangela Gianini Gonsalez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the levels of engagement at work in enhancement programs and professionals training in health. Method: A cross-sectional study with 82 health professionals enhancement programs and improvement of a public institution in the State of São Paulo, using the Utrech Work Engagement Scale (UWES, a self-administered questionnaire composed of seventeen self-assessment items in three dimensions: vigor, dedication and absorption. The scores were calculated according to the statistical model proposed in the Preliminary Manual UWES. Results: Engagement levels were too high on the force, high dedication and dimension in general score, and medium in size to 71.61% absorption, 58.03%, 53.75% and 51.22% of workers, respectively. The professionals present positive relationship with the work; they are responsible, motivated and dedicated to the job and to the patients. Conclusion: Reinforces the importance of studies that evaluate positive aspects of the relationship between professionals and working environment, contributing to strengthen the programs of improvement, advancing the profile of professionals into the labour market.

  10. Effect of generic issues program on improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, M. R.; Kauffman, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) identifies (by its assessment of plant operation) certain issues involving public health and safety, the common defense and security, or the environment that could affect multiple entities under NRC jurisdiction. The Generic Issues Program (GIP) addresses the resolution of these Generic Issues (GIs). The resolution of these issues may involve new or revised rules, new or revised guidance, or revised interpretation of rules or guidance that affect nuclear power plant licensees, nuclear material certificate holders, or holders of other regulatory approvals. U.S. NRC provides information related to the past and ongoing GIP activities to the general public by the use of three main resources, namely NUREG-0933, 'Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, ' Generic Issues Management Control System (GIMCS), and GIP public web page. GIP information resources provide information such as historical information on resolved GIs, current status of the open GIs, policy documents, program procedures, GIP annual and quarterly reports and the process to contact GIP and propose a GI This paper provides an overview of the GIP and several examples of safety improvements resulting from the resolution of GIs. In addition, the paper provides a brief discussion of a few recent GIs to illustrate how the program functions to improve safety. (authors)

  11. Improvements in Spectrum's fit to program data tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiane, Severin G; Marsh, Kimberly; Grantham, Kelsey; Crichlow, Shawna; Caceres, Karen; Stover, John

    2017-04-01

    The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS-supported Spectrum software package (Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA) is used by most countries worldwide to monitor the HIV epidemic. In Spectrum, HIV incidence trends among adults (aged 15-49 years) are derived by either fitting to seroprevalence surveillance and survey data or generating curves consistent with program and vital registration data, such as historical trends in the number of newly diagnosed infections or people living with HIV and AIDS related deaths. This article describes development and application of the fit to program data (FPD) tool in Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS' 2016 estimates round. In the FPD tool, HIV incidence trends are described as a simple or double logistic function. Function parameters are estimated from historical program data on newly reported HIV cases, people living with HIV or AIDS-related deaths. Inputs can be adjusted for proportions undiagnosed or misclassified deaths. Maximum likelihood estimation or minimum chi-squared distance methods are used to identify the best fitting curve. Asymptotic properties of the estimators from these fits are used to estimate uncertainty. The FPD tool was used to fit incidence for 62 countries in 2016. Maximum likelihood and minimum chi-squared distance methods gave similar results. A double logistic curve adequately described observed trends in all but four countries where a simple logistic curve performed better. Robust HIV-related program and vital registration data are routinely available in many middle-income and high-income countries, whereas HIV seroprevalence surveillance and survey data may be scarce. In these countries, the FPD tool offers a simpler, improved approach to estimating HIV incidence trends.

  12. Iraqi Police Development Program: Opportunities for Improved Program Accountability and Budget Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    support, and aviation) raise red flags about the program’s fund requirements. This report identifies opportunities for improved program...tum now to the PSC audit coordination issue you raised. SIGlR unfailingly coordinates aJI of its State-related audits with State OIG prior to

  13. The soybean and mungbean improvement programs at AVRDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugasundaram, S.; Ahn, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. and mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek are included in the Legume Program for improvement. Germplasm collection in soybean and mungbean are 9,524 and 5,108 respectively. Developing improved selections with early, uniform maturity, high yield, wide adaptability and resistance to diseases and insects are the major breeding objectives for the tropics and subtropics. Genetic diversity and genetic resources are available in the germplasm for most of the desired traits both in soybean as well as mungbean. However, for traits such as soybean rust resistance in soybean and resistance to insects in mungbean are rare. Limited amount of radiation breeding is being employed in cooperation with Korean Atomic Energy Agency to obtain desirable genes in both species. A number of AVRDC identified accessions and breeding lines are being used by the national programs to develop improved cultivars. AVRDC developed breeding selections have been released as new cultivars in Costa Rica, Fiji, Korea, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. (author)

  14. LWR-PV Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program review graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Gutherie, G.L.

    1979-10-01

    A primary objective of the multilaboratory program is to prepare an updated and improved set of dosimetry, damage correlation, and the associated reactor analysis ASTM standards for LWR-PV irradiation surveillance programs. Supporting this objective are a series of analytical and experimental validation and calibration studies in Benchmark Neutron Fields, reactor Test Regions, and operating power reactor Surveillance Positions. These studies will establish and certify the precision and accuracy of the measurement and predictive methods which are recommended for use in these standards. Consistent and accurate measurement and data analysis techniques and methods, therefore, will have been developed and validated along with guidelines for required neutron field calculations that are used to (1) correlate changes in material properties with the characteristics of the neutron radiation field and (2) predict pressure vessel steel toughness and embrittlement from power reactor surveillance data

  15. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  16. La Hague Continuous Improvement Program: Enhancement of the Vitrification Throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitjean, V.; De Vera, R.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Tronche, E.; Flament, T.; Pereira Mendes, F.; Prod'homme, A.

    2006-01-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for over 25 years by AREVA/COGEMA, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. At the 'La Hague' plant, in the 'R7' and 'T7' facilities, vitrified waste is obtained by first evaporating and calcining the nitric acid feed solution-containing fission products in calciners. The product-named calcinate- is then fed together with glass frit into induction-heated metallic melters to produce the so-called R7/T7 glass, well known for its excellent containment properties. Both facilities are equipped with three processing lines. In the near future the increase of the fuel burn-up will influence the amount of fission product solutions to be processed at R7/T7. As a consequence, in order to prepare these changes, it is necessary to feed the calciner at higher flow-rates. Consistent and medium-term R and D programs led by CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission, the AREVA/COGEMA's R and D and R and T provider), AREVA/COGEMA (Industrial Operator) and AREVA/SGN (AREVA/COGEMA's Engineering), and associated to the industrial feed back of AREVA/COGEMA operations, have allowed continuous improvement of the process since 1998: - The efficiency and limitation of the equipment have been studied and solutions for technological improvements have been proposed whenever necessary, - The increase of the feeding flow-rate has been implemented on the improved CEA test rig (so called PEV, Evolutional Prototype of Vitrification) and adapted by AREVA/SGN for the La Hague plant using their modeling studies; the results obtained during this test confirmed the technological and industrial feasibility of the improvements achieved, - After all necessary improved equipments have been implemented in R7/T7 facilities, and a specific campaign has been performed on the R7 facility by AREVA/COGEMA. The flow-rate to the

  17. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.

  18. Recent improvements in program packages SHUFFLE and FAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavic, S.; Kromar, M.; Zefran, B.

    1996-01-01

    Program packages SHUFFLE and FAR were developed at 'Jozef Stefan' Institute to monitor all changes of fuel assemblies during a nuclear power plant operation. Both packages were written in the Clipper language which is suitable for data base applications and allows straightforward communications with other available data bases. Packages currently run on PC machines under DOS operating system. Both packages are in routine use at a nuclear power plant Krsko, but they can be applied to any PWR power plant without significant modification. Experiences obtained from the utility in past few years triggered several improvements and new features. (author)

  19. Improvement in PWR flexibility the french program 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, A.; Miossec, C.

    1985-12-01

    Between 1975 and 1985, a substantial effort was launched in France to greatly improve PWR's flexibility, resulting in the current situation where both frequency control and load follow are now routinely performed on most plants in operation. Based on rapidly accumulating operational experience and on all expertise acquired in the past decade, a second-generation core control strategy is now being finalized for application on all future 1400 MW plants (with commercial operation scheduled in 1992 for first unit). This 20-year program is discussed

  20. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary.

  1. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  2. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  3. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hogg

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5 or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9 twice weekly (100 mg; i.m from d62-102 (gestation 147 days. In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4 or TP (20 mg; n = 7 fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (P<0.05 and the histological presence of fatty liver (P<0.05 independent of central obesity. Additionally, hepatic androgen receptor (AR; P<0.05, glucocorticoid receptor (GR; P<0.05, UDP- glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG; P<0.05 and IGF1 (P<0.01 expression were upregulated. The direct fetal intervention (C and TP led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK was up-regulated in the fetal controls (P<0.05 and this was opposed by fetal TP (P<0.05. Hepatic estrogen receptor (ERα; P<0.05 and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4; P<0.05 were increased following fetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS.

  4. Fetal programming: testosterone exposure of the female sheep during midgestation disrupts the dynamics of its adult gonadotropin secretion during the periovulatory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Lee, James S; Herkimer, Carol; Sharma, Tejinder P; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the female sheep to excess testosterone (T) leads to hypergonadotropism, multifollicular ovaries, and progressive loss of reproductive cycles. We have determined that prenatal T treatment delays the latency of the estradiol (E2)-induced LH surge. To extend this finding into a natural physiological context, the present study was conducted to determine if the malprogrammed surge mechanism alters the reproductive cycle. Specifically, we wished to determine if prenatal T treatment 1) delays the onset of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge during the natural follicular phase rise in E2, 2) alters pulsatile LH secretion and the dynamics of the secondary FSH surge, and 3) compromises the ensuing luteal function. Females prenatally T-treated from Day 60 to Day 90 of gestation (147 days is term) and control females were studied when they were approximately 2.5 yr of age. Reproductive cycles of control and prenatally T-treated females were synchronized with PGF2alpha, and peripheral blood samples were collected every 2 h for 120 h to characterize cyclic changes in E2, LH, and FSH and then daily for 14 days to monitor changes in luteal progesterone. To assess LH pulse patterns, blood samples were also collected frequently (each 5 min for 6 h) during the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The results revealed that, in prenatally T-treated females, 1) the preovulatory increase in E2 was normal; 2) the latencies between the preovulatory increase in E2 and the peaks of the primary LH and FSH surges were longer, but the magnitudes similar; 3) follicular-phase LH pulse frequency was increased; 4) the interval between the primary and secondary FSH surges was reduced but there was a tendency for an increase in duration of the secondary FSH surge; but 5) luteal progesterone patterns were in general unaltered. Thus, exposure of the female to excess T before birth produces perturbances and maltiming in periovulatory gonadotropin secretory dynamics, but these

  5. Aging mitigation and improved programs for nuclear service diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1989-12-01

    Recent NRC sponsored aging research work on nuclear service diesel generators has resulted in a recommendation that an improved engine management program should be adopted for aging mitigation and reliability improvement. The center of attention should be to ensure diesel-generator operational readiness. This report emphasizes a ''healthy engine concept'' and recommends parameters to be monitored to determine engine condition. The proposed program and approach recommended in this report represent balanced management where diesel generator testing, inspections, monitoring, trending, training, and maintenance all have appropriate importance. Fast-starting and fast-loading test of nuclear service diesels causes very rapid wear of certain engine components. This report documents this aging and wear mechanism and recommends ways to largely eliminate this unique aging stressor. Current periodic intrusive maintenance and engine overhaul practice have been found to be less favorable for safety assurance than engine overhauls based on monitoring and trending results or on a need to correct specific engine defects. This report recommends that the periodic overhaul requirements be re-evaluated. Diesel generator research on aging and wear is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The research reported in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  6. An Improved Evolutionary Programming with Voting and Elitist Dispersal Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sayan; Gunjan, Kumar; Das, Swagatam

    Although initially conceived for evolving finite state machines, Evolutionary Programming (EP), in its present form, is largely used as a powerful real parameter optimizer. For function optimization, EP mainly relies on its mutation operators. Over past few years several mutation operators have been proposed to improve the performance of EP on a wide variety of numerical benchmarks. However, unlike real-coded GAs, there has been no fitness-induced bias in parent selection for mutation in EP. That means the i-th population member is selected deterministically for mutation and creation of the i-th offspring in each generation. In this article we present an improved EP variant called Evolutionary Programming with Voting and Elitist Dispersal (EPVE). The scheme encompasses a voting process which not only gives importance to best solutions but also consider those solutions which are converging fast. By introducing Elitist Dispersal Scheme we maintain the elitism by keeping the potential solutions intact and other solutions are perturbed accordingly, so that those come out of the local minima. By applying these two techniques we can be able to explore those regions which have not been explored so far that may contain optima. Comparison with the recent and best-known versions of EP over 25 benchmark functions from the CEC (Congress on Evolutionary Computation) 2005 test-suite for real parameter optimization reflects the superiority of the new scheme in terms of final accuracy, speed, and robustness.

  7. Design basis programs and improvements in plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G) Company operates three commercial nuclear power plants in southern New Jersey. The three plants are of different designs and vintages (two pressurized water reactors licensed in 1976 and 1980 and one boiling water reactor licensed in 1986). As the industry recognized the need to develop design basis programs, PSE and G also realized the need after a voluntary 52-day shutdown of one unit because of electrical design basis problems. In its drive to be a premier electric utility, PSE and G has been aggressively active in developing design basis documents (DBDs) with supporting projects and refined uses to obtain the expected value and see the return on investment. Progress on Salem is nearly 75% complete, while Hope Creek is 20% complete. To data, PSE and G has experienced success in the use of DBDs in areas such as development of plant modifications, development of the reliability-centered maintenance program, procedure upgrades, improved document retrieval, resolution of regulatory issues, and training. The paper examines the design basis development process, supporting projects, and expected improvements in plant operations as a result of these efforts

  8. IMPROVING THE AESTHETIC LOOK OF GARMENTS, USING COMPUTERIZED GRAPHICS PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explains the stages of clothing style improvement by using computer graphics programs. Ovidiu Stan, a student in the Department of Textiles and Leatherworking and Industrial Management, under our guidance, did research at the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania in Cluj Napoca, where he selected a folk pattern specific to Transylvania area, reinterpreted it and digitized it in the vector graphics program CorelDRAW. This program allows the shape and size of drawings to be modified, and offers a vast chromatic palette which allows us to style the drawings. The pattern was printed on the T-shirt with an Azon Tex Pro printer, which can replace screen-printing or thermal transfer. The printing system is high-speed and very high quality, and the printed patterns can be unique, highly resistent to wear and washing. After the digitization stage, the next stage was to embroider the pattern on the T-shirt with the Happy embroidery machine. The embroidered pattern was designed by using the BERNINA Embroidery Software Designer Plus software. This embroidery software offers the freedom to design and edit elegant monograms, and complete freedom of creative design. All the projects completed with this software can bear their own distinct, individual mark, as an original work of art.

  9. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  10. 23 CFR 450.216 - Development and content of the statewide transportation improvement program (STIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programming § 450.216 Development and content of the statewide transportation improvement program (STIP). (a... Equity Bonus funds; (5) Emergency relief projects (except those involving substantial functional...

  11. Program planning for future improvement in managing ORNL's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a reference document and guide in developing the long-term improvements section of ORNL's radioactive waste management plan. The report reviews ORNL's operations and future program needs in terms of currently applicable DOE regulations and also in terms of regulations and accepted practices of the commerical sector of the nuclear power industry so that the impact of potential future adoption of these regulations and standards on ORNL's operations can be fully evaluated. The principal conclusion reached after reviewing ORNL's waste management operations is that these operations are currently being conducted in a manner that does not endanger the health or safety of workers or the general public and that does not have an adverse effect on the environment. Although nineteen specific problem areas have been identified all of these problems can be attributed to one of the following: a) the legacy of past practices; b) gradual deterioration of systems which have reached (or are near to reaching) the end of their reasonable design lives; and c) potential changes in regulations applicable to ORNL. All of the programs designed to improve or correct these problem areas could be accomplished within a four year period. However, given current limitations on manpower and capital, these programs would more likely be spread out over a five to ten year period of time if they were all to be undertaken. The cost of undertaking all of these projects concurrently is estimated to be between 60 and 100 million dollars. Due to the many unknowns and uncertainties associated with the problem areas, actual total costs for specific projects could vary from those presented in this report by as much as 300 percent

  12. Improving reading comprehension skills through the SCRATCH program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Papatga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15-week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level in the Eskisehir province in the fall term of the 2015-2016 school year. The participants of the study were eight fourth graders who had problems in reading comprehension and were selected based on the criterion sampling method. Different data gathering tools were employed in different stages of the study. These were the Informal Reading Inventory, readability assessment rubric, participant selection form and identification forms for developmental level in reading comprehension for the quantitative data, and observation notes, a researcher diary, video recordings, teacher and student observation notes, and the projects the students prepared using the SCRATCH program for the qualitative data. In the study, the analysis of the quantitative data was done with correlation analysis, and Kendall W Test that shows inter-rater reliability. In addition, the identification forms for developmental level in reading comprehension were used to reveal the improvement in reading comprehension skills, and the Informal Reading Inventory was employed to score these forms. On the other hand, the qualitative data were analysed through the thematic analysis method, and MAXQDA was used for the analysis. As a result of the analyses, it was found that the reading level of the eight students who had problems in reading comprehension went up from the anxiety level to the instructional level in some forms, and even to the independent reading level in other forms; in other words, there was an improvement in the reading comprehension skills of all eight students.

  13. Controlling Within-Field Sheep Movement Using Virtual Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Llewellyn, Rick; Belson, Sue; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-26

    Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment. The virtual fence was effective at preventing a small group of sheep from entering the exclusion zone. The probability of a sheep receiving an electrical stimulus following an audio cue was low (19%), and declined over the testing period. It took an average of eight interactions with the fence for an association to be made between the audio and stimulus cue, with all of the animals responding to the audio alone by the third day. Following the removal of the virtual fence, sheep were willing to cross the previous location of the virtual fence after 30 min of being in the paddock. This is an important aspect in the implementation of virtual fencing as a grazing management tool and further enforces that the sheep in this study were able to associate the audio with the virtual fence and not the physical location itself.

  14. Identification of skin-expressed genes possibly associated with wool growth regulation of Aohan fine wool sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Li, Hegang; Liu, Kaidong; Yu, Juanjuan; Bu, Ran; Cheng, Ming; De, Wei; Liu, Jifeng; He, Guangling; Zhao, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    Background Sheep are valuable resources for the animal fibre industry. Therefore, identifying genes which regulate wool growth would offer strategies for improving the quality of fine wool. In this study, we employed Agilent sheep gene expression microarray and proteomic technology to compare the gene expression patterns of the body side (hair-rich) and groin (hairless) skins of Aohan fine wool sheep (a Chinese indigenous breed). Results Comparing the body side to the groin skins (S/G) of Aoh...

  15. Effectiveness of a quality-improvement program in improving management of primary care practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen; Broge, Bjoern; Laux, Gunter; Willms, Sara; Wensing, Michel; Goetz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Background: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving management in primary care practices in Germany, with a focus on the domain of quality and safety. Methods: In a before–after study, 102 primary care practices completed a practice assessment using the European Practice Assessment instrument at baseline and three years later (intervention group). A comparative group of 102 practices was included that completed their first assessment using this instrument at the time of the intervention group’s second assessment. Mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100. Results: We found significant improvements in all domains between the first and second assessments in the intervention group. In the domain of quality and safety, improvements in scores (mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100) were observed in the following dimensions: complaint management (from a mean score of 51.2 at first assessment to 80.7 at second assessment); analysis of critical incidents (from 79.1 to 89.6); and quality development, quality policy (from 40.7 to 55.6). Overall scores at the time of the second assessment were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparative group. Interpretation: Primary care practices that completed the European Practice Assessment instrument twice over a three-year period showed improvements in practice management. Our findings show the value of the quality-improvement cycle in the context of practice assessment and the use of established organizational standards for practice management with the

  16. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  17. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  18. Quality and productivity improvement program (PPKP) from alumni perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruza, Nadiah; Mustafa, Zainol

    2013-04-01

    Defining the quality of the university education system is not easy. Institutions of higher education, through curriculum are hoped to provide the knowledge, wisdom and personality of students. It is questionable of how far Quality and Productivity Improvement Program (PPKP) are capable to ensure the courses offered relevant and effective in preparing the students for job market. The effectiveness of a university to undertake responsibilities and the impact given to students even after they graduate can be a measure of education quality at university. So, the quality of education can be enhanced and improved from time to time. In general, this study is aims to determine the effectiveness of PPKP's education system from the perspective of their alumni as well as their satisfaction and the importance level based on how PPKP be able to meet their needs. In overall, summary of open-ended questions from the questionnaire, Importance-Performance analysis and correlation analysis were conducted for this study. Based on result, it appears that there are still some deficiencies that can be improve, particularly in terms of teaching skills and PPKP's relationships with external organizations to enable knowledge be channel effectively. Importance-Performance analysis highlights some topics or courses that should be offered by PPKP based on their importance in industrial practice. Summary of the results of correlation analysis was found that women are more positive and not too demanding compared to men. In addition, it is found that the responsibilities and workload of the older generations, higher income and a high level of experience demands them to use and practice what they have learned during their studies at PPKP. Results of this study are hoped could be used to improve the quality of education system at PPKP.

  19. Compression planning for continuous improvement in quality programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Y.A.; Hood, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes Compression Planning, an innovative approach for planning in groups. This participative and structured approach is especially suitable for technical and highly regulated organizations. Compression Planning was applied to the first organization-wide effort at training integration for regulatory compliance, at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a multi-program national laboratory. The planning process was judged as measurably superior to PNL's customary planning. Within 10 days a training policy was issued and an action plan drafted. The participants produced a report identifying and prioritizing 33 key training issues; began to data gather and solicit input from personnel Lab-wide, producing a 2-volume training inventory; and formulated 14 recommendations for implementation. Two years later the plan is still evolving, as PNL training continues to develop, consistent with Continuous Improvement Process objectives

  20. Research notes : are safety corridors really safe? Evaluation of the corridor safety improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-26

    High accident frequencies on Oregons highway corridors are of concern to the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). : ODOT adopted the Corridor Safety Improvement Program as part of an overall program of safety improvements using federal and ...

  1. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer J J

    2008-09-01

    Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, "Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense." This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other employer groups.

  2. Nuclear security. DOE actions to improve the personnel clearance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Bannerman, Carl J.; Daniel, Beverly A.

    1988-11-01

    The status of the Department of Energy's (DOE) implementation of recommendations in our two reports on DOE's personnel security clearance program was determined. The recommendations were aimed at improving the timeliness, accuracy, and efficiency of personnel security clearance decisions. Specifically, the objective was to determine and report on steps DOE is taking to implement these recommendations. In summary, it was found that DOE has either initiated action or is studying ways to address all the recommendations, but none of the recommendations have been completely implemented. The effectiveness of the DOE actions will depend, in part, on the adequacy of its internal control system for overseeing and evaluating program operations. DOE's personnel security clearance program is intended to provide reasonable assurance that personnel with access to classified information and materials are trustworthy. The Department requests that the Office of Personnel Management or the Federal Bureau of Investigation collect personal data on each person who requires such access to do his or her job. Based on these background investigations, DOE officials authorize individuals whose personal histories indicate that they are trustworthy to have access to classified information, secured facilities, and controlled materials as needed to perform their jobs. DOE has five types of these authorizations or personnel security clearances and must update information on personnel holding each type at 5-year intervals to confirm their continuing reliability. The five types are based on the types of security interests to which the person needs access, e.g., persons needing nuclear weapons-related data must have a Q clearance, and persons with a top secret clearance can have access to national security data classified as top secret

  3. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer “J. J.”

    2008-01-01

    Background Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. Objectives As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. Methods The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. Results In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Conclusions Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, “Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense.” This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other

  4. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  5. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  6. Effectiveness of the Spirometry 360 Quality Improvement Program for Improving Asthma Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Zhou, Chuan; Corwin, Michael J; Taylor, James A; Rice, Fiona; Stout, James W

    To determine the effectiveness of the Spirometry 360 distance learning quality improvement (QI) program for enhancing the processes and outcomes of care for children with asthma. Cluster randomized controlled trial involving 25 matched pairs of pediatric primary care practices. Practices were recruited from 2 practice-based research networks: the Slone Center Office-based Research Network at Boston University, Boston, Mass, and the Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network, Seattle, Wash. Study participants included providers from one of the 50 enrolled pediatric practices and 626 of their patients with asthma. Process measures assessed included spirometry test quality and appropriate prescription of asthma controller medications. Outcome measures included asthma-specific health-related quality of life, and outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient utilization for asthma. At baseline, 25.4% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 50.4% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. During the 6-month postintervention period, 28.7% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 49.9% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. The adjusted difference-of-differences analysis revealed no intervention effect on spirometry test quality. Adjusted differences-of-differences analysis also revealed no intervention effect on appropriate use of controller medications or any of the parent- or patient-reported outcomes examined. In this study, the Spirometry 360 distance learning QI program was ineffective in improving spirometry test quality or parent- or patient-reported outcomes. QI programs like the one assessed here may need to focus on practices with lower baseline performance levels or may need to be tailored for those with higher baseline performance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin tumor area extraction using an improved dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M E; Fondón García, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Border (B) description of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for the clinical diagnosis of dermoscopy images using the ABCD rule. For an accurate description of the border, there must be an effective skin tumor area extraction (STAE) method. However, this task is complicated due to uneven illumination, artifacts present in the lesions and smooth areas or fuzzy borders of the desired regions. In this paper, a novel STAE algorithm based on improved dynamic programming (IDP) is presented. The STAE technique consists of the following four steps: color space transform, pre-processing, rough tumor area detection and refinement of the segmented area. The procedure is performed in the CIE L(*) a(*) b(*) color space, which is approximately uniform and is therefore related to dermatologist's perception. After pre-processing the skin lesions to reduce artifacts, the DP algorithm is improved by introducing a local cost function, which is based on color and texture weights. The STAE method is tested on a total of 100 dermoscopic images. In order to compare the performance of STAE with other state-of-the-art algorithms, various statistical measures based on dermatologist-drawn borders are utilized as a ground truth. The proposed method outperforms the others with a sensitivity of 96.64%, a specificity of 98.14% and an error probability of 5.23%. The results demonstrate that this STAE method by IDP is an effective solution when compared with other state-of-the-art segmentation techniques. The proposed method can accurately extract tumor borders in dermoscopy images. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  9. Sequestration of soil nitrogen as tannin-protein complexes may improve the competitive ability of sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia) relative to black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, G D; Bradley, R L; Preston, C M; Bending, G D

    2009-01-01

    The role of litter tannins in controlling soil nitrogen (N) cycling may explain the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce (Picea mariana), although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, the protein-precipitation capacities of purified tannins and leaf extracts from Kalmia and black spruce were compared. The resistance to degradation of tannin-protein precipitates from both species were compared by monitoring carbon (C) and N dynamics in humus amended with protein, purified tannins or protein-tannin precipitates. The purity of the precipitates was verified using solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The ability of mycorrhizal fungi associated with both species to grow on media amended with tannin-protein complexes as the principal N source was also compared. The protein precipitation capacity of Kalmia tannins was superior to those of black spruce. Humus amended with protein increased both mineral and microbial N, whereas humus amended with tannin-protein precipitates increased dissolved organic N. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Kalmia showed better growth than those associated with black spruce when N was provided as tannin-protein precipitates. These data suggest that Kalmia litter increases the amount of soil N sequestered as tannin-protein complexes, which may improve the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce by favouring N uptake by mycorrhizas associated with the former.

  10. Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doko, S.Y.; Edoun, G.O.; Gbedonou, E.J.; Degla, P.; Bosma, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested

  11. Using sheep genomes from diverse U.S. breeds to identify missense variants in genes affecting fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Access to sheep genome sequences significantly improves the chances of identifying genes that may influence the health, welfare, and productivity of these animals. Methods: A public, searchable DNA sequence resource for U.S. sheep was created with whole genome sequence (WGS) of 96 rams. ...

  12. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  13. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  14. Career/Vocational Preparation for Students with Disabilities: A Program Improvement Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.

    This program improvement guide is designed to assist district and school level interdisciplinary planning teams to improve career/vocational programs for students with disabilities. Its focus is on the integration of best practices within the educational program continuum to achieve positive student outcomes. The guide includes three sections.…

  15. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianle Chao

    Full Text Available High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study.

  16. International program to improve decay data for transactinium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmer, R.G.; Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ - and α - emission probabilities for selected transactinium nuclides of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for /sup 232, 233, 235/U, /sup 238, 239, 240, 241/Pu, 229 Th and 233 Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. γ measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235 U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241 Pu and 233 U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 235 U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results. 20 refs

  17. How effective are tree improvement programs in the 50 states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Stephen E. McDonald

    1986-01-01

    All 50 states were surveyed to determine the extent of their activities in producing genetically improved trees for timber production. Describes the funds expended, the species being improved, and the use of State and Private Forestry funds provided for genetic improvement. Projects future timber volumes attributable to genetic improvement, and estimates benefit cost...

  18. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  19. Darlington refurbishment - performance improvement programs goals and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, N. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the refurbishment program at the Darlington site. The program focuses on safety, integrity, excellence and personnel. Worker safety and public safety are of the highest priority. Success resulted from collaborative engineering interface, collaborative front end planning, highly competent people and respectful relationship with partners and regulators.

  20. Using management action plans to integrate program improvement efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, S.W.; Kidwell, R.J.; Shangraw, W.R.; Cardamone, E.N. [Project Performance Corporation, Sterling, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management Program is the country`s largest and most sophisticated environmental program to date. The rapid expansion of the DOE`s environmental restoration efforts has led to increased scrutiny of its management processes and systems. As the program continues to grow and mature, maintaining adequate accountability for resources and clearly communicating progress will be essential to sustaining public confidence. The Office of Environmental Management must ensure that adequate processes and systems are in place at Headquarters, Operation Offices, and contractor organizations. These systems must provide the basis for sound management, cost control, and reporting. To meet this challenge, the Office of Environmental Restoration introduced the Management Action Plan process. This process was designed to serve three primary functions: (1) define the program`s management capabilities at Headquarters and Operations Offices; (2) describe how management initiatives address identified program deficiencies; and (3) identify any duplication of efforts or program deficiencies. The Environmental Restoration Management Action Plan is a tracking, reporting, and statusing tool, used primarily at the Headquarters level, for assessing performance in key areas of project management and control. BY DOE to communicate to oversight agencies and stakeholders a clearer picture of the current status of the environmental restoration project management system. This paper will discuss how Management Action Plans are used to provide a program-wide assessment of management capabilities.

  1. Uranium Holdup Survey Program (UHSP) Lean Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeff [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-13

    This report discusses the UHSP monitoring program, a radioactive material accounting process and its purpose. The systematic approach to implementing Lean principles, determining key requirements, root causes of variation and disruption that interfere with program efficiency and effectiveness. Preexisting issues within the UHSP are modeled to illustrate the impact that they have on the large and extensive systems.

  2. Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

    2006-07-01

    Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula.

  3. 75 FR 13735 - Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)-Special Focus Competition: Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)-- Special Focus Competition: Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education ACTION: Extension; Notice... of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: Program for North American Mobility in...

  4. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  5. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  6. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  7. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  8. Using management action plans to integrate program improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meador, S.W.; Kidwell, R.J.; Shangraw, W.R.; Cardamone, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management Program is the country's largest and most sophisticated environmental program to date. The rapid expansion of the DOE's environmental restoration efforts has led to increased scrutiny of its management processes and systems. As the program continues to grow and mature, maintaining adequate accountability for resources and clearly communicating progress will be essential to sustaining public confidence. The Office of Environmental Management must ensure that adequate processes and systems are in place at Headquarters, Operation Offices, and contractor organizations. These systems must provide the basis for sound management, cost control, and reporting. To meet this challenge, the Office of Environmental Restoration introduced the Management Action Plan process. This process was designed to serve three primary functions: (1) define the program's management capabilities at Headquarters and Operations Offices; (2) describe how management initiatives address identified program deficiencies; and (3) identify any duplication of efforts or program deficiencies. The Environmental Restoration Management Action Plan is a tracking, reporting, and statusing tool, used primarily at the Headquarters level, for assessing performance in key areas of project management and control. BY DOE to communicate to oversight agencies and stakeholders a clearer picture of the current status of the environmental restoration project management system. This paper will discuss how Management Action Plans are used to provide a program-wide assessment of management capabilities

  9. Improving Program Design and Assessment with Broadening Participation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, D.; Johnson, A.; Thomas, S. H.; Fauver, A.; Detrick, L.

    2012-12-01

    Many theoretical and research-based approaches suggest how to best use mentoring to enhance an undergraduate research program. The Institute for Broadening Participation's Pathways to Engineering and Pathways to Ocean Sciences projects synthesized a set of mentoring studies, theoretical sources, and other texts pertinent to undergraduate research program design into a suite of practical tools that includes an online mentoring manual, an online reference library of mentoring and diversity literature, and practical guides such as Using Social Media to Build Diversity in Your REU. The overall goal is to provide easy-to-access resources that can assist faculty and program directors in implementing or honing the mentoring elements in their research programs for undergraduates. IBP's Online Mentoring Manual addresses common themes, such as modeling, student self-efficacy, career development, retention and evaluation. The Online Diversity Reference Library provides a comprehensive, annotated selection of key policy documents, research studies, intervention studies, and other texts on broadening participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. IBP's suite of tools provides the theoretical underpinnings and research findings that can help leaders in education integrate site-appropriate mentoring elements into their educational programs. Program directors and faculty from a variety of program types and disciplines have benefitted from using the Manual and other resources. IBP continues the work of translating and synthesizing theory to practice and welcomes your participation and partnership in that effort.

  10. Connexin Hemichannel Blockade Is Neuroprotective after Asphyxia in Preterm Fetal Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Joanne O.; Drury, Paul P.; Green, Colin R.; Nicholson, Louise F.; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J.

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia around the time of preterm birth is associated with neurodevelopmental disability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of connexin hemichannels would improve recovery of brain activity and reduce cell loss after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Asphyxia was induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion in preterm fetal sheep (103-104 d gestational age). Connexin hemichannels were blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of mimetic peptide starting 90 min...

  11. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  12. Improved Navy Maintenance Through Corrosion-Fatigue Assessment Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppe, Wally

    2008-01-01

    ... to evaluate issues relevant to corrosion-fatigue of aircraft components. In this multi-year, multi-contract program, tools have been developed to assist in the establishment of maintenance options for corroded components...

  13. An Improved Dynamic Programming Decomposition Approach for Network Revenue Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear nonseparable functional approximation to the value function of a dynamic programming formulation for the network revenue management (RM) problem with customer choice. We propose a simultaneous dynamic programming approach to solve the resulting problem, which is a nonlinear optimization problem with nonlinear constraints. We show that our approximation leads to a tighter upper bound on optimal expected revenue than some known bounds in the literature. Our approach can ...

  14. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  15. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  16. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  17. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for milk traits in Romanian local sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelmus RS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Estimate the genetic parameters for milk traits in a Romanian local sheep population Teleorman Black Head. Material and methods. Records of 262 sheep belonging to 17 rams and 139 ewes were used in the study. The following traits were investigated: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage. The genetic parameters were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with a model including maternal effects. Results. The results from our study revealed that direct heritability estimates were moderate for milk yield (0.449, fat yield (0.442, protein yield (0.386 while for protein percentage (0.708 and fat percentage (0.924 were high. The high direct and maternal genetic correlation was between milk yield and protein yield (0.979, 0.973 and between protein yield and fat yield (0.952, 0.913 while the phenotypic correlation between the milk yield and fat yield (0.968, the milk yield and protein yield (0.967, fat yield and protein yield (0.936 was high and positive. Conclusions. The genetic parameters are important in selection program on this breed for genetic improvement.

  19. Transportation Improvement Program of the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The MORPC Transportation Improvement program (TIP) is a staged, multi-year schedule of regionally significant transportation improvements in the Columbus area. The Federal-aid Highway Act of 1962 and the federal Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 ...

  20. 75 FR 13740 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for National Leadership Activities; Notice Inviting Applications for New... of public schools have been identified for improvement, corrective action, or restructuring under...

  1. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  2. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  3. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  4. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  5. Improving the Programs against Poverty: from Income to Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many social programs, and most poverty–fighting programs, are based on the assumption that increasing income automatically translates into a raise in well–being. This investigation questions this assumption on the basis of the subjective well–being literature and on empirical analyses from Mexico. It is shown that it is possible to get people out of income poverty without necessarily increasing their well–being. The paper enunciates some general principles that can enhance social programs. It is argued that it is fine to be concerned about getting people out of income poverty, but it is even better to be concerned about placing them in a situation that favors their satisfaction with life.

  6. Effective intervention programming: improving maternal adjustment through parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.

  7. Nutritional management to improve sheep and goat performances in semiarid regions Manejo nutricional para melhorar o desempenho de ovinos e caprinos em regiões semiáridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Ben Salem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant production is the main source of income of farmers living in arid and semiarid regions. Sheep and goats raised in these areas are generally confronted with severe nutritional deficits during food scarcity period which exacerbate disease and health problems and consequently low productive and reproductive performances. These areas are characterized by rainfall seasonality and scarcity resulting in a low fodder potential. Therefore, native rangelands are degrading due to overgrazing, high stocking rates and mismanagement. Options to improve small ruminant-based production systems include i innovative technologies targeting the increase of feed resources availability, rumen manipulation using natural compounds to boost microbial activity, improving diets' quality, alleviation of feeding cost, and better control of livestock watering. Although this paper is focussing on the benefits from these technical options, we should bear in mind that i the organization of local institutions for better adoption of these technologies and for protecting the main natural resources (rangelands and water and ii the participatory approach involving all partners concerned with the improvement of farmer's income and livelihood are key tools for promoting livestock sector in the target areas. A set of simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly options that could ameliorate small ruminant production in the semiarid regions are discussed in this paper.A produção de pequenos ruminantes é a principal fonte de renda dos agricultores que vivem em regiões áridas e semiáridas. Ovinos e caprinos criados nessas áreas geralmente enfrentam severas deficiências nutricionais durante o período de escassez de alimentos, que comprometem a sua saúde e, conseqüentemente, resultam em baixo desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo. Estas áreas são caracterizadas pela sazonalidade e escassez das chuvas, que resultam em baixo potencial forrageiro. Além disso, as

  8. Incorporating Reporting Efforts to Manage and Improve Health and Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy S; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; McGinn, Michael P; Hawkins, Kevin; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Serxner, Seth A; Greame, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Wellness programs are designed to help individuals maintain or improve their health. This article describes how a reporting process can be used to help manage and improve a wellness program. Beginning in 2014, a wellness pilot program became available in New Jersey for individuals with an AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company. The program has since expanded to include Missouri, Texas, Alabama, and Washington. This wellness program includes an online health portal, one-on-one telephonic coaching, gym membership discounts, and local health events. To assure smooth program operations and alignment with program objectives, weekly and monthly reports are produced. The weekly report includes metrics on member engagement and utilization for the aforementioned 4 program offerings and reports on the last 4 weeks, as well as for the current month and the current year to date. The monthly report includes separate worksheets for each state and a summary worksheet that includes all states combined, and provides metrics on overall engagement as well as utilization of the 4 program components. Although the monthly reports were used to better manage the 4 program offerings, the weekly reports help management to gauge response to program marketing. Reporting can be a data-driven management tool to help manage wellness programs. Reports provide rapid feedback regarding program performance. In contrast, in-depth program evaluations serve a different purpose, such as to report program-related savings, return on investment, or to report other longer term program-related outcomes.

  9. 42 CFR 482.21 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects, develop and implement an information technology system explicitly designed to improve patient... program that shows measurable improvement in indicators for which there is evidence that it will improve... learning throughout the hospital. (3) The hospital must take actions aimed at performance improvement and...

  10. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  11. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  12. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  13. 40 CFR 65.116 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (for example, piston, horizontal or vertical centrifugal, gear, bellows); pump manufacturer; seal type and manufacturer; pump design (for example, external shaft, flanged body); materials of construction... program. (4) Pump or pump seal inspection. The owner or operator shall inspect all pumps or pump seals...

  14. Assessing Program Learning Objectives to Improve Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Carrie

    2014-03-01

    Our physics undergraduate program has five program learning objectives (PLOs) focusing on (1) physical principles, (2) mathematical expertise, (3) experimental technique, (4) communication and teamwork, and (5) research proficiency. One PLO is assessed each year, with the results guiding modifications in our curriculum and future assessment practices; we have just completed our first cycle of assessing all PLOs. Our approach strives to maximize the ease and applicability of our assessment practices while maintaining faculty's flexibility in course design and delivery. Objectives are mapped onto our core curriculum with identified coursework collected as direct evidence. We've utilized mostly descriptive rubrics, applying them at the course and program levels as well as sharing them with the students. This has resulted in more efficient assessment that is also applicable to reaccreditation efforts, higher inter-rater reliability than with other rubric types, and higher quality capstone projects. We've also found that the varied quality of student writing can interfere with our assessment of other objectives. This poster outlines our processes, resources, and how we have used PLO assessment to strengthen our undergraduate program.

  15. Fetal programming of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3: evidence for an altered response to undernutrition in late gestation following exposure to periconceptual undernutrition in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, B W; Breier, B H; Keven, C L; Harding, J E; Gluckman, P D

    1998-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in several animal models that undernutrition in utero has significant long lasting effects on subsequent fetal and postnatal development. To address the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may mediate such effects, our study examined whether a period of periconceptual maternal undernutrition could have a lasting influence on the IGF axis in the fetal sheep. Ewes were either allowed to feed ad libitum or kept undernourished from day 60 prior to mating until day 30 after conception, and then both groups were allowed to feed ad libitum. These groups were further divided at day 105 of gestation, either being fed ad libitum or undernourished until day 115 of gestation. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained at both day 105 and 115 of gestation. We describe the development of a specific homologous RIA to measure ovine IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in fetal and maternal sheep plasma. Fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations were significantly (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-2 levels were unchanged. The degree of reduction in fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I between day 105 and 115 of gestation as a response to acute maternal undernutrition was significantly greater (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations were not the result of increased proteolytic activity. These results suggest that exposure to maternal periconceptual undernutrition reprograms IGFBP-3 and IGF-I regulation in the developing sheep fetus, altering its response to undernutrition in late gestation.

  16. Insurance Regulation: The NAIC Accreditation Program Can be Improved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DIngell, John

    2001-01-01

    ... environment of the insurance industry and insurance regulation. In addition, it has revised the way accreditation reviews are performed and scored and has improved training for members of review teams.

  17. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  18. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  19. BWR Servicing and Refueling Improvement Program: Phase I summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, General Electric Co. (GE) undertook a study of boiling water reactor (BWR) refueling outages for the purpose of recommending the development and demonstration of critical path time savings improvements. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) joined the study as a subcontractor, providing monitoring assistance and making the Browns Ferry Site available for improvement demonstrations. Agreement was also reached with Georgia Power Co., Power Authority of the State of New York, and Commonwealth Edison Co. for monitoring and data collection at Hatch 1, FitzPatrick, and Quad Cities 1 nuclear plants, respectively. The objective was to identify, develop, and demonstrate improved refueling, maintenance, and inspection procedures and equipment. The improvements recommended in this study are applicable to BWR nuclear plants currently in operation as well as those in the design and construction phases. The recommendations and outage information can be used as a basis to plan and conduct the first outages of new plants and to improve the planning and facilities of currently operating plants. Many of the recommendations can readily be incorporated in plants currently in the design and construction phases as well as in the design of future plants. Many of these recommended improvements can be implemented immediately by utilities without further technical development.

  20. BWR Servicing and Refueling Improvement Program: Phase I summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, General Electric Co. (GE) undertook a study of boiling water reactor (BWR) refueling outages for the purpose of recommending the development and demonstration of critical path time savings improvements. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) joined the study as a subcontractor, providing monitoring assistance and making the Browns Ferry Site available for improvement demonstrations. Agreement was also reached with Georgia Power Co., Power Authority of the State of New York, and Commonwealth Edison Co. for monitoring and data collection at Hatch 1, FitzPatrick, and Quad Cities 1 nuclear plants, respectively. The objective was to identify, develop, and demonstrate improved refueling, maintenance, and inspection procedures and equipment. The improvements recommended in this study are applicable to BWR nuclear plants currently in operation as well as those in the design and construction phases. The recommendations and outage information can be used as a basis to plan and conduct the first outages of new plants and to improve the planning and facilities of currently operating plants. Many of the recommendations can readily be incorporated in plants currently in the design and construction phases as well as in the design of future plants. Many of these recommended improvements can be implemented immediately by utilities without further technical development

  1. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  2. CINDA-3G: Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer Program for Third-Generation Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaski, J. D.; Lewis, D. R.; Thompson, L. R.

    1970-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a new and versatile program to supplement or replace the original Chrysler Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (CINDA) thermal analyzer program in order to take advantage of the improved systems software and machine speeds of the third-generation computers.

  3. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  4. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.204 What are the State's... description of vocational education strategies designed to improve the performance of the program as measured...

  5. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  6. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement Workgroup; Notice of Public Meeting...) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation obligations through the pesticide... a pesticide during the registration review process. This meeting of the PRIA Process Improvement...

  7. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  8. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described

  9. Final Creech Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    acts as a shell to softer, more vulnerable soils below. Lenses of caliche (sediment cemented together with sodium salts) and clay are also known to be...requirements. Contact Air Quality Program Manager YES Page 2 WATER QUALITY 99 CES/CEIEC, 652-2834 Any process that discharges to sanitary or industrial... Sanitary Wastewater Will the project result in the discharge of any sanitary wastewaters (e.g., wastewater from sinks, showers, toilets, etc)? A

  10. Shaw Air Force Base Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    A FB Capital Im provem ent Program Environm ental A ssessm ent 3-21 Figure 3.6-1. W ater R esources at Shaw A FB under the Proposed A ction...Figure 3.6-2. W ater R esources at Shaw A FB under A lternative 1 0 Key c::::J Shaw!IFB C’l1 Proposed Project ~ Number -- Creek/Stream c:::::J w

  11. How to improve the program for Japanese Studies Students

    OpenAIRE

    澤田, 田津子

    2010-01-01

    Japanese Studies Students (=international students who specialize in Japanese language and culture in Japan; Hereafter referred to as J.students) show a variety of language skill and interests depending on the features of education in Japanese in their respective countries. All the J.students, however, receive an education at our university for one year based on one education program for the J.students. This paper shows first the variety of J.students through analysis of their final theses of...

  12. Tools to improve Angra 1/2 general training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Haroldo Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Since Brazil restarted Angra 2 construction in 1995, as a result of the studies of future energy consumption, the Training Department of Eletronuclear developed the training program for site personnel. This new situation has demanded additional efforts and new routines. In the following paragraphs there is a description of significant aspects in this concern. Most of them are now under discussion in the Training Department and some alternative solutions are being adopted in order to face the new challenges. (author)

  13. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  14. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  15. Redesigning a clinical mentoring program for improved outcomes in the clinical training of clerks

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Der; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Cheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mentorship has been noted as critical to medical students adapting to clinical training in the medical workplace. A lack of infrastructure in a mentoring program might deter relationship building between mentors and mentees. This study assessed the effect of a redesigned clinical mentoring program from the perspective of clerks. The objective was to assess the benefits of the redesigned program and identify potential improvements.Methods: A redesigned clinical mentoring program ...

  16. Developing a system engineering program to improve performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuter, D.

    1985-01-01

    After several maintenance, operational, and equipment problems last year, Trojan set out on a mission to improve plant performance and reliability by strengthening its on-site engineering organization. This paper presents Trojan's plans in developing an on-site system engineering organization

  17. Employing continuous quality improvement in community-based substance abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah B; Ebener, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe continuous quality improvement (CQI) for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community-based organization setting. CQI (e.g., plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA)) applied in healthcare and industry was adapted for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community setting. The authors assessed the resources needed, acceptability and CQI feasibility for ten programs by evaluating CQI training workshops with program staff and a series of three qualitative interviews over a nine-month implementation period with program participants. The CQI activities, PDSA cycle progress, effort, enthusiasm, benefits and challenges were examined. Results indicated that CQI was feasible and acceptable for community-based substance abuse prevention and treatment programs; however, some notable resource challenges remain. Future studies should examine CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. The study was conducted on a small number of programs. It did not assess CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. Practical implications- This project shows that it is feasible to adapt CQI techniques and processes for community-based programs substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. These techniques may help community-based program managers to improve service quality and achieve program outcomes. This is one of the first studies to adapt traditional CQI techniques for community-based settings delivering substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  18. Improving patients' home cooking - A case series of participation in a remote culinary coaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Pober, David M; Budd, Maggi A; Silver, Julie K; Phillips, Edward M; Abrahamson, Martin J

    2017-08-01

    This case series describes and examines the outcomes of a remote culinary coaching program aimed at improving nutrition through home cooking. Participants (n = 4) improved attitudes about the perceived ease of home cooking (p culinary skills (p = 0.02); and also improved in confidence to continue online learning of culinary skills and consume healthier food. We believe this program might be a viable response to the need for effective and scalable health-related culinary interventions.

  19. Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boos AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anja M Boos,1,* Annika Weigand,1,* Gloria Deschler,1 Thomas Gerber,2 Andreas Arkudas,1 Ulrich Kneser,1 Raymund E Horch,1 Justus P Beier11Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg FAU, Erlangen, 2Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2, and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 µg/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin. Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly

  20. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSOsupplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content ofthin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep wereused as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were twotreatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II.Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0%(K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Severalvariables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fattyacid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected datawere statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completelyrandomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was notsignificantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level ofRB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combinationwith 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  1. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bachrudin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  2. The use of a Psoroptes ovis serodiagnostic test for the analysis of a natural outbreak of sheep scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is a highly contagious disease of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The disease is endemic in the UK and has significant economic impact through its effects on performance and welfare. Diagnosis of sheep scab is achieved through observation of clinical signs e.g. itching, pruritis and wool loss and ultimately through the detection of mites in skin scrapings. Early stages of infestation are often difficult to diagnose and sub-clinical animals can be a major factor in disease spread. The development of a diagnostic assay would enable farmers and veterinarians to detect disease at an early stage, reducing the risk of developing clinical disease and limiting spread. Methods Serum samples were obtained from an outbreak of sheep scab within an experimental flock (n = 480 (3 samples each from 160 sheep allowing the assessment, by ELISA of sheep scab specific antibody prior to infestation, mid-outbreak (combined with clinical assessment and post-treatment. Results Analysis of pre-infestation samples demonstrated low levels of potential false positives (3.8%. Of the 27 animals with clinical or behavioural signs of disease 25 tested positive at the mid-outbreak sampling period, however, the remaining 2 sheep tested positive at the subsequent sampling period. Clinical assessment revealed the absence of clinical or behavioural signs of disease in 132 sheep, whilst analysis of mid-outbreak samples showed that 105 of these clinically negative animals were serologically positive, representing potential sub-clinical infestations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that this ELISA test can effectively diagnose sheep scab in a natural outbreak of disease, and more importantly, highlights its ability to detect sub-clinically infested animals. This ELISA, employing a single recombinant antigen, represents a major step forward in the diagnosis of sheep scab and may prove to be critical in any future control

  3. KENO IV: an improved Monte Carlo criticality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Cross, N.F.

    1975-11-01

    KENO IV is a multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program written for the IBM 360 computers. It executes rapidly and is flexibly dimensioned so the allowed size of a problem (i.e., the number of energy groups, number of geometry cards, etc., are arbitrary) is limited only by the total data storage required. The input data, with the exception of cross sections, fission spectra and albedos, may be entered in free form. The geometry input is quite simple to prepare and complicated three-dimensional systems can often be described with a minimum of effort. The results calculated by KENO IV include k-effective, lifetime and generation time, energy-dependent leakages and absorptions, energy- and region-dependent fluxes and region-dependent fission densities. Criticality searches can be made on unit dimensions or on the number of units in an array. A summary of the theory utilized by KENO IV, a section describing the logical program flow, a compilation of the error messages printed by the code and a comprehensive data guide for preparing input to the code are presented. 14 references

  4. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  5. Budget Impact of a Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program for Malnourished Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Nutrition interventions can alleviate the burden of malnutrition by improving patient outcomes; however, evidence on the economic impact of medical nutrition intervention remains limited. A previously published nutrition-focused quality improvement program targeting malnourished hospitalized patients showed that screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence result in significant reductions in 30-day unplanned readmissions and hospital length of stay. To assess the potential cost-savings associated with decreased 30-day readmissions and hospital length of stay in malnourished inpatients through a nutrition-focused quality improvement program using a web-based budget impact model, and to demonstrate the clinical and fiscal value of the intervention. The reduction in readmission rate and length of stay for 1269 patients enrolled in the quality improvement program (between October 13, 2014, and April 2, 2015) were compared with the pre-quality improvement program baseline and validation cohorts (4611 patients vs 1319 patients, respectively) to calculate potential cost-savings as well as to inform the design of the budget impact model. Readmission rate and length-of-stay reductions were calculated by determining the change from baseline to post-quality improvement program as well as the difference between the validation cohort and the post-quality improvement program, respectively. As a result of improved health outcomes for the treated patients, the nutrition-focused quality improvement program led to a reduction in 30-day hospital readmissions and length of stay. The avoided hospital readmissions and reduced number of days in the hospital for the patients in the quality improvement program resulted in cost-savings of $1,902,933 versus the pre-quality improvement program baseline cohort, and $4,896,758 versus the pre-quality improvement program in the

  6. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  7. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  8. Improved survival in HIV treatment programs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mata, Nicole L; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Khol, Vohith; Ng, Oon Tek; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Lee, Man Po; Durier, Nicolas; Law, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-positive patients has expanded rapidly in Asia over the last ten years. Our study aimed to describe the time trends and risk factors for overall survival in patients receiving first-line ART in Asia. Methods We included HIV-positive adult patients who initiated ART between 2003–2013 (n=16 546), from seven sites across six Asia-Pacific countries. Patient follow-up was to May 2014. We compared survival for each country and overall by time period of ART initiation using Kaplan-Meier curves. Factors associated with mortality were assessed using Cox regression, stratified by site. We also summarized first-line ART regimens, CD4 count at ART initiation, and CD4 and HIV viral load testing frequencies. Results There were 880 deaths observed over 54 532 person-years of follow-up, a crude rate of 1.61 (1.51, 1.72) per 100 person-years. Survival significantly improved in more recent years of ART initiation. The survival probabilities at 4 years follow-up for those initiating ART in 2003–05 was 92.1%, 2006–09 was 94.3% and 2010–2013 was 94.5% (pAsia have improved survival in more recent years of ART initiation. This is likely a consequence of improvements in treatment and, patient management and monitoring over time. PMID:26961354

  9. People's Republic of Bangladesh - Revenue Mobilization Program for Results : VAT Improvement Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Bank s OP/BP 9.0 an Integrated Fiduciary Systems Assessment (IFSA) was carried out to determine whether the fiduciary systems pertaining to the Program provide reasonable assurances that the Program funds will be used for their intended purpose. The IFSA comprised an assessment of the fiduciary risks relating to: (a) procurement; (b) financial management; and (c) gov...

  10. Case Studies of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs. I. The Teacher Growth Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety-Jacobs, Sharon R.

    As part of a research project on "Patterns of Successful Assistance in Urban School Programs," this paper presents a case study of an assister's work in a Teacher Growth Program (TGP) at an elementary school in Staten Island, New York. The school has an experienced teaching staff, a supportive principal, a cross-sectional student…

  11. Commercial cuts and carcass characteristics of sheep and goats supplemented with multinutritional blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aimed to identify the weight and yield of the commercial cuts, muscularity, and adiposity in the carcasses of sheep and goats grazing in the Caatinga supplemented with different sources of supplementations; these include feed-blocks. Material and methods. Sixty non-castrated males an initial average body weight of 18.63 ± 1.93 kg were used: 30 goats and 30 sheep all animals did not have a defined breed standard (WDBS. The experimental design used was entirely randomized (DIC, in factorial scheme 3x2 (three types of supplementation: mineral salt, MBs and MBs + buffel hay, and two species: sheep and goats and 10 replications. Animals were raised in a rangeland grazing system in an area with vegetation characteristic of Caatinga ecosystem under three types of supplementation: 1: only mineral salt; 2: Feed blocks (MBs; and 3: MBs + buffel hay There were measured the weight, yield and the components of left half-part of carcass of lambs and kids. Results. The sheep were superior to goats in carcass conformation, loin-eye area, index of muscularity of the leg and compactness index of the leg while the goats were superior to sheep in leg muscles weight. Conclusions. Sheep and Goats, when fed with supplementation of pasture feeding blocks in the Caatinga ecosystem; Supplementation with mineral salt and Multinutritional Blocks with and without Buffel can be used to improve herds in the caatinga, with similar results among the three. Sheep show more adiposity of meat than goats, in contrast, goats have higher musculature than sheep when fed with feed blocks.

  12. Sciences literacy on nutrition program for improving public wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, C.; Nasrudin, D.; Helsy, I.; Rokayah; Kusbudiah, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Increased wellness for a person becomes a necessity now and for the future. Various ways people do to get fit include following and understanding nutrition. This review will inventory the concepts of science involved to understand the nutritional program and its impact on fitness levels. The method used is a quantitative and qualitative descriptive mixed method based on treatment to a number of nutrition group participants in a nutrition group in Bandung. The concepts of science that are the subject of study are the concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology. The results showed that the ability of science literacy and respondent's wellness level varies and there is a relationship between science literacy with one's wellness level. The implications of this research are the need for science literacy and wellness studies for community based on educational level and more specific scientific concepts.

  13. Evaluation of five treatments to control intestinal parasites in sheep in Ayapango, state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.

  14. 78 FR 40625 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy... Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on February 22, 2013... performance benchmarks and to develop and implement continuous improvement plans if they fail to do so. The...

  15. Method Improving Reading Comprehension In Primary Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohana

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of reading comprehension skills of English for PGSD students through the application of SQ3R learning method. The type of this research is Pre-Experimental research because it is not yet a real experiment, there are external variables that influence the formation of a dependent variable, this is because there is no control variable and the sample is not chosen randomly. The research design is used is one-group pretest-post-test design involving one group that is an experimental group. In this design, the observation is done twice before and after the experiment. Observations made before the experiment (O1) are called pretests and the post-experimental observation (O2) is called posttest. The difference between O1 and O2 ie O2 - O1 is the effect of the treatment. The results showed that there was an improvement in reading comprehension skills of PGSD students in Class M.4.3 using SQ3R method, and better SQ3R enabling SQ3R to improve English comprehension skills.

  16. Impact of a process improvement program in a production software environment: Are we any better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gerard H.; Page, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has participated in a process improvement program as a member of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which is sponsored by GSFC. The benefits CSC has derived from involvement in this program are analyzed. In the environment studied, it shows that improvements were indeed achieved, as evidenced by a decrease in error rates and costs over a period in which both the size and the complexity of the developed systems increased substantially. The principles and mechanics of the process improvement program, the lessons CSC has learned, and how CSC has capitalized on these lessons are also discussed.

  17. Hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-07-03

    Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to

  18. Hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Yeh

    -prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to dramatically improve the safety and accuracy of laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in resource-poor countries.

  19. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Cross Croix (SC. Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%. Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene.

  20. Genetic diversity of Colombian sheep by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the sheep production systems are managed under extensive conditions and mainly correspond to peasant production systems so their genetic management has led to increased homozygosity and hence productivity loss. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in 549 individuals corresponding to 13 sheep breeds in Colombia, using a panel of 11 microsatellite molecular markers. One hundred and fifty seven alleles were found (average of 14.27 alleles/locus, with a range of observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.44 to 0.84 and 0.67 to 0.86, respectively. Thirty-three of 143 Hardy Weinberg tests performed showed significant deviations (p < 0.05 due to a general lack of heterozygous individuals. The Fis ranged from 0.01 in Corriedale to 0.15 for the Persian Black Head breed, suggesting that there are presenting low to moderate levels of inbreeding. Overall, Colombian sheep showed high levels of genetic diversity which is very important for future selection and animal breeding programs.

  1. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

  2. FCI: remedy development for the fuel performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, F.W.; Crouthamel, C.E.; Freshley, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments and irradiations are being utilized to develop and demonstrate the efficacy of specific advanced fuel designs to improve FCI behavior. The advanced light water reactor fuel designs being evaluated combine annular pellets, graphite coating on the inner surface of the cladding, and helium pressurization. A sphere-pac fuel design is also being developed. Characterization of the graphite coatings includes studies of composition, application methods, thickness control, moisture control, thermal conductivity, compatibility with the zircaloy cladding, strain-to-failure, and friction and wear characteristics. Rods of the different fuel designs, as well as reference rods, are being irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor and the Big Rock Point Reactor to accumulate burnup prior to ramping tests

  3. Federal Educational Assistance Programs Available to Service Members: Program Features and Recommendations for Improved Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    results suggest a need to modify the original program design or the logic model (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2010). Figure 3.1 outlines the proposed RAND... Kellogg Foundation, 2004). This logic model also illustrates a number of broader impacts. The expectation is that, ultimately, these programs will...Veterans Affairs. W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Using Logic Models to Bring Together Planning, Evaluation, and Action: Logic Model Development Guide

  4. A MULTI-SENSORRESEARCH PROGRAM TO IMPROVE TSUNAMIFORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available While the warning systems do an increasingly good job of warning of all probable events, there are still apparent false alarms and a lack of magnitude prediction. History shows that major advances in technology occur when several components mature to be combined into a final system. An example is the communications satellite: around 1960, the silicon solar cell, the RF transistor, the integrated circuit, the large rocket, knowledge of the synchronous orbit, reliable components, and supporting systems came together to produce systems so workable that the early ones are still usable and the current ones just have more channels. We are now in a “1960 position” in tsunami work. Deep ocean sensors are in place, numerous tide gauges and sea level gauges are telemetered (via satellite, real-time numerical analysis programs are under development, Mw can now be calculated in an hour and Mwp in a minute, a global infrasonic network has been deployed, T-phase data are readily available, and so are ionospheric sounders. We have the capability to cheaply and quickly record, correlate, analyze, transmit, and discard data from all these sensor systems. Thus, we should have the means to develop the ability to evaluate a tsunamigenic earthquake and early tsunami waves, reliably and even quantitatively.I suggest the ideal way to accomplish this is to establish a small, dedicated laboratory which will bring together a selection of data from these sensor systems to evaluate every possible tsunamigenic event. It is now easy to temporarily store these data in volatile memory for analyses, retention, and discard. An earthquake that would be checked and discarded by the warning center can provide the trigger for storage and evaluation. Most of the data are low frequency, easy to transmit (part of it is on the Internet now, and store. Information on prior experiments with some of the components, current status, and processing estimates is provided, along with ample

  5. Performance improvement of developed program by using multi-thread technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Jabal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presented how to use a multi-thread programming technique to improve the performance of a program written by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF. The Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI software, named GAME24, was selected to use as a case study. This study composed of two main parts. The first part was about design and modification of the program structure upon the Object Oriented Programing (OOP approach. The second part was about coding the program using the multi-thread technique which the number of threads were based on the calculated Catalan number. The result showed that the multi-thread programming technique increased the performance of the program 44%-88% compared to the single-thread technique. In addition, it has been found that the number of cores in the CPU also increase the performance of multithreaded program proportionally.

  6. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  7. Primary care program improves reimbursement. The Federally Qualified Health Center program helps hospitals improve services to the medically indigent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, T M; Gallitano, D G

    1993-03-01

    Under a program created by Congress in 1989, certain primary care treatment centers serving the medically and economically indigent can become Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Recently enacted rules and regulations allow participants in the FQHC program to receive 100 percent reasonable cost reimbursement for Medicaid services and 80 percent for Medicare services. An all-inclusive annual cost report is the basis for determining reimbursement rates. The report factors in such expenses as physician and other healthcare and professional salaries and benefits, medical supplies, certain equipment depreciation, and overhead for facility and administrative costs. Both Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement is based on an encounter rate, and states employ various methodologies to determine the reimbursement level. In Illinois, for example, typical reimbursement for a qualified encounter ranges from $70 to $88. To obtain FQHC status, an organization must demonstrate community need, deliver the appropriate range of healthcare services, satisfy management and finance requirements, and function under a community-based governing board. In addition, an FQHC must provide primary healthcare by physicians and (where appropriate) midlevel practitioners; it must also offer its community diagnostic laboratory and x-ray services, preventive healthcare and dental care, case management, pharmacy services, and arrangements for emergency services. Because FQHCs must be freestanding facilities, establishing them can trigger a number of ancillary legal issues, such as those involved in forming a new corporation, complying with not-for-profit corporation regulations, applying for tax-exempt status, and applying for various property and sales tax exemptions. Hospitals that establish FQHCs must also be prepared to relinquish direct control over the delivery of primary care services.

  8. Organizational Wellness Program Implementation and Evaluation: A Holistic Approach to Improve the Wellbeing of Middle Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria Del Consuelo; Calderon, Angelica; Blunk, Dan I; Mills, Brandy W; Leiner, Marie

    2018-06-01

    : Employee wellness programs can provide benefits to institutions as well as employees and their families. Despite the attempts of some organizations to implement programs that take a holistic approach to improve physical, mental, and social wellness, the most common programs are exclusively comprised of physical and nutritional components. In this study, we implemented a wellness program intervention, including training using a holistic approach to improve the wellbeing of middle managers in several multinational organizations. We included control and experimental groups to measure wellness and teamwork with two repeated measures. Our results indicated that employees receiving the intervention had improved measures of wellness and teamwork. A positive relationship was found between wellness and teamwork in the experimental group when compared with the control group. Taken together, the data suggest that implementation of these programs would provide valuable outcomes for both employees and organizations.

  9. A continuous quality improvement program to focus a college of pharmacy on programmatic advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip D; Dipiro, Joseph T; Rowen, Randall C; McNair, David

    2013-08-12

    To enhance the achievement of a college of pharmacy's goals for education, research, and service missions by implementing an excellence program based on the Studer Group model for continuous quality improvement. The Studer model was combined with university strategic planning for a comprehensive quality-improvement program that was implemented over 5 years. The program included identifying and measuring key performance indicators, establishing specific "pillar" goals, aligning behaviors with goals and values, and training leaders. Assessment of key performance indicators over 5 years demonstrated progress toward achieving college goals for student and faculty satisfaction, research funding, numbers of students seeking formal postgraduate training, and private giving. Implementation of a continuous quality-improvement program based on the Studer program enabled the college to focus on and meet its yearly and strategic goals for all components of its mission.

  10. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  11. Effects of a Program to Improve Mental Health Literacy for Married Immigrant Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a mental health improvement program for the acculturative stress and mental health literacy of married immigrant women using bilingual gatekeepers. Bilingual gatekeepers were recruited from multicultural centers and trained to provide 8-week structured mental health improvement services to the women in the experimental group using a mental health improvement guidebook developed by the authors in 8 different languages. The program was effective in improving mental health and mental health literacy scores as well as reducing the degree of acculturative stress. This study offers a model of effective mental healthcare for multicultural communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Statewide Transportation Improvement program 2011-2014 : sorted by MPO and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Iowas Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) has been : developed in conformance with the guidelines prescribed by 23 USC and 49 : USC. The STIP is generated to provide the Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) and Federal Transit A...

  13. Statewide Transportation Improvement Program 2010-2013 : sorted by MPO and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Iowas Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) has been : developed in conformance with the guidelines prescribed by 23 USC. The : STIP is generated to provide the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and : Federal Transit Administrati...

  14. Statewide Transportation Improvement Program 2012-2015 : sorted by MPO and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Iowas Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) has been : developed in conformance with the guidelines prescribed by 23 USC and 49 : USC. The STIP is generated to provide the Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) and Federal Transit A...

  15. Land Acquisition and Relocation Assistance for Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Assisted Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-10

    This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance to sponsors of airport projects developed under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) to meet the requirements of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (Pl 9...

  16. West Virginia Peer Exchange : Streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program Project Delivery - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September 23 to 24, 2014 in Charleston, West V...

  17. The impact of a quality improvement program on employee satisfaction in an academic microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Prathibha; Karlapudi, Sudhakar P; Hensrud, Donald D

    2008-01-01

    Quality improvement is a potential method to enhance employee satisfaction. This study describes the impact of a program instituted to enhance employee satisfaction using the principles of high-performing microsystems. A shared leadership committee, participatory meetings, suggestion boxes, and quality improvement projects were implemented as part of the program. A follow-up survey 1 year after implementation of the program demonstrated an increase in employee perception of the division's desire to improve service (16%), opportunities to expand skills (17%), involvement in work decisions (25%), and the institution's interest in employee well-being (17%). Key drivers of discretionary effort (4 of 5), job satisfaction (2 of 6), and overall satisfaction (1 of 8) with the institution showed statistically significant improvement in the study division as compared with the other divisions in which no such program was implemented. Further research is needed to study systems changes that enhance employee satisfaction and their impact on patient and financial outcomes.

  18. The Denver region traffic signal system improvement program : planning for management and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) works with over 30 local jurisdictions on the Traffic Signal System Improvement Program (TSSIP), a combination of management and operations strategies designed to time and coordinate traffic signals ...

  19. West Virginia peer exchange : streamlining highway safety improvement program project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences : for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September : 22 to 23, 2014 in Charleston, We...

  20. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  1. Programs to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlove J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Manlove, Heather Fish, Kristin Anderson Moore Child Trends, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods: This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on pregnancy, childbearing, STIs, and their key determinants – sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and other contraceptive use – among teens. This review describes the evidence base for five broad program approaches, including abstinence education, comprehensive sex education, clinic-based programs, youth development programs, and parent–youth relationship programs. We also describe programs with impacts on key outcomes, including pregnancy/childbearing, STIs, and those that found impacts on both sexual activity and contraceptive use. Results: Our review identified 52 effective programs: 38 with consistent impacts on reproductive health outcomes, and 14 with mixed findings (across subpopulations, follow-ups, or multiple measures of a single outcome. We found that a variety of program approaches produced impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Parent–youth relationship programs and clinic-based program evaluations more frequently showed impacts than other program approaches, although we also identified a number of abstinence-education, comprehensive sex education, and youth-development programs with impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Overall, we identified nine program evaluations with impacts on teen pregnancies or births, five with impacts on reducing STIs, and 15 with impacts on both delaying/reducing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use (including condom use. Conclusion: Future efforts should

  2. Quality improvement program reduces perioperative dental injuries – A review of 64,718 anesthetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yi-Wei; Lu, I-Cheng; Yang, Hui-Ying; Chiu, Shun-Li; Hsu, Hung-Te; Cheng, Kuang-I

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perioperative dental injury (PDI) is a common adverse event associated with anesthesia that can easily lead to medicolegal litigation. A quality improvement program was conducted with the electronic, standardized dental chart to document dentition before anesthesia and dentist consultation when necessary. This study aimed to reduce PDIs through execution of a quality improvement program. Methods: We reviewed the 42-month interval anesthetic records of 64,718 patients who underw...

  3. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project's environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions

  4. The impact of middle manager affective commitment on perceived improvement program implementation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Ashley-Kay; Tucker, Anita L; Singer, Sara J

    Recent literature suggests that middle manager affective commitment (emotional attachment, identification, and involvement) to an improvement program may influence implementation success. However, less is known about the interplay between middle manager affective commitment and frontline worker commitment, another important driver of implementation success. We contribute to this research by surveying middle managers who directly manage frontline workers on nursing units. We assess how middle manager affective commitment is related to their perceptions of implementation success and whether their perceptions of frontline worker support mediate this relationship. We also test whether a set of organizational support factors foster middle manager affective commitment. We adapt survey measures of manager affective commitment to our research context of hospitals. We surveyed 67 nurse managers from 19 U.S. hospitals. We use hierarchical linear regression to assess relationships among middle manager affective commitment to their units' falls reduction program and their perceptions of three constructs related to the program: frontline worker support, organizational support, and implementation success. Middle manager affective commitment to their unit's falls reduction program is positively associated with their perception of implementation success. This relationship is mediated by their perception of frontline worker support for the falls program. Moreover, middle managers' affective commitment to their unit's falls program mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support for the program and perceived implementation success. We, through this research, offer an important contribution by providing empirical support of factors that may influence successful implementation of an improvement program: middle manager affective commitment, frontline worker support, and organizational support for an improvement program. Increasing levels of middle manager affective

  5. Evaluating the Implementation of a Training Program for Improving Quality Service: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Ketly Dieudonne

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to implement a comprehensive training program to build employees' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to improve quality service at ABC Restaurant because of a surge in customer complaints. The purpose of this study was to develop a training program that included an employee handbook as a training tool, a handbook designed…

  6. Improving bovine udder health: A national mastitis control program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.J.G.M.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Jansen, J.; Huijps, K.; Veersen, J.C.L.; Schaick, van G.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN),

  7. 78 FR 45231 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Initial Approval of Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-3280-FN] Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Initial Approval of Center for Improvement in Healthcare Quality's (CIHQ's) Hospital Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, HHS. ACTION: Final...

  8. Evolution of a Family Nurse Practitioner Program to Improve Primary Care Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Len Hughes; Fenley, Mary D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a Family Nurse Practitioner Program that has effectively improved the distribution of primary health care manpower in rural areas. Program characteristics include selection of personnel from areas of need, decentralization of clinical and didactic training sites, competency-based portable curriculum, and circuit-riding institutionally…

  9. Understanding the "How" of Quality Improvement: Lessons from the Rhode Island Program Quality Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Elizabeth; Smith, Charles; Wong, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, afterschool and youth development programming has moved from providing childcare for working parents to being an integral component of the learning day, supporting the academic, social, and emotional development of young people. An important part of that transition has been a growing emphasis on improving program quality.…

  10. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  11. A Continuous Quality Improvement Airway Program Results in Sustained Increases in Intubation Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, David J; Stuhlmiller, David F E; Wolfe, Allen; Swearingen, Charles F; Pennington, Troy; Davis, Daniel P

    2018-02-21

    Airway management is a critical skill for air medical providers, including the use of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) medications. Mediocre success rates and a high incidence of complications has challenged air medical providers to improve training and performance improvement efforts to improve clinical performance. The aim of this research was to describe the experience with a novel, integrated advanced airway management program across a large air medical company and explore the impact of the program on improvement in RSI success. The Helicopter Advanced Resuscitation Training (HeART) program was implemented across 160 bases in 2015. The HeART program includes a novel conceptual framework based on thorough understanding of physiology, critical thinking using a novel algorithm, difficult airway predictive tools, training in the optimal use of specific airway techniques and devices, and integrated performance improvement efforts to address opportunities for improvement. The C-MAC video/direct laryngoscope and high-fidelity human patient simulation laboratories were implemented during the study period. Chi-square test for trend was used to evaluate for improvements in airway management and RSI success (overall intubation success, first-attempt success, first-attempt success without desaturation) over the 25-month study period following HeART implementation. A total of 5,132 patients underwent RSI during the study period. Improvements in first-attempt intubation success (85% to 95%, p improving RSI intubation performance in a large air medical company.

  12. Programs to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Fish, Heather; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2015-01-01

    US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on pregnancy, childbearing, STIs, and their key determinants - sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and other contraceptive use - among teens. This review describes the evidence base for five broad program approaches, including abstinence education, comprehensive sex education, clinic-based programs, youth development programs, and parent-youth relationship programs. We also describe programs with impacts on key outcomes, including pregnancy/childbearing, STIs, and those that found impacts on both sexual activity and contraceptive use. Our review identified 52 effective programs: 38 with consistent impacts on reproductive health outcomes, and 14 with mixed findings (across subpopulations, follow-ups, or multiple measures of a single outcome). We found that a variety of program approaches produced impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Parent-youth relationship programs and clinic-based program evaluations more frequently showed impacts than other program approaches, although we also identified a number of abstinence-education, comprehensive sex education, and youth-development programs with impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Overall, we identified nine program evaluations with impacts on teen pregnancies or births, five with impacts on reducing STIs, and 15 with impacts on both delaying/reducing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use (including condom use). Future efforts should conduct replications of existing program evaluations, identify implementation components linked to impacts, rigorously evaluate programs that appear promising, and

  13. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  14. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  16. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  17. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COW AND SHEEP'S BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan Ahmed Elhouri Ahmed; Mubarak Dirar Abdallah2

    2017-01-01

    In this work five samples of (cow and sheep's bones) were prepared to powders in a period of crashing (10 up to 50 sec); weight = 56.73mg To find values of: Refractive index Energy gap And Electrical Conductivity

  18. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  19. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  20. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  1. Survey of Programs Designed to Improve Employee Morale in Seven Major American Shipyards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ... and therefore his productivity. This study is purposely limited to those employee morale improvement programs which were designed to improve productivity and which in the opinion of management did, in fact, cause an increase in productivity whether or not that increase in productivity is quantifiable.

  2. Measuring Performance Excellence: Key Performance Indicators for Institutions Accepted into the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Given growing interest in accountability and outcomes, the North Central Association's Higher Learning Commission developed a new path for accreditation, the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP). The goal is to infuse continuous improvement and quality in the culture of higher education, and to blend traditional accreditation with the…

  3. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  4. 75 FR 72830 - Medicare Program; Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Contracts: Solicitation of Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...] Medicare Program; Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Contracts: Solicitation of Proposals From In-State... the Social Security Act (the Act) to provide at least 6 months' advance notice of the expiration dates of contracts with out- of-State Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) before renewing any of those...

  5. 34 CFR 637.1 - What is the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program (MSEIP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Minority Science and Engineering... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.1 What is the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement...

  6. Improving MC and A Oversight in Russia by Implementing Measurement and Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokov, Dmitry; Byers, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    As the Russian State regulatory agency responsible for oversight of nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A), Gosatomnadzor of Russia (GAN) determines the status of the MC and A programs at Russian facilities. Last year, GAN developed and implemented their Nuclear Material Measurement Program Plan which documents current non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement capability in all regions of GAN; provides justification for upgrades to equipment, procedures and training; and defines the inspector-facility operator interface as it relates to NDA measurement equipment use. This Program Plan has helped to give the GAN inspection measurements more legal and official status as an oversight tool, and has also helped to improve other GAN MC and A oversight activities. These improvements include developing a tamper-indicating device program, conducting NDA workshops at specific Russian nuclear facilities to better train MC and A inspectors, and developing training evaluation programs. The Program is an important tool to address the GAN role in oversight of the Russian Federal Information System nuclear material database. This paper describes the feedback received from the GAN regional offices on the implementation of the Program Plan during its first year in operation and how the Program Plan has affected other GAN inspection activities to improve MC and A oversight.

  7. The Effects of International Operations on the Relationship Between Manufacturing Improvement Programs and Operational Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyusz, Zsolt; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    The link between manufacturing programs and operational performance, and the effects of company internal and external factors on that relationship, are well studied in the literature, both theoretically and empirically. However, previous studies rarely took into account how the scope of operations...... of the business unit affects the relationship between manufacturing programs and performances. We investigate the scope of operations from the manufacturing perspective (i.e. companies that manufacture in only one country have narrow scope of operations, while companies that manufacture in more than one country...... have broad scope of operations). We apply structural equation modelling (SEM) using PLS path modelling to investigate the effect of scope of operations on the relationship between manufacturing improvement programs and operational performance. Manufacturing improvement programs are programs like...

  8. Survival prediction algorithms miss significant opportunities for improvement if used for case selection in trauma quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Catherine; Cole, Elaine; West, Anita; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs have shown to reduce preventable mortality in trauma care. Detailed review of all trauma deaths is a time and resource consuming process and calculated probability of survival (Ps) has been proposed as audit filter. Review is limited on deaths that were 'expected to survive'. However no Ps-based algorithm has been validated and no study has examined elements of preventability associated with deaths classified as 'expected'. The objective of this study was to examine whether trauma performance review can be streamlined using existing mortality prediction tools without missing important areas for improvement. We conducted a retrospective study of all trauma deaths reviewed by our trauma QI program. Deaths were classified into non-preventable, possibly preventable, probably preventable or preventable. Opportunities for improvement (OPIs) involve failure in the process of care and were classified into clinical and system deviations from standards of care. TRISS and PS were used for calculation of probability of survival. Peer-review charts were reviewed by a single investigator. Over 8 years, 626 patients were included. One third showed elements of preventability and 4% were preventable. Preventability occurred across the entire range of the calculated Ps band. Limiting review to unexpected deaths would have missed over 50% of all preventability issues and a third of preventable deaths. 37% of patients showed opportunities for improvement (OPIs). Neither TRISS nor PS allowed for reliable identification of OPIs and limiting peer-review to patients with unexpected deaths would have missed close to 60% of all issues in care. TRISS and PS fail to identify a significant proportion of avoidable deaths and miss important opportunities for process and system improvement. Based on this, all trauma deaths should be subjected to expert panel review in order to aim at a maximal output of performance improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  9. Incentive Design and Quality Improvements: Evidence from State Medicaid Nursing Home Pay-for-Performance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Skira, Meghan M; Werner, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programs have become a popular policy tool aimed at improving health care quality. We analyze how incentive design affects quality improvements in the nursing home setting, where several state Medicaid agencies have implemented P4P programs that vary in incentive structure. Using the Minimum Data Set and the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data from 2001 to 2009, we examine how the weights put on various performance measures that are tied to P4P bonuses, such as clinical outcomes, inspection deficiencies, and staffing levels, affect improvements in those measures. We find larger weights on clinical outcomes often lead to larger improvements, but small weights can lead to no improvement or worsening of some clinical outcomes. We find a qualifier for P4P eligibility based on having few or no severe inspection deficiencies is more effective at decreasing inspection deficiencies than using weights, suggesting simple rules for participation may incent larger improvement.

  10. Isotope aided studies on sheep and goat production in the Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The fifteen papers in this volume have been indexed separately. The main focus of the coordinated research program was the use of radioisotopes to investigate ways of increasing the fertility and growth of sheep and goats in the Tropics. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Changed mitochondrial function by pre- and/or postpartum diet alterations in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Wenche; Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Andersen, Jesper Løvind

    2009-01-01

    In a sheep model, we investigated diet effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria to look for fetal programming. During pregnancy, ewes were fed normally (N) or were 50% food restricted (L) during the last trimester, and lambs born to these ewes received a normal (N) or a high-fat diet (H...

  12. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  13. Strategies and policies for improving energy efficiency programs: Closing the loop between evaluation and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Program implementers often use evaluation results to improve the performance of their programs, but, as described in this paper, this is not always the case. Based on a review of the literature, participation in workshops, and interviews with over 50 program implementers, evaluators, and regulators in the United States and Canada, the utilization of evaluation results is investigated by asking the following questions: (1) How are program evaluation results used by program implementers and other stakeholders? (2) How are program evaluation results communicated to program implementers and other stakeholders? (3) Are the needs of program implementers being met by program evaluation? (4) What is the role of the utility regulator in facilitating the use of program evaluation results? (5) What other mechanisms can facilitate the use of program evaluation results? While there is some consensus on the answers to these questions, the type of interest in and use of evaluation varies by functional role (e.g., evaluator versus implementer), maturity of the energy efficiency market, institutional context (e.g., evaluation and implementation conducted inside the same organization, or evaluation and implementation conducted by separate entities), and by regulatory demands and evaluation interests

  14. Investigation of the Development of Farming Professional Cooperatives of Cashmere-goat and Wool-sheep in China

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, Jing; XIAO, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data from the survey of cashmere-goat and wool-sheep in 12 demonstration counties of China’s main producing areas in 2012, the development of farming professional cooperatives of cashmere-goat and wool-sheep was analyzed from aspects of status quo, problems and causes, and some suggestions about cooperation cognition and mode, service capacity, personnel training, system improvement and preferential policies were put forward to promote the development of the farming professiona...

  15. 76 FR 46814 - Medicare Program; Evaluation Criteria and Standards for Quality Improvement Program Contracts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... management; and integrating health information technology to achieve meaningful use and improve care... that each policy, action, and decision is made with an educated and strategic consideration of the... CMS-sponsored training sessions and serve as brand ambassadors with branding responsibilities as...

  16. MINERAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD SERUM AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF MILK AND CHEESE OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hrković-Porobija

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plan of research included two Pramenka sheep-breeding family farms producing Livno and Travnik cheese in the traditional ways. The experiment included 117 animals of the Pramenka strain. The serum concentrations of the minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were followed over time. Based on the physical-chemical analysis of the sheep milk, we evaluated the milk parameters (milk fat, protein and lactose and cheese parameters (dry matter, moisture, grease and pH that can be indicative of the cheese milk quality. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the serum minerals to the sheep milk quality, and the Livno and Travnik cheese quality, being the final products. Blood, milk and cheese samples were taken in the summer during the summer grazing of sheep. The results were analyzed using the software package/Program SPSS 15.00. Differences were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. Influence of serum minerals on the quality of milk and cheese was determined by calculating the correlation factor.Analysis of mineral blood components and basic milkand cheese parameters showed variations, wich may be acceptable considering the influence of lactation, climate and botanic quality.Keywords: sheep, mineral components of serum, milk, cheese, correlation

  17. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  18. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  19. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  20. Application of probiotics and different size of sodium bicarbonate powders for feedlot sheep fattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, Hery; Ramdani, Diky; Kuswaryan, Sondy; Budinuryanto, Dwi Cipto; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the use of probiotic and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of feedlot sheep. Probiotics from Heriyaki powder can function as forge preservative and sodium bicarbonate as an artificial rumen buffer that helps to stabilize pH levels in sheep's stomach. The objectives of this formulation is to improve the rumen function, feed efficiency and reduce the risk of acidosis leading to a significant increase of average daily gain (ADG, gram/head/day) of feedlot sheep. Heriyaki probiotic liquid was prepared by fermenting beans mixed with sugarcane molasses while Heriyaki powder was obtained by mixing the Heriyaki probiotic liquid with rice hull powder and additional molasses sugarcane in anaerobic condition for 5 days. The powder was then applied for preparing whole maize silage 0.5 wt% in anaerobic condition for 7 days before feeding. Meanwhile, the feed concentrate contained acid buffer of sodium bicarbonate powder at different doses and sizes [0.35 wt% commercial size (T1), 0.18 wt% mesh -400 (T2) and 0.35 wt% mesh -400 (T3)]. The diet treatment was a total mixed ratio containing 1 kg silage and 700 g concentrate. The experiment was conducted to compare the effect of 3 different treatments (T1, T2 and T3) on dry matter intake (DMI, g/day), ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of feedlot sheep for 2 months fattening, where each treatment was applied into a flock colony for 6 heads of sheep with three flock replications involving 54 heads of sheep in total for all the treatments. The results showed no difference (P>0.05) in DMI, ADG and FCR of feedlot sheep confirming the use of low-dose and finer sodium bicarbonate powder in T2 yield a targeted ADG of > 110 g but being more efficient than other treatments.

  1. A Quality Improvement Collaborative Program for Neonatal Pain Management in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Kyoko; Funaba, Yuuki; Fukushima, Sayo; Fukuhara, Rie; Uchida, Mieko; Aiba, Satoru; Doi, Miki; Nishimura, Akira; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yutaka; Oohira, Mitsuko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal pain management guidelines have been released; however, there is insufficient systematic institutional support for the adoption of evidence-based pain management in Japan. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a collaborative quality improvement program on the implementation of pain management improvements in Japanese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods: Seven Japanese level III NICUs participated in a neonatal pain management quality improvement program based on an Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model. The NICUs developed evidence-based practice points for pain management and implemented these over a 12-month period. Changes were introduced through a series of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, and throughout the process, pain management quality indicators were tracked as performance measures. Jonckheere's trend test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend were used to examine the changes in quality indicator implementations over time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months). Findings: Baseline pain management data from the 7 sites revealed substantial opportunities for improvement of pain management, and testing changes in the NICU setting resulted in measurable improvements in pain management. During the intervention phase, all participating sites introduced new pain assessment tools, and all sites developed electronic medical record forms to capture pain score, interventions, and infant responses to interventions. Implications for Practice: The use of collaborative quality improvement techniques played a key role in improving pain management in the NICUs. Implications for Research: Collaborative improvement programs provide an attractive strategy for solving evidence-practice gaps in the NICU setting. PMID:28114148

  2. Improving Perinatal Mental Health Care for Women Veterans: Description of a Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie G; Lewis, Lacey; Hercinovic, Selma; McNab, Amanda; Fortney, John; Rose, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe results from a quality improvement project undertaken to address perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans. Description This quality improvement project was conducted in a single VA healthcare system between 2012 and 2015 and included screening for depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three times during the perinatal period, a dedicated maternity care coordinator (MCC), an on-site clinical social worker, and an on-site obstetrician/gynecologist (Ob/gyn). Information on prior mental health diagnosis was collected by the MCC or Ob/gyn. The prevalence of perinatal depressive symptoms and receipt of mental healthcare among those with such symptoms are reported by presence of a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Assessment Of the 199 women who used VA maternity benefits between 2012 and 2015, 56% (n = 111) had at least one pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Compared to those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis, those with such a diagnosis were more likely to be screened for perinatal depressive symptoms at least once (61.5% vs. 46.8%, p = 0.04). Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.7% among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and 19.2% among those without. Among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 35), 88% received outpatient mental healthcare and 77% met with the clinical social worker. Among those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 8), none received outpatient mental healthcare, but 77.8% met with the clinical social worker. Conclusion Improving perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans requires a multidisciplinary approach, including on-site integrated mental healthcare.

  3. German diabetes management programs improve quality of care and curb costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Stephanie; Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Graf, Christian; Ullrich, Walter; Gerber, Andreas; Lauterbach, Karl W; Lüngen, Markus

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a large-scale analysis of a nationwide disease management program in Germany for patients with diabetes mellitus. The German program differs markedly from "classic" disease management in the United States. Although it combines important hallmarks of vendor-based disease management and the Chronic Care Model, the German program is based in primary care practices and carried out by physicians, and it draws on their personal relationships with patients to promote adherence to treatment goals and self-management. After four years of follow-up, overall mortality for patients and drug and hospital costs were all significantly lower for patients who participated in the program compared to other insured patients with similar health profiles who were not in the program. These results suggest that the German disease management program is a successful strategy for improving chronic illness care.

  4. Safety implications of standardized continuous quality improvement programs in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Ho, Certina; Mackinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Taylor, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Standardized continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs combine Web-based technologies and standardized improvement processes, tools, and expectations to enable quality-related events (QREs) occurring in individual pharmacies to be shared with pharmacies in other jurisdictions. Because standardized CQI programs are still new to community pharmacy, little is known about how they impact medication safety. This research identifies key aspects of medication safety that change as a result of implementing a standardized CQI program. Fifty-three community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, adopted the SafetyNET-Rx standardized CQI program in April 2010. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada's Medication Safety Self-Assessment (MSSA) survey was administered to these pharmacies before and 1 year into their use of the SafetyNET-Rx program. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to explore where changes in patient safety occurred as a result of SafetyNETRx use. Significant improvements occurred with quality processes and risk management, staff competence, and education, and communication of drug orders and other information. Patient education, environmental factors, and the use of devices did not show statistically significant changes. As CQI programs are designed to share learning from QREs, it is reassuring to see that the largest improvements are related to quality processes, risk management, staff competence, and education.

  5. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Empowering primary care workers to improve health services: results from Mozambique's leadership and management development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cary

    2008-07-23

    This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The series of six articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Through this program, managers from 40 countries have learned to work in teams to identify their priority challenges and act to implement effective responses. From 2003 to 2004, 11 health units in Nampula Province, participated in a leadership and management development program called the Challenges Program. This was following an assessment which found that the quality of health services was poor, and senior officials determined that the underlying cause was the lack of human resource capacity in leadership and management in a rapidly decentralizing health care system. The program was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented in partnership between the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MOH) Provincial Directorate in Nampula and Management Sciences for Health (MSH). The Challenges Program used simple management and leadership tools to assist the health units and their communities to address health service challenges. An evaluation of the program in 2005 showed that 10 of 11 health centers improved health services over the year of the program. The Challenges Program used several strategies that contributed to successful outcomes. It integrated leadership strengthening into the day-to-day challenges that staff were facing in the health units. The second success factor in the Challenges Program was the creation of participatory teams. After the program, people no longer waited passively to be trained but instead proactively requested training in needed areas. MOH workers in Nampula reported

  7. Does a voucher program improve reproductive health service delivery and access in Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Kimani, James; Kanya, Lucy; Korongo, Allan; Mukanya, Collins; Bracke, Piet; Bellows, Ben; Warren, Charlotte E

    2015-05-23

    Current assessments on Output-Based Aid (OBA) programs have paid limited attention to the experiences and perceptions of the healthcare providers and facility managers. This study examines the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of healthcare providers and facility managers in the Kenya reproductive health output-based approach voucher program. A total of 69 in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and facility managers in 30 voucher accredited facilities were conducted. The study hypothesized that a voucher program would be associated with improvements in reproductive health service provision. Data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting a thematic framework analysis approach. A combination of inductive and deductive analysis was conducted based on previous research and project documents. Facility managers and providers viewed the RH-OBA program as a feasible system for increasing service utilization and improving quality of care. Perceived benefits of the program included stimulation of competition between facilities and capital investment in most facilities. Awareness of family planning (FP) and gender-based violence (GBV) recovery services voucher, however, remained lower than the maternal health voucher service. Relations between the voucher management agency and accredited facilities as well as existing health systems challenges affect program functions. Public and private sector healthcare providers and facility managers perceive value in the voucher program as a healthcare financing model. They recognize that it has the potential to significantly increase demand for reproductive health services, improve quality of care and reduce inequities in the use of reproductive health services. To improve program functioning going forward, there is need to ensure the benefit package and criteria for beneficiary identification are well understood and that the public facilities are permitted greater autonomy to utilize revenue generated from the voucher program.

  8. Bacterial community in the rumen of Tibetan sheep and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Luo, Yuzhu

    2017-05-12

    The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment. A total of 116 sequences (201 clones) were examined and divided into 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the TS library and 46 OTUs in the GS library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences that belonged to the Firmicutes were the most predominant bacteria in both TS and GS libraries, representing 79.4% and 62.8% of the total clones, respectively. The remaining sequences belonged to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, or were unclassified bacteria. Sequence analysis revealed that the TS and GS rumens harbored many novel sequences associated with uncultured bacteria that accounted for 63.6% and 46.8% of the total clones, respectively. Comparison of the composition and diversity of the TS and GS rumen bacteria revealed few overlapping known bacteria between the two breeds, and a higher diversity in TS. The rumen bacteria of the plateau sheep showed higher percentages of bacteria that belonged to Firmicutes and novel species compared with the low-elevation sheep. The unique bacterial community in the plateau sheep rumens is perhaps one of the major reasons that they can adapt to the harsh plateau environment. These results can help identify the rumen bacterial community of the ruminants in the QTP, and provide bacteria resources and basic data to improve ruminant productivity.

  9. Practical Implications for an Effective Radiology Residency Quality Improvement Program for Milestone Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Ackerman, Susan; Hill, Jeanne; Thacker, Paul; Matheus, Maria; Tipnis, Sameer; Gordon, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided. Sample projects, challenges to success, and lessons learned are also described. Survey data of current trainees and alumni about the program reveal that the majority of residents and alumni responders valued the QI curriculum and felt comfortable with principles and understanding of QI. The most highly valued aspect of the program was the utilization of a resident education committee. The majority of alumni responders felt the residency quality curriculum improved understanding of QI, assisted with preparation for the American Board of Radiology examination, and prepared them for QI in their careers. In addition to the survey results, outcomes of resident project completion and resident scholarly activity in QI are evidence of the success of this program. It is hoped that this description of our experiences with a radiology resident QI program, in accordance with the ACGME milestones, may facilitate the development of successful QI programs in other diagnostic radiology residencies. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lesson learned from PSA in the design improvement program of KSNP+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.R.; Lim, H.K.; Kang, S.K.; Park, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    KOPEC (Korea Power Engineering Co.) in conjunction with the client KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corp.) has been developing a highly competitive Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant named KSNP+. From the beginning of Design Improvement Program, PSA was carried out to assure that the safety level of KSNP+ is maintained or improved in comparison with that of KSNP, the Korean Standard NPP. To achieve the safety goal of KSNP+, PSA team reviewed all design changes that might affect the plant safety. Design vulnerabilities were identified from the PSA results and safety improvement items were recommended to the system designers. Through the Design Improvement Program, KSNP+ became more reliable, safer and economically competitive than KSNP. This was achieved by systematic approach for design optimization and effective use of PSA technology based on past experience and expertise of nuclear power plant. (author)

  11. A simulation-based training program improves emergency department staff communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lynn A; Warren, Otis; Gardner, Liz; Rojek, Adam; Lindquist, David G

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CLEAR!, a novel simulation-based training program designed to instill Crew Resource Management (CRM) as the communication standard and to create a service-focused environment in the emergency department (ED) by standardizing the patient encounter. A survey-based study compared physicians' and nurses' perceptions of the quality of communication before and after the training program. Surveys were developed to measure ED staff perceptions of the quality of communication between staff members and with patients. Pretraining and posttraining survey results were compared. After the training program, survey scores improved significantly on questions that asked participants to rate the overall communication between staff members and between staff and patients. A simulation-based training program focusing on CRM and standardizing the patient encounter improves communication in the ED, both between staff members and between staff members and patients.

  12. COMPARISON OF CRM PROGRAMS BASING ON IMPROVING CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY: USING THE AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Fei Xue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the cause-related marketing (CRM methods that used by most current enterprises. And then, we probe into the difference of the effects of different types of CRM programs aiming at improving customer profitability by analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Consequently, we find out the sequencing results and provide some reference to the enterprises while performing CRM programs.

  13. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  14. Recovery of Vegetation Cover and Soil after the Removal of Sheep in Socorro Island, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ortíz-Alcaraz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 140 years, the habitat of Socorro Island in the Mexican Pacific has been altered by the presence of exotic sheep. Overgrazing, jointly with tropical storms, has caused soil erosion, and more than 2000 hectares of native vegetation have been lost. Sheep eradication was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Since then, the vegetation has begun to recover passively, modifying soil properties. The objective of our study was to verify that this island was resilient enough to be recovered and in a relatively short time scale. To confirm our hypothesis, we analyzed changes in the physical-chemical properties of the soil and vegetation cover, the last one in different times and habitats after sheep eradication. The change in vegetation cover was estimated by comparing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI between 2008 and 2013. In sites altered by feral sheep, soil compaction was assessed, and soil samples were taken, analyzing pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium. After a year of total sheep eradication, clear indications in the recovery of vegetation cover and improvement of soil quality parameters were observed and confirmed, specifically compaction and nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and calcium. The results seem to support our hypothesis.

  15. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  16. Comprehensive review of an accelerated nursing program: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Elinor; LaRocco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated second-degree programs are designed to provide entry into baccalaureate nursing program for people who have achieved bachelor's degree in another field. These programs were often designed to respond to nursing shortages at local and national levels. Programs commonly use a cohort model and move students through an intensive structure combining classroom and clinical requirement with a 2-year period. The accelerated second-degree nursing program, Accelerated Entry Level to Nursing program at our small liberal arts college, was considered to be successful. The program had excellent graduation rates and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses pass rates, indicating that the program was preparing the graduate to thrive in the practice setting. The program had been in existence for more than 7 years, with highly competitive admissions and high student satisfaction. The objective of this study was to provide a quality improvement assessment process to capture quantitative and qualitative information about the graduates. This information would be used to inform our own nursing education department and would provide metrics and information for nurse leaders regarding the rigor of these programs and the potential of graduates. Continuous quality improvement is a vital component in nursing education as well as in the clinical setting. With this in mind, a comprehensive review was undertaken by the nursing faculty during the eighth year of the highly successful accelerated nursing program in a small liberal arts college. This quality improvement project was designed to review existing metrics and to collect additional data through survey and focus groups in order to capture experiences of the program graduates. Graduates of the accelerated program from 2005 to 2011 were included in this study. Faculty who teach in the program participated in focus groups. From 2005 to 2011, there have been a total of 196 graduates in 8 cohorts; 194 surveys

  17. Redesigning a clinical mentoring program for improved outcomes in the clinical training of clerks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Der Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mentorship has been noted as critical to medical students adapting to clinical training in the medical workplace. A lack of infrastructure in a mentoring program might deter relationship building between mentors and mentees. This study assessed the effect of a redesigned clinical mentoring program from the perspective of clerks. The objective was to assess the benefits of the redesigned program and identify potential improvements. Methods: A redesigned clinical mentoring program was launched in a medical center according to previous theoretical and practical studies on clinical training workplaces, including the elements of mentor qualifications, positive and active enhancers for mentor–mentee relationship building, the timing of mentoring performance evaluation, and financial and professional incentives. A four-wave web survey was conducted, comprising one evaluation of the former mentoring program and three evaluations of the redesigned clinical mentoring program. Sixty-four fifth-year medical students in clerkships who responded to the first wave and to at least two of the three following waves were included in the study. A structured and validated questionnaire encompassing 15 items on mentor performance and the personal characteristics of the clerks was used. Mixed linear models were developed for repeated measurements and to adjust for personal characteristics. Results: The results revealed that the redesigned mentoring program improved the mentors’ performance over time for most evaluated items regarding professional development and personal support provided to the mentees. Conclusions: Our findings serve as an improved framework for the role of the institution and demonstrate how institutional policies, programs, and structures can shape a clinical mentoring program. We recommend the adoption of mentorship schemes for other cohorts of medical students and for different learning and training stages involved in becoming a

  18. Redesigning a clinical mentoring program for improved outcomes in the clinical training of clerks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Der; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Cheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mentorship has been noted as critical to medical students adapting to clinical training in the medical workplace. A lack of infrastructure in a mentoring program might deter relationship building between mentors and mentees. This study assessed the effect of a redesigned clinical mentoring program from the perspective of clerks. The objective was to assess the benefits of the redesigned program and identify potential improvements. Methods A redesigned clinical mentoring program was launched in a medical center according to previous theoretical and practical studies on clinical training workplaces, including the elements of mentor qualifications, positive and active enhancers for mentor–mentee relationship building, the timing of mentoring performance evaluation, and financial and professional incentives. A four-wave web survey was conducted, comprising one evaluation of the former mentoring program and three evaluations of the redesigned clinical mentoring program. Sixty-four fifth-year medical students in clerkships who responded to the first wave and to at least two of the three following waves were included in the study. A structured and validated questionnaire encompassing 15 items on mentor performance and the personal characteristics of the clerks was used. Mixed linear models were developed for repeated measurements and to adjust for personal characteristics. Results The results revealed that the redesigned mentoring program improved the mentors’ performance over time for most evaluated items regarding professional development and personal support provided to the mentees. Conclusions Our findings serve as an improved framework for the role of the institution and demonstrate how institutional policies, programs, and structures can shape a clinical mentoring program. We recommend the adoption of mentorship schemes for other cohorts of medical students and for different learning and training stages involved in becoming a physician. PMID

  19. A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.

  20. Evolution and development of a deliverability improvement program for gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, T.D.; Sikorski, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    With the implementation in November 1993 of FERC Order 636, the responsibilities and contractual obligations for a Gas Transmission Company operating Gas Storage have changed. Among these responsibilities is the ability to deliver gas from storage in a timely manner as specified by gas storage contracts. To ensure that their deliverability obligations are met, a program has been implemented to review well performance and to re-work wells where deliverability can economically be improved. This program is aimed at maintaining or improving deliverability from wells and monitoring their future performance. Re-working existing wells has proven to be an economically successful method of maintaining deliverability compared to drilling new wells to meet this purpose. Re-working can be broken into two groups of wells: wells that have mechanical problems that need to be corrected or wells that need some type of stimulation treatment. In developing a rework program, several things need to be addressed such as: a candidate recognition program, the design of the work to be performed, execution of that work, and the evaluation of the results obtained along with the economics. The Deliverability Improvement Program is in its third year. It has developed from a small pilot program to a substantial part of normal storage activities. The purpose of this paper is to review the processes used to find candidates to work on and an evaluation of work performed

  1. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and reconstruction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2004 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2004), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance, and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. This report also summarizes Program Administrative, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education activities.

  2. Health-Improving Rehabilitation Program of Pysical Education at Higher School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Naskalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed to explore the efficiency of innovative technologies and increase the health-improving effect as a result of physical training in ecologically unfavorable conditions. A health-improving rehabilitation program, containing a set of modern means of physical rehabilitation and recreation in combination with physical exercises, was worked out to carry out the pedagogical experiment. The program includes the hydromassage, stretching exercises with biomechanical stimulation and exercises for developing weightlifting abilities. Apart from this, the interval hypoxic training was used in ‘artificially created’ favorable ecological conditions for detoxication. The students at Polotsk State University took part in the experiment. Among the assessment criteria applied by the author, there are generally acknowledged methods identifying the development of physical qualities, external respiration functions, body fat and other components composition. The experiment revealed that the innovative program had enhanced the health-improving effect compared to the traditional training programs, which was expressed by the statistically valid increase of the students’ speed- strength characteristics, flexibility, external respiration functions as well as the body fat decrease. Therefore, in order to increase a health-improving effect of physical training, the author recommends considering the specific ecological and hygienic conditions of a particular region to create the corresponding programs for group and individual health protection and recovery. The research findings can be used in physical education process at universities situated in the regions with unfavorable ecological conditions. 

  3. Comprehensive yogic breathing program improves quality of life in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of a comprehensive yogic breathing program on glycemic control and quality of life (QOL in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Patients having HbA1c between 6 and 9% for at least 3 months with lifestyle modification and oral antidiabetic medication were included. They were followed-up and randomized at 6 months into two groups: one group receiving standard treatment of diabetes and the other group receiving standard treatment of diabetes and taught and told to regularly practice the comprehensive yogic breathing program (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga and Pranayam. Change in fasting and post-prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin and QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization QOL WHOQOL BREF questionnaire were assessed. Results: There was a trend toward improvement in glycemic control in the group practicing the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared with the group following standard treatment alone, although this was not significant. There was significant improvement in physical, psychological and social domains and total QOL post-intervention in the group practicing the comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared with the group following standard treatment alone. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in the QOL and a non-significant trend toward improvement in glycemic control in the group practicing the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared with the group that was following standard treatment alone.

  4. Availability Improvement Program for Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneaux, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Middle South Utilities System (MSUS) began an Availability Improvement Program (AIP) in the late nineteen-seventies for the benefit of all the operating units making up the System. This paper describes the methodology that is being employed in implementing a formal Avalability Improvement Program for a new nuclear unit known as Waterford 3. The tasks needed to install and maintain the AIP at Waterford 3 are discussed in terms of Analytical Methodology, Avalability Data System, and Plant Imvolvement. In particular, the AIP will provide: Management reporting; External reporting; A self-sufficient core of trained avalability personnel; Procedures and methodologies to monitor plant availability and to analyze availability problems

  5. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly/annual progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouthamel, C.E.

    1978-10-01

    This quarterly/annual report reviews and summarizes the activities performed in support of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP) during Fiscal Year 1978 with emphasis on those activities that transpired during the quarter ending September 30, 1978. Significant progress has been made in achieving the primary objectives of the program, i.e., to demonstrate commercially viable fuel concepts with improved fuel - cladding interaction (FCI) behavior. This includes out-of-reactor experiments to support the fuel concepts being evaluated, initiation of instrumented test rod experiments in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), and fabrication of the first series of demonstration rods for irradiation in the Big Rock Point Reactor

  6. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  7. Disallowing Same-program Co-schedules to Improve Efficiency in Quad-core Servers

    OpenAIRE

    de Blanche, Andreas; Lundqvist, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Programs running on different cores in a multicore server are often forced to share resources like off-chip memory, caches, I/O devices, etc. This resource sharing often leads to degraded performance, a slowdown, for the programs that share the resources. A job scheduler can improve performance by co-scheduling programs that use different resources on the same server. The most common approach to solve this co-scheduling problem has been to make job-schedulers resource aware, finding ways to c...

  8. Improvement program of state supervision system for radioactive and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current program begins as part of a policy to take care of the development of the cuban nuclear program and with the objective of improving the state supervision system of nuclear and radioactive facilities on the basis of the national experience, good skills internationally accepted and taking into account IAEA recommendations. The program develops the following topics: reorientation and restructure of state supervision, review of the current nuclear legislature, update of regulations of facility safety and qualification and training of state supervision personnel

  9. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  10. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  11. Feedback to providers improves evidence-based implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming and reduces shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Marc T; Sterns, Laurence D; Piccini, Jonathan P; Joung, Boyoung; Ching, Chi-Keong; Pickett, Robert A; Rabinovich, Rafael; Liu, Shufeng; Peterson, Brett J; Lexcen, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks are associated with increased anxiety, health care utilization, and potentially mortality. The purpose of the Shock-Less Study was to determine if providing feedback reports to physicians on their adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming could improve their programming behavior and reduce shocks. Shock-Less enrolled primary prevention (PP) and secondary prevention (SP) ICD patients between 2009 and 2012 at 118 study centers worldwide and followed patients longitudinally after their ICD implant. Center-specific therapy programming reports (TPRs) were delivered to each center 9 to 12 months after their first enrollment. The reports detailed adherence to evidence-based programming targets: number of intervals to detect ventricular fibrillation (VF NID), longest treatment interval (LTI), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) discriminators (Wavelet, PR Logic), SVT limit, Lead Integrity Alert (LIA), and antitachycardia pacing (ATP). Clinicians programmed ICDs at their discretion. The primary outcome measure was the change in utilization of evidence-based shock reduction programming before (phase I, n = 2694 patients) and after initiation of the TPR (phase II, n = 1438 patients). Patients implanted after feedback reports (phase II) were up to 20% more likely to have their ICDs programmed in line with evidence-based shock reduction programming (eg, VF NID in PP patients 30/40 in 33.5% vs 18.6%, P programming feedback reports improves adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming and is associated with lower risk of ICD shocks. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of an oral health program in improving the knowledge and competencies of head start staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Courtney Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Head Start and Early Head Start (HS/EHS) programs have partnered with the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to promote oral health and increase access to dental homes. Preparing HS/EHS staff for issues related to pediatric oral health promises to improve effectiveness of this collaboration. This paper's purpose was to describe the Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program (C-HSOHP) and changes in HS/EHS staff pediatric oral health knowledge and competencies after participating in C-HSOHP. Four HS/EHS grantees in New York City engaged in the 2008-09 C-HSOHP. A convenience sample of 61 staff completed pre- and postself assessments of knowledge and competencies. Significant paired mean improvements were found for staff-reported level of preparation to explain dental issues during pregnancy, the tooth decay process, and preparing parents for their child's first dental visit. Significant improvements were found in staff confidence in teaching parents about children's oral health issues, referring for pediatric dental services, and talking to a dentist about a concern. The Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program was effective in improving Head Start/Early Head Start staff self-confidence and self-perceived preparedness in teaching parents about oral health, applying oral health knowledge to HS/EHS programs, communicating with dental professionals, and improving access to pediatric dental services.

  13. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia. PMID:28632161

  14. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Schroeder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  16. A Peer-to-Peer Mentoring Program for In-Center Hemodialysis: A Patient-Centered Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Russell, Jennifer; Southerland, Shiree; Huff, Edwin D; Thomson, Maria; Meyer, Klemens B; Lynch, Janet R

    2017-01-01

    A patient-centered quality improvement program implemented in one Virginia hemodialysis facility sought to determine if peer-to-peer (P2P) programs can assist patients on in-center hemodialysis with self-management and improve outcomes. Using a single-arm, repeatedmeasurement, quasi-experimental design, 46 patients participated in a four-month P2P intervention. Outcomes include knowledge, self-management behaviors, and psychosocial health indicators: self-efficacy, perceived social support, hemodialysis social support, and healthrelated quality of life (HRQoL). Physiological health indicators included missed and shortened treatments, arteriovenous fistula placement, interdialytic weight gain, serum phosphorus, and hospitalizations. Mentees demonstrated increased knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived social support, hemodialysis social support, and HRQoL. Missed treatments decreased. Mentors experienced increases in knowledge, self-management, and social support. A P2P mentoring program for in-center hemodialysis can benefit both mentees and mentors. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  17. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self-Assessment Evaluations - Redacted

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    from mandatory disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization...Project No. D2016-D000RD-0057.000) │ i Results in Brief Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self...Assessment Evaluations Visit us at www.dodig.mil December 20, 2016 Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency

  18. Preparing and Analyzing Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs Library for the Mammary Tissue of Local Turkish Kivircik Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kivircik sheep is an important local Turkish sheep according to its meat quality and milk productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiles of both prenatal and postnatal stages for the Kivircik sheep. Therefore, two different cDNA libraries, which were taken from the same Kivircik sheep mammary gland tissue at prenatal and postnatal stages, were constructed. Total 3072 colonies which were randomly selected from the two libraries were sequenced for developing a sheep ESTs collection. We used Phred/Phrap computer programs for analysis of the raw EST and readable EST sequences were assembled with the CAP3 software. Putative functions of all unique sequences and statistical analysis were determined by Geneious software. Total 422 ESTs have over 80% similarity to known sequences of other organisms in NCBI classified by Panther database for the Gene Ontology (GO category. By comparing gene expression profiles, we observed some putative genes that may be relative to reproductive performance or play important roles in milk synthesis and secretion. A total of 2414 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database (GW996847–GW999260. EST data in this study have provided a new source of information to functional genome studies of sheep.

  19. Implementing 'Continuous Improvement' in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D. A.; Buckley, J. T.; Johnson, R. L.; Gillen, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (US NRC's) comprehensive decommissioning program encompasses the decommissioning of all US NRC licensed facilities, ranging from the termination of routine licenses for sealed sources, to the closure of complex materials sites and nuclear power reactor facilities. Of the approximately 200 materials licenses that are terminated each year, most are routine and require little, if any, remediation to meet the US NRC unrestricted release criteria. However, some present technical and policy challenges that require large expenditures of resources, including a few complex materials sites that have requested license termination under the restricted-use provisions of 10 CFR 20.1403. Fiscal constraints to reduce budgeted resources in the decommissioning program, as well as concerns over the time to complete the decommissioning process have led to actions to improve the program and use resources more efficiently. In addition, the US NRC's Strategic Plan requires efforts to identify and implement improvements to US NRC programs in order to improve efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and openness, of the US NRC's activities, while maintaining the necessary focus on safety. Decommissioning regulations, and more recently the analysis of several issues associated with implementing those regulations, also have been significant catalysts for improvements in the decommissioning program. Actions in response to these catalysts have resulted in a program focused on the management of complex sites in a comprehensive, consistent, and risk-informed manner, as opposed to the past practice of focusing on sites deemed to be problematic. This paper describes the current status of the decommissioning of US NRC-licensed nuclear facilities, including an overview of recent decommissioning project completion efforts. It provides a detailed summary of past, current, and future improvements in the US NRC decommissioning program including the

  20. Program management plan for the conduct of a research, development, and demonstration program for improving the safety of nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    Congress passed Public Law 96-567, Nuclear Safety Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1980, (hereafter referred to as the Act) to provide for an accelerated and coordinated program of light water reactor safety research, development, and demonstration to be carried out by the Department of Energy. In order to assure that this program would be compatible with the needs of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated its response to Section 4 of the Act by conducting individual information gathering meetings with NRC and a wide cross section of the nuclear industry. The Department received recommendations on needs of what type of activities would and would not be appropriate for the Department to assist in satisfying these needs. Based on the evaluation of these inputs, it is concluded that the Department's ongoing Light Water Reactor (LWR) safety program is responsive to the Act. Specifically, the Department's ongoing program includes tasks in the areas of regulatory assessment, risk assessment, fission product source term, and emergency preparedness as well as providing technical assistance to the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to improve training of nuclear power personnel. These were among the very high priority efforts that were identified as necessary and appropriate for support by the Department

  1. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Evolution of Tibetan Sheep Based on mtDNA D-Loop Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Liu

    Full Text Available The molecular and population genetic evidence of the phylogenetic status of the Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries is not well understood, and little is known about this species' genetic diversity. This knowledge gap is partly due to the difficulty of sample collection. This is the first work to address this question. Here, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 636 individual Tibetan sheep from fifteen populations were assessed using 642 complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop. Samples were collected from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China, and reference data were obtained from the six reference breed sequences available in GenBank. The length of the sequences varied considerably, between 1031 and 1259 bp. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.992±0.010 and 0.019±0.001, respectively. The average number of nucleotide differences was 19.635. The mean nucleotide composition of the 350 haplotypes was 32.961% A, 29.708% T, 22.892% C, 14.439% G, 62.669% A+T, and 37.331% G+C. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four previously defined haplogroups (A, B, C, and D were found in the 636 individuals of the fifteen Tibetan sheep populations but that only the D haplogroup was found in Linzhou sheep. Further, the clustering analysis divided the fifteen Tibetan sheep populations into at least two clusters. The estimation of the demographic parameters from the mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A, B, and C had at least one demographic expansion in Tibetan sheep. These results contribute to the knowledge of Tibetan sheep populations and will help inform future conservation programs about the Tibetan sheep native to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  2. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road...

  3. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  4. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between event learning and continuous quality improvement programs and culture of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz; Chera, Bhishamjit; Mosaly, Prithima; Taylor, Kinley; Tracton, Gregg; Johnson, Kendra; Comitz, Elizabeth; Adams, Robert; Pooya, Pegah; Ivy, Julie; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2015-01-01

    To present our approach and results from our quality and safety program and to report their possible impact on our culture of patient safety. We created an event learning system (termed a "good catch" program) and encouraged staff to report any quality or safety concerns in real time. Events were analyzed to assess the utility of safety barriers. A formal continuous quality improvement program was created to address these reported events and make improvements. Data on perceptions of the culture of patient safety were collected using the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality survey administered before, during, and after the initiatives. Of 560 good catches reported, 367 could be ascribed to a specific step on our process map. The calculated utility of safety barriers was highest for those embedded into the pretreatment quality assurance checks performed by physicists and dosimetrists (utility score 0.53; 93 of 174) and routine checks done by therapists on the initial day of therapy. Therapists and physicists reported the highest number of good catches (24% each). Sixty-four percent of events were caused by performance issues (eg, not following standardized processes, including suboptimal communications). Of 31 initiated formal improvement events, 26 were successfully implemented and sustained, 4 were discontinued, and 1 was not implemented. Most of the continuous quality improvement program was conducted by nurses (14) and therapists (7). Percentages of positive responses in the patient safety culture survey appear to have increased on all dimensions (p continuous quality improvement programs can be successfully implemented and that there are contemporaneous improvements in the culture of safety. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  7. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  8. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  9. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  10. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  11. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  12. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  13. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  14. A Pharmaceutical Care Program to Improve Adherence to Statin Therapy : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone R. B. M.; van der Elst, Menno E.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Rompelberg, Cathy J. M.; Garssen, Johan; Oosterveld, Marco H.; de Boer, Anthonius; de Gier, Johan J.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known beneficial effects of statins, many patients do not adhere to chronic medication regimens. OBJECTIVE: To implement and assess the effectiveness of a community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care program developed to improve patients' adherence to statin therapy.

  15. Quality improvement program reduces perioperative dental injuries – A review of 64,718 anesthetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Kuo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dental injury incidence was significantly reduced and remained at low levels after implementation of the quality improvement program. We suggest the implementation of a standardized dental examination into the preoperative evaluation system adding pathologic teeth fixed or protected devices to minimize dental injury associated with anesthesia.

  16. Online Student Evaluation Improves Course Experience Questionnaire Results in a Physiotherapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Beatrice; Jones, Sue; Straker, Leon

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the use of an online student evaluation system, Course Experience on the Web (CEW), in a physiotherapy program to improve their Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) results. CEW comprises a course survey instrument modeled on the CEQ and a tailored unit survey instrument. Closure of the feedback loop is integral in the CEW…

  17. Program of participation and improvement of management in N.P. Cofrentes (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almoguera, R.; Garcia Fernandez, N.

    1995-01-01

    The generation sector of Iberdrola began in 1992 the Participation program and management improvement management in the Nuclear Power Plant of Cofrentes (Spain) to set up a model for the Total Quality management. The model used was develop by Florida Power and Light and the enterprise Sistecal was selected as consulting

  18. Improving the School Program through the Effective Use of Federal Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dan

    This pamphlet shows school personnel how to apply successfully for Federal grants to finance improvements in educational programs. Advice is given on the importance of evaluating needs, objectives, and procedures as a prerequisite to writing a proposal. Next, suggestions for writing a good proposal are made, including references to the need for…

  19. Use of protoplast, cell, and shoot tip culture in an elm germ plasm improvement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Daniel Lineberger; M.B. Sticklen; P.M. Pijut; Mark A. Kroggel; C.V.M. Fink; S.C. Domir

    1990-01-01

    An elm germplasm improvement program was established using three distinct approaches: (1) development of protoplast regeneration protocols with the goal of attempting somatic hybridization between Ulmus americana and disease resistant hybrids; (2) evaluation of the extent of somaclonal variation in plants regenerated from protoplasts; and (3)...

  20. 76 FR 78343 - HOME Investment Partnerships Program: Improving Performance and Accountability; and Updating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... CFR Parts 91 and 92 HOME Investment Partnerships Program: Improving Performance and Accountability... Performance and Accountability; and Updating Property Standards AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... regulatory requirements and establish new requirements designed to enhance accountability by States and units...

  1. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  2. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  3. Improving Leadership Preparation Programs through a School, University, and Professional Organization Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Henry A.; Wallace, Corinna

    Beginning educational administrators often find that they are unprepared to deal with the realities of school administration. This paper describes how the Halifax County, North Carolina, school system worked with a national organization and an area university to develop a plan to improve its administrator-preparation program. In 1992 the school…

  4. Understanding Effective Program Improvement Schools through a Distributed Leadership Task Context Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Frances Marie

    2012-01-01

    Federal, state, and local agencies face challenges organizing resources that create the conditions necessary to create, sustain, and replicate effective high performing schools. Knowing that leadership does impact achievement outcomes and that school districts tackle growing numbers of sanctioned Program Improvement schools, a distributed…

  5. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...] Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Comment. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing Interim Guidance on the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality.../environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This Interim Guidance is...

  6. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…

  7. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  8. Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun with Sisters and Brothers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Denise E.; Kramer, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) in improving sibling relationship quality (SRQ) by evaluating the More Fun With Sisters and Brothers Program where 4- to 8-year-old siblings from 95 families were taught emotional and social competencies. Parents reported on SRQ and ER, and sibling interactions were observed in homes. SRQ and ER…

  9. 75 FR 56858 - Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income Program-Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0017] RIN 0960-AH00 Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income Program--Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief Tax Act of 2008...

  10. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  11. A Program to Improve Student Engagement at Research-Focused Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Hope, Sally E.; Wylie, Lauren J.; Zhao, Bob; Souza, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting undergraduate engagement is an important and challenging obstacle at large research-focused universities. Thus, the current study evaluated whether a peer-led program of student-geared events could improve engagement among a diverse group of psychology students early on in their degrees. We randomly assigned interested second-year…

  12. Improving Deficient Listening Skills in the Language Arts Program at the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Laura

    A project developed a program for improving deficient student-to-student listening skills. The targeted population consisted of 18 seventh-grade middle school students in a culturally diverse, lower middle class community in a near-western suburb of Chicago. The problem of deficient listening skills was evident through teacher observation and…

  13. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  14. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…

  15. Online Programs as Tools to Improve Parenting: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Jo J.M.A Hermanns; Prof. Dr. Ruben R.G. Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2013-01-01

    Background. A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies,have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although webbased services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting interventions

  16. Online programs as tools to improve parenting: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, C.C.; Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies, have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although web-based services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting

  17. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Helping Parents to Improve Their Parenting Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program that attempts to promote holistic development in adolescents in Hong Kong. In the Tier 2 Program of this project, social workers are expected to develop positive youth development programs for adolescents having greater psychosocial needs. They are required to submit proposals that will be evaluated in terms of whether the proposals are evidence based, and appropriate evaluation mechanisms are included. With reference to the literature on parental control processes that Chinese parents may be loose in their behavioral control and they tend to overemphasize academic excellence, it is argued that improvement of the parenting skills of parents of Chinese adolescents is an important area to be addressed. To facilitate social workers to prepare the related proposals, a sample proposal on how to improve the parenting skills of Chinese parents is described, including its conceptual framework, proposed program, and evaluation plan. It is argued that this supportive approach (i.e., preparation of a sample proposal can help social workers to develop quality proposals on positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

  18. A Multicenter Performance Improvement Program Uses Rural Trauma Filters for Benchmarking: An Evaluation of the Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Ray; McGraw, Constance; Archuleta, Mike; Bentler, Heather; Keiter, Leigh; Ramstetter, Julie; Reis, Elizabeth; Romans, Cristi; Schell, Rachael; Ross, Kelli; Smith, Rachel; Townsend, Jodi; Orlando, Alessandro; Mains, Charles W

    Colorado requires Level III and IV trauma centers to conduct a formal performance improvement program (PI), but provides limited support for program development. Trauma program managers and coordinators in rural facilities rarely have experience in the development or management of a PI program. As a result, rural trauma centers often face challenges in evaluating trauma outcomes adequately. Through a multidisciplinary outreach program, our Trauma System worked with a group of rural trauma centers to identify and define seven specific PI filters based on key program elements of rural trauma centers. This retrospective observational project sought to develop and examine these PI filters so as to enhance the review and evaluation of patient care. The project included 924 trauma patients from eight Level IV and one Level III trauma centers. Seven PI filters were retrospectively collected and analyzed by quarter in 2016: prehospital managed airway for patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of less than 9; adherence to trauma team activation criteria; evidence of physician team leader presence within 20 min of activation; patient with a GCS score less than 9 in the emergency department (ED): intubated in less than 20 min; ED length of stay (LOS) less than 4 hr from patient arrival to transfer; adherence to admission criteria; documentation of GCS on arrival, discharge, or with change of status. There was a significantly increasing compliance trend toward appropriate documentation of GCS (p trend used to develop compliance thresholds, to identify areas for improvement, and create corrective action plans as necessary.

  19. Program to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Vlaskina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.; mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.; formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.; increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.

  20. Practice Facilitators' and Leaders' Perspectives on a Facilitated Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Megan; Brown, Tiffany; Liss, David T; Walunas, Theresa L; Persell, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Practice facilitation is a promising approach to helping practices implement quality improvements. Our purpose was to describe practice facilitators' and practice leaders' perspectives on implementation of a practice facilitator-supported quality improvement program and describe where their perspectives aligned and diverged. We conducted interviews with practice leaders and practice facilitators who participated in a program that included 35 improvement strategies aimed at the ABCS of heart health (aspirin use in high-risk individuals, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). Rapid qualitative analysis was used to collect, organize, and analyze the data. We interviewed 17 of the 33 eligible practice leaders, and the 10 practice facilitators assigned to those practices. Practice leaders and practice facilitators both reported value in the program's ability to bring needed, high-quality resources to practices. Practice leaders appreciated being able to set the schedule for facilitation and select among the 35 interventions. According to practice facilitators, however, relying on practice leaders to set the pace of the intervention resulted in a lower level of program intensity than intended. Practice leaders preferred targeted assistance, particularly electronic health record documentation guidance and linkages to state smoking cessation programs. Practice facilitators reported that the easiest interventions were those that did not alter care practices. The dual perspectives of practice leaders and practice facilitators provide a more holistic picture of enablers and barriers to program implementation. There may be greater opportunities to assist small practices through simple, targeted practice facilitator-supported efforts rather than larger, comprehensive quality improvement projects. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  3. Remodularizing Java Programs for Improved Locality of Feature Implementations in Source Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Explicit traceability between features and source code is known to help programmers to understand and modify programs during maintenance tasks. However, the complex relations between features and their implementations are not evident from the source code of object-oriented Java programs....... Consequently, the implementations of individual features are difficult to locate, comprehend, and modify in isolation. In this paper, we present a novel remodularization approach that improves the representation of features in the source code of Java programs. Both forward- and reverse restructurings...... are supported through on-demand bidirectional restructuring between feature-oriented and object-oriented decompositions. The approach includes a feature location phase based of tracing program execution, a feature representation phase that reallocates classes into a new package structure based on single...

  4. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  5. Impact of a quality improvement program on care and outcomes for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Charles J; Forbes, Peter; Horvitz, Lisa; Peterson, Laura E; Wypij, David; Heinrich, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    To test a quality improvement intervention, a learning collaborative based on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series methodology, specifically intended to improve care and outcomes for patients with childhood asthma. Randomized trial in primary care practices. Practices in greater Boston, Mass, and greater Detroit, Mich. Forty-three practices, with 13 878 pediatric patients with asthma, randomized to intervention and control groups. Intervention Participation in a learning collaborative project based on the Breakthrough Series methodology of continuous quality improvement. Change from baseline in the proportion of children with persistent asthma who received appropriate medication therapy for asthma, and in the proportion of children whose parent received a written management plan for their child's asthma, as determined by telephone interviews with parents of 631 children. After adjusting for state, practice size, child age, sex, and within-practice clustering, no overall effect of the intervention was found. This methodologically rigorous assessment of a widely used quality improvement technique did not demonstrate a significant effect on processes or outcomes of care for children with asthma. Potential deficiencies in program implementation, project duration, sample selection, and data sources preclude making the general inference that this type of improvement program is ineffective. Additional rigorous studies should be undertaken under more optimal settings to assess the efficacy of this method for improving care.

  6. Education in Quality Improvement for Pediatric Practice: an online program to teach clinicians QI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, David G; Morawski, Lori F; Lazorick, Suzanne; Bradbury, Scott; Kamachi, Karen; Suresh, Gautham K

    2014-01-01

    Education in Quality Improvement for Pediatric Practice (EQIPP) is an online program designed to improve evidence-based care delivery by teaching front-line clinicians quality improvement (QI) skills. Our objective was to evaluate EQIPP data to characterize 1) participant enrollment, use patterns, and demographics; 2) changes in performance in clinical QI measures from baseline to follow-up measurement; and 3) participant experience. We conducted an observational study of EQIPP participants utilizing 1 of 3 modules (asthma, immunizations, gastroesophageal reflux disease) from 2009 to 2013. Enrollment and use, demographic, and quality measure data were extracted directly from the EQIPP system; participant experience was assessed via an optional online survey. Study participants (n = 3501) were diverse in their gender, age, and race; most were board certified. Significant quality gaps were observed across many of the quality measures at baseline; sizable improvements were observed across most quality measures at follow-up. Participants were generally satisfied with their experience. The most influential module elements were collecting and analyzing data, creating and implementing aim statements and improvement plans, and completing "QI Basics." Online educational programs, such as EQIPP, hold promise for front-line clinicians to learn QI. The sustainability of the observed improvements in care processes and their linkage to improvements in health outcomes are unknown and are an essential topic for future study. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Orion Heat Shield Manufacturing Producibility Improvements for the EM-1 Flight Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, William J.; Stewart, Michael; Harris, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes how the ORION program is incorporating improvements in the heat shield design and manufacturing processes reducing programmatic risk and ensuring crew safety in support of NASA's Exploration missions. The approach for the EFT-1 heat shield utilized a low risk Apollo heritage design and manufacturing process using an Avcoat TPS ablator with a honeycomb substrate to provide a one piece heat shield to meet the mission re-entry heating environments. The EM-1 mission will have additional flight systems installed to fly to the moon and return to Earth. Heat shield design and producibility improvements have been incorporated in the EM-1 vehicle to meet deep space mission requirements. The design continues to use the Avcoat material, but in a block configuration to enable improvements in consistant and repeatable application processes using tile bonding experience developed on the Space Shuttle Transportation System Program.

  8. Economic Impact of a Peritoneal Dialysis Continuous Quality Improvement Program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Dilip U; Walton, Surrey M; Mora, Juan P; Sanabria, Rafael M

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the financial burden of peritonitis and the economic impact of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The objectives of this study were to measure the costs of peritonitis, and determine the net savings of a PD CQI program in Colombia. ♦ METHODS: The Renal Therapy Services (RTS) network in Colombia, along with Coomeva EPS, provided healthcare resource utilization data for PD patients with and without peritonitis between January 2012 and December 2013. Propensity score matching and regression analysis were performed to estimate the incremental cost of peritonitis. Patient months at risk, episodes of peritonitis pre- and post-CQI, and costs of CQI were obtained. Annual net savings of the CQI program were estimated based on the number of peritonitis events prevented. ♦ RESULTS: The incremental cost of a peritonitis episode was $250. In an 8-year period, peritonitis decreased from 1,837 episodes per 38,596 patient-months in 2006 to 841 episodes per 50,910 patient-months in 2014. Overall, the CQI program prevented an estimated 10,409 episodes of peritonitis. The cost of implementing the CQI program was $147,000 in the first year and $119,000 annually thereafter. Using a five percent discount rate, the net present value of the program was $1,346,431, with an average annual net savings of $207,027. The return on investment (i.e. total savings-program cost/program cost) of CQI was 169%. ♦ CONCLUSION: Continuous quality improvement initiatives designed to reduce rates of peritonitis have a strong potential to generate cost savings. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  10. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  11. Improving completion rates of students in biomedical PhD programs: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viđak, Marin; Tokalić, Ružica; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach. The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. We compared performance of PhD students between the new and existing programs and analyzed their current status, time to obtain a degree (from enrolment to doctorate), age at doctorate, number of publications on which the thesis was based and the impact factor of journals in which these were published. These improvement strategies were associated with higher thesis completion rate and reduced time to degree for students enrolled in the TRIBE program. There was no change in the impact factor or number of publications that were the basis for the doctoral theses. Our study describes good practices which proved useful in the design or reform of the PhD training program.

  12. Empowering primary care workers to improve health services: results from Mozambique's leadership and management development program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Cary

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The series of six articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH. Through this program, managers from 40 countries have learned to work in teams to identify their priority challenges and act to implement effective responses. From 2003 to 2004, 11 health units in Nampula Province, participated in a leadership and management development program called the Challenges Program. This was following an assessment which found that the quality of health services was poor, and senior officials determined that the underlying cause was the lack of human resource capacity in leadership and management in a rapidly decentralizing health care system. The program was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID and implemented in partnership between the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MOH Provincial Directorate in Nampula and Management Sciences for Health (MSH. The Challenges Program used simple management and leadership tools to assist the health units and their communities to address health service challenges. An evaluation of the program in 2005 showed that 10 of 11 health centers improved health services over the year of the program. The Challenges Program used several strategies that contributed to successful outcomes. It integrated leadership strengthening into the day-to-day challenges that staff were facing in the health units. The second success factor in the Challenges Program was the creation of participatory teams. After the program, people no longer waited passively to be trained but instead proactively requested training in needed areas. MOH workers

  13. Rapid and discriminatory diagnosis of scrapie and BSE in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zijderveld Fred G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis based on prion detection in lymph nodes of sheep and goats can improve active surveillance for scrapie and, if it were circulating, for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. With sizes that allow repetitive testing and a location that is easily accessible at slaughter, retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN are considered suitable organs for testing. Western blotting (WB of brain homogenates is, in principle, a technique well suited to both detect and discriminate between scrapie and BSE. In this report, WB is developed for rapid diagnosis in RLN and to study biochemical characteristics of PrPres. Results Optimal PrPres detection in RLN by WB was achieved by proper tissue processing, antibody choice and inclusion of a step for PrPresconcentration. The analyses were performed on three different sheep sources. Firstly, in a study with preclinical scrapie cases, WB of RLN from infected sheep of VRQ/VRQ genotype – VRQ represents, respectively, polymorphic PrP amino acids 136, 154, and 171 – allowed a diagnosis 14 mo earlier compared to WB of brain stem. Secondly, samples collected from sheep with confirmed scrapie in the course of passive and active surveillance programmes in the period 2002–2003 yielded positive results depending on genotype: all sheep with genotypes ARH/VRQ, VRQ/VRQ, and ARQ/VRQ scored positive for PrPres, but ARQ/ARQ and ARR/VRQ were not all positive. Thirdly, in an experimental BSE study, detection of PrPres in all 11 ARQ/ARQ sheep, including 7 preclinical cases, was possible. In all instances, WB and IHC were almost as sensitive. Moreover, BSE infection could be discriminated from scrapie infection by faster electrophoretic migration of the PrPres bands. Using dual antibody staining with selected monoclonal antibodies like 12B2 and L42, these differences in migration could be employed for an unequivocal differentiation between BSE and scrapie. With respect to glycosylation of PrPres, BSE cases

  14. A high resolution atlas of gene expression in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Bush, Stephen J; McCulloch, Mary E B; Farquhar, Iseabail L; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Pridans, Clare; Tsang, Hiu G; Wu, Chunlei; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Watson, Mick; Whitelaw, C Bruce; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; Archibald, Alan L; Hume, David A

    2017-09-01

    Sheep are a key source of meat, milk and fibre for the global livestock sector, and an important biomedical model. Global analysis of gene expression across multiple tissues has aided genome annotation and supported functional annotation of mammalian genes. We present a large-scale RNA-Seq dataset representing all the major organ systems from adult sheep and from several juvenile, neonatal and prenatal developmental time points. The Ovis aries reference genome (Oar v3.1) includes 27,504 genes (20,921 protein coding), of which 25,350 (19,921 protein coding) had detectable expression in at least one tissue in the sheep gene expression atlas dataset. Network-based cluster analysis of this dataset grouped genes according to their expression pattern. The principle of 'guilt by association' was used to infer the function of uncharacterised genes from their co-expression with genes of known function. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the sheep gene expression atlas and assign those signatures, where possible, to specific cell populations or pathways. The findings are related to innate immunity by focusing on clusters with an immune signature, and to the advantages of cross-breeding by examining the patterns of genes exhibiting the greatest expression differences between purebred and crossbred animals. This high-resolution gene expression atlas for sheep is, to our knowledge, the largest transcriptomic dataset from any livestock species to date. It provides a resource to improve the annotation of the current reference genome for sheep, presenting a model transcriptome for ruminants and insight into gene, cell and tissue function at multiple developmental stages.

  15. Effectiveness of blood pressure educational and evaluation program for the improvement of measurement accuracy among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Franco; Testa, Elisa; Rabbia, Silvia; Praticò, Santina; Colasanto, Claudia; Montersino, Federica; Berra, Elena; Covella, Michele; Fulcheri, Chiara; Di Monaco, Silvia; Buffolo, Fabrizio; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco

    2013-06-01

    To assess the procedure for measuring blood pressure (BP) among hospital nurses and to assess if a training program would improve technique and accuracy. 160 nurses from Molinette Hospital were included in the study. The program was based upon theoretical and practical lessons. It was one day long and it was held by trained nurses and physicians who have practice in the Hypertension Unit. An evaluation of nurses' measuring technique and accuracy was performed before and after the program, by using a 9-item checklist. Moreover we calculated the differences between measured and effective BP values before and after the training program. At baseline evaluation, we observed inadequate performance on some points of clinical BP measurement technique, specifically: only 10% of nurses inspected the arm diameter before placing the cuff, 4% measured BP in both arms, 80% placed the head of the stethoscope under the cuff, 43% did not remove all clothing that covered the location of cuff placement, did not have the patient seat comfortably with his legs uncrossed and with his back and arms supported. After the training we found a significant improvement in the technique for all items. We didn't observe any significant difference of measurement knowledge between nurses working in different settings such as medical or surgical departments. Periodical education in BP measurement may be required, and this may significantly improve the technique and consequently the accuracy.

  16. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians.

  17. Effect of Exercise Program Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) in Improving Speed, Agility, and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, K.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of speed, agility and quickness training program to increase in speed, agility and acceleration. This study was conducted at 26 soccer players and divided into 2 groups with 13 players each group. Group 1 was given SAQ training program, and Group 2 conventional training program for 8 weeks. This study used a quantitative approach with quasi-experimental method. The design of this study used a matching-only design. Data was collected by testing 30-meter sprint (speed), agility t-test (agility), and run 10 meters (acceleration) during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed using paired sample t-test and independent t-test. The results showed: that there was a significant effect of speed, agility and quickness training program in improving in speed, agility and acceleration. In summary, it can be concluded that the speed, agility and quickness training program can improve the speed, agility and acceleration of the soccer players.

  18. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  19. An integrated approach for improving occupational health and safety management: the voluntary protection program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Teh-Sheng; Tsai, Way-Yi; Yu, Yi-Chun

    2005-05-01

    A voluntary compliance program for occupational health and safety management, Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP), was implemented with a strategy of cooperation and encouragement in Taiwan. Due to limitations on increasing the human forces of inspection, a regulatory-based guideline addressing the essence of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) was promulgated, which combined the resources of third parties and insurance providers to accredit a self-improving worksite with the benefits of waived general inspection and a merit contributing to insurance premium payment reduction. A designated institute accepts enterprise's applications, performs document review and organizes the onsite inspection. A final review committee of Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) confers a two-year certificate on an approved site. After ten years, the efforts have shown a dramatic reduction of occupational injuries and illness in the total number of 724 worksites granted certification. VPP worksites, in comparison with all industries, had 49% lower frequency rate in the past three years. The severity rate reduction was 80% in the same period. The characteristics of Taiwan VPP program and international occupational safety and health management programs are provided. A Plan-Do-Check-Act management cycle was employed for pursuing continual improvements to the culture fostered. The use of a quantitative measurement for assessing the performance of enterprises' occupational safety and health management showed the efficiency of the rating. The results demonstrate that an employer voluntary protection program is a promising strategy for a developing country.

  20. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.